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1.
J Clin Neurosci ; 122: 117-118, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508886

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Finding typical patterns - phenotypes - of sleep behaviors characterizing parasomnias in different age and sex groups. METHODS: We analyzed YouTube videos on sleep-related behaviors likely representing parasomnias. We applied the search terms "sleepwalking", "somnambulism", "sleep eating" "sleep sex", "sleep talking" and "aggression in sleep" in six languages. We classified those persons shown on the videos into estimated biological sex and age (child, adult, elderly) groups. We scored the activity types by a self-made scale and applied binary logistic regression to analyze the association between sleep behaviors versus sex and age groups by the STATA package, providing a 95 % confidence interval and the probability of statistical significance. RESULTS: 224 videos (102 women; 68 children, 116 adults, and 40 elderly people) were scored. Elderly people had significantly (P < 0.012) less odds of ambulation in sleep likely consistent with somnambulism compared to adults and children. Adult females performed complex manual activities during sleepwalking more often, than males (P < 0.012). Elderly males had 40-fold odds compared to adults and children, to perform aggressive movements and 70-fold odds of complex movements in bed, compared to adults. Elderly people presented emotional behaviors less frequently than adults (P < 0.004), and females showed them twice as often as males. Adults sleep-talked full sentences more often than children and elderly people (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results support the existence of age- and sex-specific parasomnia phenotypes, denoting possible safety measures. The remarkably low odds of sleepwalking in the elderly highlight the possibility of different pathomechanisms in higher age groups compared to children.


Assuntos
Parassonias , Mídias Sociais , Sonambulismo , Adulto , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Sonambulismo/psicologia , Polissonografia , Parassonias/psicologia , Sono
2.
Sleep Med Clin ; 19(1): 43-54, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368068

RESUMO

Somnambulism, also called sleepwalking, classified as a non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnia, encompasses a range of abnormal paroxysmal behaviors, leading to sleepwalking in dissociated sleep in an altered state of consciousness with impaired judgment and configuring a kind of hierarchical continuum with confusional arousal and night terror. Despite being generally regarded as a benign condition, its potential severity entails social, personal, and even forensic consequences. This comprehensive review provides an overview on the current state of knowledge, elucidating the phenomenon of somnambulism and encompassing its clinical manifestations and diagnostic approaches.


Assuntos
Terrores Noturnos , Parassonias , Transtornos do Despertar do Sono , Sonambulismo , Humanos , Sonambulismo/diagnóstico , Sonambulismo/terapia , Terrores Noturnos/diagnóstico , Parassonias/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Despertar do Sono/diagnóstico , Sono
3.
Sleep Med Clin ; 19(1): 63-70, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368070

RESUMO

Sleep terrors, categorized under disorders of arousal, more prevalent in pediatric population, generally are self-limited but sometimes can persist or occur in adulthood. These are primed by factors enhancing homeostatic drive on backdrop of developmental predisposition and are precipitated by factors increasing sleep fragmentation resulting in dissociated state of sleep with some cerebral regions showing abnormal slow wave activity and others fast activity. This phenotypically evolves into abrupt partial arousal with individual arousing from N3 or N2 sleep with behaviors representing intense fear such as crying with autonomic hyperactivity. There is no recollection of the event, and lack of vivid dream mentation although fragmented imagery may be noted. Behavioral management is of prime importance including addressing precipitating factors, family reassurance, safety measures, and scheduled awakenings. Pharmacologic agents such as clonazepam and antidepressants are used infrequently in case of disruptive episodes.


Assuntos
Terrores Noturnos , Parassonias , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Sonambulismo , Humanos , Criança , Sono , Fases do Sono
5.
J Sleep Res ; 33(1): e13870, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36940922

RESUMO

Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with poorer sleep quality in their children. Although parasomnias can occur at any age, this group of sleep disorders is more common in children. The aim of this study was to assess whether maternal depression trajectories predict parasomnias at the age of 11 years. Data were from a Birth Cohort of 4231 individuals followed in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 12, 24, and 48 months, and 6 and 11 years postpartum. Maternal depression trajectories were calculated using a group-based modelling approach. Information on any parasomnias (confused arousals, sleepwalking, night terrors, and nightmares) was provided by the mother. Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were identified: chronic-low (34.9%), chronic-moderate (41.4%), increasing (10.3%), decreasing (8.9%), and chronic-high (4.4%). The prevalence of any parasomnia at the age of 11 years was 16.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 15.6%-18.1%). Confusional arousal was the most prevalent type of parasomnia (14.5%) and varied from 8.7% to 14.7%, 22.9%, 20.3%, and 27.5% among children of mothers at chronic-low, moderate-low, increasing, decreasing, and chronic-high trajectories, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared to children from mothers in the chronic-low trajectory, the adjusted prevalence ratio for any parasomnia was 1.58 (95% CI 1.29-1.94), 2.34 (95% CI 1.83-2.98), 2.15 (95% CI 1.65-2.81), and 3.07 (95% CI 2.31-4.07) among those from mothers in the moderate-low, increasing, decreasing, and chronic-high trajectory groups, respectively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, parasomnias were more prevalent among children of mothers with chronic symptoms of depression.


Assuntos
Terrores Noturnos , Parassonias , Transtornos do Despertar do Sono , Sonambulismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Parassonias/epidemiologia , Sonambulismo/epidemiologia , Mães , Prevalência
7.
Sleep Med ; 111: 36-53, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37716336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias are often benign and transient, requiring no formal treatment. However, parasomnias can also be chronic, disrupt sleep quality, and pose a significant risk of harm to the patient or others. Numerous behavioral strategies have been described for the management of NREM parasomnias, but there have been no published comprehensive reviews. This systematic review was conducted to summarize the range of behavioral and psychological interventions and their efficacy. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify all reports of behavioral and psychological treatments for NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sexsomnia, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, sleep-related eating disorder, parasomnia overlap disorder). This review was conducted in line with PRISMA guidelines. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021230360). The search was conducted in the following databases (initially on March 10, 2021 and updated February 24, 2023): Ovid (MEDLINE), Cochrane Library databases (Wiley), CINAHL (EBSCO), PsycINFO (EBSCO), and Web of Science (Clarivate). Given a lack of standardized quantitative outcome measures, a narrative synthesis approach was used. Risk of bias assessment used tools from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS: A total of 72 publications in four languages were included, most of which were case reports (68%) or case series (21%). Children were included in 32 publications and adults in 44. The most common treatment was hypnosis (33 publications) followed by various types of psychotherapy (31), sleep hygiene (19), education/reassurance (15), relaxation (10), scheduled awakenings (9), sleep extension/scheduled naps (9), and mindfulness (5). Study designs and inconsistent outcome measures limited the evidence for specific treatments, but some evidence supports multicomponent CBT, sleep hygiene, scheduled awakenings, and hypnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the wide breadth of behavioral and psychological interventions for managing NREM parasomnias. Evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is limited by the retrospective and uncontrolled nature of most research as well as the infrequent use of validated quantitative outcome measures. Behavioral and psychological treatments have been studied alone and in various combinations, and recent publications suggest a trend toward preference for multicomponent cognitive behavioral therapies designed to specifically target priming and precipitating factors of NREM parasomnias.


Assuntos
Terrores Noturnos , Parassonias , Transtornos do Despertar do Sono , Sonambulismo , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Parassonias/terapia , Sonambulismo/terapia , Terrores Noturnos/terapia
8.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 29(4): 1117-1129, 2023 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37590825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) parasomnias are common across the lifespan. This article describes the manifestations, diagnosis, and management of non-REM parasomnias in adults and discusses the social implications of these conditions. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS: Non-REM parasomnias represent a hybrid state of wakefulness and sleep, often triggered by events that increase the frequency of arousals or make it more difficult to fully arouse from sleep. Sleep deprivation, certain medications, and untreated obstructive sleep apnea are known to provoke parasomnias, particularly in those who are genetically predisposed. Non-REM parasomnias include disorders of arousal (ie, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, and confusional arousals), sleep-related eating disorder, and exploding head syndrome. Clinical overlap exists between sleep-related eating disorder and disorders of arousal, suggesting that sleep-related eating disorder may be a fourth disorder of arousal or a manifestation of sleepwalking. Exploding head syndrome is a unique parasomnia of uncertain etiology. ESSENTIAL POINTS: Non-REM parasomnias can range from minor nuisances to severe, life-altering events. While some patients with non-REM parasomnia experience significant consequences during sleep, wakefulness, or both, non-REM parasomnias do not pose a major risk to most patients. For all patients with non-REM parasomnias, safety should be explicitly discussed and addressed. Nonpharmacologic treatment should be prioritized, as increasing total sleep time, avoiding triggering substances, and treating comorbid sleep disorders is often sufficient for the management of non-REM parasomnias. If symptoms persist despite these interventions, treatment with clonazepam or other medications can be considered.


Assuntos
Parassonias , Sonambulismo , Adulto , Humanos , Sonambulismo/diagnóstico , Sonambulismo/terapia , Parassonias/diagnóstico , Parassonias/terapia , Sono , Vigília , Duração do Sono
9.
Ital J Pediatr ; 49(1): 68, 2023 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37287043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders refer to physiological and psychological states that cause adverse consequences due to the inability to fall asleep or poor sleep quality. The prevalence of sleep disorders varies greatly in different countries and regions due to different causes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of sleep disorders among preschool children in Urumqi city, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with stratified random cluster sampling. Children aged 3-6 years old in one kindergarten randomly selected from each of the 8 districts of Urumqi from March to July 2022, and their parents were surveyed with a sleep quality questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of sleep disorders among preschool children in Urumqi was 14.29% (191/1336), and the prevalence of different symptoms was 42.81% for limb movements, 19.61% for snoring, 18.11% for bruxism, 16.39% for sleep talking, 12.57% for sweating, 11.60% for nocturnal awakening, 8.46% for nightmares, 6.89% for bed wetting, 3.74% for apnea, and 3.29% for sleepwalking. The prevalence of body movements, snoring, sweating, night-wake, nightmares, bed-wetting, apnea, and sleepwalking among different ethnicities were significantly different (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that the major risk factors of sleep disorders were difficulty adapting to new environments, unwillingness to express emotions, inconsistent attitudes of the family toward children's education, running before bedtime, strict family education methods, etc. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of sleep disorders in preschool children in Urumqi is lower than the average level reported in other studies. Many factors affect the prevalence of sleep disorders in preschool children, but it is necessary to focus on the ability to adapt to new environments, psychological problems, and the impact of family education on sleep disorders. Further studies on the prevention and treatment of sleep disorders are needed for different ethnicities.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Sonambulismo , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ronco/epidemiologia , Apneia , Prevalência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Sleep Med ; 103: 33-40, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36746108

RESUMO

Sexualised behaviour in sleep (SBS) is a relatively rare parasomnia consisting of instinctive behaviours of a sexual nature occurring during non-rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep. Little information exists at present regarding the clinical features and onset of this condition as well as its link to psychiatric comorbidity, other sleep disorders and history of adverse early life experience. Aims were to typify the condition further and compare features of SBS patients to those with other NREM parasomnias. METHODS: Details of 335 consecutive patients presenting to a single tertiary sleep centre with non-rapid eye movement (NREM)-parasomnias over a 15-year period (2005-2020) were examined. Data were collated by reviewing case-notes for anthropometric data, past medical history, clinical findings, and video polysomnography. SBS patients were compared to a cohort of 270 non-SBS, NREM-sleep disorder patients (case-control) to ascertain whether they had any distinguishing features from other parasomnias classified in this group. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients with SBS were identified: 58 males, 7 females (comprising 19.4% of the cohort overall). Mean age at presentation was 33(±9.5) years. Onset of behaviours was commoner in adulthood in the SBS cohort, whereas non-SBS, NREM-parasomnia onset (n = 270) was commoner in childhood: 61.1% and 52.9% respectively (p = 0.007). An association was identified between the presence of psychiatric diagnoses and onset of SBS (p = 0.028). Significant triggers for SBS behaviours included alcohol consumption (p < 0.001), intimate relationship difficulties (p = 0.009) and sleep deprivation (p = 0.028). Patients with SBS were significantly more likely to report sleepwalking as an additional NREM behaviour (p < 0.001). Males were more likely to present at clinic together with their bedpartner and females presented alone. A history of SBS appeared to be more common in those working in the armed forces or the police compared to those presenting with non-SBS, NREM-parasomnias (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: SBS is more common in clinical practice than previously described and presents with some distinguishing features within the NREM disorder category. This study is the first to identify that onset in childhood or lack of amnesia does not preclude the condition and that patterns of presentation differ between men and women. Sleepwalkers particularly should be asked about SBS. Comorbid psychiatric conditions, profession and intimate partner difficulties are strong determinants of the presentation.


Assuntos
Parassonias , Sonambulismo , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Parassonias/epidemiologia , Parassonias/diagnóstico , Sonambulismo/epidemiologia , Sono REM , Comorbidade
15.
Cortex ; 155: 62-74, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985125

RESUMO

Confusional arousal is the milder expression of a family of disorders known as Disorders of Arousal (DOA) from non-REM sleep. These disorders are characterized by recurrent abnormal behaviors that occur in a state of reduced awareness for the external environment. Despite frequent amnesia for the nocturnal events, when actively probed, patients are able to report vivid hallucinatory/dream-like mental imagery. Traditional (low-density) scalp and stereo-electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings previously showed a pathological admixture of slow oscillations typical of NREM sleep and wake-like fast-mixed frequencies during these phenomena. However, our knowledge about the specific neural EEG dynamics over the entire brain is limited. We collected 2 consecutive in-laboratory sleep recordings using high-density (hd)-EEG (256 vertex-referenced geodesic system) coupled with standard video-polysomnography (v-PSG) from a 12-year-old drug-naïve and otherwise healthy child with a long-lasting history of sleepwalking. Source power topography and functional connectivity were computed during 20 selected confusional arousal episodes (from -6 to +18 sec after motor onset), and during baseline slow wave sleep preceding each episode (from - 3 to -2 min before onset). We found a widespread increase in slow wave activity (SWA) theta, alpha, beta, gamma power, associated with a parallel decrease in the sigma range during behavioral episodes compared to baseline sleep. Bilateral Broadman area 7 and right Broadman areas 39 and 40 were relatively spared by the massive increase in SWA power. Functional SWA connectivity analysis revealed a drastic increase in the number and complexity of connections from baseline sleep to full-blown episodes, that mainly involved an increased out-flow from bilateral fronto-medial prefrontal cortex and left temporal lobe to other cortical regions. These effects could be appreciated in the 6 sec window preceding behavioral onset. Overall, our results support the idea that DOA are the expression of peculiar brain states, compatible with a partial re-emergence of consciousness.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Despertar do Sono , Sonambulismo , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Polissonografia/métodos , Sono
16.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 51(4): 228-235, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In a subset of adults with non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias, clinical variants might be violent in nature and can potentially result in unintentional but considerable harm. As such, there is substantial interest on the forensic ramifications of these sleep behaviours. METHODS: This review examined the diagnostic criteria for parasomnias established in the context of international classification systems; medicolegal case reports; legal frameworks; and court cases in and outside of Singapore, to provide an overview of the implications of NREM parasomnias. RESULTS: Violent or injurious behaviours that occurred in the context of somnambulism, otherwise known as sleepwalking, have challenged traditional legal theories of criminal culpability. Yet little has changed in the application of sleep science to criminal responsibility. In Singapore, the defence of somnambulism has hitherto not been directly raised. Nonetheless, sleep medicine practitioners may increasingly be requested to render their opinions on legal issues pertaining to violent or injurious behaviours allegedly arising during sleep. Although the understanding of NREM parasomnias has improved, there is still a dearth of evidence to support both medical and legal decisions in this area. CONCLUSION: NREM parasomnias come with disquieting legal and forensic implications for adjudicating criminal responsibility. There is a need to critically examine legal perspectives on behaviours occurring during sleep. More reliable empirical studies investigating the pathophysiology of NREM parasomnias can offer clearer diagnostic guidelines and address complex behaviours of NREM that often come with medicolegal implications.


Assuntos
Parassonias , Sonambulismo , Adulto , Humanos , Parassonias/diagnóstico , Singapura , Sono/fisiologia , Sonambulismo/diagnóstico
17.
Sleep ; 45(7)2022 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641120

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleepwalking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors are parasomnias occurring out of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Several previous studies have described EEG changes associated with NREM parasomnia episodes, but it remains unclear whether these changes are specific to parasomnia episodes or whether they are part of the normal awakening process. Here we directly compared regional brain activity, measured with high-density (hd-) EEG, between parasomnia episodes and normal awakenings (without behavioral manifestations of parasomnia). METHODS: Twenty adult patients with non-rapid eye movement parasomnias underwent a baseline hd-EEG recording (256 electrodes) followed by a recovery sleep recording after 25 h of total sleep deprivation, during which auditory stimuli were administered to provoke parasomnia episodes. RESULTS: Both normal awakenings (n = 25) and parasomnia episodes (n = 96) were preceded by large, steep, and "K-complex-like" slow waves in frontal and central brain regions, and by a concomitant increase in high-frequency EEG (beta) activity. Compared to normal awakenings, parasomnia episodes occurred on a less activated EEG background and displayed higher slow wave activity (SWA) and lower beta activity in frontal and central brain regions after movement onset. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that non-rapid eye movement awakenings, irrespective of behavioral manifestations of parasomnia episodes, involve an arousal-related slow wave synchronization process that predominantly recruits frontal and central brain areas. In parasomnia episodes, this synchronization process comes into play abnormally during periods of high SWA and is associated with higher SWA after movement onset. Thus, an abnormal timing of arousal-related slow wave synchronization processes could underlie the occurrence of NREM parasomnias.


Assuntos
Parassonias , Sonambulismo , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Polissonografia/métodos , Sono , Fases do Sono
19.
J Sleep Res ; 31(4): e13596, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35388549

RESUMO

Disorders of arousal (DOA) is an umbrella term initially covering classical sleepwalking, sleep terrors, and confusional arousals, and now including a wider spectrum of specialised forms of non rapid eye movement (non REM) parasomnias such as sexsomnia, sleep-related eating disorder, and sleep-related choking syndrome. Growing evidence has shown that DOA are not restricted to children but are also prevalent in adults (2%-4% of the adult population). While DOA run in family, genetics studies remain scarce and inconclusive. In addition to the risk of injury on themselves and others (including sexual assaults in sexsomnia), adults with DOA frequently suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness, pain, and altered quality of life. The widespread view of DOA as automatic and amnesiac behaviours has now been challenged by subjective (dream reports) and objective (dream-enacting behaviours documented on video-polysomnography) observations, suggesting that sleepwalkers are 'dream walking' during their episodes. Behavioural, experiential, cognitive, and brain (scalp electroencephalography [EEG], stereo-EEG, high density-EEG, functional brain imaging) data converge in showing a dissociated pattern during the episodes. This dissociated pattern resembles the new concept of local arousal with a wake-like activation in motor and limbic regions and a preserved (or even increased) sleep intensity over a frontoparietal network. EEG and behavioural criteria supporting the DOA diagnosis with high sensitivity and specificity are now available. However, treatment is still based on controlling priming and precipitating factors, as well as on clinicians' personal experience with sedative drugs. Placebo-controlled trials are needed to improve patients' treatment. DOA deserve more attention from sleep researchers and clinicians.


Assuntos
Terrores Noturnos , Parassonias , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Sonambulismo , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Criança , Humanos , Terrores Noturnos/diagnóstico , Parassonias/diagnóstico , Parassonias/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Sonambulismo/diagnóstico , Sonambulismo/epidemiologia
20.
Cortex ; 149: 165-172, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240413

RESUMO

Recent behavioral evidence from a virtual reality (VR) study indicates that awake sleepwalkers show dissociation of motor control and motor awareness. This dissociation resembles the nocturnal disintegration of motor awareness and movement during episodes of sleepwalking. Here, we set out to examine the neural underpinnings of altered motor awareness in sleepwalkers by measuring EEG modulation during redirected walking in VR. To this end, we measured scalp EEG during ongoing motor behavior to provide information on motor processing and its modulation in VR. Using this approach, we discovered distinct EEG patterns associated to dual tasking and sub-threshold motor control in sleepwalkers compared to control subjects. These observations provide further electrophysiological evidence for the proposed brain-body dissociation in awake sleepwalkers. This study shows proof-of-principle that EEG biomarkers of movement in a VR setting add to the understanding of altered motor awareness in sleepwalkers. In a broader perspective, we confirm the feasibility of using the additional dimensionality in VR providing novel diagnostic biomarkers not accessible to conventional clinical investigations. In future studies, this approach could contribute to the diagnostic work-up of patients with a broad spectrum of neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Sonambulismo , Realidade Virtual , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Sonambulismo/diagnóstico , Vigília , Caminhada
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