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3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24800, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725834

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There is increasing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Dyslipidemia is a well-known CVD risk factor which has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment in high-income countries. Studies in SSA that have examined the relationship between HIV and dyslipidemia have reported mixed results. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in HIV positive and negative adults (>=30 years old) and evaluate for association in Western Kenya with a higher prevalence expected among HIV positive individuals.HIV positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV negative individuals seeking HIV testing and counseling services were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Demographic and behavioral data and fasting blood samples were collected. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Associations between baseline demographic and clinical variables and dyslipidemia were analyzed using logistic regression.A total of 598 participants, 300 HIV positive and 298 HIV negative adults were enrolled. Dyslipidemia data was available for 564 (94%) participants. In total, 267 (47%) had dyslipidemia. This was not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative individuals (46% vs 49%, P = .4). In a multivariate analysis including both HIV positive and negative individuals, adults 50 to 59 years of age had a 2-fold increased risk of dyslipidemia (Odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval (1.2-3.5) when compared to 30 to 39-years-old participants. Abdominal obesity (OR 2.5), being overweight (OR 1.9), and low fruit and vegetable intake (OR 2.2) were significantly associated with dyslipidemia. Among HIV positive participants, time since HIV diagnosis, ART duration, use of (PI) protease inhibitor-based ART, viral load suppression, current cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and nadir CD4 did not have significant associations with dyslipidemia.The prevalence of dyslipidemia is high in Western Kenya, with nearly half of all participants with lipid abnormalities. Dyslipidemia was not significantly associated with HIV status, or with HIV-specific factors. Older age, being overweight, abdominal obesity, and low fruit and vegetable intake were associated with dyslipidemia and may be targets for public health interventions to lower the prevalence of dyslipidemia and CVD risk in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Frutas , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/imunologia , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Verduras , Carga Viral
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24867, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725842

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: As access to human immunodeficiency virus treatment expands in Low to Middle Income Countries, it becomes critical to develop and test strategies to improve adherence and ensure efficacy. Text messaging improves adherence to antiretroviral treatment antiretroviral treatment in some patient populations, but data surrounding the use of these tools is sparse in pediatric and adolescent patients in low to middle income countries. We evaluated if a text message intervention can improve antiretroviral treatment adherence while accounting for cell phone access, patterns of use, and willingness to receive text messages.We carried out a cross sectional study to understand willingness of receiving text message reminders, followed by a randomized controlled trial to assess effectiveness of text message intervention.Enrolled participants were randomized to receive standard care with regular clinic visits, or standard care plus short message service reminders. Adherence was measured 3 times during the study period using a 4-day Recall Questionnaire. Outcome was measured based on differences in the average adherence between the intervention and control group at each time point (baseline, 3 months, 6 months).Most respondents were willing to receive text message adherence reminders (81.1%, n = 53). Respondent literacy, travel time to clinic, cell phone access, and patterns of use were significantly associated with willingness. In the randomized trial the intervention group (n = 50) experienced a small but significant mean improvement in adherence over the six-month period (4%, P < .01) whereas the control group (n = 50) did not (mean improvement: 0.8%, P = .64).Text message interventions effectively support antiretroviral adherence in pediatric patients living with human immunodeficiency virus. Studies designed to assess the impact of text messaging interventions must examine local context for cellular phone infrastructure and use and must account for potential loss to follow up when patients miss appointments and study assessments.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Criança , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Guatemala , Humanos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/economia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541962

RESUMO

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has been increasingly reported, and many clinicians are familiar with it as a cause of proctocolitis or inguinal adenopathy. On the other hand, LGV is less commonly considered as a cause of isolated genital ulcerative disease in comparison to other etiologies such as syphilis or herpes simplex. We report a case of persistent perianal ulcerations due to LGV in an HIV-positive patient, confirmed by nucleic acid amplification testing.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Homossexualidade Masculina , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/complicações , Proctocolite , Úlcera/etiologia , Adulto , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(2): 400-407, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess host factors in pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP)-related hospitalizations and compare outcomes between HIV and non-HIV patients. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample database, we identified 3384 hospitalizations with PCP (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code: 136.3) as the primary discharge diagnosis from 2005 to 2014. We evaluated hospitalizations for the following host factors: HIV, malignancies, organ transplantation, rheumatologic diseases, and vasculitides. We compared the prevalence of individual host factors among PCP hospitalizations over time, and compared intervention rates and outcomes between HIV and non-HIV patients with PCP. RESULTS: Among all hospitalizations for PCP, malignancy was the most prevalent host factor (46.0%, n=1559), followed by HIV (17.8%, n=604); 60.7% (n=946) of malignancies were hematologic. The prevalence of HIV among hospitalizations for PCP decreased from 25.1% in 2005 to 9.2% in 2014 (P<.001), whereas the prevalence of non-HIV immunocompromising conditions increased. Compared with HIV patients, PCP patients without HIV had higher rates of bronchoscopy (52.3% vs 26.7%, P<.001) and endotracheal intubation (17.0% vs 7.9%, P<.001), prolonged hospitalizations (11.5 vs 8.7 days, P<.001), higher hospitalization costs (86.8 vs 48.2×103 USD, P<.001) and increased in-hospital mortality (16.0% vs 5.0%, P<.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and smoking status, there was no difference in mortality between non-HIV and HIV patients with PCP (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9 to 2.3). CONCLUSION: The epidemiology of PCP has shifted with an increase in the prevalence of non-HIV patients who have higher intubation rates and prolonged hospitalizations compared with matched HIV patients.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/microbiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(1): 512-522, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of HIV serostatus and disease severity on endothelial function in a large pooled cohort study of people living with HIV infection and HIV- controls. Approach and Results: We used participant-level data from 9 studies: 7 included people living with HIV (2 treatment-naïve) and 4 had HIV- controls. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured using a standardized ultrasound imaging protocol with central reading. After data harmonization, multiple linear regression was used to examine the effects of HIV- serostatus, HIV disease severity measures, and cardiovascular disease risk factors on FMD. Of 2533 participants, 986 were people living with HIV (mean 44.4 [SD 11.8] years old) and 1547 were HIV- controls (42.9 [12.2] years old). The strongest and most consistent associates of FMD were brachial artery diameter, age, sex, and body mass index. The effect of HIV+ serostatus on FMD was strongly influenced by kidney function. In the highest tertile of creatinine (1.0 mg/dL), the effect of HIV+ serostatus was strong (ß=-1.59% [95% CI, -2.58% to -0.60%], P=0.002), even after covariate adjustment (ß=-1.36% [95% CI, -2.46% to -0.47%], P=0.003). In the lowest tertile (0.8 mg/dL), the effect of HIV+ serostatus was strong (ß=-1.90% [95% CI, -2.58% to -1.21%], P<0.001), but disappeared after covariate adjustment. HIV RNA viremia, CD4+ T-cell count, and use of antiretroviral therapy were not meaningfully associated with FMD. CONCLUSIONS: The significant effect of HIV+ serostatus on FMD suggests that people living with HIV are at increased cardiovascular disease risk, especially if they have kidney disease.


Assuntos
Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Vasodilatação , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Nefropatia Associada a AIDS/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Artéria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lancet HIV ; 8(3): e166-e174, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316212

RESUMO

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has proven to be a highly effective and safe way to prevent HIV infection. Seroconversion and primary HIV infection are exceptional if adherence to PrEP is good. However, primary HIV infection while using PrEP can occur, albeit rarely, and HIV drug resistance might develop. Furthermore, the scope of PrEP is expected to expand, and clinicians might face potential seroconversions and primary HIV infection in patients starting or taking PrEP. The characteristics of primary HIV infection in users of PrEP are poorly described. PrEP users present a lower viral load peak during primary HIV infection and, frequently, fewer symptoms than individuals not exposed to PrEP. Additionally, PrEP prolongs the stages of seroconversion, thus potentially complicating diagnosis of primary HIV infection. Drug resistance is rare, occurring mostly when PrEP is initiated in undiagnosed patients who are at an extremely early stage of infection, in whom detection of HIV-RNA was not used to rule out HIV infection. Therefore, careful exclusion of primary HIV infection before starting PrEP is crucial. In patients presenting with primary HIV infection while on PrEP, a drug with a high genetic barrier (or even two) should be added to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine until test results for resistance are available.


Assuntos
Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(3): 376-384, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A sensitive and specific non-sputum-based test would be groundbreaking for the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. We assessed side by side the diagnostic accuracy of the urine-based lipoarabinomannan assays Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM (FujiLAM) and Alere Determine TB LAM Ag (AlereLAM) for detection of childhood tuberculosis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we tested urine samples from children younger than 15 years with presumed pulmonary tuberculosis. Children were consecutively recruited from four dedicated outpatient childhood tuberculosis clinics in The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Biobanked urine samples were thawed and tested using FujiLAM and AlereLAM assays. We measured diagnostic performance against a microbiological reference standard (confirmed tuberculosis) and a composite reference standard (confirmed and unconfirmed tuberculosis). Sensitivity and specificity were estimated with bivariate random-effects meta-analyses. FINDINGS: Between July 1, 2017, and Dec 1, 2018, we obtained and stored urine samples from 415 children. 63 (15%) children had confirmed tuberculosis, 113 (27%) had unconfirmed tuberculosis, and 239 (58%) were unlikely to have tuberculosis. 61 children were HIV-positive (prevalence 15%). Using the microbiological reference standard, the sensitivity of FujiLAM was 64·9% (95% CI 43·7-85·2; positive in 40 of 63 confirmed samples) and the sensitivity of AlereLAM was 30·7% (8·6-61·6; 19 of 63). The specificity of FujiLAM was 83·8% (95% CI 76·5-89·4; negative in 297 of 352 unconfirmed and unlikely samples) and the specificity of AlereLAM was 87·8% (79·0-93·7; 312 of 352). Against the composite reference standard, both assays had decreased sensitivity; the sensitivity of FujiLAM was 32·9% (95% CI 24·6-41·9; positive in 58 of 176 confirmed and unconfirmed samples) and the sensitivity of AlereLAM was 20·2% (12·3-29·4; 36 of 176). The specificity of FujiLAM was 83·3% (95% CI 71·8-91·7; negative in 202 of 239 unlikely samples) and the specificity of AlereLAM was 90·0% (81·6-95·6; 216 of 239). INTERPRETATION: By comparison with AlereLAM, FujiLAM showed higher sensitivity and similar specificity. FujiLAM could potentially add value to the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in children. FUNDING: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the Global Health Innovative Technology Fund, the UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund, and the UK Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV , Lipopolissacarídeos/urina , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gâmbia , Humanos , Lactente , Mali , Nigéria , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tanzânia
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1009177, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370400

RESUMO

HIV-1 strains harboring immune escape mutations can persist in circulation, but the impact of selection by multiple HLA alleles on population HIV-1 dynamics remains unclear. In Japan, HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase codon 135 (RT135) is under strong immune pressure by HLA-B*51:01-restricted and HLA-B*52:01-restricted T cells that target a key epitope in this region (TI8; spanning RT codons 128-135). Major population-level shifts have occurred at HIV-1 RT135 during the Japanese epidemic, which first affected hemophiliacs (via imported contaminated blood products) and subsequently non-hemophiliacs (via domestic transmission). Specifically, threonine accumulated at RT135 (RT135T) in hemophiliac and non-hemophiliac HLA-B*51:01+ individuals diagnosed before 1997, but since then RT135T has markedly declined while RT135L has increased among non-hemophiliac individuals. We demonstrated that RT135V selection by HLA-B*52:01-restricted TI8-specific T-cells led to the creation of a new HLA-C*12:02-restricted epitope TN9-8V. We further showed that TN9-8V-specific HLA-C*12:02-restricted T cells selected RT135L while TN9-8T-specific HLA-C*12:02-restricted T cells suppressed replication of the RT135T variant. Thus, population-level accumulation of the RT135L mutation over time in Japan can be explained by initial targeting of the TI8 epitope by HLA-B*52:01-restricted T-cells, followed by targeting of the resulting escape mutant by HLA-C*12:02-restricted T-cells. We further demonstrate that this phenomenon is particular to Japan, where the HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02 haplotype is common: RT135L did not accumulate over a 15-year longitudinal analysis of HIV sequences in British Columbia, Canada, where this haplotype is rare. Together, our observations reveal that T-cell responses to sequentially emerging viral escape mutants can shape long-term HIV-1 population dynamics in a host population-specific manner.


Assuntos
Variação Antigênica/imunologia , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Evolução Clonal/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular , Mutação , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Carga Viral/imunologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/imunologia
12.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3001010, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370289

RESUMO

An often-returning question for not only HIV-1, but also other organisms, is how predictable evolutionary paths are. The environment, mutational history, and random processes can all impact the exact evolutionary paths, but to which extent these factors contribute to the evolutionary dynamics of a particular system is an open question. Especially in a virus like HIV-1, with a large mutation rate and large population sizes, evolution is expected to be highly predictable if the impact of environment and history is low, and evolution is not neutral. We investigated the effect of environment and mutational history by analyzing sequences from a long-term evolution experiment, in which HIV-1 was passaged on 2 different cell types in 8 independent evolutionary lines and 8 derived lines, 4 of which involved a switch of the environment. The experiments lasted for 240-300 passages, corresponding to approximately 400-600 generations or almost 3 years. The sequences show signs of extensive parallel evolution-the majority of mutations that are shared between independent lines appear in both cell types, but we also find that both environment and mutational history significantly impact the evolutionary paths. We conclude that HIV-1 evolution is robust to small changes in the environment, similar to a transmission event in the absence of an immune response or drug pressure. We also find that the fitness landscape of HIV-1 is largely smooth, although we find some evidence for both positive and negative epistatic interactions between mutations.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Evolução Molecular Direcionada/métodos , Aptidão Genética/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação/genética , Taxa de Mutação
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 830, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) can be performed using directly assisted and unassisted approaches in facilities or communities to reach different populations. The aim of this study was to compare the practicability and effectiveness of the two delivery approaches for HIVST, unassisted HIVST (UH) and directly assisted HIVST (DAH), in the field setting of Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). METHODS: A randomized (1:1), non-blinded, non-inferiority trial using a blood-based and facility-based HIVST method was carried out in four facilities in Kisangani, the DRC, targeting populations at high risk for HIV infection. The primary outcome was the difference in the practicability of the HIV self-test between the two arms. Practicability was defined as successfully performing the test and correctly interpreting the result. Requests for assistance, positivity rate, linkage to care, and willingness to buy an HIV self-test kit constituted the secondary outcomes for HIVST effectiveness. The adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) were calculated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The rate of successfully performing the test was same (93.2%) in the UH and DAH arms. The rate of correctly interpreting the results was 86.9% in the UH arm versus 93.2% in the DAH arm, for a difference of - 6.3%. After the follow-up 72 h later, participants in the UH arm had a significantly lower chance of correctly interpreting the test results than those in the DAH arm (aRR: 0.60; P = 0.019). Although the positivity rate was 3.4% among the participants in the DAH arm and 1.7% among those in the UH arm, no significant differences were found between the two arms in the positivity rate, requests for assistance, and linkage to care. Willingness to buy an HIV self-test was higher in the UH arm than in the DAH arm (92.3% versus 74.1%; aRR: 4.20; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that UH is as practicable and effective as DAH among individuals at high risk for HIV infection in Kisangani, the DRC. However, additional support tools need to be assessed to improve the interpretation of the self-test results when using the UH approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PACTR201904546865585. Registered 03 April 2019 - Retrospectively registered, https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=6032.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/imunologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 116, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choosing the most useful and versatile way to solve one's personal and social problems is one of the most important choices in individual life. The aim of this study was to compare the coping styles of people living with Human immunodeficiency virus positive and negative. METHODS: This is a Cross-sectional study that accomplished in Shiraz Behavioural Disease Counselling Centre in 2019 and 2020. For this purpose, in the first phase, 40 HIV+ and 40 HIV- patients were randomly selected to answer the questionnaire of dealing with the stressful conditions of Andler and Parker. In the second phase, the same questionnaire was filled out along with a reality distortion questionnaire from similar individuals (40 HIV+ and 40 HIV-). RESULTS: 92% of the HIV population in this study was between 15 and 55 years and 8% was upper than 55 years. 90% of them had no university degree. Among all, 47.5% of them were, 48.5% were self-employed and 49% of them were infected sexually. The results showed that in the first stage there was a significant relationship between marital status and the chances of getting the disease in people, and after controlling the demographic factors, coping styles did not show a significant effect on the disease. In the second stage, the factors of age, sex, education, and marital status had significant effects on people living with HIV, but the effect of coping styles on people with HIV was not significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Therefore, it can be concluded that demographic factors more than coping styles can affect the chances of high-risk behaviours; so, what is identified and measured as a coping style in people in the process that leads to the manifestation of high-risk behaviours or healthy behaviour does not matter much. It should be noted that the reason for rejecting the hypotheses of this study could be the effect of cultural and social factors of Iranian society.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1232-1236, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147922

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the applicability of limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity EIA, LAg for short) in determining the new HIV-1 infection status of MSM population with seroconversion and make correlation analysis of other biological indicators. Methods: The 15 cases with HIV seroconversion were found in a MSM observation cohort for calculating the HIV prevalence in Zhejiang.The subjects were conducted epidemiological investigation and sampled.The interval of infection time was estimated according to the exposure history and the time of HIV-positive confirmation.LAg, immunoblotting, CD4 cell counting and viral load test were applied in the testing of the related blood samples. McNermar test was conducted for consistency of the two methods. Results: Of 15 cases, the average age was (31.5±8.0) years old, ranging from 24 to 57 years old. The interval of infection time ranged from 40 days to 366 days, and the median was 134 days, with inter-quartile range from 89 to 180 days. A total of 7 cases were classified as new HIV-1 infection by LAg, and 8 cases were classified as chronic infection.The consistent rate was high to 86.67%, and kappa value was 0.73.The samples lacking at least two bands in p31, p51, p66 and gp120 by immunoblotting were determined as recent infection, of which the new infection proportion was significantly higher than that of other samples (P=0.029).There was no statistical difference in the distribution of CD4 counts (P=0.533) and viral loads (P=0.467) between the new infection and chronic infection groups that divided by LAg. Conclusion: By combining with exposure history, the limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay can be used to estimate the new HIV-1 infection.The other biological indicators such as immunoblotting bands, CD4 cell counts and viral loads, can be used as accessory indicators in evaluating the status of new HIV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Adulto , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soroconversão , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003150, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for the effectiveness of continuous quality improvement (CQI) in resource-poor settings is very limited. We aimed to establish the effects of CQI on quality of antenatal HIV care in primary care clinics in rural South Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing CQI to usual standard of antenatal care (ANC) in 7 nurse-led, public-sector primary care clinics-combined into 6 clusters-over 8 steps and 19 months. Clusters randomly switched from comparator to intervention on pre-specified dates until all had rolled over to the CQI intervention. Investigators and clusters were blinded to randomisation until 2 weeks prior to each step. The intervention was delivered by trained CQI mentors and included standard CQI tools (process maps, fishbone diagrams, run charts, Plan-Do-Study-Act [PDSA] cycles, and action learning sessions). CQI mentors worked with health workers, including nurses and HIV lay counsellors. The mentors used the standard CQI tools flexibly, tailored to local clinic needs. Health workers were the direct recipients of the intervention, whereas the ultimate beneficiaries were pregnant women attending ANC. Our 2 registered primary endpoints were viral load (VL) monitoring (which is critical for elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV [eMTCT] and the health of pregnant women living with HIV) and repeat HIV testing (which is necessary to identify and treat women who seroconvert during pregnancy). All pregnant women who attended their first antenatal visit at one of the 7 study clinics and were ≥18 years old at delivery were eligible for endpoint assessment. We performed intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses using modified Poisson generalised linear mixed effects models. We estimated effect sizes with time-step fixed effects and clinic random effects (Model 1). In separate models, we added a nested random clinic-time step interaction term (Model 2) or individual random effects (Model 3). Between 15 July 2015 and 30 January 2017, 2,160 participants with 13,212 ANC visits (intervention n = 6,877, control n = 6,335) were eligible for ITT analysis. No adverse events were reported. Median age at first booking was 25 years (interquartile range [IQR] 21 to 30), and median parity was 1 (IQR 0 to 2). HIV prevalence was 47% (95% CI 42% to 53%). In Model 1, CQI significantly increased VL monitoring (relative risk [RR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57, p < 0.001) but did not improve repeat HIV testing (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.13, p = 0.958). These results remained essentially the same in both Model 2 and Model 3. Limitations of our study include that we did not establish impact beyond the duration of the relatively short study period of 19 months, and that transition steps may have been too short to achieve the full potential impact of the CQI intervention. CONCLUSIONS: We found that CQI can be effective at increasing quality of primary care in rural Africa. Policy makers should consider CQI as a routine intervention to boost quality of primary care in rural African communities. Implementation research should accompany future CQI use to elucidate mechanisms of action and to identify factors supporting long-term success. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02626351.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , RNA Viral/sangue , População Rural , África do Sul , Gestão da Qualidade Total , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002002

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population-based HIV-free survival at 18-24 months of age among HIV-exposed infants in high prevalence settings in the era of treatment for all is largely unknown. We conducted a community-based survey to determine outcomes of HIV-exposed infants at 18-24 months in Lesotho. METHODS: Between November 2015 and December 2016, we conducted a survey among households with a child born 18-24 months prior to data collection. Catchment areas from 25 health facilities in Butha-Buthe, Maseru, Mohale's Hoek and Thaba-Tseka districts were randomly selected using probability proportional to size sampling. Consecutive households were visited and eligible consenting caregivers and children were enrolled. Rapid HIV antibody testing was performed on mothers of unknown HIV status (never tested or tested HIV-negative >3 months prior) and their children, and to children born to known HIV-positive mothers. Information on demographics, health-seeking behavior, HIV, and mortality were captured for mothers and children, including those who died. The difference in survival between subgroups was determined using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Of the 1,852 mothers/caregivers enrolled, 570 mothers were HIV-positive. The mother-to-child HIV transmission rate was 5.7% [95% CI: 4.0-8.0]. The mortality rate was 2.6% [95% CI: 1.6-4.2] among HIV-exposed children compared to 1.4% (95% CI: 0.9-2.3) among HIV-unexposed children. HIV-free survival was 91.8% [95% CI: 89.2-93.8] among HIV-exposed infants. Disclosure of mother's HIV status (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI: 1.3-18.2) and initiation of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in the child (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.6) were independently associated with increased HIV-free survival while child growth problems (aOR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.09-0.5) were independently associated with reduced HIV-free survival. CONCLUSION: Even in the context of lifelong antiretroviral therapy among pregnant and breastfeeding women, HIV has a significant effect on survival among HIV-exposed children compared to unexposed children. Lesotho has not reached elimination of HIV transmission from mother to child.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239951, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002081

RESUMO

Sri Lanka has a low-level HIV epidemic. This study aims to provide evidence on HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B (HBV) prevalence, sexual risk behaviours and utilisation of HIV prevention interventions among female sex workers (FSW) in the cities Colombo, Galle, and Kandy. Using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), we recruited a total of 458 FSW in Colombo, 360 in Galle and 362 in Kandy from November 2017 to March 2018. Participants provided biological specimens for testing for infections and completed a behavioural questionnaire. We found no HIV nor HBV infections in Galle and Kandy, and low HIV (0.4%) and HBV surface antigen (0.6%) prevalence in Colombo. FSW in Colombo had higher positivity on Treponema pallidum-particle agglutination test (8.4%) compared to Galle (2.0%) and Kandy (2.5%). About two thirds of FSW heard of HIV in each of the cities. Around 90% of FSW used condom at last sex with a client in both Colombo and Galle, but considerably less in Kandy (57.1%). However, lower proportion of FSW used condoms every time during sex with clients in the past 30 day: 22.9% of FSW in Colombo, 26.6% in Kandy and 68.4% in Galle. Across cities, 17.5%-39.5% of FSW reported being tested for HIV in the past 12 months or knowing HIV positive status. The commonest reasons for never testing for HIV was not knowing where to test (54.2% in Colombo, 41.8% in Galle, 48.1% in Kandy) followed by inconvenient testing location (23.7% in Colombo and 31.1% in Kandy). HIV has not yet been firmly established among FSW in three cities in Sri Lanka, but the vulnerability towards HIV and STIs is substantial. HIV interventions should be intensified by expanding community-based HIV testing approaches, increasingawareness of HIV risks and addressing socio-structural vulnerabilities of FSW to HIV.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sri Lanka , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 751, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV is a major public health issue, especially in developing countries. It is important to track and design successful intervention programs to explore the spatial pattern, distribution, and associated factors of HIV Seropositivity. This study therefore showed the spatial variation of HIV Seropositivity and related factors in Ethiopia. METHODS: A total sample of 25,774 individual data collected from the 2016 EDHS data were primarily HIV biomarkers, IR, MR, and GPS. Spatial heterogeneity analysis was used with methods such as Morans I, Interpolation, and Kulldorff 's scan statistic. Spatial analysis was conducted using open source tools (QGIS, GeoDa, SaTScan). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed using Stata14 to identify HIV-associated factors. Finally, the AOR with a 95% confidence interval was used to report the mixed-effect logistic regression result in the full model. RESULT: The prevalence of HIV / AIDS at national level was 0.93%. The highest prevalence regions were Gambela, Addis Abeba, Harari and Diredawa, accounting for 4.79, 3.36, 2.65 and 2.6%, respectively. Higher HIV seropositive spatial clusters have been established in the Gambela and Addis Ababa regions. Multilevel analysis at the individual level being married [AOR = 2.19 95% CI: (1.11-4.31)] and previously married [AOR = 6.45, 95% CI: (3.06-13.59)], female [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI: (1.19-2.72)], first-sex at age ≤15 [AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: (1.70-11.34)], 18-19 [AOR = 2.67 95% CI: (1.05-6.8)], middle age group (25-34) [AOR = 6.53, 95% CI: (3.67-11.75)], older age group (>34) [AOR = 2.67 95% CI: (1.05-6.8)], primary school [AOR = 3.03, 95% CI: (1.92-4.79)], secondary school [AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: (1.92-5.92) were significantly associated with serropositivity. Regarding household level, place of residence [urban: AOR = 6.13 CI: (3.12, 12.06)], female-headed households (AOR = 2.24 95% CI: (1.57-3.73), media exposure [low exposure (AOR = 0.53 95% CI: (0.33-0.86), no exposure AOR = 0.39 95% CI: (0.23-0.65)] and increased household size [AOR = 0.72 95% CI: (0.65-0.8)] were associated with HIV Seropositivity. CONCLUSION: High cluster HIV cases were found in Gambela, Addis Abeba, Harari, and Diredawa. Having a history of married, start sex at a younger age, female-headed household, urban residence, and lower household size is more affected by HIV/AIDS. So any concerned body work around this risk group and area can be effective in the reduction of transmission.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 760, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A more stringent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion (from negative to positive) definition has been proposed to allow more definite detection of recent tuberculosis (TB) infection. We explored alternative conversion definitions to assist the interpretation of serial QFT results and estimate incidence of TB infection in a large cohort study. METHODS: We used QFT serial results from TB household contacts aged ≥15 years, collected at baseline and during two follow-up visits (2006-2011) as part of a cohort study in 24 communities in Zambia and South Africa (SA). Conversion rates using the manufacturers' definition (interferon-gamma (IFN-g) < 0.35 to ≥0.35, 'def1') were compared with stricter definitions (IFN-g < 0.2 to ≥0.7 IU/ml, 'def2'; IFN-g < 0.2 to ≥1.05 IU/ml, 'def3'; IFN-g < 0.2 to ≥1.4 IU/ml, 'def4'). Poisson regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred sixty-five individuals in Zambia and 822 in SA had QFT results available. Among HIV-negative individuals, the QFT conversion rate was 27.4 per 100 person-years (CI:22.9-32.6) using def1, 19.0 using def2 (CI:15.2-23.7), 14.7 using def3 (CI:11.5-18.8), and 12.0 using def4 (CI:9.2-15.7). Relative differences across def1-def4 were similar in Zambia and SA. Using def1, conversion was less likely if HIV positive not on antiretroviral treatment compared to HIV negative (aRR = 0.7, 95%CI = 0.4-0.9), in analysis including both countries. The same direction of associations were found using def 2-4. CONCLUSION: High conversion rates were found even with the strictest definition, indicating high incidence of TB infection among household contacts of TB patients in these communities. The trade-off between sensitivity and specificity using different thresholds of QFT conversion remains unknown due to the absence of a reference standard. However, we identified boundaries within which an appropriate definition might fall, and our strictest definition plausibly has high specificity.


Assuntos
Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante , Características da Família , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
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