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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3888, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719828

RESUMO

PRPF40A plays an important role in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing by mediating protein-protein interactions in the early steps of spliceosome assembly. By binding to proteins at the 5´ and 3´ splice sites, PRPF40A promotes spliceosome assembly by bridging the recognition of the splices. The PRPF40A WW domains are expected to recognize proline-rich sequences in SF1 and SF3A1 in the early spliceosome complexes E and A, respectively. Here, we combine NMR, SAXS and ITC to determine the structure of the PRPF40A tandem WW domains in solution and characterize the binding specificity and mechanism for proline-rich motifs recognition. Our structure of the PRPF40A WW tandem in complex with a high-affinity SF1 peptide reveals contributions of both WW domains, which also enables tryptophan sandwiching by two proline residues in the ligand. Unexpectedly, a proline-rich motif in the N-terminal region of PRPF40A mediates intramolecular interactions with the WW tandem. Using NMR, ITC, mutational analysis in vitro, and immunoprecipitation experiments in cells, we show that the intramolecular interaction acts as an autoinhibitory filter for proof-reading of high-affinity proline-rich motifs in bona fide PRPF40A binding partners. We propose that similar autoinhibitory mechanisms are present in most WW tandem-containing proteins to enhance binding selectivity and regulation of WW/proline-rich peptide interaction networks.


Assuntos
Prolina , Ligação Proteica , Domínios WW , Humanos , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Modelos Moleculares , Prolina/metabolismo , Prolina/química , Splicing de RNA , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/química , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Difração de Raios X
2.
RNA Biol ; 21(1): 1-17, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711165

RESUMO

Spliceosome assembly contributes an important but incompletely understood aspect of splicing regulation. Prp45 is a yeast splicing factor which runs as an extended fold through the spliceosome, and which may be important for bringing its components together. We performed a whole genome analysis of the genetic interaction network of the truncated allele of PRP45 (prp45(1-169)) using synthetic genetic array technology and found chromatin remodellers and modifiers as an enriched category. In agreement with related studies, H2A.Z-encoding HTZ1, and the components of SWR1, INO80, and SAGA complexes represented prominent interactors, with htz1 conferring the strongest growth defect. Because the truncation of Prp45 disproportionately affected low copy number transcripts of intron-containing genes, we prepared strains carrying intronless versions of SRB2, VPS75, or HRB1, the most affected cases with transcription-related function. Intron removal from SRB2, but not from the other genes, partly repaired some but not all the growth phenotypes identified in the genetic screen. The interaction of prp45(1-169) and htz1Δ was detectable even in cells with SRB2 intron deleted (srb2Δi). The less truncated variant, prp45(1-330), had a synthetic growth defect with htz1Δ at 16°C, which also persisted in the srb2Δi background. Moreover, htz1Δ enhanced prp45(1-330) dependent pre-mRNA hyper-accumulation of both high and low efficiency splicers, genes ECM33 and COF1, respectively. We conclude that while the expression defects of low expression intron-containing genes contribute to the genetic interactome of prp45(1-169), the genetic interactions between prp45 and htz1 alleles demonstrate the sensitivity of spliceosome assembly, delayed in prp45(1-169), to the chromatin environment.


Assuntos
Íntrons , Fenótipo , Splicing de RNA , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Spliceossomos , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Spliceossomos/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Histonas/genética
3.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 445, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterization of regulatory variants (e.g., gene expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL; gene splicing QTL, sQTL) is crucial for biologically interpreting molecular mechanisms underlying loci associated with complex traits. However, regulatory variants in dairy cattle, particularly in specific biological contexts (e.g., distinct lactation stages), remain largely unknown. In this study, we explored regulatory variants in whole blood samples collected during early to mid-lactation (22-150 days after calving) of 101 Holstein cows and analyzed them to decipher the regulatory mechanisms underlying complex traits in dairy cattle. RESULTS: We identified 14,303 genes and 227,705 intron clusters expressed in the white blood cells of 101 cattle. The average heritability of gene expression and intron excision ratio explained by cis-SNPs is 0.28 ± 0.13 and 0.25 ± 0.13, respectively. We identified 23,485 SNP-gene expression pairs and 18,166 SNP-intron cluster pairs in dairy cattle during early to mid-lactation. Compared with the 2,380,457 cis-eQTLs reported to be present in blood in the Cattle Genotype-Tissue Expression atlas (CattleGTEx), only 6,114 cis-eQTLs (P < 0.05) were detected in the present study. By conducting colocalization analysis between cis-e/sQTL and the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from four traits, we identified a cis-e/sQTL (rs109421300) of the DGAT1 gene that might be a key marker in early to mid-lactation for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and somatic cell score (PP4 > 0.6). Finally, transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) revealed certain genes (e.g., FAM83H and TBC1D17) whose expression in white blood cells was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with complex traits. CONCLUSIONS: This study investigated the genetic regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing in dairy cows during early to mid-lactation and provided new insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying complex traits of economic importance.


Assuntos
Lactação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Lactação/genética , Feminino , Splicing de RNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Íntrons , Transcriptoma
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(21): e2322974121, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743621

RESUMO

SRSF1 is the founding member of the SR protein family. It is required-interchangeably with other SR proteins-for pre-mRNA splicing in vitro, and it regulates various alternative splicing events. Dysregulation of SRSF1 expression contributes to cancer and other pathologies. Here, we characterized SRSF1's interactome using proximity labeling and mass spectrometry. This approach yielded 190 proteins enriched in the SRSF1 samples, independently of the N- or C-terminal location of the biotin-labeling domain. The detected proteins reflect established functions of SRSF1 in pre-mRNA splicing and reveal additional connections to spliceosome proteins, in addition to other recently identified functions. We validated a robust interaction with the spliceosomal RNA helicase DDX23/PRP28 using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vitro binding assays. The interaction is mediated by the N-terminal RS-like domain of DDX23 and both RRM1 and the RS domain of SRSF1. During pre-mRNA splicing, DDX23's ATPase activity is essential for the pre-B to B spliceosome complex transition and for release of U1 snRNP from the 5' splice site. We show that the RS-like region of DDX23's N-terminal domain is important for spliceosome incorporation, while larger deletions in this domain alter subnuclear localization. We discuss how the identified interaction of DDX23 with SRSF1 and other SR proteins may be involved in the regulation of these processes.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box , Splicing de RNA , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina , Spliceossomos , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Humanos , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/genética , Ligação Proteica , Células HeLa
5.
Sci Adv ; 10(19): eadn1547, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718117

RESUMO

Pre-mRNA splicing is a fundamental step in gene expression, conserved across eukaryotes, in which the spliceosome recognizes motifs at the 3' and 5' splice sites (SSs), excises introns, and ligates exons. SS recognition and pairing is often influenced by protein splicing factors (SFs) that bind to splicing regulatory elements (SREs). Here, we describe SMsplice, a fully interpretable model of pre-mRNA splicing that combines models of core SS motifs, SREs, and exonic and intronic length preferences. We learn models that predict SS locations with 83 to 86% accuracy in fish, insects, and plants and about 70% in mammals. Learned SRE motifs include both known SF binding motifs and unfamiliar motifs, and both motif classes are supported by genetic analyses. Our comparisons across species highlight similarities between non-mammals, increased reliance on intronic SREs in plant splicing, and a greater reliance on SREs in mammalian splicing.


Assuntos
Éxons , Íntrons , Precursores de RNA , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Splicing de RNA , Precursores de RNA/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Íntrons/genética , Éxons/genética , Genes de Plantas , Modelos Genéticos , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Spliceossomos/genética , Plantas/genética , Humanos , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3839, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714659

RESUMO

Pre-mRNA splicing, a key process in gene expression, can be therapeutically modulated using various drug modalities, including antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). However, determining promising targets is hampered by the challenge of systematically mapping splicing-regulatory elements (SREs) in their native sequence context. Here, we use the catalytically inactive CRISPR-RfxCas13d RNA-targeting system (dCas13d/gRNA) as a programmable platform to bind SREs and modulate splicing by competing against endogenous splicing factors. SpliceRUSH, a high-throughput screening method, was developed to map SREs in any gene of interest using a lentivirus gRNA library that tiles the genetic region, including distal intronic sequences. When applied to SMN2, a therapeutic target for spinal muscular atrophy, SpliceRUSH robustly identifies not only known SREs but also a previously unknown distal intronic SRE, which can be targeted to alter exon 7 splicing using either dCas13d/gRNA or ASOs. This technology enables a deeper understanding of splicing regulation with applications for RNA-based drug discovery.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Éxons , Íntrons , Splicing de RNA , RNA Guia de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor , Humanos , Splicing de RNA/genética , Proteína 2 de Sobrevivência do Neurônio Motor/genética , RNA Guia de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Íntrons/genética , Éxons/genética , Células HEK293 , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/genética , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Precursores de RNA/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo
7.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 12(5): e2447, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem genetic disorder, and cases caused by variants in the structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 3 (SMC3) gene are uncommon. Here, we report two cases of CdLS associated with novel pathogenic variants in SMC3 from two Chinese families. METHODS: Clinical presentations of two patients with CdLS were evaluated, and specimens from the patients and other family members were collected for Trio-based whole-exome sequencing. Pyrosequencing, chip-based digital PCR, minigene splicing assay, and in silico analysis were carried out to elucidate the impact of novel variants. RESULTS: Novel heterozygous variants in SMC3 were identified in each proband. One harbored a novel splicing and mosaic variant (c.2535+1G>A) in SMC3. The mutated allele G>A conversion was approximately 23.1% by digital PCR, which indicated that 46.2% of peripheral blood cells had this variant. Additionally, in vitro minigene splicing analysis validated that the c.2535+1G>A variant led to an exon skipping in messenger RNA splicing. The other carried a heterozygous variant (c.435C>A), which was predicted to be pathogenic as well as significantly altered in local electrical potential. The former showed multiple abnormalities and marked clinical severity, and the latter mainly exhibited a speech developmental disorder and slightly facial anomalies. CONCLUSION: Both patients were clinically diagnosed with Cornelia de Lange syndrome 3 (CdLS3). The newly identified SMC3 gene variants can expand the understanding of CdLS3 and provide reliable evidence for genetic counseling to the affected family.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange , Heterozigoto , Linhagem , Humanos , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/genética , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Splicing de RNA , Mutação , Pré-Escolar , Fenótipo , Criança , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina
8.
Comput Biol Med ; 175: 108542, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714048

RESUMO

The genomics landscape has undergone a revolutionary transformation with the emergence of third-generation sequencing technologies. Fueled by the exponential surge in sequencing data, there is an urgent demand for accurate and rapid algorithms to effectively handle this burgeoning influx. Under such circumstances, we developed a parallelized, yet accuracy-lossless algorithm for maximal exact match (MEM) retrieval to strategically address the computational bottleneck of uLTRA, a leading spliced alignment algorithm known for its precision in handling long RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) reads. The design of the algorithm incorporates a multi-threaded strategy, enabling the concurrent processing of multiple reads simultaneously. Additionally, we implemented the serialization of index required for MEM retrieval to facilitate its reuse, resulting in accelerated startup for practical tasks. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our parallel algorithm achieves significant improvements in runtime, speedup, throughput, and memory usage. When applied to the largest human dataset, the algorithm achieves an impressive speedup of 10.78 × , significantly improving throughput on a large scale. Moreover, the integration of the parallel MEM retrieval algorithm into the uLTRA pipeline introduces a dual-layered parallel capability, consistently yielding a speedup of 4.99 × compared to the multi-process and single-threaded execution of uLTRA. The thorough analysis of experimental results underscores the adept utilization of parallel processing capabilities and its advantageous performance in handling large datasets. This study provides a showcase of parallelized strategies for MEM retrieval within the context of spliced alignment algorithm, effectively facilitating the process of RNA-seq data analysis. The code is available at https://github.com/RongxingWong/AcceleratingSplicedAlignment.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Splicing de RNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Software
9.
Nat Microbiol ; 9(5): 1340-1355, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605174

RESUMO

Although the significance of chemical modifications on RNA is acknowledged, the evolutionary benefits and specific roles in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication remain elusive. Most studies have provided only population-averaged values of modifications for fragmented RNAs at low resolution and have relied on indirect analyses of phenotypic effects by perturbing host effectors. Here we analysed chemical modifications on HIV-1 RNAs at the full-length, single RNA level and nucleotide resolution using direct RNA sequencing methods. Our data reveal an unexpectedly simple HIV-1 modification landscape, highlighting three predominant N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications near the 3' end. More densely installed in spliced viral messenger RNAs than in genomic RNAs, these m6As play a crucial role in maintaining normal levels of HIV-1 RNA splicing and translation. HIV-1 generates diverse RNA subspecies with distinct m6A ensembles, and maintaining multiple of these m6As on its RNAs provides additional stability and resilience to HIV-1 replication, suggesting an unexplored viral RNA-level evolutionary strategy.


Assuntos
Adenosina , HIV-1 , RNA Viral , Replicação Viral , HIV-1/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Humanos , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenosina/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Splicing de RNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Transcriptoma
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 52(8): 4676-4690, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567732

RESUMO

SRSF1 governs splicing of over 1500 mRNA transcripts. SRSF1 contains two RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal Arg/Ser-rich region (RS). It has been thought that SRSF1 RRMs exclusively recognize single-stranded exonic splicing enhancers, while RS lacks RNA-binding specificity. With our success in solving the insolubility problem of SRSF1, we can explore the unknown RNA-binding landscape of SRSF1. We find that SRSF1 RS prefers purine over pyrimidine. Moreover, SRSF1 binds to the G-quadruplex (GQ) from the ARPC2 mRNA, with both RRMs and RS being crucial. Our binding assays show that the traditional RNA-binding sites on the RRM tandem and the Arg in RS are responsible for GQ binding. Interestingly, our FRET and circular dichroism data reveal that SRSF1 unfolds the ARPC2 GQ, with RS leading unfolding and RRMs aiding. Our saturation transfer difference NMR results discover that Arg residues in SRSF1 RS interact with the guanine base but not other nucleobases, underscoring the uniqueness of the Arg/guanine interaction. Our luciferase assays confirm that SRSF1 can alleviate the inhibitory effect of GQ on gene expression in the cell. Given the prevalence of RNA GQ and SR proteins, our findings unveil unexplored SR protein functions with broad implications in RNA splicing and translation.


Assuntos
Quadruplex G , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/química , Humanos , Sítios de Ligação , Splicing de RNA , Motivo de Reconhecimento de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA/metabolismo , RNA/genética , RNA/química
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 25(3)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605640

RESUMO

Language models pretrained by self-supervised learning (SSL) have been widely utilized to study protein sequences, while few models were developed for genomic sequences and were limited to single species. Due to the lack of genomes from different species, these models cannot effectively leverage evolutionary information. In this study, we have developed SpliceBERT, a language model pretrained on primary ribonucleic acids (RNA) sequences from 72 vertebrates by masked language modeling, and applied it to sequence-based modeling of RNA splicing. Pretraining SpliceBERT on diverse species enables effective identification of evolutionarily conserved elements. Meanwhile, the learned hidden states and attention weights can characterize the biological properties of splice sites. As a result, SpliceBERT was shown effective on several downstream tasks: zero-shot prediction of variant effects on splicing, prediction of branchpoints in humans, and cross-species prediction of splice sites. Our study highlighted the importance of pretraining genomic language models on a diverse range of species and suggested that SSL is a promising approach to enhance our understanding of the regulatory logic underlying genomic sequences.


Assuntos
Splicing de RNA , Vertebrados , Animais , Humanos , Sequência de Bases , Vertebrados/genética , RNA , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
12.
EMBO Rep ; 25(5): 2220-2238, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600345

RESUMO

Perturbation of protein phosphorylation represents an attractive approach to cancer treatment. Besides kinase inhibitors, protein phosphatase inhibitors have been shown to have anti-cancer activity. A prime example is the small molecule LB-100, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 2A/5 (PP2A/PP5), enzymes that affect cellular physiology. LB-100 has proven effective in pre-clinical models in combination with immunotherapy, but the molecular underpinnings of this synergy remain understood poorly. We report here a sensitivity of the mRNA splicing machinery to phosphorylation changes in response to LB-100 in colorectal adenocarcinoma. We observe enrichment for differentially phosphorylated sites within cancer-critical splicing nodes of U2 snRNP, SRSF and hnRNP proteins. Altered phosphorylation endows LB-100-treated colorectal adenocarcinoma cells with differential splicing patterns. In PP2A-inhibited cells, over 1000 events of exon skipping and intron retention affect regulators of genomic integrity. Finally, we show that LB-100-evoked alternative splicing leads to neoantigens that are presented by MHC class 1 at the cell surface. Our findings provide a potential explanation for the pre-clinical and clinical observations that LB-100 sensitizes cancer cells to immune checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Splicing de RNA , Humanos , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia
13.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA ; 15(2): e1843, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576117

RESUMO

RNAs are meticulously controlled by proteins. Through direct and indirect associations, every facet in the brief life of an mRNA is subject to regulation. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) permeate biology. Here, we focus on their roles in pain. Chronic pain is among the largest challenges facing medicine and requires new strategies. Mounting pharmacologic and genetic evidence obtained in pre-clinical models suggests fundamental roles for a broad array of RBPs. We describe their diverse roles that span RNA modification, splicing, stability, translation, and decay. Finally, we highlight opportunities to expand our understanding of regulatory interactions that contribute to pain signaling. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Protein-RNA Interactions: Functional Implications Translation > Regulation RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease.


Assuntos
Splicing de RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Dor/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3138, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605034

RESUMO

The carboxy-terminus of the spliceosomal protein PRPF8, which regulates the RNA helicase Brr2, is a hotspot for mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa-type 13, with unclear role in human splicing and tissue-specificity mechanism. We used patient induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cells, carrying the heterozygous PRPF8 c.6926 A > C (p.H2309P) mutation to demonstrate retinal-specific endophenotypes comprising photoreceptor loss, apical-basal polarity and ciliary defects. Comprehensive molecular, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses revealed a role of the PRPF8/Brr2 regulation in 5'-splice site (5'SS) selection by spliceosomes, for which disruption impaired alternative splicing and weak/suboptimal 5'SS selection, and enhanced cryptic splicing, predominantly in ciliary and retinal-specific transcripts. Altered splicing efficiency, nuclear speckles organisation, and PRPF8 interaction with U6 snRNA, caused accumulation of active spliceosomes and poly(A)+ mRNAs in unique splicing clusters located at the nuclear periphery of photoreceptors. Collectively these elucidate the role of PRPF8/Brr2 regulatory mechanisms in splicing and the molecular basis of retinal disease, informing therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Sítios de Splice de RNA , Retinose Pigmentar , Spliceossomos , Humanos , Spliceossomos/genética , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Proteômica , Splicing de RNA/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Mutação , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
15.
Elife ; 122024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577979

RESUMO

Splicing is the stepwise molecular process by which introns are removed from pre-mRNA and exons are joined together to form mature mRNA sequences. The ordering and spatial distribution of these steps remain controversial, with opposing models suggesting splicing occurs either during or after transcription. We used single-molecule RNA FISH, expansion microscopy, and live-cell imaging to reveal the spatiotemporal distribution of nascent transcripts in mammalian cells. At super-resolution levels, we found that pre-mRNA formed clouds around the transcription site. These clouds indicate the existence of a transcription-site-proximal zone through which RNA move more slowly than in the nucleoplasm. Full-length pre-mRNA undergo continuous splicing as they move through this zone following transcription, suggesting a model in which splicing can occur post-transcriptionally but still within the proximity of the transcription site, thus seeming co-transcriptional by most assays. These results may unify conflicting reports of co-transcriptional versus post-transcriptional splicing.


Assuntos
Precursores de RNA , Transcrição Gênica , Animais , Precursores de RNA/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA , Íntrons/genética , Mamíferos/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2809, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561334

RESUMO

Protein arginine methyltransferase 9 (PRMT9) is a recently identified member of the PRMT family, yet its biological function remains largely unknown. Here, by characterizing an intellectual disability associated PRMT9 mutation (G189R) and establishing a Prmt9 conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model, we uncover an important function of PRMT9 in neuronal development. The G189R mutation abolishes PRMT9 methyltransferase activity and reduces its protein stability. Knockout of Prmt9 in hippocampal neurons causes alternative splicing of ~1900 genes, which likely accounts for the aberrant synapse development and impaired learning and memory in the Prmt9 cKO mice. Mechanistically, we discover a methylation-sensitive protein-RNA interaction between the arginine 508 (R508) of the splicing factor 3B subunit 2 (SF3B2), the site that is exclusively methylated by PRMT9, and the pre-mRNA anchoring site, a cis-regulatory element that is critical for RNA splicing. Additionally, using human and mouse cell lines, as well as an SF3B2 arginine methylation-deficient mouse model, we provide strong evidence that SF3B2 is the primary methylation substrate of PRMT9, thus highlighting the conserved function of the PRMT9/SF3B2 axis in regulating pre-mRNA splicing.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , RNA , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Arginina/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA/genética
17.
BMC Med Genomics ; 17(1): 108, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alport syndrome (AS) is characterised by haematuria, proteinuria, a gradual decline in kidney function, hearing loss, and eye abnormalities. The disease is caused by mutations in COL4An (n = 3, 4, 5) that encodes 3-5 chains of type IV collagen in the glomerular basement membrane. AS has three genetic models: X-linked, autosomal recessive, and autosomal dominant. The most common type of AS is X-linked AS, which is caused by COL4A5. METHODS: We enrolled children with renal insufficiency and a family history of kidney disorders. The proband was identified using whole-exome sequencing. Sanger sequencing was performed to verify the mutation site. Minigene technology was used to analyse the influence of mutant genes on pre-mRNA shearing, and the Iterative Threading ASSEmbly Refinement (I-TASSER) server was used to analyse the protein structure changes. RESULTS: The proband, together with her mother and younger brother, displayed microscopic haematuria and proteinuria, Pathological examination revealed mesangial hyperplasia and sclerosis. A novel mutation (NM_000495.5 c.4298-8G > A) in the intron of the COL4A5 gene in the proband was discovered, which was also present in the proband's mother, brother, and grandmother. In vitro minigene expression experiments verified that the c.4298-8G > A mutation caused abnormal splicing, leading to the retention of six base pairs at the end of intron 46. The I-TASSER software predicted that the mutation affected the hydrogen-bonding structure of COL4A5 and the electrostatic potential on the surface of the protein molecules. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the patient's clinical history and genetic traits, we conclude that the mutation at the splicing site c.4298-8G > A of the COL4A5 gene is highly probable to be the underlying cause within this particular family. This discovery expands the genetic spectrum and deepens our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying AS.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo IV , Mutação , Nefrite Hereditária , Linhagem , Splicing de RNA , Nefrite Hereditária/genética , Nefrite Hereditária/patologia , Humanos , Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Povo Asiático/genética , Criança , Adulto , China , População do Leste Asiático
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673778

RESUMO

Pre-mRNA splicing plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Recent discoveries suggest that defects in pre-mRNA splicing, resulting from the dysfunction of certain splicing factors, can impact the expression of genes crucial for genome surveillance mechanisms, including those involved in cellular response to DNA damage. In this study, we analyzed how cells with a non-functional spliceosome-associated Gpl1-Gih35-Wdr83 complex respond to DNA damage. Additionally, we investigated the role of this complex in regulating the splicing of factors involved in DNA damage repair. Our findings reveal that the deletion of any component within the Gpl1-Gih35-Wdr83 complex leads to a significant accumulation of unspliced pre-mRNAs of DNA repair factors. Consequently, mutant cells lacking this complex exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. These results highlight the importance of the Gpl1-Gih35-Wdr83 complex in regulating the expression of DNA repair factors, thereby protecting the stability of the genome following DNA damage.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Splicing de RNA , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe , Schizosaccharomyces , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Schizosaccharomyces/metabolismo , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/genética , Proteínas de Schizosaccharomyces pombe/metabolismo , Spliceossomos/metabolismo , Spliceossomos/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Precursores de RNA/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo
20.
Genome Biol ; 25(1): 102, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38641822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Splicing factors are vital for the regulation of RNA splicing, but some have also been implicated in regulating transcription. The underlying molecular mechanisms of their involvement in transcriptional processes remain poorly understood. RESULTS: Here, we describe a direct role of splicing factor RBM22 in coordinating multiple steps of RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription in human cells. The RBM22 protein widely occupies the RNAPII-transcribed gene locus in the nucleus. Loss of RBM22 promotes RNAPII pause release, reduces elongation velocity, and provokes transcriptional readthrough genome-wide, coupled with production of transcripts containing sequences from downstream of the gene. RBM22 preferentially binds to the hyperphosphorylated, transcriptionally engaged RNAPII and coordinates its dynamics by regulating the homeostasis of the 7SK-P-TEFb complex and the association between RNAPII and SPT5 at the chromatin level. CONCLUSIONS: Our results uncover the multifaceted role of RBM22 in orchestrating the transcriptional program of RNAPII and provide evidence implicating a splicing factor in both RNAPII elongation kinetics and termination control.


Assuntos
Fator B de Elongação Transcricional Positiva , RNA Polimerase II , Humanos , Cromatina , Fator B de Elongação Transcricional Positiva/genética , Fator B de Elongação Transcricional Positiva/metabolismo , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Transcrição Gênica , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/metabolismo
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