Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.130
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141775, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890827

RESUMO

We evaluated the hygienic influence of onsite sanitation systems (OSSs) on drinking water wells in rural Sri Lanka by determining the safe setback distance between wells and the management of OSSs. Although previous studies have used bacterial indicators such as E. coli to evaluate the OSS impact, these parameters cannot assess the hygiene risk for waterborne pathogenic viruses (e.g. rotaviruses). Therefore, pepper mild mottle virus was selected as an indicator of human-specific faecal virus contamination. From a viral perspective, not only can the horizontal distance between a well and the nearest OSS reasonably represent hygiene safety, but the OSS sludge management can mitigate the contamination of wells even at short distances from the OSSs. Quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the infection risk of rotavirus was extremely high compared to the international standard. As proper management of OSSs would be key to reducing viral risk, it is necessary to reach out to the residents who are unaware of the importance and necessity of such management.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Vírus , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Higiene , População Rural , Sri Lanka , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Poços de Água
2.
Malar J ; 19(1): 386, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138814

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact on other health programmes in countries, including on malaria, and is currently under much discussion. As many countries are accelerating efforts to eliminate malaria or to prevent the re-establishment of malaria from recently eliminated countries, the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to cause major interruptions to ongoing anti-malaria operations and risk jeopardizing the gains that have been made so far. Sri Lanka, having eliminated malaria in 2012, was certified by the World Health Organization as a malaria-free country in 2016 and now implements a rigorous programme to prevent its re-establishment owing to the high receptivity and vulnerability of the country to malaria. Sri Lanka has also dealt with the COVID-19 epidemic quite successfully limiting the cumulative number of infections and deaths through co-ordinated efforts between the health sector and other relevant sectors, namely the military, the Police Department, Departments of Airport and Aviation and Foreign Affairs, all of which have been deployed for the COVID-19 epidemic under the umbrella of a Presidential Task Force. The relevance of imported infections and the need for a multi-sectoral response are features common to both the control of the COVID-19 epidemic and the Prevention of Re-establishment (POR) programme for malaria. Sri Lanka's malaria POR programme has, therefore, creatively integrated its activities with those of the COVID-19 control programme. Through highly coordinated operations the return to the country of Sri Lankan nationals stranded overseas by the COVID-19 pandemic, many from malaria endemic countries, are being monitored for malaria as well as COVID-19 in an integrated case surveillance system under quarantine conditions, to the success of both programmes. Twenty-three imported malaria cases were detected from February to October through 2773 microscopic blood examinations performed for malaria in quarantine centres, this number being not much different to the incidence of imported malaria during the same period last year. This experience highlights the importance of integrated case surveillance and the need for a highly coordinated multi-sectoral approach in dealing with emerging new infections. It also suggests that synergies between the COVID-19 epidemic control programme and other health programmes may be found and developed to the advantage of both.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238609, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112881

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although immune responses to the Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV), and the dengue viruses (DENV) have a potential to modulate the immune responses to each other, this has been poorly investigated. Therefore, we developed an ELISA to identify JEV specific, DENV non cross-reactive antibody responses by identifying JEV specific, highly conserved regions of the virus and proceeded to investigate if the presence of JEV specific antibodies associate with dengue disease severity. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: 22 JEV specific peptides were identified from highly conserved regions of the virus and the immunogenicity and specificity of these peptides were assessed in individuals who were non-immune to JEV and DENV (JEV-DENV-, N = 30), those who were only immune to the JEV and not DENV (JEV+DENV-, N = 30), those who were only immune to DENV(JEV-DENV+, N = 30) and in those who were immune to both viruses (JEV+DENV+, N = 30). 7/22 peptides were found to be highly immunogenic and specific and these 7 peptides were used as a pool to further evaluate JEV-specific responses. All 30/30 JEV+DENV- and 30/30 JEV+DENV+ individuals, and only 3/30 (10%) JEV-DENV+ individuals responded to this pool. We further evaluated this pool of 7 peptides in patients following primary and secondary dengue infection during the convalescent period and found that the JEV-specific peptides, were unlikely to cross react with DENV IgG antibodies. We further compared this in-house ELISA developed with the peptide pool with an existing commercial JEV IgG assay to identify JEV-specific IgG following vaccination, and our in-house ELISA was found to be more sensitive. We then proceeded to investigate if the presence of JEV-specific antibodies were associated with dengue disease severity, and we found that those who had past severe dengue (n = 175) were significantly more likely (p<0.0001) to have JEV-specific antibodies than those with past non-severe dengue (n = 175) (OR 5.3, 95% CI 3.3 to 8.3). CONCLUSIONS: As our data show that this assay is highly sensitive and specific for detection of JEV-specific antibody responses, it would be an important tool to determine how JEV seropositivity modulate dengue immunity and disease severity when undertaking dengue vaccine trials.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Criança , Sequência Conservada , Reações Cruzadas , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/imunologia , Encefalite Japonesa/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 4045064, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101453

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak that originated in the city of Wuhan, China, has caused a significant damage to the world population and the global economy. It has claimed more than 0.8 million lives worldwide, and more than 27 million people have been infected as of 07th September 2020. In Sri Lanka, the first case of COVID-19 was reported late January 2020 which was a Chinese national and the first local case was identified in the second week of March. Since then, the government of Sri Lanka introduced various sequential measures to improve social distancing such as closure of schools and education institutes, introducing work from home model to reduce the public gathering, introducing travel bans to international arrivals, and more drastically, imposed island wide curfew expecting to minimize the burden of the disease to the Sri Lankan health system and the entire community. Currently, there are 3123 cases with 12 fatalities and also, it was reported that 2925 patients have recovered and are discharged from hospitals, according to the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. In this study, we use the SEIR conceptual model and its modified version by decomposing infected patients into two classes: patients who show mild symptoms and patients who tend to face severe respiratory problems and are required to be treated in intensive care units. We numerically simulate the models for about a five-month period reflecting the early stage of the epidemic in the country, considering three critical parameters of COVID-19 transmission mainly in the Sri Lankan context: efficacy of control measures, rate of overseas imported cases, and time to introduce social distancing measures by the respective authorities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2020: 6397063, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101454

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increasing number of infections and deaths every day. Lack of specialized treatments for the disease demands preventive measures based on statistical/mathematical models. The analysis of epidemiological curve fitting, on number of daily infections across affected countries, provides useful insights on the characteristics of the epidemic. A variety of phenomenological models are available to capture the dynamics of disease spread and growth. The number of daily new infections and cumulative number of infections in COVID-19 over four selected countries, namely, Sri Lanka, Italy, the United States, and Hebei province of China, from the first day of appearance of cases to 2nd July 2020 were used in the study. Gompertz, logistic, Weibull, and exponential growth curves were fitted on the cumulative number of infections across countries. AIC, BIC, RMSE, and R 2 were used to determine the best fitting curve for each country. Results revealed that the most appropriate growth curves for Sri Lanka, Italy, the United States, and China (Hebei) are the logistic, Gompertz, Weibull, and Gompertz curves, respectively. Country-wise, overall growth rate, final epidemic size, and short-term forecasts were evaluated using the selected model. Daily log incidences in each country were regressed before and after the identified peak time of the respective outbreak of epidemic. Hence, doubling time/halving time together with daily growth rates and predictions was estimated. Findings and relevant interpretations demonstrate that the outbreak seems to be extinct in Hebei, China, whereas further transmissions are possible in the United States. In Italy and Sri Lanka, current outbreaks transmit in a decreasing rate.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239576, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113548

RESUMO

In the global context, health and the quality of life of people are adversely affected by either one or more types of chronic diseases. This paper investigates the differences in the level of income and expenditure between chronically-ill people and non-chronic population. Data were gathered from a national level survey conducted namely, the Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) by the Department of Census and Statistics (DCS) of Sri Lanka. These data were statistically analysed with one-way and two-way ANOVA, to identify the factors that cause the differences among different groups. For the first time, this study makes an attempt using survey data, to examine the differences in the level of income and expenditure among chronically-ill people in Sri Lanka. Accordingly, the study discovered that married females who do not engage in any type of economic activity (being unemployed due to the disability associated with the respective chronic illness), in the age category of 40-65, having an educational level of tertiary education or below and living in the urban sector have a higher likelihood of suffering from chronic diseases. If workforce population is compelled to lose jobs, it can lead to income insecurity and impair their quality of lives. Under above findings, it is reasonable to assume that most health care expenses are out of pocket. Furthermore, the study infers that chronic illnesses have a statistically proven significant differences towards the income and expenditure level. This has caused due to the interaction of demographic and socio-economic characteristics associated with chronic illnesses. Considering private-public sector partnerships that enable affordable access to health care services for all as well as implementation of commercial insurance and community-based mutual services that help ease burden to the public, are vital when formulating effective policies and strategies related to the healthcare sector. Sri Lanka is making strong efforts to support its healthcare sector and public, which was affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) in early 2020. Therefore, findings of this paper will be useful to gain insights on the differences of chronic illnesses towards the income and expenditure of chronically-ill patients in Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica/economia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Indigência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zootaxa ; 4810(3): zootaxa.4810.3.6, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055734

RESUMO

A new species of the uropeltid snake genus Rhinophis Hemprich, 1820 is described from near Balangoda, southwestern Sri Lanka. Rhinophis mendisi sp. nov. superficially resembles R. homolepis (Hemprich, 1820) in colour pattern and in its prominent, conical tail shield, but differs from that species in having far fewer ventrals (159-177, n = 13 versus > 195 in the types of R. homolepis and its subjective junior synonym R. gerrardi). The five type specimens and one of the referred specimens of the new species were collected probably between 1894 and 1925, and the only known additional, referred specimens (n = 8) were collected from within ca. 30 km of the type locality in 1972. A lectotype is designated for Mitylia gerrardi Gray, 1858, a subjective junior synonym of R. homolepis.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Animais , Sri Lanka
8.
Zootaxa ; 4790(1): zootaxa.4790.1.2, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055853

RESUMO

Synagelides Strand, 1906 is recorded for the first time in Sri Lanka. Four new species are described and illustrated: S. hortonensis sp. nov., S. lakmalii sp. nov., S. rosalindae sp. nov. and S. orlandoi sp. nov. A key to the four new species is given.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Florestas , Ilhas , Sri Lanka
9.
Zootaxa ; 4810(1): zootaxa.4810.1.3, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055910

RESUMO

A new species of uropeltid snake is described from the Knuckles Conservation Forest, Matale District, Sri Lanka. Rhinophis gunasekarai sp. nov. is superficially most similar to Rhinophis phillipsi in having yellow lines on the dorsum, blotches on the lateral body, and a relatively small tail shield, but it differs from that species in having substantially fewer ventrals, and a unique number and disposition of the dorsal yellow lines and lateral blotches. The new description brings the uropeltid fauna of Sri Lanka to 17 currently recognized species, all Rhinophis.


Assuntos
Serpentes , Animais , Cor , Florestas , Sri Lanka
10.
Zootaxa ; 4759(4): zootaxa.4759.4.7, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056897

RESUMO

Two new species of the spider genus Wanniyala Huber Benjamin, 2005 are described from Sri Lanka: W. badulla sp. nov. (Uva Province; male and female) and W. batatota sp. nov. (Sabaragamuwa Province; male and female). In addition, new records of W. mudita Huber, 2019 (Western Province; male) and W. viharekele Huber, 2019 (Southern Province; male and female) are provided.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Sri Lanka
11.
Virol J ; 17(1): 144, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The basic reproduction number (R0) is the number of cases directly caused by an infected individual throughout his infectious period. R0 is used to determine the ability of a disease to spread within a given population. The reproduction number (R) represents the transmissibility of a disease. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to calculate the R0 of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in Sri Lanka and to describe the variation of R, with its implications to the prevention and control of the disease. METHODS: Data was obtained from daily situation reports of the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka and a compartmental model was used to calculate the R0 using estimated model parameters. This value was corroborated by using two more methods, the exponential growth rate method and maximum likelihood method to obtain a better estimate for R0. The variation of R was illustrated using a Bayesian statistical inference-based method. RESULTS: The R0 calculated by the first model was 1.02 [confidence interval (CI) of 0.75-1.29] with a root mean squared error of 7.72. The exponential growth rate method and the maximum likelihood estimation method yielded an R0 of 0.93 (CI of 0.77-1.10) and a R0 of 1.23 (CI of 0.94-1.57) respectively. The variation of R ranged from 0.69 to 2.20. CONCLUSION: The estimated R0 for COVID-19 in Sri Lanka, calculated by three different methods, falls between 0.93 and 1.23, and the transmissibility R has reduced, indicating that measures implemented have achieved a good control of disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , Teorema de Bayes , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Pandemias , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4779(2): zootaxa.4779.2.7, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055791

RESUMO

Mites of the family Athyreacaridae are recorded from Asia for the first time. Two new species of Athyreacarus are described, A. indicus sp. nov., collected on the beetles Bolbohamatum laevicolle and B. marginale in India, and A. brevisetosus sp. nov., collected on a beetle Bolboceras sp. in Sri Lanka. An updated key to species of the genus Athyreacarus is provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Ácaros , Animais , Índia , Sri Lanka
13.
Zootaxa ; 4821(2): zootaxa.4821.2.5, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056323

RESUMO

The paper describes a new species of a Sri Lankan twighopper, genus Cladonotus Saussure, 1862 (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae: Cladonotini), C. bhaskari sp. n., based on a single female specimen collected and photographed by T. Kirschey in 2016 in Sinharaja rainforest (SW Sri Lanka). The new species is clearly distinguished from other species of the genus by its long and spine-like frontomedial projection and cockscomb-shaped promedial projection. Species of this genus resemble tiny twigs, hence the name 'twighopper'. Our new specimen is the first known female of the genus, and we also present the first photograph of the member of this genus in the natural habitat. An annotated identification key for the Cladonotus species is provided. Furthermore, we synonymize genus Hypsaeus Bolívar, 1887 syn. nov. with Hymenotes Westwood, 1837, based on the pronotal variability of the leaf-like pygmy grasshoppers in the Philippines and introduce one new combination-Hymenotes westwoodi (Bolívar, 1887) comb. nov..


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , Feminino , Sri Lanka
14.
Zootaxa ; 4852(1): zootaxa.4852.1.10, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056715

RESUMO

Invasive alien species (IAS) are a major threat to biodiversity and have contributed to population declines in native species worldwide (Vilà et al. 2011; Gurevitch Padilla 2004). IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group lists some 80 invasive or potentially invasive species in Sri Lanka, which is part of a global biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000; Marambe et al. 2011). The major release of aquatic IAS on the island are routed through the ornamental-fish industry (Marambe et al. 2011; Sudasinghe 2016), though a minority represents deliberate, if unplanned, introductions by governmental and non-governmental agencies (Marambe et al. 2011).


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Biodiversidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Sri Lanka
15.
Zootaxa ; 4849(1): zootaxa.4849.1.1, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056748

RESUMO

A checklist of the dragonflies and damselflies occurring in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (including Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka is presented. In total 588 (including 559 full species) taxa are known to occur in the region of which 251 taxa (species subspecies) are single country endemics. Recent taxonomic changes relevant to the area are summarized. Sixteen taxa are synonymized and a checklist of all synonyms established since 1950 is provided. Information is given on available larval descriptions including a list of genera present in the region for which no larvae have yet been described. Numerous species occurring in the area are still poorly known and a list of genera for which a revision is urgently needed is provided.                The following new synonyms are established: Calicnemia sudhaae Mitra, 1994 = Calicnemia imitans Lieftinck, 1948 syn. nov.; Ceriagrion fallax cerinomelas Lieftinck, 1927 = Ceriagrion fallax Ris, 1914 syn. nov.; Ceriagrion fallax pendleburyi Laidlaw, 1931 = Ceriagrion fallax Ris, 1914 syn. nov.; Coenagrion kashmirus Chowdhary Das, 1975 = Ischnura forcipata Morton, 1907 syn. nov.; Enallagma insula Fraser, 1920 = Aciagrion occidentale Laidlaw, 1919 syn. nov.; Himalagrion pithoragarhicum Sahni, 1964 = Ceriagrion fallax Ris, 1914 syn. nov.; Ischnura bhimtalensis Sahni, 1965 = Ischnura rubilio Selys, 1876 syn. nov.; Onychargia indica Sahni, 1964 = Paracercion calamorum (Ris, 1916) syn. nov.; Anaciaeschna kashmirense Singh Baijal, 1954 = Anaciaeschna martini (Selys, 1897) syn. nov.; Cyclogomphus vesiculosus Selys, 1854 = Cyclogomphus ypsilon Selys, 1954 syn. nov.; Chlorogomphus brittoi Navás, 1934 = Chlorogomphus xanthoptera (Fraser, 1919) syn. nov.; Hylaeothemis indica Fraser, 1946 = Hylaeothemis apicalis Fraser, 1924 syn. nov.; Sympetrum durum Bartenef, 1916 = Sympetrum striolatum commixtum Selys, 1884 syn. nov.; Sympetrum himalayanum Navás, 1934 = Sympetrum hypomelas (Selys, 1884) syn. nov.; Sympetrum haematoneura Fraser, 1924 = Sympetrum speciosum Oguma, 1915 syn. nov.; Sympetrum speciosum taiwanum Asahina, 1951 = Sympetrum speciosum Oguma, 1915 syn. nov.                In addition, Periaeschna lebasi Navás, 1930 is regarded a nomen nudum. The following new combinations are proposed: Onychogomphus acinaces Laidlaw, 1922 is transferred to the genus Melligomphus Chao, 1990 resulting in Melligomphus acinaces (Laidlaw, 1922) comb. nov. Onychogomphus saundersii Selys, 1854 is transferred to the genus Nychogomphus Carle, 1986 resulting in Nychogomphus saundersii (Selys, 1854) comb. nov..


Assuntos
Odonatos , Animais , Bangladesh , Butão , Índia , Insetos , Nepal , Paquistão , Sri Lanka
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 688, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030595

RESUMO

We assessed the levels of Pb, Cd, and Mn in contour feathers of the feral pigeon (Columba livia) and house crow (Corvus splendens) obtained from five urban/suburban locations across Sri Lanka, using the AAS following wet digestion. Our key objectives were to compare accumulation levels in the two avian species with different foraging habits and living in common locations, and to establish baseline information on the presence of these metals in multiple locations in Sri Lanka with varying levels of urbanization. Owing to reservations that have been expressed by previous workers regarding the use of feathers for assessing heavy metal pollution, we first tested the efficacy of contour feathers by using our data for comparing the coefficients of variation in metal levels within and between locations. This showed that in over 95% of the cases, variations within locations were lower than between locations, indicating that freshly shed contour feathers that were used in the present study were reliable indicators of the status of bioaccumulation of the heavy metals in the environment. In interspecific comparisons, other than in the two suburban locations, Pb was present at much higher levels in the house crow than in the feral pigeon, whereas accumulation patterns with respect to Cd and Mn were inconsistent, suggesting that granivores may not, in all situations, accumulate lower levels than scavengers in the same environment. Owing to such interspecific variations in the patterns of accumulation of different heavy metals, the selection of a single species for assessing levels of pollution from heavy metals may not be prudent. Pb and Cd levels in both species were strongly and positively associated with human population density. The levels of Pb and Cd were highest in Colombo (commercial capital). In Colombo and Kalutara, the recorded levels in the house crow exceeded the thresholds that have the potential to inflict adverse impacts on avian species.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Plumas/química , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Sri Lanka
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239405, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997680

RESUMO

Sri Lanka's community forestry (CF) program emerged in the early 1980s following a global trend to conserve forest resources and provide benefits to the local community. However, very little is known about the effect of CF on forest resources. We assess the impacts of CF on forest conditions of semi-mixed evergreen forest in the intermediate zone of Sri Lanka using the before-after control-impact method. The study examines tree density, regeneration, woody species diversity, and evidence of disturbance as parameters to analyze the impact of the CF program. Data are analyzed using the difference in differences approach. The results show that the CF program has increased seedling and sapling density to a significant degree and reduced human disturbances. A major contribution of the CF program is that it was found to reduce invasive species and forest fires. The program reduced the amount of invasive species up to six times less than previous. The findings revealed that the impact of CF on forests may vary depending on pre-existing forest conditions, length of period to implement, perception, and decisions by local people. Community understanding and decision-making, in tandem with government policy, will weigh heavily on its future effectiveness.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Características de Residência , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Sri Lanka , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 649, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 80,000 dengue cases including 215 deaths were reported nationally in less than 7 months between 2016 and 2017, a fourfold increase in the number of reported cases compared to the average number over 2010-2016. The region of Negombo, located in the Western province, experienced the greatest number of dengue cases in the country and is the focus area of our study, where we aim to capture the spatial-temporal dynamics of dengue transmission. METHODS: We present a statistical modeling framework to evaluate the spatial-temporal dynamics of the 2016-2017 dengue outbreak in the Negombo region of Sri Lanka as a function of human mobility, land-use, and climate patterns. The analysis was conducted at a 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution and a weekly temporal resolution. RESULTS: Our results indicate human mobility to be a stronger indicator for local outbreak clusters than land-use or climate variables. The minimum daily temperature was identified as the most influential climate variable on dengue cases in the region; while among the set of land-use patterns considered, urban areas were found to be most prone to dengue outbreak, followed by areas with stagnant water and then coastal areas. The results are shown to be robust across spatial resolutions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the potential value of using travel data to target vector control within a region. In addition to illustrating the relative relationship between various potential risk factors for dengue outbreaks, the results of our study can be used to inform where and when new cases of dengue are likely to occur within a region, and thus help more effectively and innovatively, plan for disease surveillance and vector control.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Clima , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Viagem
19.
Toxicon ; 187: 105-110, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891665

RESUMO

Reporting of snakebite is poor in areas where they are most common. Comparatively, bites by snakes of high medical importance are likely to be documented than snakes of lesser medical importance. This study aims to describe the demographic, epidemiological and, clinical data of patients who were presented during a 49-month study period to a tertiary care center in rural Sri Lanka following authenticated bites by snakes of lesser medical importance. Of the total of 2362 confirmed snakebite patients during the study period, 517 (22%) presented with the offending snake specimen. Of them, 76 (15%) were identified as snakes of lesser medical importance and were included in this study. There were 41 (54%) females. The median ages of females and males were 35 and 43 years respectively. Most patients (86%) were bitten indoors or at home gardens. More than half of them were bitten between 1800 and 0000 h. Most bites (54%) had occurred to the ankle or below. The patients were bitten by 12 species of colubrids, one pythonid (Python molurus), and one viperid (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus). The snake species that caused the most-number of bites was the Trinket snake (Coelognathus helena) (n = 15). Three species of wolf-snakes, Lycodon aulicus, L. anamallensis, and L. striatus were responsible for 12, 11, and 5 bites respectively. Most of the patients (55%) presented to the local hospital and subsequently transferred to the study hospital for further management. None of the patients developed systemic envenoming and five developed mild local pain and swelling. Fifty-six (74%) patients were discharged on the following day, while 18 (24%) were discharged on the third day. There is a need to educate medical personnel working the peripheral hospital on how to identify medically lesser important snakes to avoid unnecessary transfers.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Antivenenos , Estudos de Coortes , Colubridae , Edema , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Venenos de Serpentes , Serpentes , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Trimeresurus , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 324, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic necessitated the delivery of online higher education. Online learning is a novel experience for medical education in Sri Lanka. A novel approach to undergraduate surgical learning was taken up in an attempt to improve the interest amongst the students in clinical practice while maximizing the limited contact time. METHOD: Online learning activity was designed involving medical students from all stages and multi consultant panel discussions. The discussions were designed to cover each topic from basic sciences to high-level clinical management in an attempt to stimulate the student interest in clinical medicine. Online meeting platform with free to use basic plan and a social media platform were used in combination to communicate with the students. The student feedback was periodically assessed for individual topics as well as for general outcome. Lickert scales and numeric scales were used to acquire student agreement on the desired learning outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1047 student responses for 7 questionnaires were analysed. During a 6-week period, 24 surgical topics were discussed with 51 contact hours. Eighty-seven per cent definitely agreed (highest agreement) with the statement 'students benefitted from the discussions'. Over 95% have either participated for all or most sessions. A majority of the respondents (83.4%) 'definitely agreed' that the discussions helped to improve their clinical sense. Of the total respondents, 79.3% definitely agreed that the discussions helped to build an interest in clinical medicine. Around 90% agreed that both exam-oriented and clinical practice-oriented topics were highly important and relevant. Most widely raised concerns were the poor Internet connectivity and limitation of access to the meeting platform. CONCLUSION: Online teaching with a novel structure is feasible and effective in a resource-limited setting. Students agree that it could improve clinical interest while meeting the expected learning outcomes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Medicina Clínica/educação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Escolha da Profissão , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , Mídias Sociais , Sri Lanka , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA