Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.643
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130746, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411857

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to identify useful chemical markers for the differentiation of true and false cinnamon; to develop a fast and efficient method of differentiation using MIR associated with chemometric methods. A total of 129 cinnamon samples from 3 countries (Brazil, Sri Lanka, and Paraguay) were purchased, being differentiated by visual analysis. The bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, HPLC, and MIR analysis were performed. The data obtained were submitted to PCA and PLS-DA. The results showed that the samples of true cinnamon have a higher concentration of eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, and antioxidant capacity, as well as a lower coumarin content. The PCA showed the separation of two groups of cinnamon samples. PLS-DA was effective in differentiating the studied samples with an accuracy of 94.44% and 100% for the composition and MIR analysis, respectively. The MIR proved to be an alternative for the rapid differentiation of true and false cinnamon.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Eugenol , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Espectral , Sri Lanka
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131741, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358888

RESUMO

Airborne particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) are significant contributors leading to many human health issues. Thus, this study was designed to perform chemical analysis and biological impact of airborne particulate matter 10 (PM10) in the World heritage City of Kandy City in Sri Lanka. 12 priority PAHs and 34 metals, including 10 highly toxic HMs were quantified. The biological effects of organic extracts were assayed using an in vitro primary porcine airway epithelial cell culture model. Cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and gene expressions of selected inflammatory and cancer-related genes were also assessed. Results showed that the total PAHs ranged from 3.062 to 36.887 ng/m3. The metals were dominated by Na > Ca > Mg > Al > K > Fe > Ti, while a few toxic HMs were much higher in the air than the existing ambient air quality standards. In the bioassays, a significant cytotoxicity (p < 0.05) was observed at 300 µg/mL treatment, and significant (p < 0.05) DNA damages were noted in all treatment groups. All genes assessed were found to be significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) after 24 h of exposure and after 48 h, only TGF-ß1 and p53 did not significantly up-regulate (p < 0.05). These findings confirm that the Kandy city air contains potential carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds and thus, exposure to Kandy air may increase the health risks and respiratory tract-related anomalies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metais Pesados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Sistema Respiratório/química , Sri Lanka , Suínos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770063

RESUMO

The WHO Systematic Assessment of Rehabilitation Situation (STARS) tool was developed by WHO to facilitate effective prioritization and strategic planning for rehabilitation in countries. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the fourth phase of its development, its field testing in seven countries focusing on its completeness, usefulness, accessibility and feasibility. Field testing occurred in Jordan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Solomon Islands, Laos, Haiti, and Guyana. Evaluation occurred through structured interviews and rating exercises with 17 government representatives, international consultants, WHO country or regional office staff and rehabilitation experts who were actively engaged and familiar with the STARS assessment and who were knowledgeable of the rehabilitation situation in the countries. STARS was appraised as relevant, complete and accurate in describing the country situation. Areas of inaccuracy were mostly linked to challenges in describing areas of services similarly when significant diversity existed. Feasibility and accessibility were mostly confirmed and more complex components of the tool as well as the guidance to the assessment process were slightly revised in light of the field-testing results. The field testing of WHO STARS confirmed its completeness, usefulness, accessibility and feasibility, and concerns raised by the interviews informed the last refinement of the tool. STARS is part of the WHO Rehabilitation in Health Systems-Guide for Action, available online, by September 2021, STARS had guided 21 country situation assessments.


Assuntos
Organização Mundial da Saúde , Guiana , Haiti , Humanos , Jordânia , Laos , Melanesia , Mianmar , Sri Lanka
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769944

RESUMO

Drowning among young adults is high in Sri Lanka. Water safety education is a recommended strategy for drowning prevention but is often overlooked for young adults. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an adapted educational intervention, "Swim for Safety" on improving water safety knowledge, attitudes and survival swimming skills among undergraduates (19-28 years) in Sri Lanka. This study employed a parallel-group, two-arm randomized controlled trial design. The intervention group (n = 78) received a face-to-face, 12-lesson education programme, and the control group (n = 78) received a brochure and weekly mobile phone messages for six consecutive weeks. Baseline, post-intervention and three-month follow-up knowledge, attitudes and skills were evaluated. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire and skills were evaluated following a skills assessment protocol. In total 116 participants, 60 intervention group and 56 control group, completed the study. At baseline there were no differences between groups in median scores of water safety knowledge, attitudes and survival swimming skills. The intervention group demonstrated statistically significant increases in median water safety knowledge, attitudes and survival swimming skill scores compared with the control group, following the intervention and maintained at three-month follow-up (p < 0.05). The adapted Swim for Safety programme significantly improved water safety knowledge, attitudes, and survival swimming skills among young adults in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is recommended that the SfS programme be implemented widely to prevent drowning in young adults.


Assuntos
Afogamento , Natação , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Sri Lanka , Água , Adulto Jovem
5.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 164, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727246

RESUMO

Refer ence values of bone turnover markers (BTMs) are determined by factors that are country-specific. In Sri Lanka, unavailability of BTM reference data has led to their non-use in management of osteoporosis. The results of this study can be used as reference data for women in Sri Lanka. INTRODUCTION: This study was performed to establish age-related reference intervals for bone resorption marker; cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and bone formation marker; procollagen type I N-propeptide (PINP) in a group of Sri Lankan adult women. METHODS: Adult women (n = 347) aged 20-70 years were recruited using age-stratified random sampling technique and categorized into age groups by decades. Serum CTX and PINP concentration were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) and 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were calculated. ANOVA was used to compare the means between groups. RESULTS: Mean CTX levels were relatively low and remained unchanged between 20 and 49 years. After the age of 49 years, mean CTXconcentration elevated significantly until the age of 70 years (43%, p < 0.001). Mean PINP concentrations were not significantly different between age categories (p > 0.05). Reference intervals of CTX and PINP were based on 2.5th and 97.5th percentile values. Reference intervals of CTX for the age groups of 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-70 years were 0.19-0.97 ng/mL, 0.18-0.95 ng/mL, 0.20-1.29 ng/mL, 0.17-2.20 ng/mL, and 0.17-2.85 ng/mL respectively. Reference intervals of PINP for the same age groups were 118-810 pg/mL, 119-772 pg/mL, 116-645 pg/mL, 108-684 pg/mL, and 108-715 pg/mL respectively. CONCLUSION: In Sri Lanka, bone turnover markers are not used in evaluating patients mainly due to lack of normative data. These values can be used as reference data for women in this age group.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I , Pró-Colágeno , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Remodelação Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Peptídeos , Valores de Referência , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769759

RESUMO

Although there has been an increase in awareness of the struggles experienced by caregivers, discourse on caregiving remains confined mostly to academia, policy circles or the family unit. There have been suggestions that public discourse on informal caregiving dwells overwhelmingly on the outsize toll it takes on the health of caregivers. However, few studies have examined societal narratives on caregivers-a gap our study aims to fill. We leveraged an online media database of 12 billion words collated from over 30 million articles to explore societal narratives on caregivers in six Asian countries. Computational linguistics and statistical analysis were applied to study the content of narratives on caregivers. The prevalence of societal narratives on caregivers was highest in Singapore-five times higher than Sri Lanka, which evidenced the lowest prevalence. Findings reveal that the inadequacies of institutional care as well as the need to train and empower caregivers are pressing issues that need to be prioritized on the policy agenda in Asia. Of broader significance, the diverse capabilities across Asia present opportunities for cross-country learning and capacity-building.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Narração , Humanos , Singapura , Sri Lanka
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257548, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 varies depending on social distancing measures, circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, host factors and other environmental factors. We sought to investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak that occurred in a highly dense population area in Colombo, Sri Lanka from April to May 2020. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV2, assessed the SARS-CoV-2 specific total and neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) in a densely packed, underserved settlement (n = 2722) after identification of the index case on 15th April 2020. 89/2722 individuals were detected as infected by RT-qPCR with a secondary attack rate among close contacts being 0.077 (95% CI 0.063-0.095). Another 30 asymptomatic individuals were found to have had COVID-19 based on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. However, only 61.5% of those who were initially seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 had detectable total antibodies at 120 to 160 days, while only 40.6% had detectable Nabs. 74/89 (83.1%) of RT-qPCR positive individuals were completely asymptomatic and all 15 (16.9%) who experienced symptoms were classified as having a mild illness. 18 (20.2%) were between the ages of 61 to 80. 11/89 (12.4%) had diabetes, 8/89 (9%) had cardiovascular disease and 4 (4.5%) had asthma. Of the two viruses that were sequenced and were of the B.1 and B.4 lineages with one carrying the D614G mutation. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Almost all infected individuals developed mild or asymptomatic illness despite the presence of comorbid illnesses. Since the majority of those who were in this underserved settlement were not infected despite circulation of the D614G variant, it would be important to further study environmental and host factors that lead to disease severity and transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 434, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke related deaths are relatively higher in low- and middle-income countries where only a fraction of eligible patients undergo thrombolysis. There is also limited evidence on post-thrombolysis outcomes of patients from Asian countries in these income bands. METHODS: This is a single center prospective observational study of a patient cohort with acute ischaemic stroke, undergoing thrombolysis with alteplase (low and standard dose), over a 24-month period in 2019/2020. Modified Rankin scale (mRS) for dependency at 3 months (primary outcome), duration of hospital stay, incidence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhages and all-cause mortality at 3 months (secondary outcomes) were recorded. Demographic, clinical and treatment related factors associated with these outcomes were explored. RESULTS: Eighty-nine patients (males - 61, 69%, mean age: 60 years ±12.18) were recruited. Time from symptom onset to reperfusion was 174 min ± 56.50. Fifty-one patients were independent according to mRS, 11 (12.4%) patients died, and 11 (12.5%) developed symptomatic intracranial haemorrhages by 3 months. Functional independence at 3 months was independently associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission (p < 0.05). Thrombolysis with low dose alteplase did not lead to better or worse outcomes compared to standard dose. CONCLUSIONS: On admission NIHSS is predictive of functional independence at 3 months post-thrombolysis. Low dose alteplase may be as efficacious as standard dose alteplase with associated cost savings, but this needs to be confirmed by a prospective clinical trial for the Sri Lankan population.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Zootaxa ; 5032(3): 331-356, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811123

RESUMO

New taxonomic and diagnostic data for 17 species of Encephalus Kirby, 1832, Gyrophaena Mannerheim, 1830 and Phanerota Casey, 1906 of Sri Lanka and India are provided. Eight species are redescribed: G. (Gyrophaena) furcata (Motschulsky, 1858), G. (G.) indica Motschulsky, 1858, G. (G.) kashmirensis Bernhauer, 1923, G. (G.) livida Motschulsky, 1858, G. (G.) permutaria Schubert, 1906, G. (G.) sexualis Cameron, 1939, G. (G.) soror Bernhauer, 1923, and Ph. (Acanthophaena) appendiculata (Motschulsky, 1858). The following new synonymies are established: G. (G.) cognata Cameron, 1939 = G. setiensis Pace, 2006 syn.n., G. (G.) indica = G. granulifera Kraatz, 1859 syn.n., G. cicatricosa Motschulsky, 1858 syn.n., G. rigida Motschulsky, 1858 syn.n., G. nigrides Newton, 2017 (replacement name for G. nigra Motschulsky 1859) syn.n., G. trifida Motschulsky, 1859 syn.n., G. (G.) livida = G. curtula Motschulsky, 1859 syn.n., and G. (G.) tripartita Cameron, 1939 = G. annapurnensis Pace, 2006 syn.n. Lectotypes for G. (G.) furcata, G. (G.) indica, G. (G.) kashmirensis, G. (G.) livida, G. (G.) soror Bernhauer, 1923, Ph. (Acanthophaena) appendiculata and Ph. (A.) rufiventris (Cameron, 1920) comb.n. (from Gyrophaena) are designated. The habitus of all taxa, aedeagi and apical abdominal sclerites of all species of Gyrophaena and Phanerota are illustrated. Gyrophaena (G.) jumlicola Pace, 2006 is recorded from India for the first time.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Índia , Sri Lanka
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 758, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of antenatal depression in low-or-middle-income countries, but information about risk factors in these settings is still lacking. The purpose of this study is to measure the prevalence of and explore risk factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in Galle, Sri Lanka. METHODS: This study used a mixed-method approach. The quantitative portion included 505 pregnant women from Galle, Sri Lanka, with health record data, responses to psychometric questionnaires (MSPSS and PRAQ-R2), and antenatal depression screening (EPDS). The qualitative portion included interviews with public health midwives about their experiences and routine clinical practices with women with antenatal depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms was 7.5%, highest in women over the age of 30 (13.0%, OR = 3.88, 95%CI = 1.71 - 9.97), with diabetes (21.9%, OR = 3.99, 95%CI = 1.50 - 9.56), or pre-eclampsia in a previous pregnancy (19.4%, OR = 3.32, 95%CI = 1.17 - 8.21). Lower prevalence was observed in the primiparous (3.3%, OR = 0.29, 95%CI = 0.12 - 0.64) employed outside the home (3.6%, OR = 0.33, 95%CI = 0.13 - 0.72), or upper-middle class (2.3%, OR = 0.17, 95%CI = 0.04 - 0.56). Anxiety levels were elevated in depressed women (OR = 1.13, 95%CI = 1.07 - 1.20), while perceived social support was lower (OR = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.89 - 0.93). After multivariable adjustment, only parity (OR = 0.20, 95%CI 0.05 - 0.74) and social support from a "special person" (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.77 - 0.95) remained significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Qualitative findings also identified antenatal health problems and poor social support as risk factors for depressive symptoms. They also identified different contributing factors to poor mental health based on ethnicity, higher stress levels among women working outside the home, and misinformation about health conditions as a cause of poor mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in Galle is lower than the recorded prevalence in other regions of Sri Lanka. Risk factors for antenatal depressive symptoms were identified on biological, psychological, and social axes. These variables should be considered when developing future guidelines for mental health and obstetric treatment in this context.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tocologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(12): 838, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817701

RESUMO

This study examines the effect of "waste management" factors (Knowledge, Motivation, Time, Awareness, Contribution, Attitudes) on household waste generation (HWG), more precisely the measured weight of waste generated at households for a week (MWWGHW) while controlling for the socioeconomic factors such as family size, monthly family income, education level, and occupation. It also examines the moderating effects of the geographic location (urban versus rural areas) on the relationships between waste management factors and MWWGHW while controlling for the aforementioned socioeconomic factors. The overall results show that socioeconomic factors such as Family Size ([Formula: see text] = 0.134; p < 0.001) and Monthly Family Income ([Formula: see text] = 0.301; p < 0.001) significantly and positively influence MWWGHW, whereas the Occupation factor ([Formula: see text] = - 0.106, p < 0.05) significantly and negatively influences MWWGHW. Furthermore, the results show that the Knowledge ([Formula: see text] = - 0.129, p < 0.05), Motivation ([Formula: see text] = - 0.161, p < 0.001), Contribution ([Formula: see text] = - 0.111, p < 0.05), and Awareness ([Formula: see text]= - 0.189, p < 0.001) factors significantly and negatively influence MWWGHW. While the results show that the geographic location Urban Area moderates significantly the relationship between the Motivation factor and MWWGHW ([Formula: see text] = - 0.129, p < 0.05), the same results show, however, that the geographic location Rural Area moderates significantly but negatively the relationships between Knowledge factor and MWWGHW ([Formula: see text] = - 0.187, p < 0.01); Motivation factor and MWWGHW ([Formula: see text] = - 0.390, p < 0.001); Contribution factor and MWWGHW ([Formula: see text] = - 0.154, p < 0.10); and Awareness factor and MWWGHW ([Formula: see text] = - 0.285, p < 0.001). Based on these results, implications for policy orientations and future research are provided.


Assuntos
Resíduos Sólidos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Características da Família , Sri Lanka
12.
Zootaxa ; 5068(3): 378-398, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810703

RESUMO

Twenty-nine species of arboreal tiger beetles are found in Sri Lanka of which 23 species are endemic. However, records of species dates back to many years and systematic studies are lacking. Considering the high percentage of endemic arboreal tiger beetle species of the country, and the pressure on their arboreal habitats due to accelerated development activities, it is imperative that the group is studied and conservation practices are implemented. Therefore, the present study was conducted to record the arboreal tiger beetle species currently prevailing in the country, their locations, habitat types, morphometric and morphological characters. The study was conducted from August 2017 to September 2020 for a duration of three years. Arboreal tiger beetles were collected by hand picking when encountered during visual survey, in eighty-five locations in Sri Lanka. Specimens were identified using standard taxonomic keys. Locational data, habitat types, morphometric and morphological characters were recorded and all species were photographed. Arboreal tiger beetles were recorded from 22 locations which represented all climatic zones and provinces, and 14 districts of the country. Nine species of three genera, Tricondyla (3 species), Derocrania (5 species), Neocollyris (1 species), were identified and six of the species were endemic. Derocrania scitiscabra was the most common and widely distributed species encountered in the study and was found mainly occupying lands that were cultivated. Tricondyla gounellei that had been known only from Southern India was recorded for the first time in Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Ecossistema , Sri Lanka , Árvores
13.
Zootaxa ; 5067(3): 352-376, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810738

RESUMO

In broadening the understanding of the diversity, distribution and seasonality of gelatinous zooplankton of Sri Lanka, a survey ('Waya-jel-Survey) was carried out in coastal waters of the country from 2016 to 2020, and the collected specimens of pelagic tunicates were taxonomically identified. Further, a comprehensive literature survey was conducted and the previous records on the occurrences of pelagic tunicates within the exclusive economic zone of Sri Lanka were cross-checked and listed in developing the first-ever annotated checklist. Among the samples collected in this study, Pyrostremma spinosum and Thalia sibogae were reported for the first time from Sri Lankan waters while two more thaliaceans, i.e., Doliolum denticulatum and Pegea confoederata, and six appendicularians, i.e., Fritillaria borealis sargassi, F. formica digitata, Oikopleura cophocerca, O. fusiformis, O. longicauda, and O. rufescens were re-recorded. In total, forty species (including two subspecies) in 19 genera, belonging to five families from four orders of the classes Appendicularia (n = 17 species) and Thaliacea (n = 23 species) were reported to be inhabited in Sri Lankan waters. Most of the records were from the Laccadive Sea region while the majority of the species have been reported during the northwest monsoon (December to February) period.


Assuntos
Urocordados , Animais , Sri Lanka
14.
Zootaxa ; 5048(3): 391-406, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810794

RESUMO

We describe a new monotypic genus in the mite family Laelapidae, Hyposternus gen. nov., to accommodate a new species, H. ceylonicus sp. nov., on the basis of female, male and protonymph specimens collected from soil-litter in Sri Lanka. The female of the new genus differs from other genera of Laelapidae by having a strongly desclerotised sternal shield, essentially represented by a narrow anterior and lateral sclerotised ridges. Other distinctive features of the new species include the absence of dorsal shield seta z3, an epistome projecting anteriorly, movable digit of the chelicera tapered apically, an elongate anal shield, thorn-like opisthogastric setae, an anteriorly widened hypostomal groove, and long dorsal macrosetae ad1 on femora IIIV.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos , Ácaros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Solo , Sri Lanka
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639627

RESUMO

We aimed to examine the relationships of lifestyle habits and nutritional status with emotional behavior among schoolchildren in Sri Lanka. Five hundred and eight schoolchildren (195 boys and 313 girls) aged 5-10 years were included. Emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Nutritional status was used for body mass index-for-age z-score. Breakfast consumption, daily moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), wake-up time, and bedtime were considered lifestyle habits. The mean total difficulties score ± standard deviation was 12.0 ± 5.3, and the mean prosocial behavior score was 7.4 ± 1.9. In total, 89.2% children ate breakfast, and 41.3% engaged in at least 60 min of MVPA per day. After adjustment for confounding factors, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that breakfast skipping was associated with high scores on conduct problems (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.95, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.50 to 5.77, p < 0.01) and that late bedtime was related to low prosocial behavior scores (aOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.17 to 5.03, p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that promoting regular lifestyle habits helps reduce psychological difficulties in schoolchildren. However, further research, including longitudinal studies, are required to identify the mechanism underlying this relationship.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Estado Nutricional , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Sri Lanka , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined heat stress symptoms and urine markers of chronic kidney disease (CKDu) in Sri Lanka to assess differences between endemic vs. non-endemic regions and by occupation. SAMPLE AND METHODS: We assessed a total of 475 villagers. In the endemic region, 293 were agricultural workers and 67 were not working primarily in agriculture. In the non-endemic region, 76 were agricultural workers. Of the residents, 218 were assessed for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), an early predictor of acute kidney injury, along with urine markers of chronic kidney disease. RESULTS: The mean (sd) age of the sample was 45.2 (12.6), with males comprising 52.7%; 7.2% reported kidney disease (n = 34), and 5.7% reported diabetes (n = 27). The heat stress index (mean (sd)) was highest among agricultural workers in the endemic region (8.05 (5.9)), intermediate in non-agricultural workers in the endemic region (4.61 (4.5)), and lowest among agricultural workers in the non-endemic region (3.85 (3.3)); p < 0.0001. Correlations were higher between NGAL and serum microalbumin in the endemic agricultural worker sample than in the other two samples (Spearman's r = 0.34 vs. 0.15 and 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Both heat stress symptoms and NGAL values were higher among agricultural workers in endemic CKDu regions. Correlations between NGAL and microalbumin suggested a link between acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease in the more-exposed sample.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Biomarcadores , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Humanos , Lipocalina-2 , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 391, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although perceived neighbourhood environment is considered a predictor of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), evidence for this is limited in South Asia. Thus, the aim was to determine the association between neighbourhood social and built environment features in carrying out LTPA among adults in Colombo District, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study among 1320 adults was carried out using validated questionnaires for physical activity (PA) and built environment data collection. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations between environment characteristics and LTPA after adjusting for gender, age, employment status, income level and sector of residence. RESULTS: A total of 21.7% of adults participated in some LTPA. The commonest type of LTPA was walking; carried out by 14.5%. Moderate and vigorous activity at leisure was carried out by 10.3% and 3.9% respectively. Perceived social acceptance for PA was positively associated with LTPA. Out of the built environment characteristics perceived infrastructure for walking, and recreational facilities for PA were negatively associated with LTPA. Self-efficacy emerged as an important positive correlate of LTPA. The participants were positively influenced by the self-efficacy and perceived social environment which should be addressed when promoting LTPA.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Atividades de Lazer , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Sri Lanka
18.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 36, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The highly contagious nature of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) places physicians in South Asia at high risk of contracting the infection. Accordingly, we conducted this study to provide an updated account of physician deaths in South Asia during the COVID-19 pandemic and to analyze and compare the different characteristics associated with physician mortality amongst the countries of the region. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study by using published news reports on the websites of news agencies from 9 selected countries in South Asia. Our study included only those physicians and doctors who died after contracting COVID-19 from their respective workplaces. All available data about the country of origin, type of, sex, age, medical or surgical specialty, and date of death were included. RESULTS: The total number of physician deaths reported due to COVID-19 in our study was 170, with half (87/170, 51%) of the deaths reported from Iran. Male physician deaths were reported to be 145 (145/170 = 85%). Internal Medicine (58.43%) was the most severely affected sub-specialty. The highest physician mortality rate in the general population recorded in Afghanistan (27/1000 deaths). General physicians from India [OR = 11.00(95% CI = 1.06-114.08), p = 0.045] and public sector medical practitioners from Pakistan [aOR = 4.52 (95% CI = 1.18-17.33), p = 0.028] were showing significant mortality when compared with other regions in multivariate logistic regression. CONCLUSION: An increased number of physician deaths, owing to COVID-19, has been shown in South Asia. This could be due to decreased personal protective equipment and the poor health care management systems of the countries in the region to combat the pandemic. Future studies should provide detailed information of characteristics associated with physician mortalities along with the main complications arising due to the virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Butão/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Ilhas do Oceano Índico/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
20.
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) ; 33(12): 765-772, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642066

RESUMO

AIMS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) treated with curative-intent radiotherapy at the National Cancer Institute of Sri Lanka to determine the impact of the treatment technique on disease-free survival (DFS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: SCCHN patients treated with radical radiotherapy or adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy from 2016 to 2017 were included in the study. Data on the following variables were collected by reviewing clinical and radiotherapy treatment records: age, gender, tumour site, stage, time to delivery of radiotherapy, use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, use of concurrent radiosensitising chemotherapy and treatment technique. DFS, defined as the time to death, tumour recurrence or loss to follow-up, was the primary end point and outcomes were compared between patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in linear accelerators and those treated with conventional radiotherapy in cobalt teletherapy units. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out on known prognostic variables. RESULTS: In total, 408 patients were included in the study, with 138 (34%) being treated with IMRT in the linear accelerator. More than 75% of patients were of stage III or IV at diagnosis. The 2-year DFS of the whole cohort was 25% (95% confidence interval 21-30%). Patients treated with IMRT in the linear accelerator had a superior DFS in comparison with those treated with conventional radiotherapy in the cobalt teletherapy units (P < 0.001, hazard ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.82). Higher stage, cobalt treatment and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were adversely associated with DFS on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of patients with SCCHN treated with curative-intent radiotherapy in Sri Lanka had locally advanced disease and DFS was superior in patients treated with IMRT in the linear accelerator.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Sri Lanka
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...