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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 516, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666262

RESUMO

Applying a desirable disinfestation process is necessary to control the pathogenic microorganisms in the swimming pools and prevent both dermal and intestinal effects. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare the bacterial community and diversity in the two swimming pools disinfected by the chlorine and ozone (O3)-chlorine processes. A total of 24 samples were taken from the two swimming pools in three distinct seasons to analyze the bacterial and physico-chemical indicators. Culture and molecular methods were used to evaluate the microbial quality. Two sets of sample taken from the pools with the maximum swimmer load in the summer were investigated by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique. In total, 410 and 406 bacterial species were identified in the chlorine- and ozone-chlorine-disinfected pools, respectively. Among the eight dominant bacterial species in each swimming pool, Pseudomonas alcaliphila, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Pseudomonas acnes were common species between the two studied pools. Oleomonas sagaranensis (350 reads/18593), Staphylococcus caprae (302 reads /18593), and Anaerococcus octavius (110 reads/18593) were among the dominant bacteria in the chlorine-disinfected pool. Bacterial diversity was lower in the ozone-chlorine-disinfected pool than the other one, and the highest bacterial sequencing belonged to the genus Pseudomonas (85.79%). Results showed that water quality of in O3-chlorine-disinfected pool was more desirable than the chlorine-disinfected pool. Molecular methods along with conventional culture methods would be advantageous for microbial assessment in the swimming pools.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Ozônio , Piscinas , Acetobacteraceae , Cloro/análise , Desinfecção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Firmicutes , Irã (Geográfico) , Pseudomonas , Staphylococcus , Microbiologia da Água
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7): 899-903, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600139

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the histopathological examination of peri-implant tissue samples as a technique in the diagnosis of postoperative spinal implant infection (PSII). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis. Patients who underwent revision spinal surgery at our institution were recruited for this study. PSII was diagnosed by clinical signs, histopathology, and microbiological examination of intraoperatively collected samples. Histopathology was defined as the gold standard. The sensitivity for histopathology was calculated. A total of 47 patients with PSII and at least one microbiological and histopathological sample were included in the study. RESULTS: PSII occurred in approximately 28% of the study population. Histopathology showed a sensitivity of 51.1% in the diagnosis of PSII. The most commonly found pathogens were Cutibacterium acnes and gram-positive staphylococci. CONCLUSION: Histopathology has low sensitivity for detecting PSII. In particular, infections caused by low-virulence microorganisms are insufficiently detected by histopathology. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7):899-903.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propionibacterium acnes/isolamento & purificação , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
3.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7_Supple_B): 52-56, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600208

RESUMO

AIMS: Of growing concern in arthroplasty is the emergence of atypical infections, particularly Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) sp. infections. Currently, the dermal colonization rate of Cutibacterium about the hip is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate colonization rates of Cutibacterium sp. at locations approximating anterior and posterolateral approaches to the hip joint. METHODS: For this non-randomized non-blinded study, 101 adult patients scheduled for hip or knee surgery were recruited. For each, four 3 mm dermal punch biopsies were collected after administration of anaesthesia, but prior to antibiotics. Prebiopsy skin preparation consisted of a standardized preoperative 2% chlorhexidine skin cleansing protocol and an additional 70% isopropyl alcohol mechanical skin scrub immediately prior to biopsy collection. Two skin samples 10 cm apart were collected from a location approximating a standard direct anterior skin incision, and two samples 10 cm apart were collected from a lateral skin incision (suitable for posterior, direct-lateral, or anterolateral approaches). Samples were cultured for two weeks using a protocol optimized for Cutibacterium. RESULTS: A total of 23 out of 404 cultures (collected from 101 patients) were positive for a microorganism, with a total of 22 patients having a positive culture (22%). Overall, 15 of the cultures in 14 patients were positive for Cutibacterium sp. (65%), of which Cutibacterium acnes comprised the majority (n = 13; 87%). Other isolated microorganisms include coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (n = 6), Clostridium (n = 1), and Corynebacterium (n = 1). Of all positive cultures, 15 were obtained from the anterior location (65%), of which seven (60%) were from the most proximal biopsy location. However, these findings were not statistically significant (anterior vs lateral, p = 0.076; proximal vs distal, p =0.238). CONCLUSION: Approximately 14% (14/101) of the patients demonstrated a positive Cutibacterium colonization about the hip, the majority anteriorly. Given the high colonization rate of Cutibacterium, alternative skin preparations for total hip arthroplasty should be considered. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):52-56.


Assuntos
Quadril/microbiologia , Propionibacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Pele/microbiologia , Coxa da Perna/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril , Biópsia , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20686, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a rare cause of human infectious disease. The clinical characteristics and treatment of patients with S saccharolyticus infections remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: We present the first reported case of empyema due to S saccharolyticus. In addition, a systematic review and pooled analysis of all S saccharolyticus cases were done to summarize the clinical and microbiological characteristics and treatment of this rare pathogen. METHODS: A case of empyema caused by S saccharolyticus diagnosed in study hospital was reported. This case and those identified from PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 8 patients were reviewed. The averages of the white blood cell count, sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein were 16.8 × 10/L, 72 mm/h, and 176 mg/L, respectively. The average time-to-positivity of the anaerobic cultures was 5 days. The S saccharolyticus was resistant to metronidazole, but susceptible to fluoroquinolones, clindamycin, and vancomycin in all the cases with drug sensitivity tests available for these antibiotics. Two of 7 patients showed resistance to all ß-lactams. Both of those patients finally died. CONCLUSIONS: S saccharolyticus should be added to the list of anaerobic microorganisms that are able to cause empyema. A prolonged anaerobic culture is critical to improve the yield of this possibly underestimated pathogen. The time to positive culture of S saccharolyticus may not help to distinguish true-positive growth from contaminated growth. Acute or subacute courses and systemic evidence of infection may contribute to judge the clinical significance of positive cultures and avoid unnecessary antibiotic treatment. ß-Lactam agents plus fluoroquinolones or vancomycin/teicoplanin or clindamycin may be appropriate to achieve full coverage of the ß-lactam resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Empiema/microbiologia , Derrame Pleural/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ceftazidima/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moxifloxacina/uso terapêutico , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127079, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450351

RESUMO

Due to the ecological toxicity and environmental residues, how to remove the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially of polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), from agricultural soil has captured the attention of scholars for a long time. To develop an effective and low-cost in situ co-remediation technique, five independent but complementary treatments were used on an over-standard PAHs-DDTs co-contaminated soil in an agricultural greenhouse. Experimental results identified that the combination of microbe (Bacillus methylotrophicus) - plant (Brassica rapa) could remove rhamnolipid activated PAHs and DDTs effectively after enhanced by Staphylococcus pasteuri. Also, the Benzoapyrene and total DDTs residue in Brassica rapa was up to the standard of National (China) food safety. The lignin enhanced the removal of high-rings PAHs and p-p' DDE but reduced soil microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymes activity (polyphenol oxidase, invertase and acid phosphatase). Pearson correlation analysis showed that polyphenol oxidase activity was significantly related to the PAHs/DDTs dissipation rate. Our research suggested a new amendment that could remediate PAHs/DDTs co-contaminated agricultural soil without interrupting crop production, and the polyphenol oxidase activity should be considered as a micro-ecological indicator in this process.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Lignina/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Biomassa , Compostos de Bifenilo , Carbono , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Staphylococcus , Tricloroetanos
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 326: 108653, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449679

RESUMO

Staphylococcus xylosus, a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, is frequently isolated from food products of animal origin and used as a starter culture in these products in which it contributes to their flavour, while Staphylococcus aureus, a coagulase-positive bacterium, causes foodborne intoxication and is implicated in a broad diversity of infections in medical sector, notably in nosocomial infections. S. xylosus and S. aureus are both capable of forming a biofilm and share the same ecological niches, thus we explored their interaction in biofilms with a view to limiting the risks associated with S. aureus. Cell-free supernatants of different strains of S. xylosus were able to inhibit the biofilm formation of S. aureus. The S. xylosus C2a strain released into the supernatant a molecule of molecular weight above 30 kDa that is resistant to proteolytic enzymes and inhibits the formation of S. aureus MW2 biofilm, though the mechanism involved has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, S. xylosus C2a modified the architecture of S. aureus MW2 in co-culture biofilm. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that S. aureus formed a biofilm with a flat and compact structure while in co-culture with S. xylosus the two species formed large juxtaposed aggregates throughout the period of incubation. This architecture made the S. aureus biofilm more susceptible to detachment.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Staphylococcus/fisiologia , Animais , Coagulase , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle
7.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000686, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226015

RESUMO

Compact CRISPR/Cas9 systems that can be packaged into an adeno-associated virus (AAV) hold great promise for gene therapy. Unfortunately, currently available small Cas9 nucleases either display low activity or require a long protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence, limiting their extensive applications. Here, we screened a panel of Cas9 nucleases and identified a small Cas9 ortholog from Staphylococcus auricularis (SauriCas9), which recognizes a simple NNGG PAM, displays high activity for genome editing, and is compact enough to be packaged into an AAV for genome editing. Moreover, the conversion of adenine and cytosine bases can be achieved by fusing SauriCas9 to the cytidine and adenine deaminase. Therefore, SauriCas9 holds great potential for both basic research and clinical applications.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Edição de Genes/métodos , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/química , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , DNA/química , DNA/genética , Dependovirus/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Engenharia de Proteínas , Staphylococcus/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
8.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(1): 10-18, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326711

RESUMO

AIM: Staphylococcus aureus strains are the cause of frightening hospital and community infections, especially when they are resistant to antimicrobials, have important pathogenicity factors, or have biofilm production ability. Looking for novel therapeutic options which would be effective against such strains is one of the highest priorities of medicine and medical research. The study aim was to describe the occurrence of S. aureus strains and proportion of methicillin resistant strains (MRSA) detected in laboratories of the Microbiological Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University (FM MU) and St. Anne's University Hospital, Brno in 2011-2018. Selected strains of S. aureus were tested for biofilm production ability and susceptibility to antimicrobials and Stafal®, a phage therapeutic agent. A prerequisite was to develop a simple routine method suitable for phage susceptibility testing of bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Altogether 867 clinical isolates of S. aureus and 132 strains of other species of the genus Staphylococcus (isolated in 2011-2017) were tested for susceptibility to the phage therapy preparation Stafal® using the double-layer agar method. All strains of S. aureus were tested for biofilm production ability by the modified Christensen method with the use of titration microplates and for susceptibility to antistaphylococcal antibiotics by the disk diffusion test. For 95 S. aureus strains, the outcome of the double-layer agar method (DAM) was compared with that of our newly designed method (ODM) based on optical density decrease of the bacterial suspension. RESULTS: During the study period, the laboratories of the Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University (FM MU) and St. Anne's University Hospital, Brno detected 2900 strains of S. aureus per year on average. The proportion of MRSA among S. aureus isolates from blood culture and venous catheters ranged between 8.8-15.2 %. S. aureus strains recovered from venous catheters and blood culture were confirmed as stronger biofilm producers than those from other clinical specimens. MRSA strains showed higher biofilm production than methicillin susceptible strains (MSSA). As many as 90.4 % of S. aureus strains tested susceptible to the Stafal® preparation. Even a higher proportion, i.e. 99.0 %, of MRSA strains were Stafal® susceptible. No relationship was found between Stafal® susceptibility and biofilm production ability. Although Stafal® targets primarily S. aureus, some susceptibility (26.5 %) was also found for other staphylococcal species. A novel simple method designed for routine testing of susceptibility to phage therapy preparations based on optical density decrease was comparably sensitive and reliable as the commonly used double-layer agar method (DAM) and, in addition to being easy and rapid to perform, after prolonged suspension culture and at higher measurement frequency, it has an extra advantage of providing the possibility for monitoring also phage action dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of MRSA strains detected in this study is comparable to that reported for the whole Czech Republic, and the biofilm production data are consistent with scientific evidence. The host range of the Stafal® preparation is relatively wide and covers most strains of S. aureus and some coagulase negative staphylococci. The highest efficiency of Stafal® (99.4 %) was observed against MRSA strains with multiple types of antibiotic resistance. In vitro testing of 867 strains of S. aureus and 132 other staphylococcal species has shown the phage therapy preparation Stafal® to be a suitable candidate therapeutic option for the treatment of staphylococcal infections, especially in case of failure of conventional antibiotic therapy. Moreover, a simple method for routine phage susceptibility testing of clinical bacterial isolates has been designed, which is an essential tool to be used in phage therapy.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , República Tcheca , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/virologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/virologia , Staphylococcus/virologia
9.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 69(1): 48-52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326716

RESUMO

Staphylococcus argenteus (S. argenteus) is a novel species of coagulase-positive staphylococci described in 2015. This species is phenotypically highly similar and genetically closely related to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Until recently, differentiation was only possible by molecular genetic methods, multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome sequencing, which are not generally used in routine laboratories due to time-consumingness and expensiveness. A major improvement in the identification of S. argenteus is the application of MALDI-TOF MS, if the available updated mass spectrum reference database is used. In the short report, we would like to present the first confirmed S. argenteus strain isolated from a patient in the Czech Republic and probably the first published S. argenteus strain in Central and Eastern Europe.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus , República Tcheca , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/química , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1539, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210242

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and fatal disease of unknown etiology; however, apoptosis of lung alveolar epithelial cells plays a role in disease progression. This intractable disease is associated with increased abundance of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus in the lungs, yet their roles in disease pathogenesis remain elusive. Here, we report that Staphylococcus nepalensis releases corisin, a peptide conserved in diverse staphylococci, to induce apoptosis of lung epithelial cells. The disease in mice exhibits acute exacerbation after intrapulmonary instillation of corisin or after lung infection with corisin-harboring S. nepalensis compared to untreated mice or mice infected with bacteria lacking corisin. Correspondingly, the lung corisin levels are significantly increased in human IPF patients with acute exacerbation compared to patients without disease exacerbation. Our results suggest that bacteria shedding corisin are involved in acute exacerbation of IPF, yielding insights to the molecular basis for the elevation of staphylococci in pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Staphylococcus/imunologia , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/análise , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/microbiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Staphylococcus/patogenicidade , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/imunologia
11.
Mol Ecol ; 29(8): 1402-1405, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115825

RESUMO

A large body of research has demonstrated that host-associated microbiota-the archaeal, bacterial, fungal and viral communities residing on and inside organisms-are critical to host health (Cho & Blaser, 2012). Although the vast majority of these studies focus on humans or model organisms in laboratory settings (Pascoe, Hauffe, Marchesi, & Perkins, 2017), they nevertheless provide important conceptual evidence that the disruption of host-associated microbial communities (termed "dysbiosis") among wild animals may reduce host fitness and survival under natural environmental conditions. Among the myriad of environmental factors capable of inducing dysbiosis among wild animals (Trevelline, Fontaine, Hartup, & Kohl, 2019), parasitic infections represent a potentially potent, yet poorly understood, factor influencing microbial community dynamics and animal health. The study by DeCandia et al. in this issue of Molecular Ecology is a rare example of a host-parasite-microbiota interaction that impacts the health, survival and conservation of a threatened wild animal in its natural habitat. Using culture-independent techniques, DeCandia et al. found that the presence of an ectoparasitic mite (Otodectes cynotis) in the ear canal of the Santa Catalina Island fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) was associated with significantly reduced ear canal microbial diversity, with the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius dominating the community. These findings suggest that parasite-induced inflammation may contribute to the formation of ceruminous gland tumours in this subspecies of Channel Island fox. As a rare example of a host-parasite-microbiota interaction that may mediate a lethal disease in a population of threatened animals, their study provides an excellent example of how aspects of disease ecology can be integrated into studies of host-associated microbiota to advance conservation science and practice.


Assuntos
Infecções , Microbiota , Ácaros , Parasitos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Raposas , Humanos , Staphylococcus
12.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(4): 620-629, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218510

RESUMO

CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems protect bacteria and archaea against their invading genetic parasites, including bacteriophages/viruses and plasmids. In response to this immunity, many phages have anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins that inhibit CRISPR-Cas targeting. To date, anti-CRISPR genes have primarily been discovered in phage or prophage genomes. Here, we uncovered acr loci on plasmids and other conjugative elements present in Firmicutes using the Listeria acrIIA1 gene as a marker. The four identified genes, found in Listeria, Enterococcus, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus genomes, can inhibit type II-A SpyCas9 or SauCas9, and are thus named acrIIA16-19. In Enterococcus faecalis, conjugation of a Cas9-targeted plasmid was enhanced by anti-CRISPRs derived from Enterococcus conjugative elements, highlighting a role for Acrs in the dissemination of plasmids. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation showed that each Acr protein interacts with Cas9, and Cas9-Acr complexes were unable to cleave DNA. Northern blotting suggests that these anti-CRISPRs manipulate single guide RNA length, loading or stability. Mirroring their activity in bacteria, AcrIIA16 and AcrIIA17 provide robust and highly potent broad-spectrum inhibition of distinct Cas9 proteins in human cells (for example, SpyCas9, SauCas9, SthCas9, NmeCas9 and CjeCas9). This work presents a focused analysis of non-phage Acr proteins, demonstrating a role in horizontal gene transfer bolstered by broad-spectrum CRISPR-Cas9 inhibition.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , RNA Guia/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Conjugação Genética , DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Listeria/genética , Listeria/virologia , Plasmídeos/química , Ligação Proteica , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/virologia , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/virologia
13.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 65(1): 50-54, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155007

RESUMO

The structure of the microflora of the urogenital tract of a woman is variable and diverse, changing its qualitative and quantitative composition can affect various physiological processes in the body of a woman, including the course of pregnancy. In this study, the results of cultures of 1415 samples of urine and cervical canal discharge of pregnant women were analyzed. Species identification was carried out by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry using Microflex LT (Bruker) mass spectrometer. Gram-positive bacteria (69.5%) dominated the structure of the cervical canal microflora, among which Staphylococcus spp prevailed., Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among gram-negative bacteria most often encountered microorganisms of the order Enterobacteriales, the predominant species among which was E. coli. Also, yeast-like fungi were isolated from the material of the cervical canal, their number was 11% of the total number of crops. Qualitative microbiological composition of urine was represented by gram-positive flora (68.7%), gram-negative flora (30.1%) and Candida fungi (1.2%). There is a significant predominance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (97.3%) over coagulase-positive (2.7%) in the structure of gram-positive microorganisms. The composition of gram-negative flora is mainly represented by bacteria of the order Enterobacteriales (71.4%). The study identified microorganisms that can cause postpartum complications and the development of inflammatory diseases of the newborn, which suggests the need for regular microbiological examination for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/isolamento & purificação , Gravidez , Sistema Urogenital/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 206, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124087

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, hepatitis E virus (HEV), and bovine enterovirus (BEV) in fecal and water samples. The occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. was investigated in treated wastewater samples collected from slaughterhouse of Tunisia. Results showed that Staphylococcus spp. were detected in the totality of collected samples with an average mean of 5.44 Log10 (CFU/100 ml). Regarding fecal indicator bacteria, E. coli was detected in the totality of water samples and was more abundant in Tunisian samples than in samples collected from Romania (P < 0.05). Concerning somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA bacteriophages used as viral indicators, they were detected in all raw and treated wastewaters. Bovine enterovirus (BEV) was detected in 20.1% and 28% of bovine stool samples collected from Tunisia and Romania, respectively. BEV was also detected in 60% of porcine stool samples from Romania. BEV was absent in all treated sewage samples. HEV was detected in raw sewage and bovine fecal sample from Romania with low occurrence and none sample from Tunisia was positive. This study may give us an insight into the monitoring of water quality in Tunisia and Romania.


Assuntos
Gado , Esgotos , Staphylococcus , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Bovinos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Rios , Romênia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Tunísia
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3076-3081, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037175

RESUMO

Our objective was to assess the enterotoxigenic potential of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from bovine milk in Poland. We analyzed CNS isolates collected from 133 bovine milk batches from dairy farms in the Western Pomerania district during 2 milking seasons. A total of 163 isolates were screened by multiplex/duplex PCR for the presence of 18 of 25 enterotoxin genes identified so far in Staphylococcus aureus. The CNS strains presumed to be potentially enterotoxigenic were identified at the species level based on MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Based on the presence of an amplicon matching D, G, or O enterotoxin genes, we initially identified 32 of the 163 CNS isolates tested as potentially enterotoxigenic. However, only 8 of these strains were confirmed as such. All 8 of these CNS strains, identified as Staphylococcus haemolyticus, harbored the seg genes, a prerequisite for enterotoxin G production, but so far not connected with staphylococcal foodborne poisoning cases. None of the CNS bovine milk isolates tested was a potential producer of classical A to E staphylococcal enterotoxins. Results of our surveys revealed a low prevalence of enterotoxigenic CNS among the milk isolates from dairy farms in the Western Pomerania district, Poland, suggesting that they pose only a mild health risk in milk. In our opinion, confirmed formation of nonspecific amplicons leading to false-positive results excludes multiplex/duplex PCR as the sole method for assessing the enterotoxigenic potential of CNS.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Enterotoxinas/genética , Enterotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
16.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(2): 160-169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084346

RESUMO

The increasing rates of nosocomial infection associated with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the rationale for this study, aiming to categorize oxacillin-resistant CoNS species recovered from blood culture specimens of inpatients at the UNESP Hospital das Clínicas in Botucatu, Brazil, over a 20-year period, and determine their sensitivity to other antimicrobial agents. The mecA gene was detected in 222 (74%) CoNS samples, and the four types of staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) were characterized in 19.4%, 3.6%, 54.5%, and 14.4% of specimens, respectively, for types I, II, III, and IV. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values to inhibit 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90) of specimens were, respectively, 2 and >256µL/mL for oxacillin, 1.5 and 2µL/mL for vancomycin, 0.25 and 0.5µL/mL for linezolid, 0.094 and 0.19µL/mL for daptomycin, 0.19 and 0.5µL/mL for quinupristin/dalfopristin, and 0.125 and 0.38µL/mL for tigecycline. Resistance to oxacillin and tigecycline and intermediate resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin were observed. Eight (2.7%) of all 300 CoNS specimens studied showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Results from this study show high resistance rates of CoNS to antimicrobial agents, reflecting the necessity of using these drugs judiciously and controlling nosocomial dissemination of these pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Coagulase/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Staphylococcus/química , Staphylococcus/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229545, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106276

RESUMO

Profiling skin microbiome and metabolome has been utilised to gain further insight into wound healing processes. The aims of this multi-part temporal study in 11 volunteers were to analytically profile the dynamic wound tissue and headspace metabolome and sequence microbial communities in acute wound healing at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and to investigate their relationship to wound healing, using non-invasive quantitative devices. Metabolites were obtained using tissue extraction, sorbent and polydimethylsiloxane patches and analysed using GCMS. PCA of wound tissue metabolome clearly separated time points with 10 metabolites of 346 being involved in separation. Analysis of variance-simultaneous component analysis identified a statistical difference between the wound headspace metabolome, sites (P = 0.0024) and time points (P<0.0001), with 10 out of the 129 metabolites measured involved with this separation between sites and time points. A reciprocal relationship between Staphylococcus spp. and Propionibacterium spp. was observed at day 21 (P<0.05) with a statistical correlation between collagen and Propionibacterium (r = 0.417; P = 0.038) and Staphylococcus (r = -0.434; P = 0.03). Procrustes analysis showed a statistically significant similarity between wound headspace and tissue metabolome with non-invasive wound devices. This exploratory study demonstrates the temporal and dynamic nature of acute wound metabolome and microbiome presenting a novel class of biomarkers that correspond to wound healing, with further confirmatory studies now necessary.


Assuntos
Metaboloma/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Pele/lesões , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Adulto , Colágeno/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Propionibacterium/isolamento & purificação , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(5): 2544-2563, 2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016395

RESUMO

The evolution of gene expression regulation has contributed to species differentiation. The 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of mRNAs include regulatory elements that modulate gene expression; however, our knowledge of their implications in the divergence of bacterial species is currently limited. In this study, we performed genome-wide comparative analyses of mRNAs encoding orthologous proteins from the genus Staphylococcus and found that mRNA conservation was lost mostly downstream of the coding sequence (CDS), indicating the presence of high sequence diversity in the 3'UTRs of orthologous genes. Transcriptomic mapping of different staphylococcal species confirmed that 3'UTRs were also variable in length. We constructed chimeric mRNAs carrying the 3'UTR of orthologous genes and demonstrated that 3'UTR sequence variations affect protein production. This suggested that species-specific functional 3'UTRs might be specifically selected during evolution. 3'UTR variations may occur through different processes, including gene rearrangements, local nucleotide changes, and the transposition of insertion sequences. By extending the conservation analyses to specific 3'UTRs, as well as the entire set of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis mRNAs, we showed that 3'UTR variability is widespread in bacteria. In summary, our work unveils an evolutionary bias within 3'UTRs that results in species-specific non-coding sequences that may contribute to bacterial diversity.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Staphylococcus/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Rearranjo Gênico/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Hemólise , Nucleotídeos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 11(5): 1934-1939, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067463

RESUMO

Slow polypeptide conformational changes on time scales of >1 s are generally assumed to be highly cooperative two-state transitions, reflecting the high energy barrier. However, few experimental characterizations have tested the validity of this assumption. We performed residue-specific NMR thermodynamic analysis of the 27-residue lantibiotic peptide, nukacin ISK-1, to characterize the isomerization between two topological states on the second time scale. Unexpectedly, the thermal transition behaviors were distinct among peptide regions, indicating that the topological isomerization process is a mosaic of different degrees of cooperativity. The conformational change path between the two NMR structures was deduced by a targeted molecular dynamics simulation. The unique side-chain threading motions through the monosulfide rings are the structural basis of the high energy barrier, and the nonlocal interactions in the hydrophobic core are the structural basis of the cooperativity. Taken together, we provide an energetic description of the topological isomerization of nukacin ISK-1.


Assuntos
Bacteriocinas/química , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Bacteriocinas/metabolismo , Dicroísmo Circular , Isomerismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040520

RESUMO

In the present study, we identified salt stress tolerant genes from the marine bacterium Staphylococcus sp. strain P-TSB-70 through transcriptome sequencing. In favour of whole-genome transcriptome profiling of Staphylococcus sp. strain P-TSB-70 (GenBank Accn. No. KP117091) which tolerated upto 20% NaCl stress, the strain was cultured in the laboratory condition with 20% NaCl stress. Transcriptome analyses were performed by SOLiD4.0 sequencing technology from which 10280 and 9612 transcripts for control and treated, respectively, were obtained. The coverage per base (CPB) statistics were analyzed for both the samples. Gene ontology (GO) analysis has been categorized at varied graph levels based on three primary ontology studies viz. cellular components, biological processes, and molecular functions. The KEGG analysis of the assembled transcripts using KAAS showed presumed components of metabolic pathways which perhaps implicated in diverse metabolic pathways responsible for salt tolerance viz. glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, glutathione metabolism, etc. further involving in salt tolerance. Overall, 90 salt stress tolerant genes were identified as of 186 salt-related transcripts. Several genes have been found executing normally in the TCA cycle pathway, integral membrane proteins, generation of the osmoprotectants, enzymatic pathway associated with salt tolerance. Recognized genes fit diverse groups of salt stress genes viz. abc transporter, betaine, sodium antiporter, sodium symporter, trehalose, ectoine, and choline, that belong to different families of genes involved in the pathway of salt stress. The control sample of the bacterium showed elevated high proportion of transcript contigs (29%) while upto 20% salt stress treated sample of the bacterium showed a higher percentage of transcript contigs (31.28%). A total of 1,288 and 1,133 transcript contigs were measured entirely as novel transcript contigs in both control and treated samples, respectively. The structure and function of 10 significant salt stress tolerant genes of Staphylococcus sp. have been analyzed in this study. The information acquired in the present study possibly used to recognize and clone the salt stress tolerant genes and support in developing the salt stress-tolerant plant varieties to expand the agricultural productivity in the saline system.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/genética , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Bacteriano , Índia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , RNA Bacteriano/química , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
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