Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.701
Filtrar
1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 19, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exotoxins secreted from Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes act as superantigens that induce systemic release of inflammatory cytokines and are a common cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). However, little is known about TSS caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and the underlying mechanisms. Here, we present a rare case of TSS caused by Staphylococcus simulans (S. simulans). CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who developed pneumococcal pneumonia and bacteremia from S. simulans following an influenza infection. The patient met the clinical criteria for probable TSS, and her symptoms included fever of 39.5 °C, diffuse macular erythroderma, conjunctival congestion, vomiting, diarrhea, liver dysfunction, and disorientation. Therefore, the following treatment was initiated for bacterial pneumonia complicating influenza A with suspected TSS: meropenem (1 g every 8 h), vancomycin (1 g every 12 h), and clindamycin (600 mg every 8 h). Blood cultures taken on the day after admission were positive for CoNS, whereas sputum and pharyngeal cultures grew Streptococcus pneumoniae (Geckler group 4) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, respectively. However, exotoxins thought to cause TSS, such as TSS toxin-1 and various enterotoxins, were not detected. The patient's therapy was switched to cefazolin (2 g every 8 h) and clindamycin (600 mg every 8 h) for 14 days based on microbiologic test results. She developed desquamation of the fingers on hospital day 8 and was diagnosed with TSS. Conventional exotoxins, such as TSST-1, and S. aureus enterotoxins were not detected in culture samples. The serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as neopterin and IL-6, were high. CD8+ T cells were activated in peripheral blood. Vß2+ population activation, which is characteristic for TSST-1, was not observed in the Vß usage of CD8+ T cells in T cell receptor Vß repertoire distribution analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We present a case of S. simulans-induced TSS. Taken together, we speculate that no specific exotoxins are involved in the induction of TSS in this patient. A likely mechanism is uncontrolled cytokine release (i.e., cytokine storm) induced by non-specific immune reactions against CoNS proliferation.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Choque Séptico/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Hemocultura , Cefazolina/administração & dosagem , Clindamicina/administração & dosagem , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Escarro/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Surg Res ; 257: 195-202, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Literature on pediatric breast abscesses is sparse; therefore, treatment is based on adult literature which has shifted from incision and drainage (I&D) to needle aspiration. However, children may require different treatment due to different risk factors and the presence of a developing breast bud. We sought to characterize pediatric breast abscesses and compare outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients presenting with a primary breast abscess from January 2008 to December 2018 was conducted. Primary outcome was persistent disease. Antibiotic utilization, treatment required, and risk factors for abscess and recurrence were also assessed. A follow-up survey regarding scarring, deformity, and further procedures was administered. Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests for group comparisons and multivariable regression to determine associations with recurrence were performed. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients were included. The median age was 12.8 y [IQR 4.9, 14.3], 81% were women, and 51% were African-American. Most commonly, patients were treated with antibiotics alone (47%), followed by I&D (27%), and aspiration (26%). Twelve patients (13%) had persistent disease. There was no difference in demographic or clinical characteristics between those with persistent disease and those who responded to initial treatment. The success rates of primary treatment were 80% with antibiotics alone, 90% with aspiration, and 96% with I&D (P = 0.35). The median time to follow-up survey was 6.5 y [IQR 4.4, 8.5]. Four patients who underwent I&D initially reported significant scarring. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment modality was not associated with persistent disease. A trial of antibiotics alone may be considered to minimize the risk of breast bud damage and adverse cosmetic outcomes with invasive intervention.


Assuntos
Abscesso/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Mamárias/terapia , Drenagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Paracentese/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Abscesso/epidemiologia , Abscesso/microbiologia , Adolescente , Doenças Mamárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Mamárias/microbiologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in children under five globally. When it is associated with bacteremia, mortality is even higher. However, bacteraemia in diarrheal children has gained little attention in spite of its deleterious impact in under-five mortality. So, we aimed to evaluate associated clinical and laboratory factors for death in under-five children hospitalized with both diarrhea and bacteremia. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we used patients' electronic database of Dhaka Hospital of 'icddr,b', and enrolled all under-five children with diarrhea and bacterial growth in their blood samples on admission between June-2014 and May-2017. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between those who died and who survived with a special attention to bacterial pathogens related to deaths and their sensitivity pattern. RESULTS: In a total of 401 diarrheal children with bacteraemia, 45 (11%) died. Although Salmonella Typhi (34%) was the most predominant isolate followed by Staphylococcus species (16%) and Pseudomonas species (9%), children who died more often had E. coli (OR = 5.69, 95% CI = 2.42-13.39, p = <0.001) and Klebsiella bacteraemia (OR = 4.59, 95% CI = 1.84-11.46, p = 0.001) compared to those who survived. However, none of them was significantly associated with deaths in regression analysis when adjusted with other potential confounders. E. coli was 100% resistant to ampicillin, 41% to gentamicin, and 73% to ceftriaxone and Klebsiella species was 96% resistant to ampicillin, 42% to gentamicin, and 62% to ceftriaxone. Study children who died had significantly higher overall resistance pattern shown in World Health Organization (WHO) recommended one of the first line antibiotics in treating childhood sepsis such as ampicillin (80% vs. 50%, p = 0.001) and in second line antibiotic such as ceftriaxone (49% vs. 22%, p = 0.001) compared to the survivors. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, we found that clinical sepsis (aOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.60-8.96, p = 0.002), hypoxemia (aOR 4.20, 95% CI 1.74-10.12, p = 0.001), and hyperkalaemia (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.05-6.91, p = 0.039) were found to be independent predictors of deaths and receipt of sensitive antibiotic (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-0.99, p = 0.048) was revealed as the independent protective factor for deaths in this population. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results of our data suggest that diarrheal children with bacteremia who died more often had gram negative bacteremia compared to those who survived and these pathogens are highly resistant to WHO recommended first line and second line antibiotics. The results further emphasize the critical importance of early identification of important clinical problems such as clinical sepsis, hypoxemia and hyperkalaemia in diarrheal children and treat them with potential sensitive antibiotic(s) in order to reduce bacteremia related mortality in children with diarrhea, especially in resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Klebsiella , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/mortalidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhi/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(12): 6067-6078, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048039

RESUMO

When analysing a large cohort of Staphylococcus haemolyticus, using whole-genome sequencing, five human isolates (four from the skin and one from a blood culture) with aberrant phenotypic and genotypic traits were identified. They were phenotypically similar with yellow colonies, nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and initially speciated as S. haemolyticus based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and MALDI-TOF MS. However, compared to S. haemolyticus, these five strains demonstrate: (i) considerable phylogenetic distance with an average nucleotide identity <95 % and inferred DNA-DNA hybridization <70  %; (ii) a pigmented phenotype; (iii) urease production; and (iv) different fatty acid composition. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic results, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species, for which the name Staphylococcus borealis sp. nov. is proposed. The novel species belong to the genus Staphylococcus and is coagulase- and oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. The type strain, 51-48T, is deposited in the Culture Collection University of Gothenburg (CCUG 73747T) and in the Spanish Type Culture Collection (CECT 30011T).


Assuntos
Sangue/microbiologia , Filogenia , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Noruega , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20180925, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053101

RESUMO

In this work, we investigated the phenotypic profile of Staphylococcus spp. isolates recovered from raw milk and artisanal cheese, and their enterotoxigenic potential through the detection of classical enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed and see). A total of 104 isolates (58 coagulase-positive Staphylococcus - CoPS; and 46 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus- CoNS) were used, of which 33 were retrieved from raw milk and 71 from artisanal cheese produced in the Serrana region of Santa Catarina. Identification of CoPS was conducted via biochemical tests. Detection of the genes sea, seb, sec, sed, and see was carried out by multiplex PCR technique. Among the 58 CoPS analyzed, 64% were identified as S. aureus, 22% as S. scheiferi coagulans, 12% as S. hyicus and as 2% S. intermedius. In the present study was noted that 40% of CoPS isolates retrieved from milk harbored seb gene, while only one from artisanal cheese was positive for gene sea. In this study all CoNS samples investigated were negative for enterotoxins genes. The enterotoxigenic potential of CoPS, is an issue of great importance for public health. For that reason, it is necessary that cheese factories strictly follow the safety processes involved in manufacturing.


Assuntos
Queijo , Staphylococcus , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leite , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus
6.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(5): 506-509, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745274

RESUMO

There have been numerous reports in the literature describing the diversity of microbial flora isolated from woodwind and brass instruments, with potential infection risks for players, especially when such instruments are shared. Steam disinfection has become established as a trusted method of decontamination; however, there have been no reports on the employment of this technology to disinfect parts of musical instruments, hence it was the aim of this study to examine the fate of bacterial and yeast pathogens on artificially contaminated trumpet mouthpieces and to evaluate whether such disinfection is an effective method of disinfection for such instrument parts. Trumpet mouthpieces were artificially contaminated with 18 microbial strains (17 bacteria from four genera (Enterococcus, Escherichia, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) and one yeast (Candida)), each at an inoculum density of approximately 1·5 × 107 colony forming units and subjected to a disinfection cycle. The experiment was repeated including 50% (v/v) sterile sputum as soil. No bacteria or yeast organisms were recovered post disinfection, including following recovery and with nonselective cultural enrichment techniques.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Desinfecção/métodos , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Vapor , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Escherichia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Música , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750089

RESUMO

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common isolates from blood culture in neonates resulting in high mortality and morbidity. This study investigated CoNS obtained from blood cultures of neonates for antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, and possible association with inflammatory response (C-reactive protein). A total of 93 CoNS isolates were collected from 76 blood cultures of neonates at the Maternity hospital in Kuwait in a six-month period and investigated for susceptibility to antibiotics, carriage of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), and virulence-associated genes. The 93 CoNS isolates consisted of S. epidermidis (76; 81.7%), S. capitis (12; 12.9%), S. hominis (2; 2.1%), S. warneri (2; 2.1%) and S. haemolyticus (1; 1.0%). Eighty-six (92.4%) of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin (MR-CoNS) while 49 (52.7%) expressed multi-antibiotic resistance. The methicillin-resistant isolates (MR-CoNS) carried SCCmec III, SCCmec IVa and four combinations of SCCmec types including SCCmec types I+IVa (one S. warneri and 25 S. epidermidis isolates), types I+III (one S. epidermidis isolate), types III+IVa (six S. epidermidis isolates) and types I+III+IVa (one S. epidermidis isolate). The most common virulence-related genes were icaC, seb, arc detected in 69.7%, 60.5%, 40.8% of the isolates respectively. Two isolates were positive for tst1. No association between C-reactive protein and antibiotic resistance or virulence factors was established. This study revealed that S. epidermidis carrying different SCCmec genetic elements, was the dominant CoNS species isolated from neonatal blood cultures with 90.3% and 36.6% of the isolates positive for genes for biofilm and ACME production respectively.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Biofilmes , Coagulase/metabolismo , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Kuweit , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
8.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(4): 359-368, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713031

RESUMO

Staphylococci from Sheedal of Northeast India was isolated, identified and characterized. All the isolated staphylococci were found to be coagulase negative. Based on the rpoB gene sequences followed by analysis using NCBI-BLAST software, seven species of Staphylococcus namely, S. piscifermentans, S. condimenti, S. arlettae, S. sciuri, S. warneri, S. nepalensis and S. hominis were recognized. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three major cluster groups. All the seven Staphylococcus showed their NaCl tolerance from 2 to 8%. No species was able to grow at 55°C. Except S. arlettae and S. sciuri, all the isolated staphylococcal species exhibited growth at pH 4-8. No isolated species was able to ferment mannitol, sucrose and arabinose. All the species exhibited moderate to maximum proteolytic and lipolytic activities. All the seven species were found to be sensitive to the antibiotics, namely, erythromycin, norfloxacin, ampicillin, streptomycin and vancomycin, whereas all were resistant to co-trimoxazole. Only S. piscifermentans was found antagonist to Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, although the clear zone was minimal. All the staphylococcal species except S. arlettae and S. sciuri exhibited hydrophobicity ranging from 25 to 66%. The observed characteristics of isolated Staphylococci from Sheedal revealed their role in fish fermentation.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Fermentação , Peixes/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Índia , Filogenia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética
9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4637-4645, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672529

RESUMO

Six Staphylococcus strains were isolated from healthy black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, USA. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome, 16S rRNA, dnaJ, hsp60, rpoB and sodA genes, and MALDI-TOF-MS main spectral profiles revealed that the strains belonged to one species and showed the closest relatedness to members of the 'Staphylococcus intermedius group' (SIG), which include Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus delphini and Staphyloccoccus cornubiensis. The strains were positive in SIG-specific and negative in individual species-specific PCR assays for the nuc gene. The strains can be differentiated from the other SIG species by the absence of sucrose fermentation, from S. intermedius DSM 20373T, S. pseudintermedius CCUG 49543T and S. cornubiensis DSM 105366T by the absence of methyl ß-d-glucopyranoside fermentation and from S. delphini DSM 20771T by fermentation of trehalose. DNA relatedness of the type strain MI 10-1553T with the type strains of S. delphini, S. pseudintermedius, S. intermedius and S. cornubiensis was ≤48.2 % by digital DNA-DNA hybridization and ≤92.3 % by average nucleotide identity calculations. Iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 were the most common fatty acids. Polar lipids consisted of phosphadidylglycerols, phospholipids, glycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol and aminophospholipid. Cell-wall peptidoglycan was of type A3α l-Lys-Gly3 (Ser; similar to A11.2 and A11.3). The respiratory quinone belonged to menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The G+C content of MI 10-1553T was 39.3 mol%. The isolated strains represent a novel species of the genus Staphylococcus, for which we propose the name Staphylococcus ursi sp. nov. The type strain is MI 10-1553T (=ATCC TSD-55T=CCOS 1900T).


Assuntos
Filogenia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Ursidae/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus intermedius/genética , Tennessee , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7407-7410, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600771

RESUMO

The most clinically relevant staphylococci in veterinary medicine are those that are coagulase-positive, namely Staphylococcus aureus. During microbiological udder health monitoring (2009-2018), a new S. aureus strain (coagulase-positive and maltose-negative) was discovered as an emerging udder pathogen during routine examinations of South African dairy herds. This study challenged the conventional microbiological diagnosis of staphylococci by comparing its results to those of the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA sequencing. Both of these tests confirmed that the maltose-negative staphylococcus (MNS), identified as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius by conventional microbiology, was S. aureus ST2992. Multi locus sequence typing was performed on 3 of the MNS isolates and indicated that these isolates were of single origin. These strains tested positive for both MALA and MALR genes (control: S. aureus ATCC 25923). Although the α-glucosidase gene was present, it was not expressed phenotypically. The latter may be attributed to the abnormal stop codon identified in the MALA gene sequence of S. aureus ST2992 (GenBank accession number, MN531305). The newly identified MNS has a field behavior different to that of maltose-positive S. aureus, and more similar to the low virulence of non-aureus staphylococci.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Coagulase/análise , Feminino , Maltose/análise , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , RNA Bacteriano , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/química , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação
11.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7): 899-903, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600139

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the histopathological examination of peri-implant tissue samples as a technique in the diagnosis of postoperative spinal implant infection (PSII). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis. Patients who underwent revision spinal surgery at our institution were recruited for this study. PSII was diagnosed by clinical signs, histopathology, and microbiological examination of intraoperatively collected samples. Histopathology was defined as the gold standard. The sensitivity for histopathology was calculated. A total of 47 patients with PSII and at least one microbiological and histopathological sample were included in the study. RESULTS: PSII occurred in approximately 28% of the study population. Histopathology showed a sensitivity of 51.1% in the diagnosis of PSII. The most commonly found pathogens were Cutibacterium acnes and gram-positive staphylococci. CONCLUSION: Histopathology has low sensitivity for detecting PSII. In particular, infections caused by low-virulence microorganisms are insufficiently detected by histopathology. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7):899-903.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propionibacterium acnes/isolamento & purificação , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
12.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7_Supple_B): 52-56, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600208

RESUMO

AIMS: Of growing concern in arthroplasty is the emergence of atypical infections, particularly Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) sp. infections. Currently, the dermal colonization rate of Cutibacterium about the hip is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate colonization rates of Cutibacterium sp. at locations approximating anterior and posterolateral approaches to the hip joint. METHODS: For this non-randomized non-blinded study, 101 adult patients scheduled for hip or knee surgery were recruited. For each, four 3 mm dermal punch biopsies were collected after administration of anaesthesia, but prior to antibiotics. Prebiopsy skin preparation consisted of a standardized preoperative 2% chlorhexidine skin cleansing protocol and an additional 70% isopropyl alcohol mechanical skin scrub immediately prior to biopsy collection. Two skin samples 10 cm apart were collected from a location approximating a standard direct anterior skin incision, and two samples 10 cm apart were collected from a lateral skin incision (suitable for posterior, direct-lateral, or anterolateral approaches). Samples were cultured for two weeks using a protocol optimized for Cutibacterium. RESULTS: A total of 23 out of 404 cultures (collected from 101 patients) were positive for a microorganism, with a total of 22 patients having a positive culture (22%). Overall, 15 of the cultures in 14 patients were positive for Cutibacterium sp. (65%), of which Cutibacterium acnes comprised the majority (n = 13; 87%). Other isolated microorganisms include coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (n = 6), Clostridium (n = 1), and Corynebacterium (n = 1). Of all positive cultures, 15 were obtained from the anterior location (65%), of which seven (60%) were from the most proximal biopsy location. However, these findings were not statistically significant (anterior vs lateral, p = 0.076; proximal vs distal, p =0.238). CONCLUSION: Approximately 14% (14/101) of the patients demonstrated a positive Cutibacterium colonization about the hip, the majority anteriorly. Given the high colonization rate of Cutibacterium, alternative skin preparations for total hip arthroplasty should be considered. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):52-56.


Assuntos
Quadril/microbiologia , Propionibacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Pele/microbiologia , Coxa da Perna/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril , Biópsia , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Corynebacterium/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 539, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus saccharolyticus is a rarely encountered coagulase-negative, which grows slowly and its strictly anaerobic staphylococcus from the skin. It is usually considered a contaminant, but some rare reports have described deep-seated infections. Virulence factors remain poorly known, although, genomic analysis highlights pathogenic potential. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of Staphylococcus saccharolyticus spondylodiscitis that followed kyphoplasty, a procedure associated with a low rate but possible severe infectious complication (0.46%), and have reviewed the literature. This case specifically stresses the risk of healthcare-associated S. saccharolyticus infection in high-risk patients (those with a history of alcoholism and heavy smoking). CONCLUSION: S. saccharolyticus infection is difficult to diagnose due to microbiological characteristics of this bacterium; it requires timely treatment, and improved infection control procedure should be encouraged for high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Discite/diagnóstico por imagem , Cifoplastia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Vértebras Torácicas/microbiologia , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coagulase/metabolismo , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Discite/tratamento farmacológico , Discite/microbiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/enzimologia , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 900-905, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620717

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of various mouthwashes on bacteremia development following a debonding process, which is performed after orthodontic treatment. Subjects and Methods: The study included patients who received fixed orthodontic treatment and were indicated for debonding. A total of 40 patients in four groups were selected for the study; no mouthwash (Group 1), mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate (Group 2), mouthwash containing essential-oils (Group 3), and mouthwash containing 7.5% povidone-iodine (Group 4). Before (T0) and following (T1) the debonding procedure, blood samples were obtained from the patients. Then, the blood samples were placed in blood culture bottles to investigate bacterial growth. Results: Based on the results of the study, it was determined that the blood samples obtained at T0did not indicate any bacterial growth. Furthermore, it was observed that the blood samples obtained at T1included Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aereus growth, respectively, in 4 patients from Group 1 while Streptococcus salivarius growth was observed in 1 patient from Group 3 in addition to Streptococcus mitis growth in 1 patient from Group 4. No bacterial growth was observed in Group 2. While the results obtained between Group 1 and Group 2 were statistically significant, no statistically significant difference was observed between other groups. Conclusions: Finally, it was determined that the mouthwash 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate was statistically significant in comparison to the control group. It can be concluded that this mouthwash can be used to decrease bacterial density in oral flora before debonding procedures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Descolagem Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Vet Surg ; 49(7): 1307-1314, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of hair removal as part of the aseptic skin preparation of canine arthrocentesis sites and to characterize the bacterial flora remaining after aseptic skin preparation. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. STUDY POPULATION: Thirteen shorthaired beagle-cross dogs. METHODS: A coin toss was used to randomly determine to have one carpus, elbow, tarsus, and stifle clipped. The contralateral side was left unclipped. Aseptic skin preparation was performed on all sites with 4% chlorhexidine followed by 70% isopropyl alcohol. The skin of each site was sampled for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures before and after aseptic skin preparation. Bacterial cultures were submitted for laboratory testing to determine the colony-forming units (CFU) of bacteria and bacterial species isolated for each site. RESULTS: Each group (clipped and unclipped) included 52 sites. Aseptic skin preparation reduced bacterial CFU in both groups. There was no association between values for CFU per milliliter after skin preparation of dogs and side (P = .07), joint (P = .71), pre-aseptic skin preparation CFU (P = .94), or clipping (P = .42). Staphylococcus spp were the most common of the bacterial species cultured. CONCLUSION: In clean shorthaired dogs without visible evidence of dermatological disease, leaving arthrocentesis sites unclipped rather than performing traditional surgical clipping did not result in increased bacterial skin counts after aseptic skin preparation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In this study we did not find evidence to support that clipping of canine arthrocentesis sites is required for effective aseptic skin preparation. A prospective clinical trial is required to determine whether a change in practice would be associated with increased morbidity.


Assuntos
Artrocentese/veterinária , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/veterinária , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Estudos Prospectivos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/veterinária
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1034-1038, May-June, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129736

RESUMO

Algumas espécies de Staphylococcus causam infecções crônicas intramamárias e podem levar à formação de biofilme. No presente estudo, levantou-se a hipótese de que as espécies de Staphylococcus isolados da mastite bovina são capazes de formar biofilme in vitro associado à presença dos genes icaA, icaD ou bap. Um total de 200 isolados de Staphylococcus, sendo 100 Staphylococcus aureus de casos de mastite subclínica e 100 estafilococos não aureus (ENA) de casos de mastite subclínica e clínica, obtidos em duas fazendas leiteiras, no estado de São Paulo, foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de produzir biofilmes in vitro. A presença de icaA, icaD e bap foi confirmada por PCR, e a produção de biofilme em ágar vermelho congo (Congo Red Agar - CRA) e em teste de microplaca (Microtiter Plate - MtP) foi avaliada nos isolados de S. aureus e ENA. Os resultados mostraram a presença dos genes icaA, icaD e bap em S. aureus, mas não em ENA. A produção de biofilme pode estar associada à presença de outros fatores ou genes que estimulam a produção de biofilme in vitro. O ensaio de MtP serve como um modelo quantitativo para o estudo da aderência de espécies de estafilococos associados à mastite bovina.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes , Mastite Bovina/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Ágar
17.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(4): 394-399, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557652

RESUMO

The aims of the present study were to examine the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. in the tonsils of slaughtered pigs in a regional slaughterhouse in Greece, the antibiotic resistance of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates, and the enteroxigenicity of the S. aureus isolates. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated in 70 (48·61%) out of the total 144 tonsil samples. The predominant species was S. aureus in coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS), while the predominant species were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus in the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Staphylococcus spp. isolates presented high antibiotic resistance frequencies to tetracycline (97·1%) or clindamycin (80·0%) and low antibiotic resistance frequencies to fusidic acid (14·3%). No methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified, and all Staphylococcus spp. isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Among the 26 S. aureus isolates, 21 (80·76%) possessed staphylococcal enterotoxin genes with seven different enterotoxin gene profiles. The predominant enterotoxin profile was seg, sei and sej with seven S. aureus isolates. The occurrence of multidrug resistant Staphylococcus spp. in pig tonsils indicate public health risk to pork consumers and handlers in developing antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Tonsila Palatina/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Clindamicina/farmacologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584852

RESUMO

Recently, our understanding of the elusive bacterial communities in the lower respiratory tract and their role in chronic lung disease has increased significantly. However, little is known about the respiratory microorganisms in patients with endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB), which is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by destruction of the tracheobronchial tree due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. We retrospectively reviewed data for histopathologically and microbiologically confirmed EBTB patients diagnosed at a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea between January 2013 and January 2019. Bacterial cultures were performed on bronchial washing from these patients at the time of EBTB diagnosis. A total of 216 patients with EBTB were included in the study. The median age was 73 years and 142 (65.7%) patients were female. Bacteria were detected in 42 (19.4%) patients. Additionally, bacterial co-infection was present in 6 (2.8%) patients. Apart from MTB, the most common microorganisms identified were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 14, 33.3%) followed by Klebsiella species (n = 12, 28.6%; 10 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Klebsiella oxytoca), Streptococcus species (n = 5, 11.9%), Enterobacter species (n = 4, 9.5%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 3, 7.1%). A variety of microorganisms were isolated from the bronchial washing indicating that changes in microorganism composition occur in the airways of patients with EBTB. Further studies are needed to investigate the clinical significance of this finding.


Assuntos
Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Idoso , Broncoscopia , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
19.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108687, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402352

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have recently emerged as a major therapeutic challenge in small animal medicine because of their antimicrobial multidrug resistance and their role as nosocomial pathogens. This study focused on the prevalence, molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of MRSP isolated from conjunctival swabs of dogs and cats. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 72 dogs and 24 cats suffering from conjunctivitis/blepharitis, keratitis or uveitis and screened for the presence of MRSP. S. pseudintermedius was isolated from 38 (39.6 %) of all samples. Three (7.9 %) S. pseudintermedius isolates were confirmed as MRSP. They harboured the mecA gene and originated from dogs. One MRSP isolate was from a case of uveitis while the other two MRSP isolates originated from cases of conjunctivitis/blepharitis. All MRSP isolates were subjected to broth microdilution and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Resistance and virulence genes, multilocus sequence (MLS), spa, dru and SCCmec types were deduced from WGS data. Two of the three MRSP isolates, IMT360/16 and IMT515/16, shared the same MLS type (ST71), spa type (t02), dru type (dt9a), SCCmec type (II-III), and indistinguishable multidrug resistance pheno- and genotypes, including resistance to ß-lactams (blaZ, mecA), erythromycin and clindamycin (erm(B)), streptomycin (aphA3), gentamicin (aacA-aphD), enrofloxacin (mutations in grlA and gyrA), tetracycline (tet(K)), and trimethoprim (dfrG)/sulfamethoxazole. The third isolate, IMT1670/16, differed in all those characteristics (MLST (ST1403), dru type (dt10h), SCCmec type (IVg), except the spa type (t02). In addition, isolate IMT1670/16 carried a different tetracycline resistance gene (tet(M)) and was susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/microbiologia , Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Resistência a Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Oftalmopatias/microbiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 97(3): 115040, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354459

RESUMO

Staphylococci are the most common causes of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). TNP-2092 is an investigational hybrid drug composed of rifamycin and quinolizinone pharmacophores conjugated via a covalent linker. We determined minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum biofilm bactericidal concentration (MBBC) values of TNP-2092 against 80 PJI-associated Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates compared to ciprofloxacin and rifampin alone and in combination, alongside daptomycin and vancomycin. TNP-2092 exhibited the following activity against S. aureus: MIC50/MIC90, ≤0.0075/0.015 µg/mL; MBC50/MBC90, 0.5/4 µg/mL; and MBBC50/MBBC90, 0.5/2 µg/mL, and the following activity against S. epidermidis: MIC50/MIC90, ≤0.0075/0.015 µg/mL; MBC50/MBC90, 0.015/0.125 µg/mL; and MBBC50/MBBC90, 0.06/0.25 µg/mL. TNP-2092 MIC, MBC, and MBBC values were >8 µg/mL for 1 isolate, while MIC values were ≤0.25 µg/mL and MBC and MBBC values were ≤4 µg/mL for all other isolates. Results of this study show that TNP-2092 has promising in vitro activity against PJI-associated staphylococci.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Prótese Articular/efeitos adversos , Prótese Articular/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA