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1.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(2): 89-94, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine self-perceived fatigue among nurses and to quantify levels of fatigue and the ability to recover from fatigue between worked shifts across various work characteristics. BACKGROUND: Fatigue is associated with working long hours, disruption of sleep, and inadequate time to recover between shifts. Fatigue degrades the nurses' performance leading to poorer patient outcomes and increased occupational injuries. METHODS: This quantitative study surveyed 573 nurses across 5 hospitals in the southeastern United States. RESULTS: Significant levels of acute fatigue were associated with working labor and delivery and medical-surgical units and working a 12-hour shift. Nurses working night shift and on the behavioral health unit showed a significantly lower ability to recover between worked shifts. CONCLUSIONS: Fatigue threatens safety and the quality of patient care. Leaders should ensure that nurses take duty-free breaks and schedule adequate time off to recover between worked shifts.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Adulto , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113706, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482422

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant disruption during the spring of 2020. Many college students were told to leave campus at spring break and to complete the semester remotely. This study evaluates effects of this disruption on student well-being. Measures of psychological symptoms, perceived stress, and alcohol use during the pandemic were completed by 148 students in spring 2020 and 352 students in fall 2020 at a university in the southeastern U.S. Results from both cohorts were compared to 240 students who completed the same measures in the fall 2019 semester. Participants in spring 2020 reported more mood disorder symptoms, perceived stress, and alcohol use than did pre-pandemic participants and worry about COVID-19 was negatively associated with well-being. By fall 2020 symptoms had largely returned to pre-pandemic levels. In general, White students reported a greater effect of the pandemic on well-being than did African American students. Young adults appear to be less vulnerable to the most serious medical complications associated with COVID-19, but nonetheless experience psychological effects from the pandemic. Universities and practitioners who work with college students can help young adults manage their symptoms and avoid behaviors like risky alcohol use when confronted with stressors such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , /transmissão , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(1): 12-18, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between organizational safety climate (OSC), in-hospital mortality (IM), and failure to rescue (FTR) in 2 hospitals, 1 with and 1 without crew-resource-management training. BACKGROUND: OSC is 1 of the most important organizational factors that promotes safety at work; however, there is a lack of research examining the relationship between OSC and patient deaths in hospitals. METHODS: We utilized a matched 2-group comparison of surgical patients and surveyed surgical staff to assess the relationship between OSC, FTR, and IM. RESULTS: The OSC assessment was completed by 261 surgical team members. A total of 1764 patients had at least 1 FTR complication; however, there was no association between OSC with FTR or IM for either hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Nurse leaders should remain vigilant in building work teams with strong hospital safety climates. More research is needed to explore the relationship between OSC and patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Mortalidade/tendências , Cultura Organizacional , Quartos de Pacientes/normas , Gestão da Segurança , Correlação de Dados , Gestão de Recursos da Equipe de Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Quartos de Pacientes/organização & administração , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241391, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370297

RESUMO

Pityopsis includes several regionally and one federally endangered species of herbaceous perennials. Four species are highly localized, including the federally endangered P. ruthii. The genus includes several ploidy levels and interesting ecological traits such as drought tolerance and fire-dependent flowering. Results from previous cladistic analyses of morphology and from initial DNA sequence studies did not agree with one another or with the infrageneric taxonomic classification, with the result that infrageneric relationships remain unresolved. We sequenced, assembled, and compared the chloroplast (cp) genomes of 12 species or varieties of Pityopsis to better understand generic evolution. A reference cp genome 152,569 bp in length was assembled de novo from P. falcata. Reads from other sampled species were then aligned to the P. falcata reference and individual chloroplast genomes were assembled for each, with manual gapfilling and polishing. After removing the duplicated second inverted region, a multiple sequence alignment of the cp genomes was used to construct a maximum likelihood (ML) phylogeny for the twelve cp genomes. Additionally, we constructed a ML phylogeny from the nuclear ribosomal repeat region after mapping reads to the Helianthus annuus region. The chloroplast phylogeny supported two clades. Previously proposed clades and taxonomic sections within the genus were largely unsupported by both nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies. Our results provide tools for exploring hybridity and examining the physiological and genetic basis for drought tolerance and fire-dependent flowering. This study will inform breeding and conservation practices, and general knowledge of evolutionary history, hybridization, and speciation within Pityopsis.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Asteraceae/classificação , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111677, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181950

RESUMO

Microplastics' (MPs) abundance, small size, and global distribution render them bioavailable to a variety of organisms directly or by trophic transfer, yet examinations in marine apex predators are currently limited. The present study investigated the occurrence of MPs sized 125 µm-5 mm in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded in South Carolina, USA from 2017 to 2018. MPs, mostly fibers, were detected in all GITs (n = 7) of stranded bottlenose dolphins. Total suspected MPs ranged between 123 and 422 particles/individual, a high range among international studies. Comparison to other studies likely reflects differences in both methods and location. This is the first study from North America to quantify MPs in a small coastal cetacean outside Arctic waters and the first specifically in bottlenose dolphins (southeastern United States). Findings and methodology from this investigation can aid future studies examining MP in marine apex predators.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Microplásticos , América do Norte , Plásticos , South Carolina , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): e67-e69, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a new pandemic, and its impact by HIV status is unknown. National reporting does not include gender identity; therefore, data are absent on the impact of COVID-19 on transgender people, including those with HIV. Baseline data from the American Cohort to Study HIV Acquisition Among Transgender Women in High Risk Areas (LITE) Study provide an opportunity to examine pre-COVID factors that may increase vulnerability to COVID-19-related harms among transgender women. SETTING: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Miami, New York City, Washington, DC. METHODS: Baseline data from LITE were analyzed for demographic, psychosocial, and material factors that may affect vulnerability to COVID-related harms. RESULTS: The 1020 participants had high rates of poverty, unemployment, food insecurity, homelessness, and sex work. Transgender women with HIV (n = 273) were older, more likely to be Black, had lower educational attainment, and were more likely to experience material hardship. Mental and behavioral health symptoms were common and did not differ by HIV status. Barriers to health care included being mistreated, provider discomfort serving transgender women, and past negative experiences; as well as material hardships, such as cost and transportation. However, most reported access to material and social support-demonstrating resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Transgender women with HIV may be particularly vulnerable to pandemic harms. Mitigating this harm would benefit everyone, given the highly infectious nature of this coronavirus. Collecting gender identity in COVID-19 data is crucial to inform an effective public health response. Transgender-led organizations' response to this crisis serve as an important model for effective community-led interventions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Boston , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mid-Atlantic Region , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Carência Psicossocial , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
8.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 368-377, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016416

RESUMO

Sorgoleone-358 is an important allelochemical of the oily droplets exuded from root hairs of various species in the Sorghum genus. Due to its hydrophobic nature, sorgoleone-358 can be strongly adsorbed onto soil organic matter, resulting in increased sorgoleone soil persistence. Because of the herbicidal activity of sorgoleone on many small-seeded weeds, concerns have been raised that sorghum residues may have a detrimental effect on emergence of wheat used as a double crop in the southeastern United States. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate root exudate production and its sorgoleone-358 content for 36 cultivated sorghum cultivars as well as eight shattercane [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. arundinaceum (Desv.) de Wet & Harlan] accessions and one johnsongrass [S. halepense (L.) Pers.] accession. Using a capillary growing mat system, root exudate was extracted with dichloromethane and subjected to chromatography analysis to determine sorgoleone-358 content. Root biomass of 7- to 12-d-old seedlings averaged 18.8 mg g-1 seed, and root exudate production ranged from 0.2 and 4.8 mg g-1 root fresh weight (RFW). The amount of sorgoleone produced varied greatly among sorghum accessions. Sorgoleone-358 amount in the root exudate averaged 0.5 mg g-1 RFW and varied from 0.13 to 1.05 mg g-1 for shattercane cultivar S7 and cultivated sorghum cultivar 992123, respectively. Regarding volume of root biomass, sorgoleone-358 levels averaged 0.49 mg g-1 (range, 0.06-1.46 mg g-1 ) for sorghum cultivar AAS3479 and shattercane cultivar S2, respectively. Segregation of commercial sorghum cultivars according to their maturity group did not show any difference in root biomass and dry extract production, but early-maturing cultivars produced on average 18% less sorgoleone-358 compared with medium- and late-maturing cultivars. These results suggest that sorgoleone production may be genetically constitutive because sorghum growing conditions were identical across cultivars.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Benzoquinonas , Lipídeos , Raízes de Plantas , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
9.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 916-925, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic dramatically altered the delivery of surgical care. METHODS: Members of the Southeastern Surgical Congress were surveyed regarding system adjustments, personal impact, and productivity losses. Subgroups were analyzed for disproportionate impact across practice models (academic/employed/private), practice communities (urban, suburban, rural), and practice case-mix categories (broad general surgery, narrow general surgery, specialty practice, hospital-based practice). RESULTS: 135 respondents reported that 98.5% of surgeons and 97% of hospitals canceled elective cases. Practices and hospitals reduced staffing dramatically. Telemedicine was utilized by most respondents. Hospitals variably implemented system changes, developed tests, and set up diagnostic centers. Most surgeons anticipated resumption of practice and hospital activity by July 1, 2020. More than one-quarter reported worsened financial status and personal well-being. Interestingly, family/personal relationships were improved in more than one-third. Most surgeons anticipate reduced year-end case volumes, clinical productivity, and salary. In subgroup analyses, academic surgeons were more likely than employed and private-practice surgeons to use telemedicine and to work in hospitals with in-house COVID-19 testing. Private-practice surgeons expected decreased financial status, case volumes, relative value units (RVUs), and salary. More rural surgeons anticipate reduced salary than urban and suburban surgeons. Surgeons in narrow general surgery practice reported more furlough of employees than specialty surgeons, hospital-based surgeons, and broad-based general surgeons. Narrow-practice surgeons and specialists were more likely to report RVU reductions and improved family/personal relationships. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 slowdown affected surgeons throughout the southeastern United States. Variations between different practice models, communities, and case-mix categories may help inform surgeons in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina
11.
Nature ; 585(7824): 225-233, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908268

RESUMO

Isoprene is the dominant non-methane organic compound emitted to the atmosphere1-3. It drives ozone and aerosol production, modulates atmospheric oxidation and interacts with the global nitrogen cycle4-8. Isoprene emissions are highly uncertain1,9, as is the nonlinear chemistry coupling isoprene and the hydroxyl radical, OH-its primary sink10-13. Here we present global isoprene measurements taken from space using the Cross-track Infrared Sounder. Together with observations of formaldehyde, an isoprene oxidation product, these measurements provide constraints on isoprene emissions and atmospheric oxidation. We find that the isoprene-formaldehyde relationships measured from space are broadly consistent with the current understanding of isoprene-OH chemistry, with no indication of missing OH recycling at low nitrogen oxide concentrations. We analyse these datasets over four global isoprene hotspots in relation to model predictions, and present a quantification of isoprene emissions based directly on satellite measurements of isoprene itself. A major discrepancy emerges over Amazonia, where current underestimates of natural nitrogen oxide emissions bias modelled OH and hence isoprene. Over southern Africa, we find that a prominent isoprene hotspot is missing from bottom-up predictions. A multi-year analysis sheds light on interannual isoprene variability, and suggests the influence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Butadienos/análise , Butadienos/química , Mapeamento Geográfico , Hemiterpenos/análise , Hemiterpenos/química , Imagens de Satélites , África , Austrália , Brasil , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , El Niño Oscilação Sul , Formaldeído/química , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Radical Hidroxila/química , Ciclo do Nitrogênio , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Oxirredução , Estações do Ano , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0234166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797098

RESUMO

Response to simultaneous stressors is an important facet of plant ecology and land management. In a greenhouse trial, we studied how eight plant species responded to single and combined effects of three soil concentrations of the phytotoxic munitions constituent RDX and two levels of water-resourcing. In an outdoor trial, we studied the effects of high RDX soil concentration and two levels of water-resourcing in three plant species. Multiple endpoints related to RDX fate, plant health, and plant survival were evaluated in both trials. Starting RDX concentration was the most frequent factor influencing all endpoints. Water-resourcing also had significant impacts, but in fewer cases. For most endpoints, significant interaction effects between RDX concentration and water-resourcing were observed for some species and treatments. Main and interaction effects were typically variable (significant in one treatment, but not in another; associated with increasing endpoint values for one treatment and/or with decreasing endpoint values in another). This complexity has implications for understanding how RDX and water-availability combine to impact plants, as well as for applications like phytoremediation. As an additional product of these greenhouse and outdoor trials, three plants native or naturalized within the southeastern United States were identified as promising species for further study as in situ phytoremediation resources. Plumbago auriculata exhibited relatively strong and markedly consistent among-treatment mean proportional reductions in soil RDX concentrations (112% and 2.5% of the means of corresponding values observed within other species). Likewise, across all treatments, Salvia coccinea exhibited distinctively low variance in mean leaf chlorophyll content index levels (6.5% of the means of corresponding values observed within other species). Both species also exhibited mean wilting and chlorosis levels that were 66% and 35%, and 67% and 84%, of corresponding values observed in all other plants, respectively. Ruellia caroliniensis exhibited at least 43% higher mean survival across all treatments than any other test species in outdoor trials, despite exhibiting similar RDX uptake and bioconcentration levels.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas/toxicidade , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Acanthaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Acanthaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Acanthaceae/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Substâncias Explosivas/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Explosivas/farmacocinética , Instalações Militares , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Plumbaginaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Plumbaginaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plumbaginaceae/fisiologia , Salvia/efeitos dos fármacos , Salvia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salvia/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/administração & dosagem , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Recursos Hídricos
13.
Plant Dis ; 104(10): 2598-2605, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795247

RESUMO

Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is an emerging insect-vectored, xylem-limited bacterium that can cause disease on several economically important fruit and tree crops including almond, blueberry, citrus, grapevine, peach, and pecan. On blueberry, Xf causes bacterial leaf scorch (BLS), which is prevalent in the southeastern United States. This disease, previously reported to be caused by Xf subsp. multiplex (Xfm), can result in rapid plant decline and death of southern highbush (SHB) blueberry cultivars. In 2017, a survey of blueberry plantings in southern Georgia (U.S.A.) confirmed the presence of Xf-infected plants in eight of nine sites examined, and seven isolates were cultured from infected plants. Genetic characterization of these isolates through single-locus and multilocus sequence analysis revealed that three isolates from two sites belonged to Xf subsp. fastidiosa (Xff), with significant similarity to isolates from grapevine. After these three isolates were artificially inoculated onto greenhouse-grown SHB blueberries (cv. 'Rebel'), symptoms typical of BLS developed, and Xff infection was confirmed through genetic characterization and reisolation of the bacterium to fulfill Koch's postulates. Because all previously reported Xf isolates from blueberry have been characterized as Xfm, this is the first time that isolation of Xff has been reported from naturally infected blueberry plantings. The potential impact of Xff isolates on disease management in blueberry requires further exploration. Furthermore, given that isolates from both Xfm and Xff were obtained within a single naturally infected blueberry planting, blueberry in southern Georgia may provide opportunities for intersubspecific recombination between Xff and Xfm isolates.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Infecções , Xylella/genética , Animais , Doenças das Plantas , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
14.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity has been associated with obesity, but previous studies are inconsistent and few included infants. We examined associations between household food security and infant adiposity and assessed the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) as effect modifiers. We hypothesized that infants from food-insecure households would have greater adiposity, with attenuation by WIC and SNAP. METHODS: We repeatedly measured 666 infants from the southeastern United States in 2013-2017. We categorized households as high, marginal, low, or very low using the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Outcomes were BMI z score, subscapular and triceps skinfold-for-age z score, the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds, the ratio of subscapular and triceps skinfolds, and BMI z score ≥1 (at risk for overweight). We used covariate-adjusted repeated-measures linear and logistic regressions. RESULTS: Of infants, 68.6% were Black and 60.5% had household incomes <$20 000. Interactions between food security and WIC and/or SNAP were not significant. Compared with infants from high food security households, infants from very low food security households had higher BMI z scores (0.18 U; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01 to 0.35), higher subscapular skinfold-for-age z scores (0.31 U; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.59), a higher sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds (0.53 mm; 95% CI 0.002 to 1.07), and greater odds of being at risk for overweight (odds ratio 1.55; 95% CI 1.14 to 2.10). Infants from low food security households had greater odds of being at risk for overweight (odds ratio 1.72; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.10). CONCLUSIONS: In larger and longer studies, researchers should examine food security and adiposity in young children.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Características da Família , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Inquéritos Nutricionais/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar/economia , Assistência Alimentar/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/tendências , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Plant Dis ; 104(9): 2481-2488, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628091

RESUMO

Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), caused by the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, is the most serious disease of watermelon in South Carolina and other southeastern U.S. states. Isolates of F. oxysporum collected from field-grown plants, greenhouse-grown seedlings, and field soil between 1999 and 2018 were inoculated onto three differential watermelon cultivars to identify races. Of 197 isolates obtained from plants, 12% were nonpathogenic, 2% were race 0, 23% were race 1, and 63% were race 2. One collection of isolates from greenhouse seedlings was exclusively race 1 and the other was exclusively race 2. Seventeen of 81 soil isolates were pathogenic: five were race 1 and 12 were race 2. Reactions of C. amarus PI 296341-FR, Carolina Strongback, and SP-6, cultigens with resistance to race 2, did not differ significantly among five highly virulent race 2 isolates and a standard race 2 isolate, indicating a lack of a race 3 phenotype. Forma specialis-specific primers matched phenotypic race identification for 74% of the isolates. Race-specific primers based on a secreted-in-xylem elicitor present in race 0 and 1 isolates matched phenotypic race identification for 66% of the isolates. Because a majority of the F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum isolates from South Carolina were race 2, integrated management practices should be used until commercial cultivars with resistance to race 2 are available.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Plântula , Solo , South Carolina , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233888, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603333

RESUMO

Urban development relies on many factors to remain viable, including infrastructure, services, and government provisions and subsidies. However, in situations involving federal or state level policy, development responds not just to one regulatory signal, but also to multiple signals from overlapping and competing jurisdictions. The 1982 U.S. Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CoBRA) offers an opportunity to study when and how development restrictions and economic disincentives protect natural resources by stopping or slowing urban development in management regimes with distributed authority and responsibility. CoBRA prohibits federal financial assistance for infrastructure, post-storm disaster relief, and flood insurance in designated sections (CoBRA units) of coastal barriers. How has CoBRA's removal of these subsidies affected rates and types of urban development? Using building footprint and real estate data (n = 1,385,552 parcels), we compare density of built structures, land use types, residential house size, and land values within and outside of CoBRA units in eight Southeast and Gulf Coast states. We show that CoBRA is associated with reduced development rates in designated coastal barriers. We also demonstrate how local responses may counteract withdrawal of federal subsidies. As attention increases towards improving urban resilience in high hazard areas, this work contributes to understanding how limitations on infrastructure and insurance subsidies can affect outcomes where overlapping jurisdictions have competing goals.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Política Ambiental , Financiamento Governamental , Reforma Urbana/economia , Desastres , Inundações , Humanos , Seguro , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
17.
Plant Dis ; 104(7): 2014-2022, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484420

RESUMO

Peach scab, caused by Venturia carpophila, is a damaging disease of peach in the southeastern United States. Thus, fungicides are applied to reduce peach scab. Tractor speed was investigated as a variable affecting spray deposition and disease control in relation to volume applied. In experiments in 2015 and 2016, trees were sprayed with fungicide to control scab at petal fall to 1% shuck split and at shuck split to 10% shuck off. Speeds were 3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 kph resulting in 1,403, 935, and 701 liters/ha, respectively, with the dose of active ingredient (a.i.) per ha kept constant. Deposition declined for all speeds with later spray dates. There was a negative linear relationship between tractor speed and spray coverage on three of four dates the experiment was repeated. Tractor speed (different volumes, equal doses) affected peach scab. In 2015 and 2016, mean incidence at 3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 kph was 68.6, 59.2, and 38.3%, and 64.2, 53.0, and 40.4% of fruit scabbed, respectively. Effect of speed on lesion number per fruit depended on year: in 2015, lesions per fruit were reduced at 6.4 kph compared with 3.2 and 4.8 kph but were not different in 2016. Control trees had fewer lesions per fruit high in the canopy, but there was little effect of sample height in fungicide-treated trees. Concentration of a.i. in lower volumes applied at higher speed may provide some benefit in reducing incidence of peach scab, but there appeared to be less effect on severity.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fungicidas Industriais , Prunus persica , Incidência , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
18.
N C Med J ; 81(3): 149-156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Trauma-emotional, physical, and psychological-is common and associated with increased risk behaviors, low rates of care engagement and viral suppression, and overall poor health outcomes for people living with HIV (PLWH). This article presents the results of 15 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with PLWH in the Southeastern United States in which participants identified a trauma and described its long-lasting impact on their lives. Participants' trauma narratives described a wide range of traumas, including childhood sexual abuse, the loss of a loved one, and their HIV diagnosis.METHODS Systematic qualitative analysis was used to delineate beliefs about causes, symptoms, treatments, quality of life, and health implications of trauma.RESULTS: Fifteen participants completed semi-structured interviews that lasted on average 32 minutes. Participants described a wide spectrum of personal trauma that occurred both prior and subsequent to their HIV diagnosis. The types of trauma identified included physical, sexual, and psychological abuse inflicted by intimate partners, family members, and/or strangers.LIMITATIONS A chief limitation of this study is selection bias. Additionally, the participant selection and content of the trauma narratives might have been affected by the surrounding context of the parent study centered on HIV, aging, and psychosocial stress. It is also difficult to interpret the distinction between discrete trauma experiences and the diagnosis of HIV, leading to potential information bias.CONCLUSION This study highlights the importance of social support in coping with trauma and the effect of trauma on health-related behaviors. It also illustrates the need for additional research on the topic of trauma and trauma-informed care for PLWH. Understanding how different types of trauma affect individuals' lives is necessary to inform recommendations to provide better care for PLWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Narração , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
South Med J ; 113(5): 240-249, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358619

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from subclinical to serious and fatal. The disease occurs worldwide, but there is limited recognition of the public and animal health risks it poses in the southern United States. A systematic review of the frequency of animal leptospirosis in 17 states and jurisdictions covering the southern continental United States was performed to advance our understanding of the pathogen's distribution and identify transmission patterns that could be targeted for prevention efforts. Fifty-two articles, spanning >100 years, met the analysis criteria. A wide range of techniques were used to measure seroprevalence and isolate the bacteria. The assessment identified exposure to Leptospira spp and Leptospira spp infection among a diverse range of species, spanning 22 animal families within 14 states, suggesting that the pathogen is distributed throughout the southern region. Disease frequency trends were assessed among animals in various habitats (all habitats, nonwild habitats, and wild habitats). The frequency of Leptospira spp detection in animals in wild habitats increased slightly over time (<0.2%/year). We identified reports of 11 human leptospirosis illness clusters and outbreaks in the southern United States. Exposure to potentially contaminated surface waters were documented for at least seven of the events, and interactions with infected or likely infected animals were documented for at least six of the events. This analysis highlights the need for stronger partnerships across the public and animal health fields to enhance diagnostics, surveillance, and reporting. The early identification of leptospirosis in animals may serve as an indicator of environmental contamination and trigger prevention measures, such as vaccinating companion animals and livestock, use of potable water, and the wearing of waterproof protective clothing near water that may be contaminated.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Mephitidae/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 590, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) people face high rates of poverty, joblessness, and homelessness, rendering this population vulnerable to experiencing food insecurity. Yet, there is almost no empirical evidence concerning food insecurity and the use of local and federal food assistance resources in the TGNC community. Food insecurity, the use of local and Federal food assistance resources, and associations with gender-related minority stressors and resilience using the Gender Minority Stress and Resilience (GMSR) scale among TGNC individuals living in the Southeast United States (U.S.) were documented in this study. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted with TGNC people living in the Southeast U.S. Participants were recruited via targeted Facebook advertisements. RESULTS: In total, 105 TGNC people completed the survey; 79% of survey participants experienced food insecurity, 19% utilized Federal, and 22% utilized local food assistance resources. High levels of minority stress and community resilience were reported. The GMSR resilience scale Pride (aOR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19, p = .04) was significantly associated with the use of local food pantries, but minority stressors were not. No significant associations were found between GMSR and food security. CONCLUSION: TGNC people living in the Southeast U.S. experienced food insecurity, unstable housing, low wages, and social stigma that were a barrier to using emergency food resources. Multi-level public health solutions that address discriminatory legislative policies and create linkages between TGNC people and local and federal food assistance are required to address issues of food insecurity in the TGNC population.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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