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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790748

RESUMO

The serial feature-positive discrimination task requires the subjects to respond differentially to the identical stimulus depending on the temporal context given by a preceding cue stimulus. In the present study, we examined the involvement of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors using a selective M1 antagonist VU0255035 in the serial feature-positive discrimination task of eyeblink conditioning in mice. In this task, mice received a 2-s light stimulus as the conditional cue 5 or 6 s before the presentation of a 350-ms tone conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a 100-ms peri-orbital electrical shock (cued trials), while they did not receive the cue before the presentation of the CS alone (non-cued trials). Each day mice randomly received 30 cued and 30 non-cued trials. We found that VU0255035 impaired acquisition of the conditional discrimination as well as the overall acquisition of the conditioned response (CR) and diminished the difference in onset latency of the CR between the cued and non-cued trials. VU0255035 administration to the control mice after sufficient learning did not impair the pre-acquired conditional discrimination or the CR expression itself. These effects of VU0255035 were almost similar to those with the scopolamine in our previous study, suggesting that among the several types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, the M1 receptors may play an important role in the acquisition of the conditional discrimination memory but not in mediating the discrimination itself after the memory had formed in the eyeblink serial feature-positive discrimination learning.


Assuntos
Piscadela/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Muscarínico M1/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Condicionamento Palpebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Palpebral/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estimulação Luminosa , Receptor Muscarínico M1/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110122, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759007

RESUMO

A characteristic feature of COVID-19 disease is lymphopenia. Lymphopenia occurs early in the clinical course and is a predictor of disease severity and outcomes. The mechanism of lymphopenia in COVID-19 is uncertain. It has been variously attributed to the release of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and TNF-α; direct infection of the lymphocytes by the virus; and rapid sequestration of lymphocytes in the tissues. Additionally, we postulate that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is a key meditator of lymphopenia in COVID-19. First, SARS-CoV infection is known to stimulate the production of PGD2 in the airways, which inhibits the host dendritic cell response via the DP1 receptor signaling. Second, PGD2 is known to upregulate monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) via the DP2 receptor signaling in group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2). We propose targeting PGD2/DP2 signaling using a receptor antagonist such as ramatroban as an immunotherapy for immune dysfunction and lymphopenia in COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Linfopenia/fisiopatologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prostaglandina D2/fisiologia , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Adulto , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos , Linfopenia/etiologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Prostaglandina D2/biossíntese , Receptores Imunológicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Prostaglandina/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina/fisiologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Tromboxano A2/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 86: 106749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645632

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) suddenly broke out in China and rapidly spread all over the world. Recently, a cell surface protein, known as angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), has been identified to be involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis for SARS-CoV-2 entry to the cells. Many studies have reported the clinical characteristics of COVID-19: sudden deterioration of disease around 1-2 weeks after onset; much lower level of lymphocytes, especially natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood; extremely high pro-inflammatory cytokines and C reactive protein (CRP). About 15.7% of patients develop severe pneumonia, and cytokine storm is an important factor leading to rapid disease progression. Currently, there are no specific drugs for COVID-19 and the cytokine storm it causes. Baricitinib intracellularly inhibits the proinflammatory signal of several cytokines by suppressing Janus kinase (JAK) JAK1/JAK2. It has been demonstrated clinical benefits for the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), active systemic lupus erythematosus and atopic dermatitis with good efficacy and safety records. Baricitinib is expected to interrupt the passage and intracellular assembly of SARS-CoV-2 into the target cells mediated by ACE2 receptor, and treat cytokine storm caused by COVID-19. Several clinical trials are currently investigating the drug, and one of which has been completed with encouraging results. In this paper, we will elaborate the role of cytokine storm mediated by JAK-STAT pathway in severe COVID-19, the possible mechanisms of baricitinib on reducing the viral entry into the target cells and cytokine storm, the key points of pharmaceutical care based on the latest research reports, clinical trials progress and drug instruction from the US FDA, so as to provide reference for the treatment of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Montagem de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645016

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) contribute to the cancer hallmarks of uncontrolled proliferation and increased survival. As a result, over the last two decades substantial efforts have been directed towards identification and development of pharmaceutical CDK inhibitors. Insights into the biological consequences of CDK inhibition in specific tumor types have led to the successful development of CDK4/6 inhibitors as treatments for certain types of breast cancer. More recently, a new generation of pharmaceutical inhibitors of CDK enzymes that regulate the transcription of key oncogenic and pro-survival proteins, including CDK9, have entered clinical development. Here, we provide the first disclosure of the chemical structure of fadraciclib (CYC065), a CDK inhibitor and clinical candidate designed by further optimization from the aminopurine scaffold of seliciclib. We describe its synthesis and mechanistic characterization. Fadraciclib exhibits improved potency and selectivity for CDK2 and CDK9 compared to seliciclib, and also displays high selectivity across the kinome. We show that the mechanism of action of fadraciclib is consistent with potent inhibition of CDK9-mediated transcription, decreasing levels of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain serine 2 phosphorylation, the pro-survival protein Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 (MCL1) and MYC oncoprotein, and inducing rapid apoptosis in cancer cells. This cellular potency and mechanism of action translate to promising anti-cancer activity in human leukemia mouse xenograft models. Studies of leukemia cell line sensitivity identify mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene status and the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family proteins as potential markers for selection of patients with greater sensitivity to fadraciclib. We show that the combination of fadraciclib with BCL2 inhibitors, including venetoclax, is synergistic in leukemic cell models, as predicted from simultaneous inhibition of MCL1 and BCL2 pro-survival pathways. Fadraciclib preclinical pharmacology data support its therapeutic potential in CDK9- or CDK2-dependent cancers and as a rational combination with BCL2 inhibitors in hematological malignancies. Fadraciclib is currently in Phase 1 clinical studies in patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT02552953) and also in combination with venetoclax in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (NCT03739554) and relapsed refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (NCT04017546).


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697773

RESUMO

A series of potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors, containing diverse piperidine analogues as the P2-ligands, 4-substituted phenylsulfonamides as the P2'-ligands and a hydrophobic cyclopropyl group as the P1'-ligand, were designed, synthesized and evaluated in this work. Among these twenty-four target compounds, many of them exhibited excellent activity against HIV-1 protease with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values below 20 nM. Particularly, compound 22a containing a (R)-piperidine-3-carboxamide as the P2-ligand and a 4-methoxylphenylsulfonamide as the P2'-ligand exhibited the most effective inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 3.61 nM. More importantly, 22a exhibited activity with inhibition of 42% and 26% against wild-type and Darunavir (DRV)-resistant HIV-1 variants, respectively. Additionally, the molecular docking of 22a with HIV-1 protease provided insight into the ligand-binding properties, which was of great value for further study.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/química , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Darunavir/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Protease de HIV/química , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/síntese química , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , HIV-1/química , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Piperidinas/síntese química , Piperidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
6.
Leukemia ; 34(7): 1726-1729, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483300

RESUMO

The scientific community faces an unexpected and urgent challenge related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and is investigating the role of receptors involved in entry of this virus into cells as well as pathomechanisms leading to a cytokine "storm," which in many cases ends in severe acute respiratory syndrome, fulminant myocarditis and kidney injury. An important question is if it may also damage hematopoietic stem progenitor cells?


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/epidemiologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/virologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/imunologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Furanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamassomos/genética , Miocardite/epidemiologia , Miocardite/imunologia , Miocardite/prevenção & controle , Miocardite/virologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Piroptose/genética , Piroptose/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484843

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic drugs remains one of the major impediments to the treatment of cancer. Discovery and development of drugs that can prevent and reverse the acquisition of multidrug resistance constitute a foremost challenge in cancer therapeutics. In this work, we screened a library of 1,127 compounds with known targets for their ability to overcome Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance in cancer cell lines. We identified four compounds (CHIR-124, Elesclomol, Tyrphostin-9 and Brefeldin A) that inhibited the growth of two pairs of parental and Pgp-overexpressing multidrug-resistant cell lines with similar potency irrespective of their Pgp status. Mechanistically, CHIR-124 (a potent inhibitor of Chk1 kinase) inhibited Pgp activity in both multidrug-resistant cell lines (KB-V1 and A2780-Pac-Res) as determined through cell-based Pgp-efflux assays. Other three inhibitors on the contrary, were effective in Pgp-overexpressing resistant cells without increasing the cellular accumulation of a Pgp substrate, indicating that they overcome resistance by avoiding efflux through Pgp. None of these compounds modulated the expression of Pgp in resistant cell lines. PIK-75, a PI3 Kinase inhibitor, was also determined to inhibit Pgp activity, despite being equally potent in only one of the two pairs of resistant and parental cell lines. Strong binding of both CHIR-124 and PIK-75 to Pgp was predicted through docking studies and both compounds inhibited Pgp in a biochemical assay. The inhibition of Pgp causes accumulation of these compounds in the cells where they can modulate the function of their target proteins and thereby inhibit cell proliferation. In conclusion, we have identified compounds with various cellular targets that overcome multidrug resistance in Pgp-overexpressing cell lines through mechanisms that include Pgp inhibition and efflux evasion. These compounds, therefore, can avoid challenges associated with the co-administration of Pgp inhibitors with chemotherapeutic or targeted drugs such as additive toxicities and differing pharmacokinetic properties.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Brefeldina A/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Quinuclidinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Tirfostinas/farmacologia
8.
Virus Res ; 286: 198068, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565126

RESUMO

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a renewed interest in studying the role of the spike S glycoprotein in regulating coronavirus infections in the natural host. Taking advantage of the cryo-electron microscopy structure of SARS-CoV-2 S trimer in the prefusion conformation, we performed a virtual screening simulation with the aim to identify novel molecules that could be used as fusion inhibitors. The spike glycoprotein structure has been completed using modeling techniques and its inner cavity, needful for the postfusion transition of the trimer, has been scanned for the identification of strongly interacting available drugs. Finally, the stability of the protein-drug top complexes has been tested using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The free energy of interaction of the molecules to the spike protein has been evaluated through the MM/GBSA method and per-residue decomposition analysis. Results have been critically discussed considering previous scientific knowledge concerning the selected compounds and sequence alignments have been carried out to evaluate the spike glycoprotein similarity among the betacoronavirus family members. Finally, a cocktail of drugs that may be used as SARS-CoV-2 fusion inhibitors has been suggested.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/química , Indóis/química , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Sulfonamidas/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Sítios de Ligação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Perileno/química , Perileno/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Termodinâmica , Interface Usuário-Computador , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 319(1): G87-G96, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475129

RESUMO

Hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) plays a critical role in hepatic energy homeostasis. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are implicated in multiple physiological functions, including the inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation and regulation of fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. We have previously reported that SULT2B1b promotes hepatocyte proliferation by inactivating LXR signaling in vivo and in vitro, leading to our hypothesis that SULT2B1b promotes fatty liver regeneration. In the present study, female C57BL/6 and S129 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 8 wk to establish a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse model. 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) was performed to induce liver regeneration. Our experiments revealed that the SULT2B1b overexpression significantly promotes the regeneration of hepatocytes in NAFLD C57BL/6 mice after PH, increasing liver regrowth by 11% within 1 day, and then by 21%, 33%, and 24% by 2, 3, and 5 days post-PH, respectively. Compared with the wild-type NAFLD S129 mice, SULT2B1 deletion NAFLD S129 mice presented reduced hepatocyte regeneration at postoperative day 2, as verified by decreased liver regrowth (37.4% vs. 46.1%, P < 0.05) and the results of immunohistochemical staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. Moreover, LXRα signaling and SULT2B1b expression are highly correlated in the regeneration of NAFLD mouse liver; SULT2B1b overexpression suppresses LXRα signaling, while the LXRα-signaling agonist T0901317 blocks SULT2B1b-induced hepatocyte regeneration in NAFLD mouse liver. Thus, the upregulation of SULT2B1b may promote hepatocyte regeneration via the suppression of LXRα activation in NAFLD mice, providing a potential strategy for improving hepatic-steatosis-related liver regeneration disorders.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates for the first time that hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) overexpression promotes the regeneration of fatty liver after partial hepatectomy in mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, while reducing triglyceride accumulation in the regenerative fatty liver. Liver X receptor signaling may be crucial in the SULT2B1b-mediated regeneration of fatty liver. Thus, SULT2B1b may be a potential target for treating hepatic steatosis-related liver regeneration disorders.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Hepática/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatectomia/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
10.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(7): 605-614, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541897

RESUMO

Controlled perturbation of protein activity is essential to study protein function in cells and living organisms. Small molecules that hijack the cellular protein ubiquitination machinery to selectively degrade proteins of interest, so-called degraders, have recently emerged as alternatives to selective chemical inhibitors, both as therapeutic modalities and as powerful research tools. These systems offer unprecedented temporal and spatial control over protein function. Here, we review recent developments in this field, with a particular focus on the use of degraders as research tools to interrogate complex biological problems.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 727-735, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541831

RESUMO

Stimulator-of-interferon genes (STING) is vital for sensing cytosolic DNA and initiating innate immune responses against microbial infection and tumors. Redox homeostasis is the balance of oxidative and reducing reactions present in all living systems. Yet, how the intracellular redox state controls STING activation is unclear. Here, we show that cellular redox homeostasis maintained by glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is required for STING activation. GPX4 deficiency enhanced cellular lipid peroxidation and thus specifically inhibited the cGAS-STING pathway. Concordantly, GPX4 deficiency inhibited herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-induced innate antiviral immune responses and promoted HSV-1 replication in vivo. Mechanistically, GPX4 inactivation increased production of lipid peroxidation, which led to STING carbonylation at C88 and inhibited its trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. Thus, cellular stress-induced lipid peroxidation specifically attenuates the STING DNA-sensing pathway, suggesting that GPX4 facilitates STING activation by maintaining redox homeostasis of lipids.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Animais , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , DNA Viral/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 1/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/genética , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oximas/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Carbonilação Proteica/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Células THP-1 , Replicação Viral/imunologia
12.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(8): 843-856, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542785

RESUMO

A hyperinflammatory response to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, reminiscent of cytokine release syndrome, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome and organ damage in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Agents that inhibit components of the pro-inflammatory cascade have garnered interest as potential treatment options with hopes that dampening the proinflammatory process may improve clinical outcomes. Baricitinib is a reversible Janus-associated kinase (JAK)-inhibitor that interrupts the signaling of multiple cytokines implicated in COVID-19 immunopathology. It may also have antiviral effects by targeting host factors that viruses rely for cell entry and by suppressing type I interferon driven angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2 upregulation. However, baricitinib's immunosuppressive effects may be detrimental during acute viral infections by delaying viral clearance and increasing vulnerability to secondary opportunistic infections. The lack of reliable biomarkers to monitor patients' immune status as illness evolves complicates deployment of immunosuppressive drugs like baricitinib. Furthermore, baricitinib carries the risk of increased thromboembolic events, which is concerning given the proclivity towards a hypercoagulable state in patients with COVID-19. In this article, we review available data on baricitinib with an emphasis on immunosuppressive and antiviral pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and current progress in COVID-19 clinical trials.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/farmacologia , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Citocinas/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/biossíntese , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos
13.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(3): 222-233, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587095

RESUMO

DNA topoisomerase II (TOP2) is required for the unwinding and decatenation of DNA through the induction of an enzyme-linked double-strand break (DSB) in one DNA molecule and passage of another intact DNA duplex through the break. Anticancer drugs targeting TOP2 (TOP2 poisons) prevent religation of the DSB and stabilize a normally transient intermediate of the TOP2 reaction mechanism called the TOP2-DNA covalent complex. Subsequently, TOP2 remains covalently bound to each end of the enzyme-bridged DSB, which cannot be repaired until TOP2 is removed from the DNA. One removal mechanism involves the proteasomal degradation of the TOP2 protein, leading to the liberation of a protein-free DSB. Proteasomal degradation is often regulated by protein ubiquitination, and here we show that inhibition of ubiquitin-activating enzymes reduces the processing of TOP2A- and TOP2B-DNA complexes. Depletion or inhibition of ubiquitin-activating enzymes indicated that ubiquitination was required for the liberation of etoposide-induced protein-free DSBs and is therefore an important layer of regulation in the repair of TOP2 poison-induced DNA damage. TOP2-DNA complexes stabilized by etoposide were shown to be conjugated to ubiquitin, and this was reduced by inhibition or depletion of ubiquitin-activating enzymes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: There is currently great clinical interest in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and ongoing development of specific inhibitors. The results in this paper show that the therapeutic cytotoxicity of DNA topoisomerase II (TOP2) poisons can be enhanced through combination therapy with ubiquitin-activating enzyme inhibitors or by specific inhibition of the BMI/RING1A ubiquitin ligase, which would lead to increased cellular accumulation or persistence of TOP2-DNA complexes.


Assuntos
DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , Nucleosídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/química , Humanos , Células K562 , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/química , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(2): H320-H330, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530751

RESUMO

The exercise pressor reflex is a feedback autonomic and cardiovascular control mechanism evoked by mechanical and metabolic signals within contracting skeletal muscles. The mechanically sensitive component of the reflex (the mechanoreflex) is exaggerated in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and in a rat model of simulated PAD in which a femoral artery is chronically ligated. Products of cyclooxygenase enzyme activity have been shown to chronically sensitize the mechanoreflex in PAD, but the identity of the muscle afferent receptors that mediate the sensitization is unclear. We hypothesized that injection of the endoperoxide 4 receptor (EP4-R) antagonist L161982 or the thromboxane A2 receptor (TxA2-R) antagonist daltroban into the arterial supply of the hindlimb would reduce the pressor response to repetitive, dynamic hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch (a model of isolated mechanoreflex activation) in rats with a femoral artery that was ligated ~72 h before the experiment but not in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. We found that EP4-R blockade had no effect on the pressor response (peak Δmean arterial pressure) to stretch in freely perfused (n = 6, pre: 14 ± 2, post: 15 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.97) or ligated (n = 8, pre: 29 ± 4, post: 29 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.98) rats. In contrast, TxA2-R blockade had no effect on the pressor response to stretch in freely perfused rats (n = 6, pre: 16 ± 3, post: 17 ± 4 mmHg, P = 0.99) but significantly reduced the response in ligated rats (n = 11, pre: 29 ± 4, post: 17 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.01). We conclude that TxA2-Rs contribute to chronic mechanoreflex sensitization in the chronic femoral artery-ligated rat model of simulated PAD.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate that thromboxane A2 receptors, but not endoperoxide 4 receptors, on the sensory endings of thin fiber muscle afferents contribute to the chronic sensitization of the muscle mechanoreflex in rats with a ligated femoral artery (a model of simulated peripheral artery disease). The data may have important implications for our understanding of blood pressure control during exercise in patients with peripheral artery disease.


Assuntos
Mecanorreceptores/metabolismo , Contração Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Doença Arterial Periférica/metabolismo , Receptores de Tromboxano A2 e Prostaglandina H2/metabolismo , Reflexo , Animais , Pressão Arterial , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Mecanorreceptores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mecanotransdução Celular , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Fenilacetatos/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/metabolismo , Receptores de Tromboxano A2 e Prostaglandina H2/antagonistas & inibidores , Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Biosci Rep ; 40(6)2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459137

RESUMO

Due to the lack of efficient therapeutic options and clinical trial limitations, the FDA-approved drugs can be a good choice to handle Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Many reports have enough evidence for the use of FDA-approved drugs which have inhibitory potential against target proteins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we utilized a structure-based drug design approach to find possible drug candidates from the existing pool of FDA-approved drugs and checked their effectiveness against the SARS-CoV-2. We performed virtual screening of the FDA-approved drugs against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, an essential enzyme, and a potential drug target. Using well-defined computational methods, we identified Glecaprevir and Maraviroc (MVC) as the best inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Both drugs bind to the substrate-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and form a significant number of non-covalent interactions. Glecaprevir and MVC bind to the conserved residues of substrate-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. This work provides sufficient evidence for the use of Glecaprevir and MVC for the therapeutic management of COVID-19 after experimental validation and clinical manifestations.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Maraviroc/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Maraviroc/química , Maraviroc/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Quinoxalinas/química , Quinoxalinas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo
16.
Biosci Rep ; 40(6)2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343226

RESUMO

Due to the lack of efficient therapeutic options and clinical trial limitations, the FDA-approved drugs can be a good choice to handle Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Many reports have enough evidence for the use of FDA-approved drugs which have inhibitory potential against target proteins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we utilized a structure-based drug design approach to find possible drug candidates from the existing pool of FDA-approved drugs and checked their effectiveness against the SARS-CoV-2. We performed virtual screening of the FDA-approved drugs against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, an essential enzyme, and a potential drug target. Using well-defined computational methods, we identified Glecaprevir and Maraviroc (MVC) as the best inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Both drugs bind to the substrate-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and form a significant number of non-covalent interactions. Glecaprevir and MVC bind to the conserved residues of substrate-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. This work provides sufficient evidence for the use of Glecaprevir and MVC for the therapeutic management of COVID-19 after experimental validation and clinical manifestations.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Maraviroc/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Maraviroc/química , Maraviroc/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Quinoxalinas/química , Quinoxalinas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo
17.
Life Sci ; 253: 117747, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376270

RESUMO

AIMS: Multiple sclerosis (MS) whose pathogenesis is still unclear is a chronic progressive disease in the central nervous system. Gut microbiota can directly or indirectly affect the immune system through the brain gut axis to engage in the occurrence and development of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice which were immunized by MOG35-55 to prepare experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal models were treated with rapamycin and MCC950 (CP-456773) in combination or separately. After sequencing the 16S rRNA V4 region of gut microbiota, the species, abundance and composition of gut microbiota were analyzed by Alpha diversity, Bata diversity and LEfSe analysis. The pathological changes and the expression of CD4 and CD8 of brain, large intestine and spleen were detected. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that rapamycin and MCC950 could alleviate the progression of the disease by inducing autophagy and inhibiting the immune response. The Alpha diversity of EAE model group was no significant difference compering to control group while the number of OTUs was decreased. After the treatment by rapamycin and MCC950, the abundance and composition of gut microbiota was relatively recovered, which was close to that of normal mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Inhibiting immune cell-mediated inflammation and restoring the composition of gut microbiota may help to alleviate the clinical symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, to research the regulatory effect between immune response and gut microbiota may be a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Furanos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/microbiologia , Feminino , Furanos/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Intestino Grosso/imunologia , Intestino Grosso/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Baço/imunologia , Baço/patologia , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem
18.
Life Sci ; 255: 117846, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470451

RESUMO

AIMS: Compared to normal cells, tumor cells maintain higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to support proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Chemotherapeutic drugs often induce tumor cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular ROS concentrations to highly toxic levels. ABT737, which inhibits the apoptosis regulator B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), increases the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs by regulating the glucose metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether ABT737 promoted H2O2-induced tumor cell apoptosis by reversing glycolysis in ovarian cancer cells. MAIN METHODS: SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells were treated with H2O2, ABT737, or both. Cell viability was compared using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), and flow cytometry was used to detect differences in apoptosis, ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential. The relative expression levels of proteins associated with apoptosis and the glucose metabolism were measured using immunoblotting. Finally, glucose uptake and lactate secretion were measured using kits and compared. KEY FINDINGS: ABT737 downregulated proteins associated with glucose uptake (GLUT1) and glycolysis (LHDA, PKM2 and HK2) via the Sirt3-HIF1α axis, reducing glucose uptake and lactate secretion in SKOV3 cells. This reversed glycolysis in the tumor cells, and promoted H2O2-induced apoptosis. SIGNIFICANCE: The Bcl2 inhibitor ABT737 enhanced the anti-tumor effect of oxidative stress by reversing the Warburg effect in ovarian cancer cells, providing powerful theoretical support for further clinical applications of Bcl2 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Nitrofenóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo
19.
Biosci Rep ; 40(6)2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441299

RESUMO

Due to the lack of efficient therapeutic options and clinical trial limitations, the FDA-approved drugs can be a good choice to handle Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Many reports have enough evidence for the use of FDA-approved drugs which have inhibitory potential against target proteins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we utilized a structure-based drug design approach to find possible drug candidates from the existing pool of FDA-approved drugs and checked their effectiveness against the SARS-CoV-2. We performed virtual screening of the FDA-approved drugs against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, an essential enzyme, and a potential drug target. Using well-defined computational methods, we identified Glecaprevir and Maraviroc (MVC) as the best inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Both drugs bind to the substrate-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and form a significant number of non-covalent interactions. Glecaprevir and MVC bind to the conserved residues of substrate-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. This work provides sufficient evidence for the use of Glecaprevir and MVC for the therapeutic management of COVID-19 after experimental validation and clinical manifestations.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Maraviroc/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Quinoxalinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Maraviroc/química , Maraviroc/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Quinoxalinas/química , Quinoxalinas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2086, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350249

RESUMO

Gain of function (GOF) DNA binding domain (DBD) mutations of TP53 upregulate chromatin regulatory genes that promote genome-wide histone methylation and acetylation. Here, we therapeutically exploit the oncogenic GOF mechanisms of p53 codon 158 (Arg158) mutation, a DBD mutant found to be prevalent in lung carcinomas. Using high throughput compound screening and combination analyses, we uncover that acetylating mutp53R158G could render cancers susceptible to cisplatin-induced DNA stress. Acetylation of mutp53R158G alters DNA binding motifs and upregulates TRAIP, a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase which dephosphorylates IĸB and impedes nuclear translocation of RelA (p65), thus repressing oncogenic nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-ĸB) signaling and inducing apoptosis. Given that this mechanism of cytotoxic vulnerability appears inapt in p53 wild-type (WT) or other hotspot GOF mutp53 cells, our work provides a therapeutic opportunity specific to Arg158-mutp53 tumors utilizing a regimen consisting of DNA-damaging agents and mutp53 acetylators, which is currently being pursued clinically.


Assuntos
Códon/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Camundongos SCID , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Topotecan/farmacologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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