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1.
Arch Virol ; 169(7): 137, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847873

RESUMO

The present study focuses on the pathological and molecular characterization of African swine fever virus (ASFV) associated with an outbreak in wild boars in two national parks in southern India in 2022-2023. Significant mortality was observed among free-ranging wild boars at Bandipur National Park, Karnataka, and Mudumalai National Park, Tamil Nadu. Extensive combing operations were undertaken in both national parks, spanning an area of around 100 km2, originating from the reported epicenter, to estimate the mortality rate. Recovered carcasses were pathologically examined, and ASFV isolates was genetically characterized. Our findings suggested spillover infection of ASFV from nearby domestic pigs, and the virus was equally pathogenic in wild boars and domestic pigs. ASFV intrusion was reported in the Northeastern region of the country, which borders China and Myanmar, whereas the current outbreak is very distantly located, in southern India. Molecular data will help in tracing the spread of the virus in the country.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Surtos de Doenças , Sus scrofa , Animais , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/isolamento & purificação , Índia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/mortalidade , Sus scrofa/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Filogenia , Animais Selvagens/virologia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 123(6): 234, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850432

RESUMO

The genus Sarcocystis includes protozoan parasites with an indirect life cycle. Sarcocystis spp. can infect various animal species and humans, causing sarcocystosis, a parasitosis of economic importance and zoonotic concern. Wild boars can act as intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis miescheriana and the zoonotic Sarcocystis suihominis that infects humans by consumption of raw or undercooked infected swine meat. In the present study, the diaphragmatic muscle tissue of 123 wild boars hunted in Greece was examined to determine the frequency of Sarcocystis spp. The samples were examined by tissue compression and molecular techniques. Under light microscopy, 34 out of 123 (27.6%) wild boars tested positive for Sarcocystis spp., while a higher infection prevalence (75%) was revealed by multiplex PCR performed in 100 of the samples. The partial mtDNA cox1 gene (~ 1100 bp) of 20 samples tested positive for S. miescheriana by multiplex PCR was amplified and sequenced. Sarcocystis miescheriana was identified as the only species involved in these infections. This is the first study on the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in wild animals in Greece. Further, large-scale surveys are needed to assess the prevalence and species of this parasite in Greece and to design efficient control and preventive measures in a One Health perspective.


Assuntos
Sarcocystis , Sarcocistose , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Sarcocystis/genética , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystis/classificação , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Microscopia , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Diafragma/parasitologia
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(5): 183, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831031

RESUMO

This study traced the maternal lineage of the domestic swine populations using mitochondrial DNA control region markers and genetic diversity using microsatellite markers in Uttarakhand, an Indian state situated at the foothills of the world's youngest (geo-dynamically sensitive) mountain system, "the Himalayas". Analysis of 68 maternally unrelated individuals revealed 20 haplotypes. The maternal signature of the Pacific, Southeast Asian, European, and ubiquitously distributed Chinese haplotypes was present in Uttarakhand's domestic pig population. The D3 haplotype reported in wild pigs from North India was also identified in 47 domestic samples. A unique gene pool, UKD (Uttarakhand Domestic), as another lineage specific to this region has been proposed. Genotypes were analyzed, using 13 sets of microsatellite markers. The observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosities were 0.83 ± 0.02 and 0.84 ± 0.01, respectively. The average polymorphic information content value of 0.83 ± 0.01 indicated the high informativeness of the marker. The overall mean FIS value for all the microsatellite markers was low (F = 0.04, P < 0.01). Seven loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) at a significant level (p < 0.05). Two clusters were identified, indicating overlapping populations. These results suggested that though belonging to different maternal lineages, the traditional management practices in Uttarakhand have allowed for genetic mixing and the sharing of genetic material among pig populations. It could contribute to increased genetic diversity but might also result in the loss of distinct genetic characteristics or breed purity of the local breeds if not carefully managed.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Sus scrofa , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Índia , Sus scrofa/genética , Genética Populacional , Feminino , Genótipo
4.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 73, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849962

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a devastating disease affecting domestic and wild pigs. ASF was first introduced in Sardinia in 1978 and until 2019 only genotype I isolates were identified. A remarkable genetic stability of Sardinian ASFV isolates was described, nevertheless in 2019 two wild boar isolates with a sustained genomic deletion (4342 base pairs) were identified (7303WB/19, 7212WB/19). In this study, we therefore performed in vitro experiments with monocyte-derived macrophages (moMФ) to unravel the phenotypic characteristics of these deleted viruses. Both 7303WB/19 and 7212WB/19 presented a lower growth kinetic in moMФ compared to virulent Sardinian 26544/OG10, using either a high (1) or a low (0.01) multiplicity of infection (MOI). In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that both 7303WB/19 and 7212WB/19 presented lower intracellular levels of both early and late ASFV proteins. We subsequently investigated whether deleted virus variants were previously circulating in wild boars in Sardinia. In the four years preceding the last genotype I isolation (February 2015-January 2019), other eight wild boar isolates were collected, all belonging to p72 genotype I, B602L subgroup X, but none of them presented a sustained genomic deletion. Overall, we observed the deleted virus isolates in Sardinia only in 2019, at the end of a strong eradication campaign, and our data suggest that it might possess an attenuated phenotype in vivo. A better understanding of ASFV evolution in endemic territories might contribute to development of effective control measures against ASF.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Genótipo , Sus scrofa , Animais , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/fisiologia , Suínos , Itália , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Genoma Viral , Fenótipo , Deleção de Sequência , Macrófagos/virologia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 123(6): 236, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856927

RESUMO

Echinococcosis is a worldwide disease endemic to the western region of China. In 2023, echinococcosis was detected in one of 27 wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Yili Prefecture, Xinjiang, northwestern China. Histopathological staining and full sequence mitochondrial (mt) analysis were used to determine the infection genotype. Echinococcus granulosus was detected in the wild boar liver, and the cystic lesion characteristics indicated the E. granulosus genotype (G1). This case is the first confirmation of wild boar serving as a transmitter for the G1 genotype of E. granulosus within China. These findings suggest that surveillance is needed to assess the risk of E. granulosus sensu lato transmission to humans and wild animals.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Genótipo , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , China , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Suínos , Equinococose/veterinária , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Filogenia
6.
Anat Histol Embryol ; 53(4): e13068, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837763

RESUMO

A comprehensive light and ultrastructural examination of the cornea in Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed four distinct layers: the anterior epithelium, corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane and endothelium. Although Bowman's layer was not distinctly identified through histology, histochemical analysis indicated the presence of a rudimentary Bowman's layer, possibly vestigial from evolution. Scanning electron microscopy of the outer corneal surface unveiled two cell types, characterized by micro-projections, with light cells exhibiting shorter, thicker projections compared to dark cells. Examination of the inner surface via scanning electron microscopy demonstrated an endothelial layer devoid of cilia and microvilli, yet faint round to oval elevations were observed, potentially representing cell nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy unveiled that basal cells of the anterior epithelium closely adhered to the basement membrane, featuring half desmosomes along the basal surface. These basal cells extensively interconnected through interdigitations and a few desmosomes. The superficial cell layer consisted of a few rows of closely attached flat cells, forming a leak-proof layer with zona occludens. The outermost cells of this layer displayed fine projections to enhance the surface area, facilitating tear film distribution. At lower magnification, Transmission electron microscopy of the corneal stroma revealed alternating light and dark bands, with light bands representing transverse sections of collagen fibril lamellae and dark bands corresponding to longitudinal or oblique sections. Spindle-shaped keratocytes (fibroblasts) were identified as the primary stromal cells, intermingled between the lamellae, and featured long processes in close contact with neighbouring keratocytes. Overall, the histomorphology of the pig cornea resembles that of the human cornea except indistinct Bowman's membrane. This detailed understanding of the normal corneal structure in pigs hold great significance for biomedical research, providing a valuable reference for studies involving this animal model.


Assuntos
Córnea , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Sus scrofa , Animais , Córnea/ultraestrutura , Córnea/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Sus scrofa/anatomia & histologia , Substância Própria/ultraestrutura , Endotélio Corneano/ultraestrutura , Endotélio Corneano/anatomia & histologia , Epitélio Corneano/ultraestrutura , Lâmina Limitante Posterior/ultraestrutura , Lâmina Limitante Posterior/anatomia & histologia , Suínos/anatomia & histologia , Lâmina Limitante Anterior/ultraestrutura , Lâmina Limitante Anterior/anatomia & histologia
7.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(4): e1480, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879810

RESUMO

Sarcocystis miescheriana infection is an important cause of carcass condemnation during meat inspection. The infection can cause morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs. In this study, an 8-month-old finisher pig was presented to a local abattoir for slaughter. Multiple white nodular lesions affecting the meat were observed, resulting in the condemnation of the carcass. Consequently, half of the carcass was submitted to the necropsy diagnostic laboratory in the School of Veterinary Medicine for further evaluation. Grossly, all superficial and deep muscle groups had severe multifocal macrocysts (3 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm) on the surface and extending deep into the skeletal musculature. Histopathology revealed moderate multifocal granulomatous and eosinophilic myositis with intralesional degenerated and intact parasites. Sample genomic DNA sequence analysis of the 18S RNA gene showed 100% identity to S. miescheriana in the GenBank. This is the first report of S. miescheriana in Grenada, West Indies.


Assuntos
Sarcocystis , Sarcocistose , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystis/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Suínos , Granada/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa
8.
PeerJ ; 12: e17390, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881858

RESUMO

Wild boar (Sus scrofa), an abundant species across Europe, is often subjected to management in agro-ecosystems in order to control population size, or to scare them away from agricultural fields to safeguard crop yields. Wild boar management can benefit from a better understanding on changes in its space use across the diel cycle (i.e., diel space use) in relation to variable hunting pressures or other factors. Here, we estimate wild boar diel space use in an agro-ecosystem in central Belgium during four consecutive "growing seasons" (i.e., April-September). To achieve this, we fit generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to camera trap data of wild boar aggregated over 1-h periods. Our results reveal that wild boar are predominantly nocturnal in all of the hunting management zones in Meerdaal, with activity peaks around sunrise and sunset. Hunting events in our study area tend to take place around sunrise and sunset, while non-lethal human activities occur during sunlight hours. Our GAMM reveals that wild boar use different areas throughout the diel cycle. During the day, wild boar utilized areas in the centre of the forest, possibly to avoid human activities during daytime. During the night, they foraged near (or in) agricultural fields. A post hoc comparison of space use maps of wild boar in Meerdaal revealed that their diurnal and nocturnal space use were uncorrelated. We did not find sufficient evidence to prove that wild boar spatiotemporally avoid hunters. Finally, our work reveals the potential of GAMMs to model variation in space across 24-h periods from camera trap data, an application that will be useful to address a range of ecological questions. However, to test the robustness of this approach we advise that it should be compared against telemetry-based methods to derive diel space use.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Sus scrofa , Animais , Bélgica , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Agricultura/métodos
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 936: 173258, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761929

RESUMO

Urbanization is an ongoing global environmental change. Wildlife may respond using anthropized environments and resources, which is known as synurbization, creating human-wildlife interactions. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations have become common in urban areas, including the metropolitan area of Barcelona. Humans respond to wild boars in urban environments either habituating, with lower conflict perception and higher wild boar acceptance, or sensitizing, with reduced tolerance towards wild boars. Since citizen response influences conflict management, this study analysed the drivers of human responses, which should allow adopting socially-accepted measures to manage synurbic wild boar populations. Interviews to 1956 Barcelona citizens were performed, grouping the response variables to score citizen and urban characteristics, as well as citizen lay-knowledge, emotions, experiences, and perception of wild boar. Five citizen clusters were identified: cluster 1 (3.3 %), highly habituated and active wild boar feeder; cluster 2 (11.3 %), habituated to wild boars with positive feelings; cluster 3 (19.8 %), not habituated nor sensitized, willing to maintain urban wild boar populations; cluster 4 (29.1 %), sensitized and concerned, defending to reduce wild boar; and cluster 5 (40.1 %), highly sensitized and proposing to reduce or even eliminate wild boar. Positive attitudes associated wild boar to aesthetic value, closeness to nature and sympathy, and were more frequent in young citizens with urban background and high education, animal lovers habituated to wild boar through contact without negative experiences. Conversely, negative attitudes were concerned about city fouling, safety or health, accepted lethal management measures, and were more frequent in older citizens with rural background, lower education, low contact with wild boar or sensitized through negative experiences. We document for the first time the sensitization and reciprocal habituation of humans to wild boar in urban areas. The identification of the drivers of citizen attitudes towards urban wildlife should be useful to design socially-accepted management measures.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa , Urbanização , Animais , Humanos , Espanha , Cidades , Animais Selvagens
10.
Mol Ecol ; 33(12): e17383, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747342

RESUMO

Despite a long presence in the contiguous United States (US), the distribution of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa × domesticus) has expanded rapidly since the 1980s, suggesting a more recent evolutionary shift towards greater invasiveness. Contemporary populations of wild pigs represent exoferal hybrid descendants of domestic pigs and European wild boar, with such hybridization expected to enrich genetic diversity and increase the adaptive potential of populations. Our objective was to characterize how genetic enrichment through hybridization increases the invasiveness of populations by identifying signals of selection and the ancestral origins of selected loci. Our study focused on invasive wild pigs within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which represents a hybrid population descendent from the admixture of established populations of feral pigs and an introduction of European wild boar to North America. Accordingly, we genotyped 881 wild pigs with multiple high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. We found 233 markers under putative selection spread over 79 regions across 16 out of 18 autosomes, which contained genes involved in traits affecting feralization. Among these, genes were found to be related to skull formation and neurogenesis, with two genes, TYRP1 and TYR, also encoding for crucial melanogenesis enzymes. The most common haplotypes associated with regions under selection for the Great Smoky Mountains population were also common among other populations throughout the region, indicating a key role of putatively selective variants in the fitness of invasive populations. Interestingly, many of these haplotypes were absent among European wild boar reference genotypes, indicating feralization through genetic adaptation.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Espécies Introduzidas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Sus scrofa , Animais , Estados Unidos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Genótipo , Hibridização Genética , Suínos/genética , Animais Selvagens/genética , Variação Genética
11.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 326(6): R578-R587, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708546

RESUMO

Oxidative stress contributes to heat stress (HS)-mediated alterations in skeletal muscle; however, the extent to which biological sex mediates oxidative stress during HS remains unknown. We hypothesized muscle from males would be more resistant to oxidative stress caused by HS than muscle from females. To address this, male and female pigs were housed in thermoneutral conditions (TN; 20.8 ± 1.6°C; 62.0 ± 4.7% relative humidity; n = 8/sex) or subjected to HS (39.4 ± 0.6°C; 33.7 ± 6.3% relative humidity) for 1 (HS1; n = 8/sex) or 7 days (HS7; n = 8/sex) followed by collection of the oxidative portion of the semitendinosus. Although HS increased muscle temperature, by 7 days, muscle from heat-stressed females was cooler than muscle from heat-stressed males (0.3°C; P < 0.05). Relative protein abundance of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-modified proteins increased in HS1 females compared with TN (P = 0.05). Furthermore, malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration, a DNA damage marker, was increased in HS7 females compared with TN females (P = 0.05). Enzymatic activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) remained similar between groups; however, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity decreased in HS7 females compared with TN and HS1 females (P ≤ 0.03) and HS7 males (P = 0.02). Notably, HS increased skeletal muscle Ca2+ deposition (P = 0.05) and was greater in HS1 females compared with TN females (P < 0.05). Heat stress increased sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA)2a protein abundance (P < 0.01); however, Ca2+ ATPase activity remained similar between groups. Overall, despite having lower muscle temperature, muscle from heat-stressed females had increased markers of oxidative stress and calcium deposition than muscle from males following identical environmental exposure.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Heat stress is a global threat to human health and agricultural production. We demonstrated that following 7 days of heat stress, skeletal muscle from females was more susceptible to oxidative stress than muscle from males in a porcine model, despite cooler muscle temperatures. The vulnerability to heat stress-induced oxidative stress in females may be driven, at least in part, by decreased antioxidant capacity and calcium dysregulation.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Músculo Esquelético , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Suínos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sus scrofa
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(5)2024 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38790252

RESUMO

Genetic variation facilitates the evolution, environmental adaptability, and biodiversity of organisms. Danish Large White (LW) pigs have more desirable phenotypes compared with local Chinese pigs, which have difficulty adapting to the modern swine industry. However, the genome-wide mutational differences between these pig breeds are yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate genomic variation and identify breed-specific SNPs in Danish LW pigs. Here, 43 LW, 15 Diqing Tibetan (DQZ), and 15 Diannan small-ear (DN) pigs whose genomes were re-sequenced with 5× depth were selected. This was followed by a conjoined analysis of our previous resequencing data of 24 Anqing six-end white (AQ) and six Asian wild (SS) pigs. In total, 39,158,378 SNPs and 13,143,989 insertion-deletions were obtained in all breeds. The variation number of LW pigs was the lowest, with 287,194 breed-specific and 1289 non-synonymous SNPs compared with Chinese breeds. Functional analysis of the breed-specific non-synonymous SNPs indicated that these mutations were mainly associated with the reproductive performance, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of LW pigs. These findings provide a theoretical basis for genetic improvements in the Chinese swine industry.


Assuntos
Genoma , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Suínos/genética , Genoma/genética , Cruzamento , China , Sus scrofa/genética , Fenótipo
13.
Prev Vet Med ; 228: 106212, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704921

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease that affects domestic and feral pigs. While not currently present in Australia, ASF outbreaks have been reported nearby in Indonesia, Timor-Leste, and Papua New Guinea. Feral pigs are found in all Australian states and territories and are distributed in a variety of habitats. To investigate the impacts of an ASF introduction event in Australia, we used a stochastic network-based metapopulation feral pig model to simulate ASF outbreaks in different regions of Australia. Outbreak intensity and persistence in feral pig populations was governed by local pig recruitment rates, population size, carcass decay period, and, if applicable, metapopulation topology. In Northern Australia, the carcass decay period was too short for prolonged persistence, while endemic transmission could possibly occur in cooler southern areas. Populations in Macquarie Marshes in New South Wales and in Namadgi National Park in the Australian Capital Territory had the highest rates of persistence. The regions had different modes of transmission that led to long-term persistence. Endemic Macquarie Marshes simulations were characterised by rapid transmission caused by high population density that required a fragmented metapopulation to act as a bottleneck to slow transmission. Endemic simulations in Namadgi, with low density and relatively slow transmission, relied on large, well-connected populations coupled with long carcass decay times. Despite the potential for endemic transmission, both settings required potentially unlikely population sizes and dynamics for prolonged disease survival.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Surtos de Doenças , Animais , Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Austrália/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Densidade Demográfica , Modelos Biológicos , Sus scrofa
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(5): 166, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758410

RESUMO

African Swine Fever (ASF) disease transmission parameters are crucial for making response and control decisions when faced with an outbreak, yet they are poorly quantified for smallholder and village contexts within Southeast Asia. Whilst disease-specific factors - such as latent and infectious periods - should remain reasonably consistent, host, environmental and management factors are likely to affect the rate of disease spread. These differences are investigated using Approximate Bayesian Computation with Sequential Monte-Carlo methods to provide disease parameter estimates in four naïve pig populations in villages of Lao People's Democratic Republic. The villages represent smallholder pig farmers of the Northern province of Oudomxay and the Southern province of Savannakhet, and the model utilised field mortality data to validate the transmission parameter estimates over the course of multiple model generations. The basic reproductive number between-pigs was estimated to range from 3.08 to 7.80, whilst the latent and infectious periods were consistent with those published in the literature for similar genotypes in the region (4.72 to 6.19 days and 2.63 to 5.50 days, respectively). These findings demonstrate that smallholder village pigs interact similarly to commercial pigs, however the spread of disease may occur slightly slower than in commercial study groups. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that despite diversity across the study groups, the disease behaved in a consistent manner. This data can be used in disease control programs or for future modelling of ASF in smallholder contexts.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Teorema de Bayes , Animais , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Suínos , Laos/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Método de Monte Carlo , Sus scrofa , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/fisiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 931: 172739, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697537

RESUMO

Accurate prediction of fluctuations of wildlife local number of individuals is crucial for effective population management to minimise human-wildlife conflicts. Climate, habitat, food availability, and density dependence are among the main factors influencing mammalian population dynamics. In southern Europe, precipitation and temperature, particularly during summer have been suggested as key factors affecting wild boar (Sus scrofa L.). However, there is uncertainty regarding the role of these factors and the mechanisms driving population fluctuations. This study utilized long-term data of wild boar populations from 14 study sites collected for 23 years in Catalonia, Spain, to analyse the factors that drive population density and growth rate. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMM) explained respectively, 94 % and 65 % of the density and growth rate variability. Spring precipitation in both current and previous year, female weight, and forest cover (particularly above 60 %) were directly associated with higher wild boar densities and population growth rates. The interaction between crop cover and total annual precipitation also played a significant role in determining population density. Higher densities were linked to lower population growth in the following year, likely due to a density-dependent process. These results suggest that the expected decrease in rainfall linked with global warming may limit the availability of natural resources and potentially slow wild boar population growth. Nevertheless, wild boar can exploit alternative anthropogenic food sources, potentially leading to an increase of human-wildlife conflicts. Therefore, incorporating management policies aimed at restricting wild boar access to human food sources is key for controlling their reproductive output. Additionally, landscape management strategies targeted at diminishing refuge and resource availability in regions experiencing high wild boar impact are essential for contributing to sustainable coexistence between wild boars and human populations.


Assuntos
Densidade Demográfica , Crescimento Demográfico , Sus scrofa , Animais , Espanha , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
16.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303093, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722996

RESUMO

Radionuclide contamination is a serious health issue caused by nuclear experiments and plant accidents, as seen for the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plants. Italy has been especially interested in northwestern alpine regions, as have several other nations. The aim of this work was to indagate 134Cs and 137Cs contamination in wild boars, which were considered bioindicators sampled in the Chisone/Germanasca Valley and the Pellice Valley districts (Piedmont, Italy) in two hunting seasons (2014 and 2016). In the 2014 season, only the livers of the animals (n = 48) were sampled, whereas in 2016, five different anatomical sampling sites were sampled for each animal (n = 16). The analyses were conducted in an accredited laboratory (Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione dell'Ambiente-ARPA) by the aid of an HPGe detector (Ortec) with a relative efficiency of 50%. In general, the contamination levels registered in 2014 were under the detection limit for 134Cs and low for 137Cs (Chisone/Germanasca valley: min: 0.0, max: 23.9 median 11.0 Bq/kg vs Pellice valley: min 0, max: 31.7, median: 9.6 Bq/kg) and no health concern can be supposed. In the first-year samples, the liver showed a negative correlation between age and contamination level. In the second year of sampling, low levels were confirmed (min: 3.1 Bq/kg, max: 113.3; median 17.7 Bq/kg). Multiple sampling from the same animal showed that the diaphragm (median = 27.7 Bq/kg) kidney (27.4) and tongue (27.6) were more contaminated than the liver (17.7) and spleen (15.3). Moreover, a linear mixed model revealed a negative organ-by-age interaction, meaning that interorgan differences in contamination level were greater in younger (5-11 months) than in older (18-36 months) animals. Different feeding habits can be the explanation. Our paper shows that muscle sites (diaphragm and tongue) can be useful for radionuclide pollution surveillance in wild boar populations and that younger animals show more interorgan variability in contamination levels than older animals. More investigations are needed to confirm this correlation and to fulfill the request for more data to achieve better risk assessment.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio , Sus scrofa , Animais , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Itália , Fígado , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Masculino
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 940: 173463, 2024 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802001

RESUMO

Wild ungulates are expanding in range and number worldwide leading to an urgent need to manage their populations to minimize conflicts and promote coexistence with humans. In the metropolitan area of Barcelona (MAB), wild boar is the main wildlife species causing a nuisance, from traffic accidents to health risks. Selective harvesting of specific sex and age classes and reducing anthropogenic food resources would be the most efficient approach to dealing with overpopulation. Nonetheless, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the age and sex selectivity of the capture methods currently applied in the MAB for wild boar population control. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the performance and age and sex bias of different hunting and capture methods and the seasonal patterns in their performance (number of captured individuals per event). From February 2014 to August 2022, 1454 wild boars were captured in the MAB using drop net, teleanaesthesia, cage traps, night stalks, and drive hunting. We applied generalized linear models (GLM) to compare the performance of these methods for the total number of wild boars, the wild boars belonging to each age category (i.e., adult, yearling, and juvenile), and for each season. The studied capture methods showed age-class bias and sex bias in adults (>2 years). Drive hunting and drop net removed mainly adult females and yearlings (1-2 years), with drive hunting having the highest performance for adult males. Instead, cage traps and drop net were the best methods to capture juveniles (<1 year). Overall, global performance was higher in summer, decreasingly followed by autumn and spring, winter being the worst performing season. Wildlife managers and researchers should consider the different performance and sex and age bias of each hunting and capture method, as well as the associated public cost, to improve efficiency and achieve the best results in wild boar population management.


Assuntos
Caça , Sus scrofa , Animais , Espanha , Masculino , Feminino , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Estações do Ano , Animais Selvagens
18.
J Proteome Res ; 23(6): 1948-1959, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717300

RESUMO

The availability of an increasingly large amount of public proteomics data sets presents an opportunity for performing combined analyses to generate comprehensive organism-wide protein expression maps across different organisms and biological conditions. Sus scrofa, a domestic pig, is a model organism relevant for food production and for human biomedical research. Here, we reanalyzed 14 public proteomics data sets from the PRIDE database coming from pig tissues to assess baseline (without any biological perturbation) protein abundance in 14 organs, encompassing a total of 20 healthy tissues from 128 samples. The analysis involved the quantification of protein abundance in 599 mass spectrometry runs. We compared protein expression patterns among different pig organs and examined the distribution of proteins across these organs. Then, we studied how protein abundances were compared across different data sets and studied the tissue specificity of the detected proteins. Of particular interest, we conducted a comparative analysis of protein expression between pig and human tissues, revealing a high degree of correlation in protein expression among orthologs, particularly in brain, kidney, heart, and liver samples. We have integrated the protein expression results into the Expression Atlas resource for easy access and visualization of the protein expression data individually or alongside gene expression data.


Assuntos
Rim , Proteômica , Animais , Proteômica/métodos , Humanos , Suínos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/química , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Espectrometria de Massas
19.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(4): e1474, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitic diseases of pigs are a public and veterinary health problem. Helminths influence pork production, whereas backyard pigs can transmit these parasites. OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Ascaris suum and Trichinella spiralis in backyard pigs from Jamiltepec, Region de la Costa, Oaxaca, in Southwestern Mexico. METHODS: Six hundred sixty-four serum samples were obtained from backyard pigs from 23 rural villages distributed in 5 municipalities; samples were taken in a non-probabilistic manner with the owner's consent. The presence of serum antibodies against a total extract of A. suum adult worm was determined by ELISA. In contrast, antibodies to the excretion-secretion products of the T. spiralis muscle larva were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: The global seroprevalence for A. suum was 5.12% and 2.41% for T. spiralis; however, antibodies were only found in 8 villages and distributed in 3 municipalities. The highest frequency of positivity for Ascaris was found in the municipality of Santa Catarina Mechoacán (13.01%), whereas, in Santa María Huazalotitlán, the highest frequency of positivity for Trichinella was found (5.75%). In San Andrés, frequencies were 7.23% and 4.82%, respectively. No statistical differences were observed between populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that helminth transmission is restricted by locality. However, further studies must be conducted to understand the factors limiting this transmission to promote pork meat production in parasite-free zones.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Ascaris suum , Doenças dos Suínos , Trichinella spiralis , Triquinelose , Animais , México/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/veterinária , Triquinelose/parasitologia , Suínos , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaríase/veterinária , Trichinella spiralis/isolamento & purificação , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Prevalência , Sus scrofa , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/análise , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Viruses ; 16(5)2024 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793635

RESUMO

Human health is dependent on food safety and, therefore, on the health of farm animals. One of the most significant threats in regard to swine diseases is African swine fever (ASF). Infections caused by porcine circoviruses (PCVs) represent another important swine disease. Due to the ubiquitous nature of PCV2, it is not surprising that this virus has been detected in ASFV-affected pigs. However, recent data indicate that coinfection of PCV3 and ASFV also occurs. It is still unclear whether PCV infection plays a role in ASFV infection, and that subject requires further analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether PCV3 and PCV4 are present in the wild boar population in Poland (real-time PCR). The analysis was performed on wild boar samples collected for routine ASF surveillance in Poland, between 2018 and 2021. By extension, the obtained data were compared in regard to ASFV presence in these samples, thus investigating the odds of ASFV infection on the grounds of the PCV carrier state in free-ranging Suidae in Poland. In addition, sequencing of PCV3 and phylogenetic analysis were performed, based on a full genome and a capsid gene. In the current study, we demonstrated the high prevalence of PCV3 in the wild boar population in Poland; meanwhile, PCV4 was not detected. The odds of ASFV infection on the grounds of the PCV3 carrier state in free-ranging Suidae in Poland was more than twice as high. Ten full genome sequences of PCV3 were obtained, all of them belonging to clade 3a. The similarity between them was in the range of 98.78-99.80%.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Infecções por Circoviridae , Circovirus , Coinfecção , Filogenia , Sus scrofa , Animais , Polônia/epidemiologia , Circovirus/genética , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Circovirus/classificação , Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/classificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
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