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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 628-630, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183615

RESUMO

The African swine fever virus (ASFV) was first detected in wild boar in the Demilitarized Zone, a bordered area between South and North Korea, on 2 October 2019. Phylogenetic analyses of ASFV genes encoding p72 and CD2v indicated that the causative strain belongs to genotype II and serogroup 8, respectively, and contained additional tandem repeat sequences between the I73R and the I329L protein genes.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Asfarviridae/genética , Febre Suína Africana/diagnóstico , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Animais , Filogenia , República da Coreia , Sus scrofa , Suínos
2.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 298-304, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (pREBOA) and intermittent REBOA (iREBOA) are techniques to extend the therapeutic duration of REBOA by balloon titration for distal flow or cyclical balloon inflation/deflation to allow transient distal flow, respectively. We hypothesized that manually titrated pREBOA would reduce blood losses and ischemic burden when compared with iREBOA. METHODS: Following 20% blood volume controlled hemorrhage, 10 anesthetized pigs underwent uncontrolled hemorrhage from the right iliac artery and vein. Once in hemorrhagic shock, animals underwent 15 minutes of complete zone 1 REBOA followed by 75 minutes of either pREBOA or iREBOA (n = 5/group). After 90 minutes, definitive hemorrhage control was obtained, animals were resuscitated with the remaining collected blood, and then received 2 hours of critical care. RESULTS: There were no differences in mortality. Animals randomized to iREBOA spent a larger portion of the time at full occlusion when compared with pREBOA (median, 70 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 70-80 vs. median, 20 minutes; IQR, 20-40, respectively; p = 0.008). While the average blood pressure during the intervention period was equivalent between groups, this was offset by large fluctuations in blood pressure and significantly more rescue occlusions for hypotension with iREBOA. Despite lower maximum aortic flow rates, the pREBOA group tolerated a greater total amount of distal aortic flow during the intervention period (median, 20.9 L; IQR, 20.1-23.0 vs. median, 9.8 L; IQR, 6.8-10.3; p = 0.03) with equivalent abdominal blood losses. Final plasma lactate and creatinine concentrations were equivalent, although iREBOA animals had increased duodenal edema on histology. CONCLUSION: Compared with iREBOA, pREBOA reduced the time spent at full occlusion and the number of precipitous drops in proximal mean arterial pressure while delivering more distal aortic flow but not increasing total blood loss in this highly lethal injury model. Neither technique demonstrated a survival benefit. Further refinement of these techniques is necessary before clinical guidelines are issued.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Animais , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
3.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 4, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) are globally widely distributed, and their populations have increased in Europe during recent decades. Encounters between humans and wild boars are rare because of the predominantly nocturnal lifestyle of the latter, and wild boar management by hunting is a challenging task. Animal activity patterns are important for understanding the behaviour of a species. However, knowledge of detailed temporal patterns and an understanding of the drivers of wild boar activity at a fine temporal scale are lacking. Of special relevance for human-wild boar interactions (e.g., encounters, conflicts, and management) is the question of whether nocturnal activity depends on anthropogenic factors and, particularly, how local hunting regimes may affect activity patterns. We used GPS telemetry and acceleration measurements to shed light on this part of wild boar behaviour, observing 34 animals in Central Europe. Animals were tracked along a gradient of hunting pressure from hunting-free areas to areas with low or high hunting pressure. Fitted generalised additive models allowed predicting the probability of active behaviour under differing disturbance regimes precisely to day of year and time of day. RESULTS: The wild boars were predominantly nocturnal, with peak activity at approximately midnight. However, the data showed increased activity during daylight for wild boars that used no-hunting zones or reduced-hunting zones. Large areas with low disturbance levels promoted activity during daylight more than smaller areas with an intermediate disturbance regime. High air temperatures and locations within forests reduced the probability of active behaviour, whereas proximity to tracks used for forestry or agriculture was accompanied by a higher probability of activity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wild boars flexibly adjust their activity to their local environmental conditions, considering disturbances at the scale of long-term home ranges as well as actual small-scale landscape quality. Entire wild boar home ranges should be covered in the delineation of reserves intending to stimulate activity during daylight.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Sus scrofa , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Suínos
5.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 345-353, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bedside lung volume measurement could personalise ventilation and reduce driving pressure in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We investigated a modified gas-dilution method, the inspired sinewave technique (IST), to measure the effective lung volume (ELV) in pigs with uninjured lungs and in an ARDS model. METHODS: Anaesthetised mechanically ventilated pigs were studied before and after surfactant depletion by saline lavage. Changes in PEEP were used to change ELV. Paired measurements of absolute ELV were taken with IST (ELVIST) and compared with gold-standard measures (sulphur hexafluoride wash in/washout [ELVSF6] and computed tomography (CT) [ELVCT]). Measured volumes were used to calculate changes in ELV (ΔELV) between PEEP levels for each method (ΔELVIST, ΔELVSF6, and ΔELVCT). RESULTS: The coefficient of variation was <5% for repeated ELVIST measurements (n=13 pigs). There was a strong linear relationship between ELVIST and ELVSF6 in uninjured lungs (r2=0.97), and with both ELVSF6 and ELVCT in the ARDS model (r2=0.87 and 0.92, respectively). ELVIST had a mean bias of -12 to 13% (95% limits=±17 - 25%) compared with ELVSF6 and ELVCT. ΔELVIST was concordant with ΔELVSF6 and ΔELVCT in 98-100% of measurements, and had a mean bias of -73 to -77 ml (95% limits=±128 - 186 ml) compared with ΔELVSF6 and -1 ml (95% limits ±333 ml) compared with ΔELVCT. CONCLUSIONS: IST provides a repeatable measure of absolute ELV and shows minimal bias when tracking PEEP-induced changes in lung volume compared with CT in a saline-lavage model of ARDS.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Solução Salina , Sus scrofa , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Food Microbiol ; 87: 103385, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948626

RESUMO

The present work was carried out to evaluate the microbiological and physicochemical composition of salamis produced with the meat of beef, horse, wild boar and pork. Salami productions occurred under controlled laboratory conditions to exclude butchery environmental contaminations, without the addition of nitrate and nitrite. All trials were monitored during the ripening (13 °C and 90% relative humidity) extended until 45 d. The evolution of physicochemical parameters showed that beef and pork salamis were characterized by a higher content of branched chain fatty acids (FA) and rumenic acid than horse and wild boar salamis, whereas the last two productions showed higher values of secondary lipid oxidation. Plate counts showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) populations dominated the microbial community of all productions with Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus as most frequently isolated bacteria. The microbial diversity evaluated by MiSeq Illumina showed the presence of members of Gammaproteobacteria phylum, Moraxellaceae family, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Carnobacterium and Enterococcus in all salamis. This study showed the natural evolution of indigenous fermented meat starter cultures and confirmed a higher suitability of horse and beef meat for nitrate/nitrite free salami production due to their hygienic quality at 30 d.


Assuntos
/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cavalos , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Sus scrofa , Suínos
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 88-94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900060

RESUMO

Infection with a novel H10N8 influenza virus in humans was first described in China in December 2013, which raised concerns related to public health. This novel virus was subsequently confirmed to have originated from a live poultry market. However, whether this virus can infect other mammals remains unclear. In the present study, antibody specific for H10N8 influenza virus was detected in swine herds in southern China during serological monitoring for swine influenza virus. The pathogenicity and transmissibility of this H10N8 influenza virus to swine was examined. The results showed that swine are susceptible to infection with human-origin H10N8 influenza virus, which causes viral shedding, severe tissue lesions, and seroconversion, while infection with avian-origin H10N8 influenza virus causes only seroconversion and no viral shedding. Importantly, human-origin H10N8 influenza virus can inefficiently be transmitted between swine and cause seroconversion through direct contact. This study provides a new perspective regarding the ecology of H10N8 influenza virus and highlights the importance of epidemiological monitoring of the H10N8 influenza virus in different animal species, which will be helpful for preventing and controlling future infections by this virus.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H10N8/fisiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , China , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H10N8/patogenicidade , Pulmão/patologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses
8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 207-218, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administration of human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes can enhance neurorestoration in models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). The impact of early treatment with MSC-derived exosomes on brain injury in a large animal model remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the impact of early single-dose exosome treatment on brain swelling and lesion size, blood-based cerebral biomarkers, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. METHODS: Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to a severe TBI (12-mm cortical impact) and HS (40% estimated total blood volume). One hour into shock, animals were randomized (n = 5/cohort) to receive either lactated Ringer's (LR; 5 mL) or LR + exosomes (1 × 10 exosome particles in 5 mL LR). Animals then underwent additional shock (1 hour) followed by normal saline resuscitation. After 6 hours of observation, brain swelling (% increase compared with the uninjured side) and lesion size (mm) were assessed. Cerebral hemodynamics and blood-based biomarkers of brain injury were compared. Immunofluorescence and RNA sequencing with differential gene expression and pathway analysis were used to assess the integrity of the perilesion BBB. RESULTS: Exosome-treated animals had significantly less (p < 0.05) brain swelling and smaller lesion size. They also had significantly decreased (p < 0.05) intracranial pressures and increased cerebral perfusion pressures. Exosome-treated animals had significantly decreased (p < 0.05) albumin extravasation and significantly higher (p < 0.05) laminin, claudin-5, and zonula occludens 1 levels. Differential gene expression and pathway analysis confirmed these findings. Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were also significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the exosome-treated cohort at the end of the experiment. CONCLUSION: In a large animal model of TBI and HS, early treatment with a single dose of MSC-derived exosomes significantly attenuates brain swelling and lesion size, decreases levels of blood-based cerebral biomarkers, and improves BBB integrity.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Exossomos/transplante , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/patologia , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Anim Genet ; 51(1): 32-42, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809557

RESUMO

The Piétrain pig originates from the Belgian village Piétrain some time between 1920 and 1950. Owing to its superior conformation, the Piétrain has spread worldwide since the 1960s. As initial population sizes were limited and close inbreeding was commonplace, the breed's genetic diversity has been questioned. Therefore, this study examines Piétrain breed substructure, diversity and selection signatures using SNP data in comparison with Duroc, Landrace and Large White populations. Principal component analysis indicated three subpopulations, and FST analysis showed that US Piétrains differ most from European Piétrains. Average inbreeding based on runs of homozygosity (ROH) segments larger than 4 Mb ranged between 16.7 and 20.9%. The highest chromosomal inbreeding levels were found on SSC8 (42.7%). ROH islands were found on SSC8, SSC15 and SSC18 in all Piétrain populations, but numerous population-specific ROH islands were also detected. Moreover, a large ROH island on SSC8 (34-126 Mb) appears nearly fixed in all Piétrain populations, with a unique genotype. Chromosomal ROH patterns were similar between Piétrain populations. This study shows that Piétrain populations are genetically diverging, with at least three genetically distinct populations worldwide. Increasing genetic diversity in local Piétrain populations by introgression from other Piétrain populations seems to be only limited. Moreover, a unique 90 Mb region on SSC8 appeared largely fixed in the Piétrain breed, indicating that fixation was already present before the 1960s. We believe that strong selection and inbreeding during breed formation fixed these genomic regions in Piétrains. Finally, we hypothesize that independent coat color selection may have led to large ROH pattern similarities on SSC8 between unrelated pig breeds.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Endogamia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Seleção Genética
10.
Anim Genet ; 51(1): 101-105, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793034

RESUMO

Nero Siciliano (Sicilian Black, SB) is a local pig breed generally of uniform black color. In addition to this officially recognized breed, there are animals showing morphological characteristics resembling the SB but with gray hair (Sicilian Grey, SG). The SG, compared with the SB, also shows a more compact structure with greater transverse diameters, higher average daily gains and lower thickness of the back fat. In this study, using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip, we run genome-wide analyses to identify regions that may explain the phenotypic differences between SB (n = 21) and SG (n = 27) individuals. Combining the results of the two case-control approaches (GWAS and FST ), we identified two significant regions, one on SSC5 (95 401 083 bp) and one on SSC15 (55 051 435 bp), which contains several candidate genes related to growth traits in pig. The results of the Bayesian population differentiation approach identified a marker near the MGAT4C, a gene associated with average daily gain in pigs. Finally, scanning the genome for runs of homozygosity islands, we found that the two groups have different runs of homozygosity islands, with several candidate genes involved in coat color (in SG) or related to different pig performance traits (in SB). In summary, the two analyzed groups differed for several phenotypic traits, and genes involved in these traits (growth, meat traits and coat color) were detected. This study provided another contribution to the identification of genomic regions involved in phenotypic variability in local pig populations.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Fenótipo , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Cor de Cabelo , Homozigoto , Carne Vermelha
11.
J Surg Res ; 246: 190-199, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines support intraosseous access for trauma resuscitation when intravenous access is not readily available. However, safety of intraosseous blood transfusions with varying degrees of infusion pressure has not been previously characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult female Yorkshire swine (Sus scrofa; n = 36; mean (M): 80 kg, 95% CI: 78-82 kg) were cannulated and then bled approximately 30% total blood volume. Swine were randomly assigned to proximal humerus intraosseous blood infusion with either Rapid Infuser, or Pressure Bag, or Push-Pull methods (n = 12 each). Flow rates, infusion pressures, vitals, biochemical variables, and pulmonary and renal tissue pathology were contrasted between groups. RESULTS: Flow rates were greater for the Push-Pull strategy than Pressure Bag (96.5 mL/min versus 72.6 mL/min, P = 0.02) or Rapid Infuser (96.5 mL/min versus 60 mL/min, P = 0.002) strategies. The pressures generated during the Push-Pull transfusion (3058 mmHg) were greater than the other strategies (≤360 mmHg). After the observation period, plasma-free hemoglobin levels were higher in the Push-Pull strategy than in the Rapid Infuser (40 mg/dL versus 12 mg/dL, P = 0.02) or Pressure Bag (40 mg/dL versus 12 mg/dL, P = 0.01). Groups did not significantly differ in vitals, biochemical variables, or tissue pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Push-Pull conferred the highest flow rates, but with higher infusion pressures and evidence of intravascular hemolysis. Rapid Infuser and Pressure Bag infusions had no increase from baseline in plasma-free hemoglobin. Pressure Bag infusion was noted to confer an advantage in flow rates over Rapid Infuser. Intraosseous blood transfusion with pressure bags can safely bridge toward central access in the early phases of trauma resuscitation.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Hemólise , Infusões Intraósseas/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Adulto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Úmero , Infusões Intraósseas/métodos , Pressão/efeitos adversos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/sangue , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Surg Res ; 246: 62-72, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561179

RESUMO

Recurrence rates in the laparoscopic repair of the hiatal hernia range from 12% to 59%. Limitation of reinforcement has been principally the risk of adverse events caused by synthetic materials. Biologic and resorbable synthetic materials are valid alternatives. This study compares the host response to all these materials after hiatal hernia repair. A total of 20 Landrace pigs, underwent laparoscopic primary hiatal hernia repair and reinforced with a polypropylene mesh (PROLENE: polypropylene [PP]), an absorbable synthetic scaffold (GOREBIO-A: polyglycolic acid [PGA]), a urinary bladder matrix scaffold, (Gentrix: urinary bladder matrix [UBM]), or without reinforcement, control group (C). Animals were survived for 3 months. Endpoints included gross morphology, biomechanical testing, and histology. Pigs in PP and PGA groups showed fibrosis at the repair site, with robust adhesions. In UBM and C groups, only mild adhesions were found. Load at failure (gr) and stiffness (gr/mm) of PP were higher than C group (PP:2103 ± 548.3 versus C:951.1 ± 372.7, P = 0.02; PP:643.3 ± 301 versus C:152.6 ± 142.7, P = 0.01). PGA and UBM values for both parameters were in between PP and C samples. However, stiffness in UBM was tended to be lower than PP group, and approached a significant difference (643.3 ± 301 versus 243 ± 122.1, P = 0.0536). In UBM group, the histology resembled native tissue. By contrast, PP and PGA groups showed mononuclear infiltrates, fibroencapsulation, necrosis, remnants of mesh, and disorganized tissue that was validated with a histologic score. In this setting, UBM scaffolds showed the most appropriate features for hiatal hernia repair, recovering the tissue properties that can help reduce the possibility of early failure and prevent complications associated with the implanted material.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Hérnia Hiatal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/instrumentação , Prevenção Secundária/instrumentação , Tecidos Suporte , Implantes Absorvíveis , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Herniorrafia/métodos , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Estresse Mecânico , Telas Cirúrgicas , Sus scrofa
13.
Anim Genet ; 51(1): 95-100, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633210

RESUMO

In previous GWAS carried out in a Duroc commercial line (Lipgen population), we detected on pig chromosomes 3, 4 and 14 several QTL for gluteus medius muscle redness (GM a*), electric conductivity in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LD CE) and vaccenic acid content in the LD muscle (LD C18:1 n - 7), respectively. We have genotyped, in the Lipgen population, 19 SNPs mapping to 14 genes located within these QTL. Subsequently, association analyses have been performed. After correction for multiple testing, two SNPs in the TGFBRAP1 (rs321173745) and SELENOI (rs330820437) genes were associated with GM a*, whereas ACADSB (rs81449951) and GPR26 (rs343087568) genotypes displayed significant associations with LD vaccenic content. Moreover, the polymorphisms located at the ATP1A2 (rs344748241), ATP8B2 (rs81382410) and CREB3L4 (rs321278469 and rs330133789) genes showed significant associations with LD CE. We made a second round of association analyses including the SNPs mentioned above as well as other SNPs located in the chromosomes to which they map. After performing a correction for multiple testing, the only association that remained significant at the chromosome-wide level was that between the ATP1A2 genotype and LD CE. From a functional point of view, this association is meaningful because this locus encodes a subunit of the Na+ /K+ -ATPase responsible for maintaining an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane.


Assuntos
Condutividade Elétrica , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Carne Vermelha , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Genótipo
14.
Anim Genet ; 51(1): 106-110, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729055

RESUMO

The sequencing of the pig genome revealed the existence of homozygous individuals for a nonsense mutation in the argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1) gene (rs81212146, c.944T>A, L315X). Paradoxically, an AA homozygous genotype for this polymorphism is expected to abolish the function of the ASS1 enzyme that participates in the urea cycle, leading to citrullinemia, hyperammonemia, coma and death. Sequencing of five Duroc boars that sired a population of 350 Duroc barrows revealed the segregation of the c.944T>A polymorphism, so we aimed to investigate its phenotypic consequences. Genotyping of this mutation in the 350 Duroc barrows revealed the existence of seven individuals homozygous (AA) for the nonsense mutation. These AA pigs had a normal weight despite the fact that mild citrullinemia often involves impaired growth. Sequencing of the region surrounding the mutation in TT, TA and AA individuals revealed that the A substitution in the second position of the codon (c.944T>A) is in complete linkage disequilibrium with a C replacement (c.943T>C) in the first position of the codon. This second mutation would compensate for the potentially damaging effect of the c.944T>A replacement. In fact, this is the most probable reason why pigs with homozygous AA genotypes at the 944 site of the ASS1 coding region are alive. Our results illustrate the complexities of predicting the consequences of nonsense mutations on gene function and phenotypes, not only because of annotation issues but also owing to the existence of genetic mechanisms that sometimes limit the penetrance of highly harmful mutations.


Assuntos
Argininossuccinato Sintase/genética , Genes Letais , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Citrulinemia/genética , Citrulinemia/veterinária , Códon sem Sentido , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino
15.
J Surg Res ; 245: 537-543, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After an esophageal resection, continuity is commonly restored by a gastric tube reconstruction and an intrathoracic anastomosis to the remaining proximal esophagus. Ischemia of the anastomotic region is considered to play a pivotal role in anastomotic leakage. Microdialysis (µD) is an excellent method to measure local biochemical substances and parameters in a specific organ or compartment aiming at early detection of ischemia. This animal study evaluates ischemia of the gastric tube reconstruction using a novel method-µD on organ surfaces. This promising method may have the potential to detect an anastomotic leakage before clinical symptoms develop. METHODS: Anesthetized normoventilated pigs were used. Surface microdialysis (S-µD) catheters and an intraparenchymal oxygen tension catheter were placed on the stomach. A gastric tube was made and the gastroepiploic artery was divided halfway along the greater curvature to produce severe ischemia at the top of the gastric tube. µD data from four locations (gastric tube, ileum and peritoneal cavity) were recorded every 20 min during the experiment. Tissue samples from all catheter sites underwent histopathological analysis. Intraparenchymal oxygen partial pressure, systemic blood tests, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. RESULTS: S-µD data showed values indicating severe ischemia at the top of the gastric tube and intermediate ischemia at the level of transection of the gastroepiploic artery. Ischemia was verified by histopathological analysis of tissue samples and intraparenchymal oxygen tension data. CONCLUSIONS: S-µD can detect and grade severity of local ischemia in real time, in an animal model.


Assuntos
Fístula Anastomótica/diagnóstico , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Esôfago/irrigação sanguínea , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Microdiálise/métodos , Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esôfago/patologia , Esôfago/cirurgia , Humanos , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/patologia , Oxigênio/análise , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sus scrofa
16.
Food Chem ; 309: 125654, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678669

RESUMO

A specialized DNA extraction method and a SYBR Green quantitative polymerase chain reaction (SyG-qPCR) assay were combined to generate a ready-to-use kit for rapid detection of porcine admixtures in processed meat products. Our qPCR assay utilized repetitive LINE-1 elements specific to the genome of Sus scrofa domesticus (pig) as a target and incorporated internal controls. We improved the genomic DNA extraction method, and reduced extraction times to the minimum. The method was validated for specificity, sensitivity (0.001% w/w) and robustness, and values were compared with those of a commercially available kit. We also tested our method using 121 processed food products and consistently detected amplification only in samples containing pork. Due to its efficiency and cost-effectiveness, our method represents a valuable new method for detecting food adulteration with pork that is superior to existing quality control approaches.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/normas , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/genética , Produtos da Carne/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/instrumentação , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos
17.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 50-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622650

RESUMO

The development of three generic multi-compartment physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models is described for farm animal species, i.e. cattle, sheep, and swine. The PBK models allow one to quantitatively link external dose and internal dose for risk assessment of chemicals relevant to food and feed safety. Model performance is illustrated by predicting tissue concentrations of melamine and oxytetracycline and validated through comparison with measured data. Overall, model predictions were reliable with 71% of predictions within a 3-fold of the measured data for all three species and only 6% of predictions were outside a 10-fold of the measured data. Predictions within a 3-fold change were best for cattle, followed by sheep, and swine (82%, 76%, and 63%). Global sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most sensitive parameters in the PBK model. The sensitivity analysis showed that body weight and cardiac output were the most sensitive parameters. Since interspecies differences in metabolism impact on the fate of a wide range of chemicals, a key step forward is the introduction of species-specific information on transporters and metabolism including expression and activities.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Gado/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxitetraciclina/farmacocinética , Triazinas/farmacocinética , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Oxitetraciclina/administração & dosagem , Oxitetraciclina/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carneiro Doméstico , Especificidade da Espécie , Sus scrofa , Distribuição Tecidual , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Triazinas/toxicidade
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 463-470, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863266

RESUMO

The aim of this work was the genetic typing of RVA isolates originating from pigs and human patients in Slovakia. Seventy-eight rectal swabs from domestic pigs and 30 stool samples from humans were collected. The whole VP7 (G genotypes), VP6 (I genotypes) and partial VP4 (P genotypes) ORFs were amplified by RT-PCR. Genetic variability was higher amongst porcine sequences, where four G genotypes (G3, G4, G5, G11), two P genotypes (P[6], P[13]) and one I5 genotype were detected. Human RVA strains were represented by two G genotypes (G1, G3), two I genotypes (I1, I2), and one P genotype (P[8]). Genetic analysis did not show a relationship between Slovakian porcine and human RVA strains, but phylogenetic grouping of some Slovakian porcine sequences with Hungarian human sequences in both G and P genotypes was observed.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Fezes/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Reto/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Eslováquia , Sus scrofa , Suínos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134251, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783467

RESUMO

Wild boar populations have increased dramatically over the last decades throughout Europe and in France in particular. While hunting is considered the most efficient way to control game populations, many local conflicts persist after the hunting period due to remaining high densities of wild boar despite the large number of animals culled every year. Therefore, increasing the efficiency of hunting is a timely issue. Herein, we assessed how hunting effort can be measured, and we determined whether the hunting effort carried out by hunters explains the observed hunting pressure. We measured the characteristics and results of all hunts that occurred in the experimental forest of Châteauvillain-Arc-en-Barrois (Northeastern France), and we modelled the number of animals culled as a function of the hunting effort, measured by the number of beaters, hunters, and dogs, as well as the size of the hunting area. We also accounted for variables suspected to affect the hunting efficiency achieved with a given effort, such as time of day (AM/PM), the month during which hunting occurred. We found that more posted hunters, larger hunted areas, and hunts carried out early in the season, i.e. before February, increased the number of culled animals. Our model can be used by wildlife managers to adjust hunting effort in order to reach the hunting pressure expected to meet management objectives.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Benchmarking , Europa (Continente) , Sus scrofa
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1-4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859589

RESUMO

CRISPR-based typing was performed to subtype isolates of S. Typhimurium and its monophasic variant Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- from humans and animals between 2009 and 2017 in China. CRISPR typing classified all isolates into two lineages and four sub-lineages. All isolates from Lineage II and Lineage IB-1 were Salmonella Typhimurium. All of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i: - isolates were distributed in Lineage IA and Lineage IB-2, which all belonged to ST34 by MLST typing. Only Lineage IB-2 contained ST34 isolates from both Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:-. Among the isolates of ST34, TST4 was identified as the most common CRISPR type representing 86.5% of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- and 14.5 % of Salmonella Typhimurium mainly from pigs and humans. This study demonstrated that TST4-ST34 isolates were predominant in Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:-, and pig was the main reservoir for Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- in China, which might have the potential to transmit to humans by pig production.


Assuntos
Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Reservatórios de Doenças , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/classificação , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Sus scrofa , Animais , China , Diarreia/microbiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética
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