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1.
Genet Sel Evol ; 54(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic background of trait variability has captured the interest of ecologists and animal breeders because the genes that control it could be involved in buffering various environmental effects. Phenotypic variability of a given trait can be assessed by studying the heterogeneity of the residual variance, and the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are involved in the control of this variability are described as variance QTL (vQTL). This study focuses on litter size (total number born, TNB) and its variability in a Large White pig population. The variability of TNB was evaluated either using a simple method, i.e. analysis of the log-transformed variance of residuals (LnVar), or the more complex double hierarchical generalized linear model (DHGLM). We also performed a single-SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genome-wide association study (GWAS). To our knowledge, this is only the second study that reports vQTL for litter size in pigs and the first one that shows GWAS results when using two methods to evaluate variability of TNB: LnVar and DHGLM. RESULTS: Based on LnVar, three candidate vQTL regions were detected, on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 1, 7, and 18, which comprised 18 SNPs. Based on the DHGLM, three candidate vQTL regions were detected, i.e. two on SSC7 and one on SSC11, which comprised 32 SNPs. Only one candidate vQTL region overlapped between the two methods, on SSC7, which also contained the most significant SNP. Within this vQTL region, two candidate genes were identified, ADGRF1, which is involved in neurodevelopment of the brain, and ADGRF5, which is involved in the function of the respiratory system and in vascularization. The correlation between estimated breeding values based on the two methods was 0.86. Three-fold cross-validation indicated that DHGLM yielded EBV that were much more accurate and had better prediction of missing observations than LnVar. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the LnVar and DHGLM methods resulted in genetically different traits. Based on their validation, we recommend the use of DHGLM over the simpler method of log-transformed variance of residuals. These conclusions can be useful for future studies on the evaluation of the variability of any trait in any species.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Feminino , Genômica , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos/genética
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(1): 43, 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015160

RESUMO

Backfat thickness could reflect the energy reserve of female pigs that is required for their reproductivity, especially gilts that might be selected as replacements. In this study, genetic and phenotypic correlations between backfat thickness (BF) and body weight (BW) at 28 weeks of age, and reproduction traits were estimated. They were considered for the possibility of using BF at the pre-selective stage as an early indicator of sow's reproduction potential. Pedigree information, BF and BW at 28 weeks of age, age at first farrowing (AFF), transformed proportion of piglet loss at birth (tPL), and transformed weaning to first service interval (tWSI) of 806 primiparous Landrace sows were used to estimate the variance components by a restricted maximum likelihood procedure with an average information algorithm for multivariate analysis. The genetic correlation between BF and BW was 0.70 ± 0.13. Both BF and BW had a negative genetic correlation with AFF but not with tWSI. Genetic correlation estimates between tPL and other traits were unclear due to high standard error. The genetic correlation between AFF and tWSI was 0.78 ± 0.36. There were 19.35% of sires, 26.34% of dams, and 25.81% of sows that had preferable estimated breeding values for BF, BW, AFF, and WSI. These values indicated the feasibility of using selection index to improve BF and BW at the pre-selective stage and reduce AFF and tWSI of replacement gilt simultaneously. The estimation of genetic correlation between PL and other traits warrants further study in larger populations.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Clima Tropical , Animais , Feminino , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Gravidez , Sus scrofa , Suínos/genética , Desmame
3.
Gene ; 808: 145991, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626723

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus 4 (PCV4) was identified as a novel porcine circovirus in China in 2019. To investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of PCV2 and PCV4, 133 clinical samples (103 tissue samples and 30 serum samples) were collected from 30 different pig farms in Henan province of China, and a SYBR Green I-based duplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was established to detect PCV2 and PCV4 genomes simultaneously. The complete genome sequences of 20 PCV2 and 6 PCV4 strains from 19 and 6 clinical samples respectively were sequenced and analyzed. The results showed the detection limits of this assay were 80.2 copies/µL for PCV2 and 58.6 copies/µL for PCV4. The detection results of clinical samples revealed the PCV2 positive rate was 63.16% (84/133), the PCV4 positive rate was 33.33% (45/133), and the PCV2 and PCV4 co-infection positive rate was 21.05% (28/133). Among 20 PCV2 strains, 6 belonged to PCV2a, 6 belonged to PCV2b and 8 belonged to PCV2d. Co-infection with JZ1 (PCV2b) and JZ2 (PCV2d) strains was identified in one sample (JZ-1). Eleven putative recombination events were found through the recombination analysis, suggesting that the new PCV2 variant strains had circulated in Henan province, which contributes to our understanding of evolutionary characteristics of PCV2 in China. The possible genotypes of PCV4 strains were determined based on genomic sequences of 6 PCV4 strains in this study and 29 PCV4 reference strains available at GenBank. According to three different phylogenetic trees (ORF1, ORF2 and complete genome), all 35 PCV4 strains were clustered into two major genotypes (PCV4a and PCV4b), and 6 PCV4 strains in this study belonged to PCV4a. Additionally, the functional regions of PCV4 strains were predicted by comparison with other circoviruses, which are conducive to the further study of the biological functions of PCV4 genome.


Assuntos
Circovirus/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Sus scrofa/virologia , Animais , China , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/classificação , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Filogenia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Suínos/genética , Suínos/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2392: 65-82, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773615

RESUMO

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are powerful molecular markers for the identification and differentiation of closely related organisms. A variety of methods can be used to determine the allele that is present at a specific locus in the genome, including real-time PCR by using an allele-specific primer. In order to increase the selectivity for the target allele, deliberate mismatch bases at the 3' end of the allele-specific primer may be introduced. This strategy has already been used for the identification and differentiation of microorganisms and plants. We have recently developed real-time PCR assays involving mismatch primers for the identification and differentiation of closely related deer species (red deer, fallow deer, sika deer) or the discrimination of wild boar and domestic pig in game meat products. These methods are applicable to detect meat species adulteration in food products.In this chapter, we offer a protocol for the design of PCR primer/probe systems suitable for meat species authentication in food. We address the retrieval and alignment of sequences, primer design by using a commercial software and the introduction of deliberate mismatch bases. In addition, we describe how the suitability of primer/probe systems can be tested in silico and in practice. We use the design of PCR primer/probe systems for wild boar and domestic pig as example.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Animais , Cervos/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos
5.
J Morphol ; 283(1): 51-65, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727377

RESUMO

Intrinsic cardiac neurons (ICNs) are crucial cells in the neural regulation of heart rhythm, myocardial contractility, and coronary blood flow. ICNs exhibit diversity in their morphology and neurotransmitters that probably are age-dependent. Therefore, neuroanatomical heart studies have been currently focused on the identification of chemical phenotypes of ICNs to disclose their possible functions in heart neural regulation. Employing whole-mount immunohistochemistry, we examined ICNs from atria of the newborn pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as ICNs at this stage of development have never been neurochemically characterized so far. We found that the majority of the examined ICNs (>60%) were of cholinergic phenotype. Biphenotypic neuronal somata (NS), that is, simultaneously positive for two neuronal markers, were also rather common and distributed evenly within the sampled ganglia. Simultaneous positivity for cholinergic and adrenergic neuromarkers was specific in 16.4%, for cholinergic and nitrergic-in 3.5% of the examined NS. Purely either adrenergic or nitrergic ICNs were observed at 13% and 3.1%, correspondingly. Purely adrenergic and nitrergic NS were the most frequent in the ventral left atrial subplexus. Similarly to neuronal phenotype, sizes of NS also varied depending on the atrial region providing insights into their functional implications. Axons, but not NS, positive for classic sensory neuronal markers (vesicular glutamate transporter 2 and calcitonin gene-related peptide) were identified within epicardiac nerves and ganglia. Moreover, a substantial number of ICNs could not be attributed to any phenotype as they were not immunoreactive for antisera used in this study. Numerous dendrites with putative peptidergic and adrenergic contacts on cholinergic NS contributed to neuropil of ganglia. Our observations demonstrate that intrinsic cardiac ganglionated plexus is not fully developed in the newborn pig despite of dense network of neuronal processes and numerous signs of neural contacts within ganglia.


Assuntos
Neurônios , Sus scrofa , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Átrios do Coração , Fenótipo , Suínos
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 335-343, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807450

RESUMO

Much of biomedical oriented research is conducted with animal models. Over the years, rodents (primarily rats and mice) have emerged as the preferred species for basic biochemistry, cell biology, physiology and nutrition studies. In the past, dogs have been used for the evaluation of dietary protein quality and other aspects of animal nitrogen metabolism and physiology, cardiovascular and endocrine research. At an increasing rate, pigs have also been used as a model species in biomedical research. Pigs are readily available in various mature sizes and genotypic/phenotypic traits, and there are many anatomic, nutritional and physiologic similarities between human beings and pigs. Many notable reviews summarizing the role of pigs in biomedical studies have already been published and these are cited below. The present review focuses on characteristics that make pigs an excellent biomedical animal model in particular in obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular research. To procure an animal model for obesity, irrespective of species used, these animals must be fed a dense caloric diet (high fat) to achieve an experimental working model within a reasonable period. This review also focuses on a putative role of gastrointestinal microbiota in obesity as obese animals exhibit a shift in the distribution of gastrointestinal microbial phyla from lean animals. But to date such results have not pinpointed a treatable cause for obesity. Sometimes, the choice of sampling sites for microbial assessment in many reports can be questioned as the microbial content and phyla distribution in easily collected fecal samples may differ from those obtained directly from the small intestine and upper colon. While pigs are still utilized in many countries for medical surgery practice, this has been discontinued in US medical schools.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sus scrofa , Animais , Dieta , Fezes , Camundongos , Ratos , Suínos
7.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103890, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579849

RESUMO

Seroprevalence data for Toxoplasma gondii and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in wild boar (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), mouflon (Ovis aries/musimon) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) hunted/culled in northern Italy were used to fit seroprevalence distributions describing the exposure and co-exposure of the species to the two pathogens. The higher proportion of T. gondii and HEV seropositive animals was observed in wild boars with point estimate seroprevalence of 49% (N = 331) and 15% (N = 326) respectively. Data allowed comparisons by area (pre-Alpine Vs Alpine environment) for roe deer, red deer and mouflons. Contrasts between the distributions describing the uncertainty in seroprevalence suggest roe deer, red deer and mouflons have higher probability of being seropositive to T. gondii in pre-Alps. When considering HEV, few seropositive animals were detected and contrasts were symmetrically centred to zero for roe deer and red deer; mouflons shown higher probability of being seropositive in Alpine environment. HEV seropositive animals also included chamois (P = 5.1%, N = 97) in the Alpine districts, confirming circulation of HEV in remote areas. Evidence of HEV and T. gondii co-exposure was limited except for wild boars where it was observed in 30 samples representing 60% of the overall HEV-positive samples. Seroprevalence data of single infection and co-infection are extremely useful to investigate circulation of zoonotic pathogens in wild animals and estimate the foodborne risk of human exposure, however, these type of data do not directly translate into the presence/absence of the pathogen in seropositive and seronegative animals. At benefit of future development of quantitative risk assessments aiming at estimating the risk of human infection/co-infection via consumption of game meat, we developed and made available an online application that allows estimating the probability of the pathogen(s) being present as a function of seroprevalence data.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Hepatite E , Sus scrofa , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Coinfecção/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Cervos/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Humanos , Itália , Carne/parasitologia , Carne/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
8.
Gene ; 808: 145978, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592352

RESUMO

This study compares two typical strains: Chinese local excellent meat quality of Jiaxing Black (JXB) Pig and quadratic crossbred pig strain Duroc × Duroc × Berkshire × Jiaxing Black (DDBJ). It was found that between the two pig strains, carcass traits and meat quality traits differed significantly. This is exemplified by the leanness and dressing out percent of DDBJ that were significantly higher than JXB pigs of the same age (P < 0.05) and the better growth rate of DDBJ pigs as to JXB pigs was shown by quantifying muscle proliferation and differentiation of longissimus dorsi muscle employing Hematoxylin and Eosin staining of longissimus dorsi muscle. Nutrients such as inosinic acid, intramuscular fat, and free amino acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle were significantly higher in JXB pigs than DDBJ pigs (p < 0.0001); saturated fatty acids were higher in JXB than in DDBJ pigs (p = 0.0097); essential amino acids and fresh taste amino acids (serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine) of JXB pigs was higher than that of DDBJ pigs (p < 0.0001) and amino acids in longissimus dorsi muscle of JXB pigs surpasses the amino acid concentration of DDBJ pigs (p < 0.0001), thus showing the superiority of JXB in terms of meat quality. However, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is responsible for poor meat quality, was significantly higher in the longissimus dorsi muscle of DDBJ pig than JXB pigs (p < 0.0001); RNA-seq analysis of 5 biological replicates from two of the strains was performed. The screening of 164 up-regulated genes and 183 down-regulated genes found in longissimus dorsi muscle of DDBJ was done and the results identified differentially expressed genes related to muscle development, adipogenesis, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and inosine synthesis. In conclusion, the study identified functional genes, elucidated the mechanisms associated with carcass quality traits, meat quality traits and other related traits, and provided means of genetic enhancement to improve meat quality traits and carcass traits in Chinese commercial pigs.


Assuntos
Carne de Porco/análise , Sus scrofa/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , China , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118406, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710519

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious problem for public and animal health, and also for the environment. Monitoring and reporting the occurrence of AMR determinants and bacteria with the potential to disseminate is a priority for health surveillance programs around the world and critical to the One Health concept. Wildlife is a reservoir of AMR, and human activities can strongly influence their resistome. The main goal of this work was to study the resistome of wild boar faecal microbiome, one of the most important game species in Europe using metagenomic and culturing approaches. The most abundant genes identified by the high-throughput qPCR array encode mobile genetic elements, including integrons, which can promote the dissemination of AMR determinants. A diverse set of genes (n = 62) conferring resistance to several classes of antibiotics (ARGs), some of them included in the WHO list of critically important antimicrobials were also detected. The most abundant ARGs confer resistance to tetracyclines and aminoglycosides. The phenotypic resistance of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. were also investigated, and together supported the metagenomic results. As the wild boar is an omnivorous animal, it can be a disseminator of AMR bacteria and ARGs to livestock, humans, and the environment. This study supports that wild boar can be a key sentinel species in ecosystems surveillance and should be included in National Action Plans to fight AMR, adopting a One Health approach.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sus scrofa , Animais , Antibacterianos , Escherichia coli , Fezes , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Suínos
10.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108642, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390898

RESUMO

Improving meat quality is a crucial purpose of commercial production and breeding systems. In this study, multiomics techniques were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms that impact the excessive diversity of meat quality in Enshi black pigs. The results suggest that 120 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 171 significantly changed metabolites (SCMs) contribute to the content of intramuscular fat (IMF) through the processes of fat accumulation and regulation of lipolysis. A total of 141 DEGs and 47 SCMs may regulate meat color through the processes of nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. Herein, we found some candidate genes associated with IMF and meat color. We also presented a series of metabolites that are potentially available biological indicators to measure meat quality. This research provides further insight into the detection of intramuscular fat accumulation and meat color variation and provides a reference for molecular mechanisms in the regulation of IMF and meat color.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Carne de Porco/análise , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Cor , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Lipólise , Metaboloma , Músculo Esquelético/química , Niacina/metabolismo , Niacinamida/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/genética , Transcriptoma
11.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108645, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399151

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the multivariate structure of Semimembranosus muscle and backfat fatty acid (FA) composition in 798 Italian Large White heavy pigs and to investigate the effects of environmental factors and carcass characteristics on FA variations. The total FA variability in muscle and backfat was characterized by a negative correlation between saturated and polyunsaturated FAs, which strongly depended on the carcass adiposity. Slaughtering season was also relevant, with pigs slaughtered in autumn having more n-6 FAs and eicosadienoic acid in backfat, while pigs slaughtered in winter displayed more saturated FAs. Regarding Semimembranosus muscle, pigs with heavier belly cuts and slaughtered in autumn had higher proportions of cis-vaccenic and palmitoleic acids, while those slaughtered in summer had more saturated FAs. Slaughtering season emerged as a relevant factor shaping both backfat and muscle FA composition, indicating that more studies and attention should be paid to environmental factors, which may have effects on FA metabolism and deposition in finishing pigs.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Músculos Isquiossurais/química , Carne de Porco/análise , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Sus scrofa
12.
J Anim Sci ; 99(12)2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967902

RESUMO

The present study was part of a larger experiment that evaluated litter of origin effects on gilt production. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of physical or fenceline boar exposure and exogenous gonadotropins on puberty induction and subsequent fertility in a commercial farm environment. The experiment was performed in three replicates. Prepubertal gilts were assigned by pen (13/pen) to receive 15 min of daily Fenceline (FBE, n = 153) or Physical (PBE, n = 154) Boar Exposure (BE) for 3 weeks starting at 184 d of age in a purpose-designed Boar Exposure Area (BEAR). At the start of week 3, prepubertal gilts were randomly assigned to receive PG600 or none (Control). From weeks 4 to 6, estrus was checked using only FBE. During weeks 1 to 3, measures of reproductive status were obtained weekly or until expression of estrus. Upon detection of first estrus, gilts were relocated into stalls and inseminated at second estrus. PBE reduced age (P = 0.001) and days to puberty (P = 0.002), increased the proportion of gilts in estrus (P = 0.04) in week 1 (38.3 vs. 27.5%), and tended (P = 0.08) to improve estrus in week 2 (37.6 vs. 26.1%) compared to FBE, respectively. In week 3, more prepubertal gilts receiving PBE-PG600 exhibited estrus (P = 0.04; 81.8%) compared to PBE-Control (40.3%), FBE-PG600 (56.4%), and FBE-Control (47.8%). Overall, expression of estrus through week 6 tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for PBE than FBE (91.5 vs. 85.0%). PBE increased (P ≤ 0.05) or tended to increase (P > 0.05 and ≤0.10) service and farrowing rates in parities 1 through 4, but within parity, there were no effects (P > 0.10) on pig production or wean to service interval. Analyses also indicated that weeks from start of boar exposure to puberty, litter of origin traits, and follicle measures at puberty were related to the subsequent fertility. The results of this study confirm the advantages of using increased intensity of boar exposure, combined with PG600 treatment, for effective induction of pubertal estrus in a commercial setting.


Assuntos
Estro , Maturidade Sexual , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Gonadotropinas , Masculino , Gravidez , Sus scrofa , Suínos
13.
J Helminthol ; 95: e73, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895369

RESUMO

We make new morphological observations not previously reported for the old acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (Pallas, 1781) Travassos, 1917, described for the first time about 240 years ago. Our specimens were collected from the wild boar, Sus scrofa Linn., in Ukraine in 2005. We provide comparative morphometrics with other populations from Ukraine, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Europe, Brazil and the United States of America. Our specimens from the Ukraine had the smallest trunk (110-120 mm long), longest and thickest hooks, with the third hook being the largest, largest eggs, and a proboscis wider than long. We document the morphology of the proboscis, apical organ, hooks, hook roots, sensory pores, micropores, and eggs with scanning electron microscopy for the first time. We also provide chemical analysis of hooks and eggs using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, discuss its micropores, and provide a new molecular profile based on 18S rDNA from a European population for the first time. Edge of hook tips feature high levels of calcium and phosphorous but the high level of sulphur is mostly found in the cortical layer of eggs. One new partial 18S rDNA sequence (482 nt length) was generated from an adult specimen of M. hirudinaceus. We present the first 18S rDNA published sequence for this cosmopolitan acanthocephalan obtained from Europe. The amplified region corresponded to the approximate middle region of the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene, which is ~1800 nt in length. This molecular contribution is especially valuable in light of the extreme scarcity of genetic information about species of Macracanthorhynchus and of the family Oligacanthorhynchidae as a whole.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Helmintíase Animal , Acantocéfalos/genética , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Ucrânia
14.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 88(1): e1-e4, 2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918522

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a lethal and contagious disease of domestic pigs. In South Africa, the virus historically circulated in warthogs and ornithodorid ticks that were only found in warthog burrows in the north of the country. Regulations implemented in 1935 to prevent transfer of infected animals or products to the south initially proved effective but from 2016 there have been outbreaks of disease in the south that cannot be traced to transfer of infection from the north. From 1963 there were widespread translocations of warthogs to the south, initially from a source considered to be free of ornithodorid ticks. We undertook to determine whether sylvatic circulation of ASFV occurs in the south, including identification of potential new vectors, through testing extralimital warthogs for antibody and ticks for virus. Results of testing warthogs for antibody and other species of ticks for virus will be presented separately. Here we report finding Ornithodoros (Pavlovskyella) zumpti ticks in warthog burrows for the first time. This occurred in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) in 2019. Since African swine fever was recognised in the ECP for the first time in 2020 and outbreaks of the disease in domestic pigs continue to occur there, priority should be given to determining the distribution range and vector potential of O. (P.) zumpti for ASFV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Ornithodoros , Doenças dos Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Animais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 137, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic pigs and wild boar caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Since ASF has been introduced into Europe and Asia, the major pig-raising areas, posing a huge threat to the pork industry worldwide. Currently, prevention and control of ASF are basically dependent on strict biosecurity measures and stamping-out policy once ASF occurs. MAIN TEXT: The major risks of ASF spread are insufficient biosecurity measures and human behaviors. Therefore, a safe and effective vaccine seems to be a reasonable demand for the prevention and control of ASF. Due to the efficacy advantage over other types of vaccines, live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), especially virulence-associated genes deleted vaccines, are likely to be put into emergency and conditional use in restricted areas if ASF is out of control in a country with a huge pig population and pork consumption, like China. However, the safety, efficacy, and genetic stability of current candidate ASF LAVs require comprehensive clinical evaluations prior to country-wide field application. Several critical issues need to be addressed to commercialize an ideal ASF LAV, including a stable cell line for manufacturing vaccines, differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), and cross-protection from different genotypes. CONCLUSION: A safe and effective DIVA vaccine and an accompanying diagnostic assay will facilitate the prevention, control, and eradication of ASF, which is quite challenging in the near future.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Vacinas Virais , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Animais , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Vacinas Atenuadas
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960305

RESUMO

The encroachment of wild boars into urban areas is a growing problem. The occurrence of wild boars in cities leads to conflict situations. Socio-spatial conflicts can escalate to a varied degree. Assessments of these conflicts can be performed by analyzing spatial data concerning the affected locations and wild boar behaviors. The collection of spatial data is a laborious and costly process that requires access to urban surveillance systems, in addition to regular analyses of intervention reports. A supporting method for assessing the risk of wild boar encroachment and socio-spatial conflict in cities was proposed in the present study. The developed approach relies on big data, namely, multimedia and descriptive data that are on social media. The proposed method was tested in the city of Olsztyn in Poland. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of data crowdsourced from a popular social networking site for determining the location and severity of conflicts. A photointerpretation method and the kernel density estimation (KDE) tool implemented in ArcGIS Desktop 10.7.1 software were applied in the study. The proposed approach fills a gap in the application of crowdsourcing data to identify types of socio-spatial conflicts involving wild boars in urban areas. Validation of the results with reports of calls to intervention services showed the high coverage of this approach and thus the usefulness of crowdsourcing data.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Sus scrofa , Animais , Cidades , Humanos , Polônia , Análise Espacial , Suínos
17.
Vet Ital ; 57(2)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971504

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Chlamydia suis and tetracycline resistance determinants in conjunctival swabs of Italian wild boars, by PCR. Extracted DNA collected from 50 wild boars from Northern and Central Italy was examined by molecular methods. One sample (2%) from the Central Italy was positive for C. suis. Fragments of tetR(C) and tetR(C)-tet(C) resistance determinants were amplified from the same sample. Further molecular investigations suggested the attribution of these tetracycline resistance determinants to C. suis, such as the truncation oftetR(C) and absence of a intact invasion (inv)-like region. While tetracycline-resistant C. suis is very common in domestic pigs, its occurrence has not been reported in wild boar before. Wild boar might acquire tetracycline resistance determinants through direct or indirect contact with domestic pigs.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos , Resistência a Tetraciclina , Animais , Chlamydia , Itália , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética
18.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 164(10): 651-659, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758957

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: African Swine Fever (ASF) is a severe viral disease infecting all suid species. Since the first outbreak in Georgia in 2007, it has slowly spread towards Western Europe and reached the European Union when first cases were detected in Poland and the Baltic States in 2014. ASF was first reported in China in 2018 and since then, it has spread to 14 countries within two years. This study aimed to estimate the introduction probability of ASF from Eastern Asia in a qualitative risk assessment, and to compare it to the probability from Eastern Europe, which was assessed in an earlier risk assessment. A high probability of introduction was estimated for the import of meat and meat products, which was found to be the most likely route of introduction. Less important routes were introduction by human contamination (low probability) or import of feed or blood products (very low probability). Import of domestic pigs or free-ranging wild boar, contaminated means of transport, or infected semen, embryo or ticks were all estimated to be negligible. For Eastern Europe, import of meat and meat products was also estimated to pose a high risk and was therefore the most likely route of introduction. Higher probabilities were estimated for import of live pigs, contaminated feed or means of transport and human contamination. Overall, the probability of introduction from Eastern Asia is only slightly lower than from Eastern Europe. As it is important to detect the first case as quickly as possible, it is important not to fall victim to habituation effects, but to remain vigilant.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Doenças dos Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente , Polônia , Probabilidade , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
19.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 24(3): 425-432, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730314

RESUMO

The study aimed to determine the content of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in the liver of predominantly plant-eating omnivore wild boar (Sus scrofa), predominantly meat-eating omnivore red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and herbivore red deer (Cervus elaphus), from North-Eastern Poland (Warmia and Mazury), in order to verify the distribution of these elements in the trophic pyramid. Furthermore, the study was used to assess the risk of eating venison. Samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The average concentration of Se was 3.9 (p⟨0.001) and 1.8-fold higher (p0.001) in the wild boar and red fox, respectively, in comparison to the red deer, and 2.1-fold higher in the wild boar comparing to the red fox (p⟨0.001). There was no difference in the average concentration of Zn. The average concentration of Cu was 9.3. Concentration of this element was 5.4-fold higher in red deer in comparison to red fox (p⟨0.001) and 9,34-fold higher than in wild boar (p⟨0.001). The average concentration of Cd was 1.9-fold higher in wild boar in comparison to the red fox (p⟨0.029). Correlation between Cu and Cd concentrations was also observed in the case of the red deer and red fox, while no such correlations were observed between the tested elements in the wild boar. In conclusion, the liver concentrations of these heavy metals in selected wild animas species from the hunting areas of Warmia and Mazury, do not exceed standard safe values for consumers. Moreover, the wild red deer population in North-Eastern Poland is significantly Se deficient.


Assuntos
Cervos , Raposas , Fígado/química , Metais Pesados/química , Sus scrofa , Animais , Polônia
20.
Anticancer Res ; 41(11): 5343-5353, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732404

RESUMO

Enhanced understanding of the molecular features of glioma has led to an expansion of murine glioma models and successful preclinical studies. However, clinical trials continue to have a high cost, extended production time, and low proportion of success. Studies in large-animal models of various cancer types have emerged to bridge the translational gap between in vitro and in vivo animal studies and human clinical trials. The anatomy and physiology of large animals are of more direct relevance to human disease, allowing for more rigorous testing of treatments such as surgical resection and adjuvant therapy in glioma. The recent generation of multiple porcine glioma models supports their use in high-throughput preclinical studies. The demonstration of spontaneous glioblastoma formation in canines further provides a unique avenue for the study of de novo glioma. The aim of this review was to outline the current status of large animal models of glioma and their value as a transitional step between rodent models and human clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Glioma/genética , Glioma/metabolismo , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/terapia , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Sus scrofa
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