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1.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 506-516, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The research aims to study the effect of circumferential compliance of synthetic vascular prostheses on their healing during implantation in the infrarenal abdominal aorta of pigs. METHODS: In an experiment, 12 pigs were implanted with blood vessel prostheses in the infrarenal abdominal aorta. The prostheses possessed elastic characteristics obtained by a tensile testing machine, and differed in circumferential compliance: rigid (polycaprolactone [PCL]); less compliant than the native aorta (polyurethane [PU]); comparable in compliance to the native aorta (copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with hexafluoropropylene) before (FKM) and after radiation treatment (FKM-γ). The implanted prostheses compliance was measured by aortography during the first 3 days and 1 month after implantation, the condition of the prosthesis capsule was evaluated by macroscopic preparations and histologic examination. RESULTS: Pulsation on PCL prostheses was nonexistent immediately after implantation. On PU prostheses, slight pulsation was noted during the first 3 days and disappeared after 1 month. On FKM prostheses, although pulsation persisted after 1 month, a significant expansion of prostheses was also recorded as a result of fatigue plastic deformation. On FKM-γ prostheses, pulsation comparable in magnitude with aortic pulsation was present 1 month after implantation with no change in the size of the prosthesis. Macroscopic preparations reveal significant differences in the formed connective tissue capsule. The PCL prosthesis capsule is thick, narrowing the lumen of the vessel from the outside. The outer surface of PU prostheses is covered with a thinner uniform fibrous capsule. The inner surface of the FKM and FKM-γ prostheses is covered with a thin layer of smooth whitish tissue. The FKM prosthesis, unlike the FKM-γ prosthesis, is sharply expanded. In all cases, moderate aortic expansion was observed distal to the prosthesis. According to the histologic data, the outer and inner capsules of PCL prostheses are covered with a thick layer of fibrous tissue with signs of productive inflammation and foci of calcification. PU prostheses are surrounded by a thick connective tissue capsule partially endothelialized from the inside; the outer capsule is randomly populated with fibroblastic cells. FKM prostheses have a thin outer capsule where smooth muscle cells are visible, mainly oriented along and across the prosthesis axis; the inner capsule is thin and completely covered with a layer of endothelial cells from the side of the lumen. A layered structure is visible in the prosthesis capsule of FKM-γ, and the fibroblast cells in each layer of the capsule are oriented along or across the prosthesis axis, similar to the structure of a natural arterial vessel. The inner surface of the prosthesis is completely endothelialized. CONCLUSIONS: The healing and degree of inflammation in a capsule of blood vessel prostheses implanted in the infrarenal abdominal aorta of pigs depend on the degree of their circumferential compliance. Although maintaining pulsations, the cellular structure of the capsule is characterized by a greater degree of differentiation and approaches the structure of the native arterial wall.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Polímeros/química , Desenho de Prótese , Animais , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Raios gama , Teste de Materiais , Modelos Animais , Maleabilidade , Poliésteres/química , Polímeros/efeitos da radiação , Poliuretanos/química , Polivinil/química , Sus scrofa , Resistência à Tração , Fatores de Tempo , Remodelação Vascular , Cicatrização
2.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 143-151, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular embolization is increasingly used in treating traumatic hemorrhage and other applications. No endovascular-capable translational large animal models exist and coagulopathy's effect on embolization techniques is unknown. We developed a coagulation-adaptable solid organ hemorrhage model in swine for investigation of embolization techniques. METHODS: Anesthetized swine (n = 26, 45 ± 3 kg) had laparotomy and splenic externalization. Half underwent 50% isovolemic hemodilution with 6% hetastarch and cooling to 33-35°C (COAG group). All had controlled 20 mL/kg hemorrhage and endovascular access to the proximal splenic artery with a 4F catheter via a right femoral sheath. Splenic transection and 5 min free bleeding were followed by treatment (n = 5/group) with 5 mL gelfoam slurry, three 6-mm coils, or no treatment (n = 3, control). Animals received 15 mL/kg plasma resuscitation and were monitored for 6 hr. Splenic blood loss was continuously measured and angiograms were performed at specified times. RESULTS: Coagulopathy was successfully established in COAG animals. Pre-treatment blood loss was greater in COAG (11 ± 6 mL/kg) than non-COAG (7 ± 3 mL/kg, P = 0.04) animals. Splenic hemorrhage was universally fatal without treatment. Non-COAG coil survival was 4/5 (326 ± 75 min) and non-COAG Gelfoam 3/5 (311 ± 67 min) versus non-COAG Control 0/3 (82 ± 18 min, P < 0.05 for both). Neither COAG Coil (0/5, 195 ± 117 min) nor COAG Gelfoam (0/5, 125 ± 32 min) treatment improved survival over COAG Control (0/3, 56 ± 19 min). Post-treatment blood loss was 4.6 ± 3.4 mL/kg in non-COAG Coil and 4.6 ± 2.9 mL/kg in non-COAG Gelfoam, both lower than non-COAG Control (18 ± 1.3 mL/kg, P = 0.05). Neither COAG Coil (8.4 ± 5.4 mL/kg) nor COAG Gelfoam (15 ± 11 ml/kg) had significantly less blood loss than COAG Control (20 ± 1.2 mL/kg). Both non-COAG treatment groups had minimal blood loss during observation, while COAG groups had ongoing slow blood loss. In the COAG Gelfoam group, there was an increase in hemorrhage between 30 and 60 min following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A swine model of coagulation-adaptable fatal splenic hemorrhage suitable for endovascular treatment was developed. Coagulopathy had profound negative effects on coil and gelfoam efficacy in controlling bleeding, with implications for trauma and elective embolization procedures.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Esponja de Gelatina Absorvível/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia/terapia , Esplenopatias/terapia , Animais , Pressão Arterial , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemodiluição , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Esplenopatias/sangue , Esplenopatias/fisiopatologia , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Toxicon ; 189: 39-44, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197481

RESUMO

The study aimed to examine the effects of zearalenone on genital organ development, serum immunoglobulin, antioxidant capacity, sex hormones and liver function of prepubertal gilts. Forty-eight prepubertal gilts (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly divided into three treatment (T1, T2 and T3) groups and a control group (12 replicates per group, 1 gilt per replicate). Prepubertal gilts in the control group were fed with basal diet, and those in T1, T2 and T3 groups were fed with basal diets supplemented with 200 µg/kg, 800 µg/kg and 1600 µg/kg zearalenone during the experiment period, which lasted for 14 d. Feed intake was counted and vulvar area was measured. The blood samples were collected from the anterior vena cava of 6 prepubertal gilts in each group, and immunoglobulins, antioxidant indexes, inflammatory cytokines, genital hormones, and biochemical indexes were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that the average daily feed intake of prepubertal gilts in each group had no significant change (p > 0.05). On 14 d, compared with the control group, the vulva area of prepubertal gilts in each treatment group was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the serum immunoglobulin G content in the T3 group was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). The activities of total antioxidant capacity and the superoxide dismutase of serum in the T3 group were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the serum interleukin-4 content in each test group were extremely significantly increased (p < 0.01). The serum contents of luteinizing hormone in the T2 and T3 groups and estradiol in the T3 group were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) than that of control group. Compared with the control group, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in T3 group was significantly increased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, zearalenone has no significantly effect on the feed intake of prepubertal gilts, but it can reduce its serum immunoglobulin contents and antioxidant properties, disrupt the secretion of sex hormones, increase the vulva area, produce reproductive toxicity and cause liver damage. Therefore, in pig production, the use of antimould reagent together with products of immunity-boosting, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective may enhance protection.


Assuntos
Zearalenona/toxicidade , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Estradiol , Feminino , Genitália , Imunoglobulinas , Fígado , Reprodução , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Zearalenona/farmacologia
4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 85-95, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lethal removal of invasive species, such as wild pigs (Sus scrofa), is often the most efficient approach for reducing their negative impacts. Wild pigs are one of the most widespread and destructive invasive mammals in the USA. Lethal management techniques are a key approach for wild pigs and can alter wild pig spatial behavior, but it is unclear how wild pigs respond to the most common removal technique, trapping. We investigated the spatial behavior of wild pigs following intensive removal of conspecifics via trapping at three sites within the Savannah River Site, SC, USA. We evaluated changes in wild pig densities, estimated temporal shifts in home-range properties, and evaluated fine-scale movement responses of wild pigs to removal. RESULTS: We observed a significant reduction in the density of wild pigs in one site following removal via trapping while a qualitative reduction was observed in another site. We found little evidence of shifts in pig home-ranging behavior following removal. However, we did observe a nuanced response in movement behavior of wild pigs to the removal at the scale of the GPS locations (4 h), including increased movement speed and reduced selection for vegetation rich areas. CONCLUSION: Our work provides a better understanding of the impact of removal via trapping on wild pig movement and its implications for management. The lack of shift in home-range characteristics observed illustrates how targeted trapping could be used to provide temporary relief for species sensitive to wild pig consumption such as ground nesting birds or agricultural crops.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Sus scrofa , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Movimento , Suínos
5.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 79, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) strain imaging is an established technique to quantify myocardial deformation. However, to what extent left ventricular (LV) systolic strain, and therefore LV mechanics, reflects classical hemodynamic parameters under various inotropic states is still not completely clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of LV global strain parameters measured via CMR feature tracking (CMR-FT, based on conventional cine balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) images) with hemodynamic parameters such as cardiac index (CI), cardiac power output (CPO) and end-systolic elastance (Ees) under various inotropic states. METHODS: Ten anaesthetized, healthy Landrace swine were acutely instrumented closed-chest and transported to the CMR facility for measurements. After baseline measurements, two steps were performed: (1) dobutamine-stress (Dobutamine) and (2) verapamil-induced cardiovascular depression (Verapamil). During each protocol, CMR images were acquired in the short axisand apical 2Ch, 3Ch and 4Ch views. MEDIS software was utilized to analyze global longitudinal (GLS), global circumferential (GCS), and global radial strain (GRS). RESULTS: Dobutamine significantly increased heart rate, CI, CPO and Ees, while Verapamil decreased them. Absolute values of GLS, GCS and GRS accordingly increased during Dobutamine infusion, while GLS and GCS decreased during Verapamil. Linear regression analysis showed a moderate correlation between GLS, GCS and LV hemodynamic parameters, while GRS correlated poorly. Indexing global strain parameters for indirect measures of afterload, such as mean aortic pressure or wall stress, significantly improved these correlations, with GLS indexed for wall stress reflecting LV contractility as the clinically widespread LV ejection fraction. CONCLUSION: GLS and GCS correlate accordingly with LV hemodynamics under various inotropic states in swine. Indexing strain parameters for indirect measures of afterload substantially improves this correlation, with GLS being as good as LV ejection fraction in reflecting LV contractility. CMR-FT-strain imaging may be a quick and promising tool to characterize LV hemodynamics in patients with varying degrees of LV dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sus scrofa , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 74(6): 445-461, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198510

RESUMO

This study was conducted to test the effects of maternal 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) supplementation on serum parameters, intestinal morphology and microbiota in suckling piglets. The experiment started on day 107 of gestation and lasted until piglets were weaned on day 21 of lactation. Thirty-two sows were allocated randomly to two treatments (ND diet, basal diet with 2000 IU/kg of vitamin D3; 25-D diet, basal diet with 50 µg/kg 25OHD3). Results showed that maternal 25-D treatment increased (p < 0.05) serum 25OHD3 concentration in the umbilical cords, which led to higher (p < 0.05) serum 25OHD3 concentration of suckling piglets from 25-D sows. The GSH-Px activity in colostrum was higher (p < 0.05), as well as SOD and GSH-Px activities in milk, were higher (p < 0.05) in 25-D sows than ND sows. Compared with piglets suckling ND sows, piglets suckling 25-D sows had higher (p < 0.05) serum SOD activity on day 7, 14 and 21 of lactation. On day 21 of lactation, piglets form 25-D sows had greater (p < 0.05) serum levels of GH and IGF-I and lower (p < 0.05) serum DAO activity than those from ND sows. Piglets from 25-D sows had higher (p < 0.05) jejunal villus height than those from ND sows. Feeding 25OHD3 to sows tended to increase (p < 0.10) the species richness in the colonic digesta of suckling piglets, as reflected by the α-diversity index of Chao-1. In the caecal digesta, the α-diversity for bacterial community analysis of Simpson and Shannon was lower (p < 0.05) in 25-D piglets than ND piglets. The relative abundances of colonic Alloprevotella and caecal Lactobacillus were significantly higher, while the population of caecal [Eubacterium]_coprostanoligenes_group was lower (p < 0.05) in 25-D piglets than ND piglets. In conclusion, maternal 25OHD3 supplementation partly improved antioxidant status in sows and suckling piglets and altered gut microbiota in the hindgut of piglets.


Assuntos
Animais Lactentes/fisiologia , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Gravidez/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
7.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 59, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wildlife traps are used in many countries without evaluation of their effect on animal welfare. Trap-capture of wild animals should minimise negative effects on animal welfare, irrespective of whether the animals are trapped for hunting, research, or management purposes. Live-trap capture of wild boar (Sus scrofa) followed by killing inside the trap by gunshot is a recently introduced but disputed hunting method in Sweden. Approval of trap constructions is based on gross necropsy findings of 20 trapped and shot wild boars. For improved animal welfare evaluation, our aim was to study wild boar behaviour during live-trapping in a 16 m2 square corral-style trap. Behavioural assessments were conducted after filming 12 capture events of in total 38 wild boars (five adults, 20 subadults, 13 piglets). Selected behavioural traits were compared with pathological changes (trap-related lesions) found at necropsy of the 20 subadults, to determine if these variables were useful proxies of capture-induced stress in wild boar. RESULTS: The wild boars spent less time resting in the evening than in the night and morning. Using Friedman's ANOVA, there was an overall difference in the time spent foraging. However, we only found a difference between the evening and morning in the Wilcoxon matched pairs test after the Sequential Bonferroni correction, where the wild boars spent more time foraging in the evening than in the morning. Single captured individuals showed more escape behaviours and reacted more strongly to external stimuli than individuals captured in a group. It was more common for animals to charge against the mesh walls of the trap upon human approach compared to upon initial capture when the trap door closed. Trap-related pathological findings due to trauma were documented in 13 of the 20 subadults that were necropsied. Behavioural alterations indicative of capture-induced stress (e.g. charging into the trap walls) were documented in trapped wild boars with no or minor physical injuries (e.g. skin abrasions, subcutaneous haemorrhage). CONCLUSIONS: Behavioural assessment provided valuable information for determination of capture-induced stress in wild boar when evaluating live-trapping in a corral-style trap, whereas pathological evaluation through necropsy did not fully reflect the animal welfare aspects of live-trapping. We emphasize the inclusion of species-specific behavioural data assessment for evaluation of capture-related stress during live-trapping and for testing of new trap constructions before approval.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Restrição Física/veterinária , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Reação de Fuga , Feminino , Masculino , Suécia
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(5): 565e-577e, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flap monitoring in reconstructive surgery is particularly important because flap failure is a dramatic event for the patient and for the medical team. Noninvasive deep tissue oxygenation monitoring is a challenge. The aim of this experimental study was to assess the performance of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy compared with continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy and with invasive oxygen partial pressure measurement in pigs. METHODS: Thirty fasciocutaneous flaps based on the superficial epigastric inferior pedicle were harvested and buried under the transcutaneous dorsal muscle (approximately 1 cm thick). An optical probe was placed on the skin above each buried flap. For each pig, two buried flaps were performed, one submitted to arterial occlusion and one to venous occlusion. Oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were observed for over 40 minutes before clamping, almost 20 minutes during clamping and during a period of release of approximately 20 minutes. Variations in time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy were compared to the oxygen partial pressure and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy variations. RESULTS: All vascular events were detected by the time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. During arterial clamping, oxyhemoglobin decreased rapidly, whereas deoxyhemoglobin increased moderately. The divergence of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin curves indicated arterial occlusion. During venous clamping, deoxyhemoglobin increased, whereas oxyhemoglobin increased briefly then remained stable or decreased moderately. The initial increases in the oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin curves indicated venous occlusion. Oxygen partial pressure failed to detect vascular events in three cases. Continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy could not clearly identify vascular occlusions. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the authors demonstrated the relevance of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy to buried flap monitoring. Time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy could differentiate between arterial occlusion and venous occlusion.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Retalho Miocutâneo/irrigação sanguínea , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/patologia , Artérias/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Retalho Miocutâneo/transplante , Oxiemoglobinas/análise , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Sus scrofa , Veias/patologia
9.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 8859663, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193811

RESUMO

Objectives: We sought to assess acute changes in systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics and microscopic artery lesions following extended renal artery denervation (RDN). Background: RDN has been proposed to reduce sympathetic nervous system hyperactivation. Although the effects of RDN on systemic circulation and overall sympathetic activity have been studied, data on the impact of RDN on pulmonary hemodynamics is lacking. Methods: The study comprised 13 normotensive Landrace pigs. After randomization, 7 animals were allocated to the group of bilateral RDN and 6 animals to the group of a sham procedure (SHAM). Hemodynamic measures, cannulation, and balloon-based occlusion of the renal arteries were performed in both groups. In the RDN group, radiofrequency ablation was performed in all available arteries and their segments. An autopsy study of the renal arteries was carried out in both groups. Results: The analysis was performed on 12 pigs (6 in either group) since pulmonary thromboembolism occurred in one case. A statistically significant drop in the mean diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) was detected in the RDN group when compared with the SHAM group (change by 13.0 ± 4.4 and 10.0 ± 3.0 mmHg, correspondingly; P = 0.04). In 5 out of 6 pigs in the RDN group, a significant decrease in systemic systolic blood pressure was found, when compared with baseline (98.8 ± 17.8 vs. 90.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, P = 0.04), and a lower mean pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (291.0 ± 77.4 vs. 228.5 ± 63.8 dyn∗sec∗cm-5, P = 0.03) after ablation was found. Artery dissections were found in both groups, with prevalence in animals after RDN. Conclusions: Extensive RDN leads to a rapid and significant decrease in PAP. In the majority of cases, RDN is associated with an acute lowering of systolic blood pressure and PVR. Extended RDN is associated with artery wall lesions and thrombus formation underdiagnosed by angiography.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter , Hemodinâmica , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Renal/inervação , Simpatectomia , Animais , Pressão Arterial , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Artéria Renal/patologia , Artéria Renal/fisiopatologia , Sus scrofa , Simpatectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/patologia , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Resistência Vascular
10.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(11): 1874-1885, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of inducing vascular occlusion by application of radiofrequency (RF) energy via conductive endovascular wires or baskets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrievable nitinol basket and stainless steel guidewire with a platinum tip were evaluated as conductors for endovascular application of RF energy. Tissue-mimicking thermochromic gel phantoms that change color with heating were cast with 2-, 5-, and 7-mm-diameter lumens and filled with 37 oC saline. After ablation, the phantoms were sectioned, and the thermal footprints were evaluated. Six castrated male domestic swine underwent endovascular ablation using the basket in iliac arteries and guidewires in renal arteries. Post-procedural angiography was performed, and postmortem arterial segments were resected for histopathologic analysis. RESULTS: In the phantom, the depth of thermal change in the 5- and 7-mm lumens averaged 6.3 and 6.0 mm along the basket, respectively, and in the 2- and 5-mm lumens, the depth of thermal change averaged 1.9 and 0.5 mm along the wire, respectively. In the swine, RF energy delivery led to angiographic occlusion at 12 of 13 sites. Thermal injury and occlusion were similar at the proximal, middle, and distal basket treatment zone, whereas injury and occlusion decreased from the proximal to the distal end of the 5-cm wire treatment zone. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular delivery of RF energy via a conductive basket in medium-sized arteries or a guidewire in small arteries led to acute angiographic and histologic occlusion. The potential to induce stasis might be useful in settings where rapid occlusion is desirable.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Artéria Ilíaca/cirurgia , Ablação por Radiofrequência/instrumentação , Artéria Renal/cirurgia , Ligas , Animais , Condutividade Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Temperatura Alta , Artéria Ilíaca/patologia , Masculino , Teste de Materiais , Modelos Animais , Orquiectomia , Platina , Artéria Renal/patologia , Aço Inoxidável , Sus scrofa
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17605, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077775

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of a devastating hemorrhagic disease (ASF) that affects both domestic pigs and wild boars. Conversely, ASFV circulates in a subclinical manner in African wild pigs, including warthogs, the natural reservoir for ASFV. Together with genetic differences, other factors might be involved in the differential susceptibility to ASF observed among Eurasian suids (Sus scrofa) and African warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus). Preliminary evidence obtained in our laboratory and others, seems to confirm the effect that environmental factors might have on ASF infection. Thus, domestic pigs raised in specific pathogen-free (SPF) facilities were extremely susceptible to highly attenuated ASFV strains that were innocuous to genetically identical domestic pigs grown on conventional farms. Since gut microbiota plays important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, regulating immune system maturation and the functionality of the innate/adaptive immune responses, we decided to examine whether warthog fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to domestic pigs affects host susceptibility to ASFV. The present work demonstrates that warthog FMT is not harmful for domestic weaned piglets, while it modifies their gut microbiota; and that FMT from warthogs to pigs confers partial protection against attenuated ASFV strains. Future work is needed to elucidate the protective mechanisms exerted by warthog FMT.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana/imunologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Sus scrofa , Suínos
12.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(4): 506-508, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031768

RESUMO

The features that permit or prevent a virus from becoming a zoonotic threat is an ongoing area of investigation. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Herfst et al. and Henritzi et al. help define the molecular and host determinants of influenza virus spillover from animal to human populations.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Humanos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Zoonoses
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(6): H1474-H1481, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035440

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) has emerged as a significant prognostic marker in patients after myocardial infarction (MI). Although elevated LV filling pressure after MI might alter GLS, direct evidence for this is lacking. This study aimed to clarify the association between GLS and LV filling pressure in a large animal MI model. A total of 104 Yorkshire pigs underwent both echocardiographic and hemodynamic assessments 1-4 wk after induction of large anterior MI. GLS was measured in the apical four-chamber view using a semiautomated speckle-tracking software. LV pressure-volume relationship was invasively measured using a high-fidelity pressure-volume catheter. GLS >-14% was considered impaired. Compared with pigs with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) >40% and preserved GLS (n = 29), those with LVEF >40% and impaired GLS (n = 37) and those with LVEF ≤40% (n = 38) had significantly higher LV end-diastolic pressure (15.5 ± 5.5 vs. 19.7 ± 5.8 and 19.6 ± 6.6 mmHg; P = 0.008 and P = 0.026, respectively) and higher LV mean diastolic pressure (7.1 ± 2.9 vs. 10.4 ± 4.5 and 11.1 ± 5.4 mmHg; P = 0.013 and P = 0.002, respectively). GLS was modestly correlated with τ (r = 0.21, P = 0.039) and slope of LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship (r = 0.43, P < 0.001). Impaired GLS was associated with higher LV end-diastolic and mean-diastolic pressures after adjusting for LVEF and baseline characteristics (P = 0.026 and P = 0.001, respectively). Impaired GLS assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography was associated with elevated LV filling pressure after MI. GLS has an incremental diagnostic value for detecting elevated LV filling pressure and may be particularly useful for evaluating post-MI patients with preserved LVEF.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Strain analysis was performed in 104 pigs after MI, and its relationship to invasive hemodynamic measurements was studied. Impaired longitudinal strain was associated with high ventricular filling pressure independent of LVEF in post-MI setting. Global longitudinal strain is a potential prognostic marker after MI.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Pressão Ventricular , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sus scrofa
14.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 74(6): 462-475, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076701

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in abnormal morphology and gastrointestinal function, such as reduced villi height and crypt depth, thinner mucosa and muscle layers, and reduced brush border enzyme activities, delayed gastric emptying, increased stress response. As a gastrointestinal growth factor, the manner by which the porcine glucagon-like peptide-2 (pGLP-2) microsphere administration restored the gastrointestinal function and growth performance of IUGR piglets was investigated. Fourteen newborn Duroc × (Yorkshire × Landrace) IUGR piglets (0.92 ± 0.113 kg) were assigned into the IUGR (negative control group) and pGLP-2 microsphere groups. The piglets in group pGLP-2 were intraperitoneally administered with 100 mg pGLP-2 microspheres on day 1 after birth. From days 15 to 26 of trial, the body weight of the pGLP-2 group was significantly higher than that of the control. IUGR piglets of group pGLP-2 showed a significantly increased pancreas weight, serum insulin content and activity of lipase and amylase. Injection of pGLP-2 microspheres restored the intestinal absorptive capacity by significantly increasing the mRNA expression of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 in the jejunum and the peptide transporter 1 in the jejunum. It also restored the redox balance by increasing the catalase mRNA expression and decreasing the heat shock protein 70 mRNA expression. In addition, this improvement was associated with the significant increase in gut diameter, length and weight. Therefore, it was concluded that the injection of pGLP-2 microspheres was a suitable therapeutic strategy for compensatory growth in low birth weight IUGR piglets.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/veterinária , Peptídeo 2 Semelhante ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/fisiologia , Pâncreas/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Microesferas , Suínos
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5178, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057066

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic flavivirus that causes encephalitis and reproductive disorders in mammalian species. However, the host factors critical for its entry, replication, and assembly are poorly understood. Here, we design a porcine genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9 knockout (PigGeCKO) library containing 85,674 single guide RNAs targeting 17,743 protein-coding genes, 11,053 long ncRNAs, and 551 microRNAs. Subsequently, we use the PigGeCKO library to identify key host factors facilitating JEV infection in porcine cells. Several previously unreported genes required for JEV infection are highly enriched post-JEV selection. We conduct follow-up studies to verify the dependency of JEV on these genes, and identify functional contributions for six of the many candidate JEV-related host genes, including EMC3 and CALR. Additionally, we identify that four genes associated with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) metabolism, specifically those responsible for HSPGs sulfurylation, facilitate JEV entry into porcine cells. Thus, beyond our development of the largest CRISPR-based functional genomic screening platform for pig research to date, this study identifies multiple potentially vulnerable targets for the development of medical and breeding technologies to treat and prevent diseases caused by JEV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/patogenicidade , Encefalite Japonesa/patologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Replicação Viral , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Calreticulina/genética , Calreticulina/metabolismo , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/metabolismo , Encefalite Japonesa/virologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Biblioteca Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Sus scrofa
16.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 2927-2930, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005985

RESUMO

This study describes the first isolation and genetic characterization of the newly emerging porcine circovirus type 2e (PCV2e) from Korean pigs. The PCV2e isolate did not produce a cytopathic effect in PCV-free PK-15 cells; therefore, PCV2e infection was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal PCV2a antibodies and polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for PCV2e. As the infected PCV-free PK-15 cells were passaged, the amount of infectious virus correlated with an increase in the amount of viral DNA (i.e., a decrease in the cycle threshold values. A full genomic analysis of the PCV2e strain SNUVR199711 was performed and showed that the genome is 1,777 nucleotides in length.


Assuntos
Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , DNA Viral/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , República da Coreia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017441

RESUMO

Long-term use of colistin for preventing Gram-negative bacterial infections in food animals was prohibited in Thailand in 2017, but it is permitted for short-term treatment. This study aimed to investigate association between the use of colistin for short-term treatment of infection and the emergence of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in swine. The current study was conducted at 2 selected swine farms in Thailand. Neither farm has used colistin to prevent infection for longer than 1 year. Rectal swabs were collected from the same 66 pigs at birth, and on days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 60. Colistin was used to treat sick pigs for up to 3 days. Additional rectal swabs were collected during colistin treatment. Rectal swabs were analyzed for colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and the mcr-1 gene. Results revealed that colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were absent at birth. Some pigs at both farms had diarrhea and received colistin treatment during days 2-27. Colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 13.3-50.0% of sick and healthy pigs. No sick pigs were observed during days 28-60, and colistin was not used during that period. Colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 2.8-10.0% of healthy pigs on day 28, and in 0-3.4% of healthy pigs on day 60. The mcr-1 gene was detected in 57.6% of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Short-term treatment with colistin was found to be associated with the emergence of colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in swine. Colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae rapidly emerged after colistin use, and rapidly decreased or disappeared after its discontinuation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colistina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Fazendas , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Suínos , Tailândia
18.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(12): 2122-2131, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-based augmented fluoroscopy (AF) image guidance for endobronchial navigation to peripheral lung targets. METHODS: Prototypic endobronchial navigation AF software that superimposed segmented airways, targets, and pathways based on cone-beam CT onto fluoroscopy images was evaluated ex vivo in fixed swine lungs and in vivo in healthy swine (n = 4) without a bronchoscope. Ex vivo and in vivo (n = 3) phase 1 experiments used guide catheters and AF software version 1, whereas in vivo phase 2 (n = 1) experiments also used an endovascular steerable guiding sheath, upgraded AF software version 2, and lung-specific low-radiation-dose protocols. First-pass navigation success was defined as catheter delivery into a targeted airway segment solely using AF, with second-pass success defined as reaching the targeted segment by using updated AF image guidance based on confirmatory cone-beam CT. Secondary outcomes were navigation error, navigation time, radiation exposure, and preliminary safety. RESULTS: First-pass success was 100% (10/10) ex vivo and 19/24 (79%) and 11/15 (73%) for in vivo phases 1 and 2, respectively. Phase 2 second-pass success was 4/4 (100%). Navigation errors were 2.2 ± 1.2 mm ex vivo and 4.9 ± 3.2 mm and 4.0 ± 2.6 mm for in vivo phases 1 and 2, respectively. No major device-related complications were observed in the in vivo experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Endobronchial navigation is feasible and accurate with cone-beam CT-based AF image guidance. AF can guide endobronchial navigation with endovascular catheters and steerable guiding sheaths to peripheral lung targets, potentially overcoming limitations associated with bronchoscopy.


Assuntos
Cateterismo/instrumentação , Cateteres , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/instrumentação , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiografia Intervencionista/instrumentação , Animais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fluoroscopia/instrumentação , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Sus scrofa
19.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(24)2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036986

RESUMO

Campylobacter is among the most common causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common species causing human disease. DNA sequence-based methods for strain characterization have focused largely on C. jejuni, responsible for 80 to 90% of infections, meaning that C. coli epidemiology has lagged behind. Here, we have analyzed the genome of 450 C. coli isolates to determine genetic markers that can discriminate isolates sampled from 3 major reservoir hosts (chickens, cattle, and pigs). These markers then were applied to identify the source of infection of 147 C. coli strains from French clinical cases. Using STRUCTURE software, 259 potential host-segregating markers were revealed by probabilistic characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency variation in strain collections from three different hosts. These SNPs were found in 41 genes or intergenic regions, mostly coding for proteins involved in motility and membrane functions. Source attribution of clinical isolates based on the differential presence of these markers confirmed chickens as the most common source of C. coli infection in France.IMPORTANCE Genome-wide and source attribution studies based on Campylobacter species have shown their importance for the understanding of foodborne infections. Although the use of multilocus sequence typing based on 7 genes from C. jejuni is a powerful method to structure populations, when applied to C. coli, results have not clearly demonstrated its robustness. Therefore, we aim to provide more accurate data based on the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Results from this study reveal an important number of host-segregating SNPs, found in proteins involved in motility, membrane functions, or DNA repair systems. These findings offer new, interesting opportunities for further study of C. coli adaptation to its environment. Additionally, the results demonstrate that poultry is potentially the main reservoir of C. coli in France.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Bovinos , Galinhas , França , Genoma Bacteriano , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/instrumentação
20.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 591-598, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046917

RESUMO

The first recorded outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) was confirmed in the People's Republic of China in early August 2018. By the end of July 2019, there had been 150 outbreaks of ASF in 31 provinces, including 146 in domestic pigs and four in wild boar. The Chinese Government attaches great importance to the prevention and control of ASF. The Chinese animal health authority promptly launched the highest-priority emergency response against this key animal disease; initiated an extensive surveillance network covering all provinces; formulated and promulgated supporting policies, such as compensation for culled animals and financial credit for affected producers; and established a joint coordination body for ASF prevention and control, led by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and involving a further 20 Ministries, including the Departments of Transportation, Customs and Market Supervision. All levels of local government undertook territorial management responsibilities and developed support policies to encourage all stakeholders to take part in ASF prevention and control. Furthermore, the Chinese Government developed a strategy that integrated both the legal and scientific aspects of ASF control, formulating and releasing a comprehensive policy for the whole pork production chain 'from farm to fork'. The plan included daily disease reports from the disease monitoring network, and adopted effective measures, such as blockades and culling, restricting live pig movements and implementing controls on swill feeding, to cut off viral transmission routes to the greatest extent possible.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Defesa Civil , Doenças dos Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos
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