Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.616
Filtrar
3.
Arch. bronconeumol. (Ed. impr.) ; 60(4): 200-206, abr.2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-232041

RESUMO

Background: HIV can infect bronchial epithelial cells rendering individuals susceptible to lung damage. Our objective was to determine the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on pulmonary function tests. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis after conducting a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Virtual Health Library databases from inception to December 31st, 2022. We employed the inverse variance method with a random effects model to calculate the effect estimate as the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We calculated the heterogeneity with the I2 statistic and performed a meta-regression analysis by age, sex, smoking, CD4 T-cells count and antiretroviral therapy. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis according to the studies’ publication date, and excluding the study with the greatest weight in the effect. The PROSPERO registry number was CRD42023401105. Results: The meta-analysis included 20 studies, with 7621 living with HIV and 7410 control participants. The pooled MD (95%CI) for the predicted percentage of FEV1, FVC and DLCO were −3.12 (−5.17, −1.06); p=0.003, −1.51 (−3.04, 0.02); p=0.05, and −5.26 (−6.64, −3.87); p<0.001, respectively. The pooled MD for FEV1/FVC was −0.01 (−0.02, −0.01); p=0.002. In all cases, there was a considerable heterogeneity. The meta-regression analysis showed that among studies heterogeneity was not explained by patient age, smoking, CD4 T-cells count or antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Pulmonary function tests are impaired in people living with HIV, independently of age, smoking, CD4 T-cells count, and geographical region. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , HIV , Células Epiteliais Alveolares , Brônquios , Pulmão , Heterogeneidade Genética , Tabagismo , Contagem de Células
4.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 104(14): 1168-1173, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583048

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the abnormal changes of intrinsic neural time scale (INT) in male smoking addicts based on whole brain resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: A case-control study. The clinical data and whole brain rs-fMRI data of 139 male subjects, aged (34.1±8.8) years, recruited through the online platform from January 2019 to December 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the existence of smoking addiction, they were divided into smoking addiction group (n=83) and healthy control group (n=56).INT was calculated to reflect the brain neural activity dynamics. Single sample t test was used to obtain the whole brain spatial distribution maps of INT in smoking addiction group and the control group. Then two-sample t test was conducted to explore the difference of INT between the smoking addition group and the healthy control group, with age and years of education as covariates. Finally, Spearman correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between INT and nicotine dependence scale score and smoking index. Results: Subjects with smoking addiction and healthy control group showed a similar pattern of hierarchical neural timescales, namely shorter INT in sensorimotor areas and longer INT in parietal lobe, posterior cingulate cortex. In addition, in the smoking addiction group, the left medial occipital gyrus (peak t=-3.18), left suproccipital gyrus (peak t=-3.66), bilateral pericalar cleft cortex (left: peak t=-3.02, right: peak t=-3.22), bilateral lingual gyrus (left: peak t=-3.10, right: t peak=-3.04), left cuneus (peak t=-2.97), default network associated brain region [left anterior cuneus(peak t=-3.23), left angular gyrus (peak t=-3.07), and left posterior cingulate cortex (peak t=-3.54) were significantly lower than those of healthy controls (gaussian random field correction, voxel level all P<0.005, mass level all P<0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between INT and nicotine dependence scale score and smoking index (both P>0.05 after Bonferroni correction). Conclusion: Compared with healthy controls, smoking addicts showed abnormal changes in the dynamics of neural activity in the visual cortex and the default network.


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Masculino , Humanos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Retrospectivos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo , Fumar , Mapeamento Encefálico
5.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(7): 1126-1132, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503709

RESUMO

Background: A growing body of literature suggests that many people who use e-cigarettes become dependent and have difficulty quitting. Most people who use e-cigarettes have interest in quitting, yet there is currently a lack of evidence to inform interventions for e-cigarette cessation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with successful e-cigarette quit attempts among a large sample of people who use e-cigarettes. Methods: Participants (n=586) were people who use e-cigarettes who reported at least one lifetime attempt to quit their e-cigarette use. Adjusted logistic regression models were performed to examine differences in e-cigarette use characteristics and quit methods between people who currently use e-cigarettes and who quit e-cigarettes. Results: Most participants were people who currently use e-cigarettes and only 27.5% reported successfully quitting. Most participants (90.6%) used e-cigarettes that contained nicotine, and over half (54.0%) used closed-system e-cigarette devices with replaceable pre-filled pods or cartridges. The quit method most commonly used overall (63.1%) and for people who quit e-cigarettes (70.8%) was cold turkey. Past 30-day cigarette use and past 30-day other tobacco use was significantly associated with reduced odds of quitting, and there were no e-cigarette characteristics significantly associated with successful cessation. Nicotine replacement therapy was the only e-cigarette cessation method that was significantly associated with increased odds of quitting after adjusting for past 30-day cigarette and other tobacco use. Conclusions: These results suggests that cigarette use, other tobacco use, and quit method used may significantly influence the likelihood of e-cigarette cessation. Future research is needed to determine the effectiveness of interventions for e-cigarette cessation using nicotine replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Adulto , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Tabagismo/terapia
6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 173: 296-301, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between stable smoking behavior and cognitive function in male schizophrenia patients. METHODS: A simple random sampling method is applied to select 120 patients with schizophrenia admitted to a hospital from August 2020 to December 2022 as the subjects. They are divided into two groups based on whether they smoked or not. Their cognitive function is evaluated using the Stroop test (SWCT), continuous task test (CPT), and Chinese version of the Schizophrenic Cognitive Function Battery Test (MCCB). The Spearman correlation analysis is applied to verify the correlation between smoking behavior and SWCT, CPT, and MCCB in patients. Additionally, the Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Scale (FTND) is used to evaluate the nicotine dependence degree in smoking group patients. Pearson correlation analysis verifies the correlation between nicotine dependence and SWCT, CPT, MCCB in smoking group patients. RESULTS: Among 120 patients include in this study, 3 have symptoms during the trial period, and 1 patient has an error in filling out the questionnaire, all of which are excluded. Finally, 116 valid documents are collected, with an effective recovery rate of 96.67%. According to the SWCT test results, the number of single word errors, single word time, double word errors, and double word time in the smoking group exceed the non-smoking group (P < 0.05). According to the CPT test results, the number of correct reactions in the smoking group is below the non-smoking group. The correct average reaction time, error rate of interference items, and error rate of ineffective items exceed the non-smoking group (P < 0.05). According to the MCCB test results, the scores of connectivity, visual spatial memory, and continuous operation test in the smoking group are below the non-smoking group (P < 0.05). The Spearman correlation analysis results show that stable smoking behavior in male schizophrenia patients is positively correlated with the number of single word errors, double word errors, double word time, correct mean reaction time, interference item error rate, and invalid item error rate (r = 0.216-0.524, P < 0.05). It is also positively correlated with the number of correct reactions, immediate memory, language function, delayed memory, MCCB connectivity, visual spatial memory, and continuous operation (r = -0.212-0.356, P < 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis results show that the nicotine dependence degree in stable male schizophrenia patients is negatively correlated with monochromatic error count, immediate memory, visual span, attention, and MCCB scores (r = -0.321-0.930, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Smoking in male schizophrenic patients may have impacts on their cognitive function. This impact worsens as the patient's nicotine dependence increases, especially on their memory function. Effective measures should be taken in clinical practice to correct patients' smoking behavior, reduce their nicotine dependence, and improve their cognitive function.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Tabagismo , Humanos , Masculino , Cognição , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fumar
7.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 175: 187-239, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555116

RESUMO

New approaches for the treatment of alcohol dependence (AD) may improve patient outcomes. Substitution maintenance therapy is one of the most effective treatment options for opioid and nicotine use disorders. So far, there has been little attention to substitution therapy for the treatment of AD. Here, we explain the mechanistic foundations of alcohol substitution maintenance therapy. Alcohol has many primary targets in the brain (and other organs) and the physical interaction of ethanol molecules with these specific ethanol-sensitive sites on a variety of ionotropic receptors (e.g. GABA-A, NMDA, and nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors) and ion channels provides the rationale for substitution. As such, a variety of compounds can interact with those ethanol-sensitive sites and can thus substitute for some of the effects of alcohol. For some of these compounds, alcohol discrimination studies have shown their substitution potential. Accordingly, potential substitution treatments include agonists acting at GABA receptors such as sodium oxybate, baclofen and benzodiazepines, NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine and memantine, or nAChRs agonists such as varenicline. All these compounds are already approved for other indications and we present clinical evidence for these drugs in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and in the long-term treatment of AD, and outline future steps for their acceptance as substitution treatment in AD. Finally, we discuss the substitution approach of managed alcohol programs for the most severely affected homeless populations. Results showed that sodium oxybate is probably the closest to a substitution therapy for AD and is already approved for the treatment of AWS and in the long-term treatment of AD in some countries. In conclusion, we argue that better AD treatment can be provided if substitution maintenance treatments for alcohol are implemented at a similar scale as for opioid and nicotine use disorder.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos , Oxibato de Sódio , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Tabagismo , Humanos , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Oxibato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol/farmacologia , Tabagismo/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Nicotínicos/uso terapêutico
8.
Thorax ; 79(Suppl 1): 1-2, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531602
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 709, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quitting support from smokers' partners can predict quit attempts and smoking abstinence but research on factors that predict such support has been limited. To add more evidence for partner support and the improved interventions for smoking cessation, we analyzed some new potential predictors of quitting support from smokers' spouses. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in in 2022 and 2023, selecting the students' families in which fathers smoked and mothers didn't smoke from grade 1-5 of 13 primary schools in Qingdao, China. Parents who met the criteria completed the online questionnaires and 1018 families were included in the analysis. We measured personal information related to smokers and their spouses such as age, education and nicotine dependence, and variables related to family and marital relationship such as family functioning, perceived responsiveness and power in decision-making of quitting smoking. Quitting support from smokers' spouses was measured by Partner Interaction Questionnaire and generalized linear model was used to explore the potential predictors of partner support. RESULTS: In this study, the mean age of smokers was 39.97(SD = 5.57) and the mean age of smokers' spouses was 38.24(SD = 4.59). The regression analysis showed that for smokers and their spouses, the older age groups showed the lower ratio of positive/negative support(P < 0.05) and smokers with high education showed the less positive and negative partner support(P < 0.05). Nicotine dependence was positively associated with negative support (ß = 0.120, P < 0.01), and perceived responsiveness (ß = 0.124, P < 0.05) as well as family functioning (ß = 0.059, P < 0.05) was positively associated with positive support. These three factors were associated with ratio of positive/negative support(P < 0.05). In addition, power of smoker's spouse in decision-making of quitting smoking was positively associated with the positive (ß = 0.087, P < 0.001) and negative support (ß = 0.084, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine dependence, family functioning, power in decision-making of quitting smoking and perceived responsiveness were found to be the predictors of quitting support from smokers' spouses. By incorporating predictors of partner support and integrating some established theories that can improve family functioning and marital relationships, smoking cessation interventions can be further improved.


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Fumar , China/epidemiologia , Pai
10.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 25(3): 875-883, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smokeless tobacco is the preponderant form of tobacco in India. The cessation indicators are weaker for smokeless tobacco users than smokers. There is a dearth of literature on the effectiveness of the interventions that motivate and assist smokeless tobacco users in quitting in program settings. METHODS: Data from Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (GATS), 2016-17, was analysed. Quit attempts in the previous 12 months among SLT users and duration of abstinence were the two outcome variables. The chief exposure variables were the receipts of various interventions that warned about the dangers of smokeless tobacco or encouraged quitting. Logistic regression analyses were employed to identify determinants of quit attempts. For the hazard of relapse to tobacco use, survival analysis was used. RESULTS: The odds of quit attempts among SLT users in the previous 12 months were more among those who received advice from healthcare providers (OR 2.09; 1.87-2.34), noticed messages from media that made them think about quitting (OR 1.67; 1.50-1.86) and noticed a warning label that made them think about quitting (OR 1.39; 1.25-1.55). Those who used counselling (HR 0.81; 0.70-0.93) or medication (HR 0.79; 0.66-0.95) sustained abstinence from smokeless tobacco for a longer duration compared to those who did not use any cessation method. CONCLUSION: Quit advice by healthcare providers is an influential determinant of a quit attempt, and this intervention needs to be scaled up. The media messages and warning labels were effective among those who considered quitting after noticing them. Cessation methods can help prolong the abstinence from smokeless tobacco, but the reach of cessation methods is limited.


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adulto , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos
11.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 139, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Health Service in England aims to implement tobacco dependency treatment services in all hospitals by 2024. We aimed to assess the uptake of a new service, adapted from the Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation, and its impact on 6-month quit rates and readmission or death at 1-year follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic service evaluation of a tobacco dependency service implemented among 2067 patients who smoked who were admitted to 2 acute hospitals in London, England, over a 12-month period from July 2020. The intervention consisted of the systematic identification of smoking status, automatic referral to tobacco dependence specialists, provision of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support throughout the hospital stay, and telephone support for 6 months after discharge. The outcomes were (i) patient acceptance of the intervention during admission, (ii) quit success at 6 months after discharge, (iii) death, or (iv) readmission up to 1 year following discharge. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of a range of clinical and demographic variables on these outcomes. RESULTS: The majority (79.4%) of patients accepted support at the first assessment. Six months after discharge, 35.1% of successfully contacted patients reported having quit smoking. After adjustment, odds of accepting support were 51-61% higher among patients of all non-White ethnicity groups, relative to White patients, but patients of Mixed, Asian, or Other ethnicities had decreased odds of quit success (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.32, 95%CI = 0.15-0.66). Decreased odds of accepting support were associated with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or diabetes; however, diabetes was associated with increased odds of quit success (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.17-3.04). Intention to make a quit attempt was associated with a threefold increase in odds of quit success, and 60% lower odds of death, compared to patients who did not intend to quit. A mental health diagnosis was associated with an 84% increase in the odds of dying within 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: The overall quit rates were similar to results from Ottawa models implemented elsewhere, although outcomes varied by site. Outcomes also varied according to patient demographics and diagnoses, suggesting personalised and culturally tailored interventions may be needed to optimise quit success.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabagismo , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Readmissão do Paciente , Medicina Estatal , Hospitais
13.
Prev Med ; 181: 107924, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the time to first report of signs of nicotine dependence among youth exclusive e-cigarette users and compare this time to that for exclusive cigarette users. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data (Waves 1-5; 2013-2019) from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health was conducted. Youth never tobacco users in the United States who reported exclusive past-30-day (P30D) e-cigarette or cigarette use (n = 2940, N = 5,391,642) in at least one wave were included in the current analysis. Survival analysis was used to estimate the time to the first report of three nicotine dependence indicators (i.e., "use within 30 minutes of waking"; "cravings" and "really needing to use") following the first report of P30D use. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the time to first report of "use within 30 minutes of waking" (aHR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.87-1.40) and "cravings" (aHR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.81-1.47) between exclusive P30D e-cigarette use and exclusive P30D cigarette use. However, compared to exclusive P30D e-cigarette use, the hazard of first reporting "really needing to use" tobacco was 39% (aHR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.05-1.84) times higher for those who reported exclusive P30D cigarette use after controlling for covariates. CONCLUSION: Compared to exclusive P30D cigarette use, no differences in the time to first report of signs of nicotine dependence ("use within 30 minutes" and "cravings") were observed among exclusive P30D e-cigarette users. Policymakers and regulatory agencies should consider this evidence when assessing the abuse liability of e-cigarette products.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Humanos , Adolescente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299728, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466736

RESUMO

Understanding the factors that influence smoking cessation among young people is crucial for planning targeted cessation approaches. The objective of this review was to comprehensively summarize evidence for predictors of different smoking cessation related behaviors among young people from currently available systematic reviews. We searched six databases and reference lists of the included articles for studies published up to October 20, 2023. All systematic reviews summarizing predictors of intention to quit smoking, quit attempts, or smoking abstinence among people aged 10-35 years were included. We excluded reviews on effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention; smoking prevention and other smoking behaviors; cessation of other tobacco products use, dual use, and polysubstance use. We categorized the identified predictors into 5 different categories for 3 overlapping age groups. JBI critical appraisal tool and GRADE-CERqual approach were used for quality and certainty assessment respectively. A total of 11 systematic reviews were included in this study; all summarized predictors of smoking abstinence/quit attempts and two also identified predictors of intention to quit smoking. Seven reviews had satisfactory critical appraisal score and there was minimal overlapping between the reviews. We found 4 'possible' predictors of intention to quit smoking and 119 predictors of smoking abstinence/quit attempts. Most of these 119 predictors were applicable for ~10-29 years age group. We had moderate confidence on the 'probable', 'possible', 'insufficient evidence', and 'inconsistent direction' predictors and low confidence on the 'probably unrelated' factors. The 'probable' predictors include a wide variety of socio-demographic factors, nicotine dependence, mental health, attitudes, behavioral and psychological factors, peer and family related factors, and jurisdictional policies. These predictors can guide improvement of existing smoking cessation interventions or planning of new targeted intervention programs. Other predictors as well as predictors of intention to quit smoking need to be further investigated among adolescents and young adults separately.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabagismo , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Fumar , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle , Fumar Tabaco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
15.
Adv Pharmacol ; 99: 327-354, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467485

RESUMO

This review discusses the diverse effects of nicotine on the various nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the central and peripheral nervous system and how those effects may promote the usage and addiction to tobacco products.


Assuntos
Receptores Nicotínicos , Tabagismo , Humanos , Nicotina/farmacologia
16.
Adv Pharmacol ; 99: 387-404, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467488

RESUMO

Nicotine use disorder remains a major public health emergency despite years of trumpeting the consequences of smoking. This is likely due to the complex interplay of genetics and nicotine exposure across the lifespan of these individuals. Genetics influence all aspects of life, including complex disorders such as nicotine use disorder. This review first highlights the critical neurocircuitry underlying nicotine dependence and withdrawal, and then describes the cellular signaling mechanisms involved. Finally, current genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic evidence for new drug development of smoking cessation aids is discussed, with a focus on the Neuregulin 3 Signaling Pathway.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabagismo , Humanos , Tabagismo/tratamento farmacológico , Tabagismo/genética , Tabagismo/metabolismo , Medicina de Precisão , Fumar/genética , Neurregulinas/genética , Neurregulinas/metabolismo
17.
Chron Respir Dis ; 21: 14799731241235213, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking poses the most common risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and aggravates disease progression. Tobacco dependence inhibits smoking cessation and may affect smoking patterns that increase tobacco exposure and predispose to lung function decline. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess tobacco dependence in current smokers with and without COPD and evaluate its role in disease development. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Greek rural areas. Current smokers completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and were classified into COPD and non-COPD groups based on spirometry parameters. RESULTS: Among current smokers, 288 participants comprised the non-COPD and 71 the COPD group. Both presented moderate tobacco dependence, but smokers with COPD started to smoke earlier in the morning. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed higher COPD prevalence in smokers with higher scores in the Fagerström test (odds ratio OR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [1.01 - 1.24]) and older age (OR = 1.06 [1.03 - 1.09]), independently of pack-years smoking index. Multiple linear regression analysis in smokers with COPD showed that the forced expiratory volume in the 1st second decreased by 2.3% of the predicted value for each point increase in the Fagerström Test and 0.59% for each year of age, independently of participants' sex and pack-years smoking index. CONCLUSION: The Fagerström score appears to indicate a higher probability for COPD and lung function deterioration when assessed along with age in current smokers. Smoking cessation support programs are fundamental to COPD prevention and management.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Tabagismo , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Grécia , Fumantes , Prognóstico
18.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 12(1): 1-7, jan.-dez. 2024. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1530656

RESUMO

Introdução: O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar e identificar a prevalência e fatores de risco associados ao tabagismo e outras formas de consumo de tabaco entre acadêmicos da saúde. Métodos: A pesquisa contou com 407 acadêmicos dos cursos de Biomedicina, Educação Física, Enfermagem, Farmácia, Fisioterapia e Nutrição de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior. A coleta de dados foi realizada no mês de maio de 2020, por um formulário eletrônico, disponibilizado em e-mail institucional, grupos de estudos e redes sociais. O procedimento ocorreu após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética, cujo parecer 3.966.951. Resultados: A maioria dos participantes (79,6%) eram do sexo feminino, solteiros (75,2%) com idade média de 25,32 anos. O consumo de tabaco foi confirmado por 10,8% participantes. Quanto ao consumo de produtos derivados de tabaco 24,1% dos entrevistados já consumiram produto de tabaco, 8,6% assumiram tabagismo ocasional, e 4,2% tabagismo ativo. Conclusões: A associação entre tabagismo e as variáveis sociodemográficas demonstrou que alunos do curso de Farmácia (OR: 5,25 [IC:1,34-20,22] p=0,017), homens (OR: 1,71 [IC: 1,01 ­ 2,91]), estudantes turno matutino (OR: 1,96 [IC:1,02-3,78] p=0,04) e que residem com tabagistas (OR:4,44 [IC: 2,24-8,80]) apresentaram maiores chances de serem tabagista. A associação em relação ao consumo de derivados do tabaco, os homens apresentaram maiores prevalências de consumo de derivados de tabaco (OR: 1,71 [IC: 1,01 ­ 2,91] p=0,045) bem como, alunos do curso de Farmácia (OR: 6,40 [IC:2,31-17,7] P<0,01), que estudam no turno Noturno (OR:1,85 [IC:1,16-8,82] p=0,009) e entre os que residem com tabagistas (OR: 4,49 [IC:2,24-8,80] p<0,001).


Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate and identify the prevalence and risk factors associated with smoking and other forms of tobacco consumption among health academics. Methods: The survey involved 407 students from Biomedicine, Physical Education, Nursing, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy and Nutrition courses at a Higher Education Institution. Data collection was carried out in May 2020, through an electronic form, available in institutional email, study groups and social networks. The entire procedure took place after approval by the Ethics Committee. Results: Most participants (79.6%) were female, single (75.2%) with a mean age of 25.32 years. Tobacco consumption was confirmed by 10.8% of the participants. As for the consumption of tobacco products, 24.1% of the interviewees had already consumed some tobacco product, 8.6% assumed occasional smoking, and 4.2% active smoking. Conclusions: The association between smoking and sociodemographic variables showed that Pharmacy students (OR: 5.25 [CI:1.34-20.22] p=0.017), men (OR: 1.71 [CI: 1.01 ­ 2.91]), morning shift students (OR: 1.96 [CI:1.02-3.78] p=0.04) and those who live with smokers (OR:4.44 [CI : 2.24-8.80]) were more likely to be smokers. The association in relation to the consumption of tobacco derivatives, men had a higher prevalence of consumption of tobacco derivatives (OR: 1.71 [CI: 1.01 ­ 2.91] p=0.045) as well as Pharmacy students (OR: 6.40 [CI:2.31-17.7] P<0.01), those who study the night shift (OR:1.85 [CI:1.16-8.82] p=0.009 ) and among those who live with smokers (OR: 4.49 [CI:2.24-8.80] p<0.001).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Tabagismo , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde
19.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 39(2): 299-307, 20240220. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532686

RESUMO

Introducción. El aneurisma de la aorta abdominal (AAA) es la dilatación de la aorta abdominal mayor de 1,5 veces el diámetro esperado. Su prevalencia es variable, con tasas reportadas de hasta el 12,5 %. Se considera como causa de muerte de más de 10.000 personas al año en los Estados Unidos. El objetivo de esta revisión de la literatura fue describir los factores de riesgo y las herramientas de tamizaje de AAA. Métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura utilizando dos ecuaciones en bases de datos electrónicas, empleando términos seleccionados de "Medical Subject Heading" (MeSH) y "Descriptores en Ciencias de la Salud" (DeCS). Se evaluó la calidad de los estudios con la herramienta STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology). Resultados. Se recolectaron 40 artículos y a partir de ellos se construyó el texto de revisión, identificando en estos, los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de AAA, tales como sexo masculino, tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial, antecedente familiar y obesidad, entre otros. La diabetes mellitus parece actuar como factor protector. Dentro de los instrumentos de tamizaje, el ultrasonido abdominal es uno de los más usados. Conclusión. El AAA es una patología multifactorial. En la actualidad la ultrasonografía de aorta es el método de elección para el tamizaje, permitiendo la detección precoz. El tamizaje de AAA con métodos no invasivos, como el ultrasonido, es útil sobre todo en zonas con prevalencia alta de la patología y en pacientes con determinados factores de riesgo.


Introduction. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilation of the abdominal aorta greater than 1.5 times the expected diameter. Its prevalence is variable, with reported rates of up to 12.5%. It is considered the cause of death of more than 10,000 people a year in the United States. The objective of this literature review was to describe risk factors and screening tools for AAA. Methods. A literature search was conducted using two equations in electronic databases, using terms selected from "Medical Subject Heading" (MeSH) and "Descriptors in Health Sciences" (DeCS). The quality of the studies was evaluated with the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) tool. Results. Forty articles were collected and from them the review text was constructed, identifying the risk factors associated with the development of AAA, such as male sex, smoking, high blood pressure, family history and obesity, among others. Diabetes mellitus seems to act as a protective factor. Among the screening instruments, abdominal ultrasound is one of the most used. Conclusion. AAA is a multifactorial pathology. Currently, aortic ultrasonography is the method of choice for screening, allowing early detection. Screening for AAA with non-invasive methods, such as ultrasound, is useful especially in areas with a high prevalence of this pathology and in patients with certain risk factors.


Assuntos
Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Doenças da Aorta , Tabagismo , Ultrassonografia
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e077015, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV (PLWH) who were current cigarette smokers and receiving treatment at HIV outpatient clinics (OPCs) in Vietnam. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of smokers living with HIV. SETTING: The study was carried out in 13 HIV OPCs located in Ha Noi, Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 527 PLWH aged 18 and above who were smokers and were receiving treatment at HIV OPCs. OUTCOME MEASURES: The study used the Centre for Epidemiology Scale for Depression to assess depressive symptoms. The associations between depressive symptoms, tobacco dependence and other characteristics were explored using bivariate and Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among smokers living with HIV was 38.3%. HIV-positive smokers who were female (prevalence ratio, PR 1.51, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.22), unmarried (PR 2.06, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.76), had a higher level of tobacco dependence (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) and reported their health as fair or poor (PR 1.66, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.26) were more likely to have depression symptoms compared with HIV-positive smokers who were male, married, had a lower level of tobacco dependence and self-reported their health as good, very good or excellent. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among smokers receiving HIV care at HIV OPCs was high. Both depression and tobacco use screening and treatment should be included as part of ongoing care treatment plans at HIV OPCs.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tabagismo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/complicações , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fumantes , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...