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1.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107117, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-cigarette device and liquid characteristics, such as electrical power output and liquid nicotine concentration, determine the rate at which nicotine is emitted from the e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine flux), and thus are likely to influence user nicotine dependence. We hypothesize that nicotine flux would be associated with the E-cigarette Dependence Scale (EDS) among pod-based and disposable e-cigarette products. METHODS: Data were obtained from online panel participants between 18 and 65 years of age, who had indicated that they were either former or current e-cigarette users and resided within the United States (N = 1036). To be included in these analyses, participants had to provide information regarding device type (pod-based or disposable), power (watts), and nicotine concentration (mg/mL), from which we could determine nicotine flux (µg/s) (N = 666). To assess the relationship between nicotine flux and EDS, a series of multivariable linear regressions were conducted. Each model was separated by device type and adjusted for by age and past 30-day e-cigarette use. RESULTS: Greater nicotine flux was associated with higher EDS scores among pod-based e-cigarette users (beta = 0.19, SE = 0.09, p-value = 0.043), but not users of disposable e-cigarettes. Neither power nor nicotine concentration were associated with EDS scores among users of either e-cigarette device type. CONCLUSION: Results support the hypothesis that nicotine flux is positively associated with nicotine dependence in a sample of current users of pod-based and disposable e-cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Vaping , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos
2.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107108, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509092

RESUMO

Evidence has shown that smoking is a self-regulatory strategy to relieve negative affect and that metacognitions about smoking may play a role in addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present research was designed to examine the direct and indirect roles of emotion dysregulation and negative affect in predicting urge to smoke and nicotine dependence via metacognitions about smoking. In a cross-sectional study, 450 nicotine-dependent men completed measures of urge to smoke, nicotine dependence, metacognitions about smoking, negative affect, and emotion dysregulation. The results showed that both emotion dysregulation and negative affect had indirect effects on urge to smoke via positive metacognitions about smoking as well as on nicotine dependence via negative metacognitions about smoking. The findings suggest that metacognitions about smoking have different roles in different patterns of nicotine use so that positive and negative metacognitions have important roles respectively in urge to smoke and nicotine dependence in smokers with high emotion dysregulation and negative affect. This study also adds to the literature on the metacognitive theoretical framework of addictive behaviors supporting the use of Metacognitive Therapy interventions in smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Tabagismo , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar
3.
Infectio ; 25(4): 262-269, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286720

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To analyse the clinic characteristics, risk factors and evolution of the first cohort of hospitalised patients with confirmed infection by COVID-19 in 5 Colombian institutions. Materials and methods: Is a retrospective observational study of consecutive hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed from March 01 to May 30, 2020 in Colombia. Results: A total of 44 patients were included. The median age was 62 years. 43.2% had a history of smoking, while 69.8% were overweight or obese. 88.6% had at least one comorbidity and 52.3% had three or more comorbidities. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were the most frequent comorbidities (40.9% and 34.1%, respectively). The 30-day mortality rate was 47.7% with a median of 11 days. The composite outcome occurred in the 36.4%. The biomarkers associated with mor tality risk included troponin higher than 14 ng/L (RR: 5.25; 95% CI 1.37-20.1, p = 0.004) and D-dimer higher than 1000 ng/ml (RR: 3.0; 95% CI 1.4-6.3, p = 0.008). Conclusions: The clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospitalized Colombian was characterised by a more advanced stage of the infection.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar las características, clínicas, factores de riesgo, y la evolución de pacientes hospitalizados con infección confirmada por COVID-19 en 5 Institu ciones de Colombia. Material y método: Es un estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos hospitalizados con diagnóstico de COVID-19 confirmado entre 01 de Febrero de 2020 y 30 de Mayo de 2020 en Colombia. Resultados: Un total de 44 pacientes fueron incluidos. La mediana de edad fue de 62 años y la mayoría del sexo masculino. El 43.2% tenían historia de tabaquismo, mientras que el 69.8% tenían sobrepeso u obesidad. El 88.6% tenían al menos una comorbilidad y el 52.3% tenían tres o más comorbilidades. La hipertensión arterial fue la comorbilidad más frecuente (40.9%), seguido de la dislipidemia (34.1%). La tasa de letalidad a 30 días fue de 47.7% y ocurrió con una mediana de 11 días. El 36.4% presentó el desenlace compuesto. Los biomarcadores asociados con el riesgo de muerte fue troponina > 14 ng/mL (RR:5.25, IC95% 1.37-20.1, p=0.004) y dímero D mayor a 1000 mg/dL (RR: 3.0, IC95% 1.4-6.3, p=0.008). Conclusiones: El curso clínico de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 en colombianos hospitalizados fue un estadio más avanzado de la infección.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Biomarcadores , COVID-19 , Pacientes , Tabagismo , Comorbidade , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Mortalidade , Colômbia , Sobrepeso , Cursos , Infecções , Obesidade
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48533

RESUMO

O Ministério da Saúde (MS) lançou uma linha de cuidado abordando o tabagismo (abre em outra janela). A plataforma on-line, no ar desde sexta-feira, 12, tem como objetivo contribuir com a redução do uso do tabaco e derivados, a partir dos caminhos que o cidadão pode percorrer dentro do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). A Divisão de Controle do Tabagismo e Outros Fatores de Risco do INCA integrou a equipe técnica que elaborou o documento. Para o secretário de Atenção Primária do MS, Raphael Câmara, é necessário manter a vigilância para que o País não volte aos patamares dos anos 1980. “O combate ao tabagismo é uma pauta importantíssima para a saúde dos brasileiros, e avançamos muito nas últimas décadas. Mas sabemos que é possível reduzir ainda mais o número de fumantes e que essa deve ser uma luta permanente”, afirma. O número de pessoas com mais de 18 anos que fazem uso do tabaco passou de 15,7% em 2006 para 9,5% em 2020, segundo a pesquisa Vigitel. O declínio é o resultado significativo das políticas públicas que o MS já promoveu sobre o tema, como a proibição da propaganda de cigarros, a advertências sobre o risco do tabagismo nos maços do produto e a adesão à Convenção-Quadro da Organização Mundial da Saúde para o Controle do Tabaco.


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Atenção Primária à Saúde
5.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-9309

RESUMO

Tem como uma das suas atribuições a definição de políticas públicas para promoção de saúde, prevenção e tratamento dos transtornos decorrentes do uso indevido de substâncias psicoativas.


Assuntos
Fumantes , Tutoria , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Tabagismo
6.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 181, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest preventable cause of diseases and deaths; reducing tobacco intake is, therefore, an urgent public health goal. In recent years, e-cigarettes have been marketed as a 'healthier' alternative to tobacco smoking, whilst product features have evolved tremendously in the meantime. A lively scientific debate has developed regarding the potential benefits and risks of e-cigarettes although, surprisingly, there are few studies investigating the addictive potential of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes. The present work comprises three work packages investigating the addictive potential of e-cigarettes from different perspectives: (1) the neurobiological addictive potential of e-cigarettes; (2) the experience and perception of dependence symptoms among users of e-cigarettes in a social context; and (3) the epidemiological perspective regarding factors influencing the potential for dependence. METHODS: Work package I: the neurobiological study will investigate the key elements of addiction in e-cigarettes compared to tobacco cigarettes using neurobiological and neuropsychological correlates associated with craving, incentive motivation, cue reactivity and attentional bias. Work package II: the sociological study part examines self-reports on the experience and perception of dependence symptoms in a social context, using focus group interviews and the analysis of posts in online discussion forums on e-cigarettes. Work package III: the epidemiological study part focuses on tolerance development and the role of psychosocial and product factors by analyzing longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC). DISCUSSION: The present study offers a chosen mix of three methodological approaches, thereby comprehensively examining core symptoms of positive and negative reinforcement in addiction. Whether e-cigarettes are as reinforcing and addictive as combustible tobacco cigarettes is an important public health issue with implications for prevention and treatment programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Work package I: Registered at clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04772014. Work package II: Registered at OSF Registries: https://osf.io/dxgya (2021, January 14).


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nicotina
7.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 32(3): 160-166, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the Neurexin 3 gene (NRXN3) polymorphisms in the rs 221473, rs 221497, rs1004212 and rs11624704 regions in relation to nicotine use disorder (NUD) in the Turkish population. METHOD: Power analysis indicated that the NUD group and the control group of this study should each comprise 200 participants in the 18-65 year age range. The NUD group consisted of individuals without a psychiatric first axis disorder except for NUD, mental retardation, past head trauma or a neurological disorder, who had smoked minimally10 cigarettes per day for at least 1 year. The control group included individuals without a serious chronic physical illness, a previous psychiatric disorder or mental retardation and who responded "no" to the question "have you ever smoked?" A sociodemographic questionnaire and the Fageström nicotine dependence scale (FNDS) for the NUD group were utilized. Venous blood samples of all participants were taken into tubes containing EDTA (ethylene daimine tetra acetic acid) for DNA extraction. Duplex fluorescence melting curve analysis was used for genotype detection and differentiation. RESULTS: The individuals carrying the AC allele and the AG allele at the rs11624704 and the rs1004212 regions respectively had a high risk of being addicted to cigarettes. CONCLUSION: This is first study investigating the relationship of the NRXN3 gene and nicotine addiction in the Turkish population. It was observed that the risk of NUD in the Turkish population may be related to the Neurexin gene.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Tabagismo , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Fumar , Tabagismo/genética , Turquia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770149

RESUMO

Despite prior successful implementation of Taking Texas Tobacco Free (TTTF), an evidence-based tobacco-free workplace program, in local mental health authorities (LMHAs), post-implementation employee attrition necessitated continuing education on tobacco-free policies and tobacco treatment practices. Here, we report on the outcomes of a train-the-trainer program which trained "champions" to deliver tobacco cessation education at their LMHAs. Three LMHAs participated in program implementation via 10 champions, iteratively trained and coached by TTTF. Measures administered evaluated four goals: (1) increase champions' self-efficacy in delivering trainings, (2) achieve program fidelity via TTTF staff evaluation of trainer effectiveness and knowledge increases among attending employees, (3) achieve stakeholder program acceptability, and (4) achieve program adoption via an increase in follow-up trainings. Champions' self-efficacy increased throughout TTTF training. TTTF staff ratings of champion-led trainings met the targeted range for trainer effectiveness; employees had a 28.71% knowledge increase over baseline post-training (p < 0.001). Employees rated champions' training delivery "very good" to "excellent", on average; both champions and employees were, on average, "satisfied" to "extremely satisfied" with the curriculum and training received. There was an increase over baseline in trainings delivered during follow-up, and trainings increased in length and topic coverage. Ultimately, the train-the-trainer program achieved the intended goals, although not all changes were statistically significant, likely at least partially attributable to small sample sizes. Overall, these results suggest that TTTF's train-the-trainer program was successful in its delivery and intention to build capacity for the provision of in-house tobacco education trainings to behavioral health employees/providers. However, further evaluation in additional settings, with more champions, et cetera, is necessary to validate these findings, ensure their replicability, link program implementation with reduced patient tobacco use rates, and assess long-term sustainability.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Tabagismo , Terapia Comportamental , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
9.
Clin Ter ; 172(5): 427-434, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625774

RESUMO

Background: Adequate training in tobacco, nicotine dependence and treatment is lacking in Medical School education. With the rise in popularity of electronic alternatives to cigarettes, future physicians should also be provided with the more recent scientific evidence on these products during their undergraduate studies. We introduced an e-learning course for Medical School students and assessed its effec-tiveness of increasing knowledge on these topics. Methods: We developed 16 didactic modules divided in 3 courses: tobacco dependence (TDI), treating tobacco dependence (TDII) and electronic products and tobacco control (TDIII). The course was offered to 4th, 5th, and 6th year Medical School students in Italy. To assess learning outcomes, we examined the pre- to post- changes in knowledge scores associated with each course. Paired and independent samples t-tests were performed overall, and among smokers and non-smokers separately. Results: A total of 1318 students completed at least one of the courses; 21% were self-reported smokers. A significant increase in knowledge was observed at the end of TDI (pre-course: 52.1±15.9, post-course: 79.9±13.5, p<0.001), TDII (pre-course: 52.5±13.0, post-course: 66.5±12.0, p<0.001) and TDIII (pre-course: 52.2±15.3, post-course: 76.1±17.7, p<0.001). Smokers showed significantly lower improvements compared to non-smokers. Conclusions: The e-learning course was effective in increasing knowledge about tobacco dependence, treatments, and electronic ni-cotine products in advanced medical students. Given the fundamental role for healthcare practitioners in encouraging and assisting people in quitting smoking, e-learning may be a useful tool in providing up-to-date and standardized training in the area during Medical School.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Estudantes de Medicina , Tabagismo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Tabagismo/terapia
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e28303, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: e-Cigarette use, also known as vaping, has increased dramatically over the past few years, especially among younger demographics. However, researchers have found that a large number of e-cigarette users want to quit. Little is known about the unique aspects of vaping cessation, which is critical to informing the development of relevant resources and interventions for e-cigarette users who want to quit. Social media forums such as Reddit provide opportunities to understand the experiences of behavior change such as quitting vaping from the perspective of end users. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine a quit vaping subreddit to understand how e-cigarette users are experiencing and approaching vaping cessation. Specifically, we examine methods used to approach quitting, reasons for quitting, and barriers and facilitators to quitting. METHODS: A total of 1228 posts were collected. The posts were inductively coded to generate categories and subcategories using conventional content analysis. Data were analyzed using the NVivo 12 qualitative data analysis software. RESULTS: Most users reported a preference for approaching quitting through gradual reduction, particularly through the use of their own devices by tapering the nicotine content. Their reasons for quitting were primarily related to experiencing negative physical consequences associated with vaping, especially in relation to their lungs (eg, tight chest), and tired of feeling stuck to the vape because of nicotine addiction. Top barriers to quitting were related to withdrawal symptoms and intensity of addiction. The top facilitators to quitting were related to using distraction techniques (eg, hobby, gaming, and mindfulness exercises), as well as having a positive mindset. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study reveal unique aspects that encompass the process of quitting vaping. These findings have significant implications for both policy and intervention development.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Vaping , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682623

RESUMO

Black/African American women from low-resource, rural communities bear a disproportionate burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. This study examined associations between menthol smoking and socioeconomic deprivation with nicotine dependence and quitting behaviors among Black/African American women cigarette and/or little cigar/cigarillo smokers, aged 18-50 living in low-resource, rural communities. Baseline survey data from a randomized controlled behavioral/intervention trial (#NCT03476837) were analyzed (n = 146). Outcomes included time to first tobacco product (cigarette/little cigar/cigarillo) use within 5 min of waking, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score, and ever attempting to quit cigarettes. Socioeconomic deprivation measures included education, income, and receiving supplemental nutritional assistance (SNAP) program benefits. In adjusted regression analyses, menthol smoking was associated with both greater FTND scores and time to first tobacco product use within 5 min of waking, but not ever attempting to quit cigarettes. Regardless of menthol status, only 25.0% of smokers reported that they would quit smoking if menthol cigarettes were banned. The proportion of smokers who smoked their first tobacco product within 5 min of waking increased slightly with greater socioeconomic deprivation. Additional research and targeted efforts are needed to reduce nicotine dependence among Black/African American women smokers living in rural, low-resource communities where access to cessation services is limited.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Afro-Americanos , Feminino , Humanos , Mentol , População Rural , Fumantes , Fumar , Tabagismo/epidemiologia
12.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 32(3): 160-166, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the Neurexin 3 gene (NRXN3) polymorphisms in the rs 221473, rs 221497, rs1004212 and rs11624704 regions in relation to nicotine use disorder (NUD) in the Turkish population. METHOD: Power analysis indicated that the NUD group and the control group of this study should each comprise 200 participants in the 18-65 year age range. The NUD group consisted of individuals without a psychiatric first axis disorder except for NUD, mental retardation, past head trauma or a neurological disorder, who had smoked minimally10 cigarettes per day for at least 1 year. The control group included individuals without a serious chronic physical illness, a previous psychiatric disorder or mental retardation and who responded "no" to the question "have you ever smoked?" A sociodemographic questionnaire and the Fageström nicotine dependence scale (FNDS) for the NUD group were utilized. Venous blood samples of all participants were taken into tubes containing EDTA (ethylene daimine tetra acetic acid) for DNA extraction. Duplex fluorescence melting curve analysis was used for genotype detection and differentiation. RESULTS: The individuals carrying the AC allele and the AG allele at the rs11624704 and the rs1004212 regions respectively had a high risk of being addicted to cigarettes. CONCLUSION: This is first study investigating the relationship of the NRXN3 gene and nicotine addiction in the Turkish population. It was observed that the risk of NUD in the Turkish population may be related to the Neurexin gene.


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Tabagismo/genética
13.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(11): 3335-3346, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648060

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Nicotine use disorder can alter synaptic plasticity correlated with learning and memory process. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a novel cannabinoid receptor, which is highly expressed in the central nervous system, plays a prominent role in learning and memory. However, the role of GPR55 in nicotine use disorder remains unclear. METHODS: In this study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, a standard and well-established model for evaluating the rewarding effect of drug abuse, to investigate nicotine use disorder behavior in mice. After behavioral tests, the effect of GPR55 on nicotine response was evaluated using Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, and ELISA. RESULTS: GPR55 activation significantly reduced nicotine-CPP behavior by decreasing the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents frequency in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the release of dopamine in serum. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition effects of nicotine response were mediated by phosphorylation of AMPAR. The PI3K-Akt signaling was involved in nicotine-CPP via GPR55 activation. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that GPR55 in the NAc plays a specific role in blocking nicotine-CPP behavior and might be a potential target for the treatment of nicotine use disorder.


Assuntos
Canabinoides , Tabagismo , Animais , Camundongos , Núcleo Accumbens , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Fosforilação , Receptores de Canabinoides , Recompensa
14.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48450

RESUMO

A Vitrine do conhecimento considerando o contexto epidemiológico decorrente da pandemia do coronavírus e estudos que indicam associação entre tabagismo e desfechos mais graves da Covid-19 (doença causada pelo novo coronavírus), este espaço reúne materiais criados para orientar e informar as redes estaduais e municipais de controle do tabagismo, parceiros do controle do tabaco e demais interessados nas duas temáticas.


Assuntos
Tabagismo , Coronavirus
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574823

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the Korean national five-day residential smoking cessation program and the factors affecting the long-term smoking cessation of participants. The residential smoking cessation program (2017-2018) recruited smokers with a smoking duration ≥ 20 years and who have attempted to quit smoking more than twice and/or smokers with chronic morbidities. Participants underwent an intensive intervention, including individual psychological therapy, group therapy, medical counseling, and pharmacotherapy. The 6-month continuous abstinence rate (CAR) was assessed via self-reports, the urine cotinine levels, and/or expired-air carbon monoxide levels. Logistic regression was used to analyze the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) to assess factors related to smoking cessation. Overall, 484 participants who completed the residential program and questionnaire were evaluated. The 3- and 6-month CAR were 81.82% and 63.22%, respectively. The aOR of 6-month continuous abstinence was lower among participants with severe nicotine dependence (aOR: 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.81) and higher among participants with combination therapy of varenicline with short-term nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (aOR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.07-2.51), with higher self-efficacy (aOR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.15-3.37). The residential smoking cessation program was effective. High self-efficacy, combination therapy of varenicline with short-term NRT, and low nicotine dependence were associated with a high 6-month CAR.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabagismo , Humanos , Fumar , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Vareniclina
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501586

RESUMO

There is evidence of higher tobacco use among lesbian or gay and bisexual (LGB) populations. However, a limited number of studies have examined whether there are differences in potential indicators of future tobacco cessation behaviors between LGB and non-LGB populations. This study examined whether sexual identity is associated with craving, nicotine dependence, and quit intentions among high school students. Data were drawn from the 2020 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 1642). A propensity score matching (PSM) technique was used to address covariate imbalance among sexual identity groups. Additionally, subgroup analyses were performed for both males and females. The PSM results showed higher odds of craving among students who were gay or lesbian (aOR, 1.70; 95% CI = 1.13-2.55) and bisexual (aOR, 1.89; 95% CI = 1.23-2.92) compared to heterosexual (straight) students. In the sex-based subgroup analyses, we found that gay or lesbian (aOR, 1.92; 95% CI = 1.10-3.34) and bisexual (aOR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.46-6.66) male students had significantly higher odds of craving when compared to heterosexual/straight male adolescents. However, the association was not significant in female students. Additionally, female bisexuals had significantly lower odds for quit intention (aOR, 0.48; 95% CI = 0.29-0.81) when compared to heterosexual/straight female adolescents. Results also showed no significant differences between LGB and non-LGB students for nicotine dependence. Sexual minority adolescents, especially male adolescents, were more likely to have tobacco cravings and bisexual females had lower odds of quit intention than heterosexual peers. Prevention efforts targeting this subpopulation may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Tabagismo , Adolescente , Bissexualidade , Fissura , Humanos , Intenção , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Tabagismo/epidemiologia
17.
Indian J Public Health ; 65(3): 243-249, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558485

RESUMO

Background: Low level laser therapy is a novel noninvasive technology used to stimulate the acupoints recognized for tobacco cessation. Objective: To compare the effect of laser auricular acupuncture, psychological counseling, and combination of laser acupuncture and psychological counseling in reducing nicotine dependence due to smoking. Methods: Smokers (n = 150) fulfilling the eligibility criteria were randomly allocated to three interventional groups. Evaluation of the nicotine dependence and physical effects due to smoking were done using Fagerstrom test and Visual Analog Scale, respectively, at baseline and 1 month postintervention. Person's Chi-square, Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for the statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in nicotine dependence (P = 0.00) and physical effects related to smoking (P < 0.05) in all the interventional groups 1 month postintervention. Reduction in Fagerstrom test scores was significantly higher (P = 0.001) in Group 3 (laser acupuncture with psychological counseling) as compared to other groups. There was significant reduction (P < 0.01) in irritability, tiredness, craving, headaches, and significant increase (P < 0.05) in the unpleasant taste due to smoking and ability to concentrate in laser acupuncture with psychological counseling group as compared to other groups. Conclusion: Auricular laser acupuncture with psychological counseling was effective in reducing nicotine dependence due to smoking.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura Auricular , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabagismo , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Índia , Lasers , Fumar , Tabagismo/terapia
18.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1048, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556072

RESUMO

AIM: Chronic diseases often occur simultaneously and tend to be associated with adverse health outcomes, but limited research has been undertaken to understand their role in lung cancer mortality. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and patterns of having one (comorbidity) or ≥ 2 chronic diseases (multimorbidity) among lung cancer patients in Spain, and to examine the association between comorbidity or multimorbidity and short-term mortality risk at six months after cancer diagnosis. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, data were drawn from two Spanish population-based cancer registries, Girona and Granada, and electronic health records. We identified 1259 adult lung cancer patients, diagnosed from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2012. We identified the most common patterns of individual comorbidities and their pairwise correlations. We used a flexible parametric modelling approach to assess the overall short-term mortality risk 6 months after cancer diagnosis by levels of comorbidity after adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, province of residence, surgery, cancer stage, histology, and body mass index. RESULTS: We found high prevalence of comorbidity in lung cancer patients, especially among the elderly, men, those diagnosed with advanced-stage tumours, smokers, and obese patients. The most frequent comorbidities were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (36.6%), diabetes (20.7%) and heart failure (16.8%). The strongest pairwise correlation was the combination of heart failure with renal disease (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and heart failure with diabetes (r = 0.16, p < 0.01). Patients with either one or two or more comorbidities had 40% higher overall mortality risk than those without comorbidities (aHR for comorbidity: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.7; aHR for multimorbidity: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.8), when relevant confounding factors were considered. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of comorbid diseases, rather than the number of comorbidities, was associated with increasing the risk of short-term lung cancer mortality in Spain. Comorbidity was a consistent and independent predictor of mortality among lung cancer patients, six months after diagnosis. The most common comorbid conditions were age-, obesity- and tobacco-related diseases. Our findings highlight the need to develop targeted preventive interventions and more personalised clinical guidelines to address the needs of lung cancer patients with one or more comorbidities in Spain.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Multimorbidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tabagismo/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1627, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salameh et al. developed the Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11) that assesses nicotine dependence among adult waterpipe smokers. In view of the high waterpipe use among Lebanese youth and other neighboring countries, it was deemed necessary to check the psychometric properties of the LWDS-11, originally adapted to the Lebanese population, to measure nicotine dependence among adolescents. METHODS: Two cross-sectional investigations were conducted; Study 1 (January and May 2019) enrolled a total of 449 students who were exclusive waterpipe smokers; this sample was used to conduct the exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 enrolled another sample composed of 243 waterpipe smoking adolescents. This sample was independent from the first one and was used to conduct the confirmatory analysis. RESULTS: The results also showed that 312 (69.5%) [95% CI 0.652-0.738] had high waterpipe dependence (scores of ≥10). Results of the factor analysis in sample 1 showed that all LWDS-11 items were extracted following the factor analysis. Items converged over a solution of one factor; total variance explained = 70.45%, αCronbach = 0.96). The results of the confirmatory factor analysis were as follows: the Maximum Likelihood Chi-Square = 129.58 and Degrees of Freedom = 45, which gave a χ2/df = 2.88. For non-centrality fit indices, the Steiger-Lind Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.08 [0.071-0.106]. Moreover, the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) value was 0.77. CONCLUSION: The preliminary results suggest that the LWDS-11 has good psychometric properties to measure waterpipe dependence among adolescents. We hope this tool would serve the benefit of research and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Cachimbos de Água , Tabagismo , Fumar Cachimbo de Água , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
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