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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 169: 105164, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324973

RESUMO

Mediterranean area represents the main habitat of Testudo hermanni. Clinical signs of disease of these tortoises are non-specific, making the hematology results crucial in revealing underlying pathological conditions. However, accurate automated identification of blood cell populations is hampered by the presence of nucleated erythrocytes (NRBC) and thrombocytes (Thr), necessitating manual methods such as counting chambers. The aim of the study was to assess the performance of the novel automated hematology analyzer Sysmex XN-1000 V, which includes a a specific channel (WNR) for counting NRBC, in accurately identify and quantify the different blood cell populations of Testudo hermanni. Additionally, its agreement with manual counts was evaluated. Fifty heparinized blood samples were initially counted using the Neubauer improved chamber and then analysed twice with Sysmex XN-1000 V. Thirteen out of 50 samples were instrumentally counted again after 48 h to assess the inter-assay precision. All WNR scattergrams were re-analysed using an ad hoc gate panel to differentiate two populations: NRBCs (weak fluorescence signal) and WBC + Thr (high fluorescence signal). Sysmex XN-1000 V demonstrated optimal intra- and inter-assay precision for NRBCs (CV 0.98% ± 1.96; 1.31% ± 2.98) and moderate precision for WBC + Thr (CV 9.24% ± 16.61; 12.69% ± 10.35). No proportional nor constant errors were observed between the methods for both the populations. The instrumental NRBC counts were consistently slightly lower, while WBC + Thr counts were slightly higher compared to manual counts. These findings suggest that Sysmex XN-1000 V can be used for analyzing cell populations in heparinized blood of Testudo hermanni. However, specific instrumental reference intervals are suggested.


Assuntos
Hematologia , Tartarugas , Animais , Leucócitos , Eritroblastos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária
2.
Parasite ; 31: 1, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353582

RESUMO

Blood parasites of the genus Hemolivia Petit, Landau, Baccam and Lainson, 1990 (Adeleorina: Karyolysidae) are hemogregarines of ectothermic vertebrates, such as lizards, chelonians, and toads. Only five species of Hemolivia from vertebrate hosts and one from their tick vector have been described so far. In the present study, Central American wood turtles (Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima manni) originating from Southern Nicaragua were screened for the presence of hemogregarines. Ten out of 30 specimens (33.3%) were positive for Hemolivia using both approaches - microscopy and PCR-based analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 18S rRNA gene revealed the presence of two haplotypes, both placed as sister taxa in the Hemolivia clade. Their phylogenetic position was supported by high bootstrap values and high posterior probabilities, suggesting that there are at least two new distinct haplotypes corresponding to two distinct species. However, the specimens of each haplotype were microscopically indistinguishable from each other based on the gamont morphology, therefore, only a single species could be described and named, as Hemolivia pulcherrima n. sp. We consider that the uniform morphology of the most common blood stages of species of the genus Hemolivia complicates their differential diagnosis. Sequence divergence and different host spectra, therefore, remain the only differentiating tools.


Title: Espèces d'Hemolivia infectant les tortues peintes d'Amérique centrale (Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima manni) et problèmes de diagnostic différentiel au sein du genre Hemolivia. Abstract: Les parasites sanguins du genre Hemolivia Petit, Landau, Baccam et Lainson, 1990 (Adeleorina : Karyolysidae) sont des hémogrégarines de vertébrés ectothermes, tels que les lézards, les tortues et les crapauds. Seules cinq espèces d'Hemolivia provenant d'hôtes vertébrés et une de leur tique vectrice ont été décrites jusqu'à présent. Dans cette étude, des tortues peintes d'Amérique centrale (Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima manni) originaires du sud du Nicaragua ont été examinées pour détecter la présence d'hémogrégarines. Dix tortues sur 30 (33,3 %) étaient positives pour Hemolivia en utilisant les deux approches de microscopie et d'analyse de PCR. Les analyses phylogénétiques basées sur le gène de l'ARNr 18S ont révélé la présence de deux haplotypes, tous deux placés comme taxons frères dans le clade Hemolivia. Leur position phylogénétique était étayée par des valeurs de bootstrap et des probabilités postérieures élevées, suggérant qu'il existe au moins deux nouveaux haplotypes distincts correspondant à deux espèces distinctes. Cependant, les spécimens de chaque haplotype étaient impossibles à distinguer les uns des autres au microscope sur la base de la morphologie des gamontes. Par conséquent, une seule espèce a pu être décrite et nommée, comme Hemolivia pulcherrima n. sp. Nous considérons que l'uniformité de la morphologie des stades sanguins les plus courants des espèces du genre Hemolivia complique leur diagnostic différentiel. Les divergences de séquences et les différents spectres d'hôtes restent donc les seuls outils de différenciation.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Tartarugas , Animais , Filogenia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Lagartos/parasitologia , América Central
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 45, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310245

RESUMO

The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) is renowned for its remarkable adaptations, yet much of its complex biology remains unknown. In this pioneering study, we utilized a combination of gross anatomy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy, and immunofluorescence techniques to examine the tongue's omnivorous adaptation in this species. This research bridges a critical knowledge gap, enhancing our understanding of this intriguing reptile. Gross examination revealed a unique arrowhead-shaped tongue with a median lingual fissure and puzzle-piece-shaped tongue papillae. SEM unveiled rectangular filiform, conical, and fungiform papillae, with taste pores predominantly on the dorsal surface and mucous cells on the lateral surface of the papillae. Histologically, the tongue's apex featured short rectangular filiform and fungiform papillae, while the body exhibited varying filiform shapes and multiple taste buds on fungiform papillae. The tongue's root contained lymphatic tissue with numerous lymphocytes surrounding the central crypt, alongside lingual skeletal musculature, blood and lymph vessels, and Raffin corpuscles in the submucosa. The lingual striated muscle bundles had different orientations, and the lingual hyaline cartilage displayed a bluish coloration of the ground substance, along with a characteristic isogenous group of chondrocytes. Our research represents the first comprehensive application of immunofluorescence techniques to investigate the cellular intricacies of the red-eared slider's tongue by employing seven distinct antibodies, revealing a wide array of compelling and significant findings. Vimentin revealed the presence of taste bud cells, while synaptophysin provided insights into taste bud and nerve bundle characteristics. CD34 and PDGFRα illuminated lingual stromal cells, and SOX9 and PDGFRα shed light on chondrocytes within the tongue's cartilage. CD20 mapped B-cell lymphocyte distribution in the lingual tonsil, while alpha smooth actin (α-SMA) exposed the intricate myofibroblast and smooth muscle network surrounding the lingual blood vessels and salivary glands. In conclusion, our comprehensive study advances our knowledge of the red-eared slider's tongue anatomy and physiology, addressing a significant research gap. These findings not only contribute to the field of turtle biology but also deepen our appreciation for the species' remarkable adaptations in their specific ecological niches.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Elétrons , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas , Língua , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária
4.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 263, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TRIM proteins, recognized as a class of E3 ubiquitin ligases, are increasingly acknowledged for their antipathogen immune functions in mammals and fish. In the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis), a secondary aquatic reptile that occupies a unique evolutionary position, the TRIM gene has rarely been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present study, 48 PsTRIM proteins were identified from the genome of Pelodiscus sinensis via Hidden Markov Model (HMM) searches and Signal Transduction ATPases with Numerous Domains (SMART) analysis. These PsTRIMs were found across 43 distinct scaffolds, and phylogenetic analyses classified them into three principal clades. The PsTRIMs feature a conserved assembly of either RING-B-box-coiled-coil (RBCC) or B-box-coiled-coil (BBC) domains at the N-terminus, in addition to eight unique domains at the C-terminus, including the B30.2 domain, 19 of which were identified. Expression profiling revealed ubiquitous expression of the 48 PsTRIMs across various P. sinensis tissues. Notably, seven PsTRIMs exhibited significant differential expression in liver transcriptomes following infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis implicated PsTRIM14 and PsTRIM28 as key players in host defense against bacterial invasion. Real-time quantitative PCR results indicated that PsTRIM1, PsTRIM2, PsTRIM14, and PsTRIM28 experienced marked upregulation in P. sinensis livers at 12 h post-infection with A. hydrophila. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to comprehensively identify and analyze the functions of TRIM genes in P. sinensis, unveiling their considerable diversity and potential roles in modulating immune responses.


Assuntos
Transcriptoma , Tartarugas , Animais , Aeromonas hydrophila , Genômica , Filogenia , Transcriptoma/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Tartarugas/genética
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 33(1): e013823, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359299

RESUMO

The big-headed Amazon River turtle, Peltocephalus dumerilianus, is endemic to the Orinoco and Amazon River basins. It is a food source for local communities, often unsustainably. Knowledge about P. dumerilianus' parasitological fauna and host-parasite relationships is limited. Thus, ecological aspects of gastrointestinal parasitism in this species were investigated. Helminths were found in the gastrointestinal tract of 21 turtles, morphologically identified, and infection descriptors calculated. All animals harbored helminths: nematodes Ancyracanthus pinnatifidus, Paratractis hystrix, Atractis trematophila, Klossinemella conciliatus indeterminate three Klossinemella species, and digeneans Nematophila grandis, Helicotrema spirale, and Telorchis hagmanni. The highest parasite load occurred in the large intestine, followed by the small intestine and stomach. Shell length directly correlated with parasite burden of heteroxenic helminths, with males having higher burden than females. This is the first record of A. trematophila, K. conciliatus, and T. hagmanni in P. dumerilianus, and new location record for A. trematophila, P. hystrix, N. grandis, H. spirale, and T. hagmanni. Three potentially new Klossinemella species are presented.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Tartarugas , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Brasil , Parques Recreativos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária
6.
Microb Genom ; 10(1)2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170193

RESUMO

Pet turtles are a well-recognized source of human salmonellosis, posing a threat to human health, particularly children who commonly keep pet turtles. To date, the genomic characteristics of Salmonella among pet turtles and children has not been well described. We investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and genomic characteristics of Salmonella from pet turtles in Beijing, China. In total, 9.6 % (46/480) of pet turtles were positive for Salmonella with S. Thompson being the dominant serovar (19/46) in 2019. Moreover, 80.4 % of Salmonella were multi-drug resistant (MDR) and 60.7 % were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ASSuT). We further compared the genomes of S. Thompson isolates from pet turtles (n=19) with those from children with diarrhoea (n=28) in the same region and year, most of which were sequence type (ST)26, with one novel ST7937 identified from a child-associated isolate. S. Thompson isolates from children with diarrhoea exhibited less resistance than isolates from pet turtles. Most MDR isolates possessed multiple AMR genes, including the AmpC ß-lactamase-encoding genes bla DHA-15 and bla DHA-1 which co-occurred with the IncA/C and IncHI plasmid replicon types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the bla DHA-15 gene has been detected from Salmonella. Several pet turtle-associated S. Thompson isolates comprised phylogenetically close clusters with those from children with diarrhoea (<20 SNP differences). Bayesian analysis demonstrated that the Chinese ST26 S. Thompson strains had a recent evolutionary history and evolved into two major clades, with one clade acquiring various resistant plasmids. Our findings revealed the emergence of MDR Salmonella among pet turtles in China and provided evidence for the interspecies transmission of S. Thompson.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Salmonella , Genômica , Diarreia/veterinária
7.
J Neurosci ; 44(4)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267235

RESUMO

Low-level features are typically continuous (e.g., the gamut between two colors), but semantic information is often categorical (there is no corresponding gradient between dog and turtle) and hierarchical (animals live in land, water, or air). To determine the impact of these differences on cognitive representations, we characterized the geometry of perceptual spaces of five domains: a domain dominated by semantic information (animal names presented as words), a domain dominated by low-level features (colored textures), and three intermediate domains (animal images, lightly texturized animal images that were easy to recognize, and heavily texturized animal images that were difficult to recognize). Each domain had 37 stimuli derived from the same animal names. From 13 participants (9F), we gathered similarity judgments in each domain via an efficient psychophysical ranking paradigm. We then built geometric models of each domain for each participant, in which distances between stimuli accounted for participants' similarity judgments and intrinsic uncertainty. Remarkably, the five domains had similar global properties: each required 5-7 dimensions, and a modest amount of spherical curvature provided the best fit. However, the arrangement of the stimuli within these embeddings depended on the level of semantic information: dendrograms derived from semantic domains (word, image, and lightly texturized images) were more "tree-like" than those from feature-dominated domains (heavily texturized images and textures). Thus, the perceptual spaces of domains along this feature-dominated to semantic-dominated gradient shift to a tree-like organization when semantic information dominates, while retaining a similar global geometry.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Tartarugas , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Semântica , Incerteza , Água
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(7): 10911-10919, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214861

RESUMO

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemical substances widely distributed in the environment by the runoff from anthropic activities and can be distributed and bioaccumulated or biomagnified in the environment, affecting the health of organisms. The sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, is a long-lived organism, with migratory habits and feeding behaviors that allow exposure to various pollutants. This work aimed to determine long-term exposure to POPs in adult olive ridley turtles (L. olivacea), sampled during the nesting season, in "La Escobilla" Sanctuary. Blood samples were collected and processed to obtain plasma. The quantification of POPs in blood was carried out with an extraction technique with a focused ultrasound probe. Twenty-seven POP analytes were determined. The concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, total polychlorinated biphenyls, and the total sum of POPs found in plasma are higher than those reported in other studies, which reported effects such as hematological and biochemical changes in blood, changes in immune system cells and enzymatic activity related to oxidative stress. These results are important to demonstrate the chronic exposure to POPs in olive ridley turtles in marine ecosystems and to highlight the importance of assessing the associated health risks, considering that these contaminants could be transferred to the offspring and affect future generations of this reptile. It is important to carry out studies that develop conservation strategies for the olive ridley turtle. Also, it is necessary to control the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere, as well as reduce urban, agricultural, and industrial waste in the environment and marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Olea , Tartarugas , Animais , Poluentes Orgânicos Persistentes , Ecossistema , México
9.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 26(1): 28-36, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165638

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of brown fishmeal in replacement of white fishmeal in the diet of Chinese soft-shelled turtles and to find the optimal amount of brown fishmeal to add. Five experimental groups were set up and fed to animals, and they were composed by different proportions of white and brown fishmeal: G1 (30% white and 25% brown fishmeal), G2 (25% white and 30% brown fishmeal), G3 (20% white and 35% brown fishmeal), G4 (15% white and 40% brown fishmeal), G5 (10% white and 45% brown fishmeal). G1 is regarded as the control group. Turtles were randomly divided into five experimental groups with four replicates each. The experiment lasted 72 days. The results showed that the WGR, SGR, FCR, and HSI of the G3 group were not significantly different from those of the control group (P > 0.05). In addition, brown fishmeal can increase the crude protein content in the muscles of them. Among the serum biochemical indices, there was no significant difference between the G3 group and the G1 group, except for the level of TG (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, the activities of AST, ALT, and CAT in the liver of the G3 group did not differ significantly from those of the G1 group (P > 0.05). However, the activities of ACP, AKP, and T-AOC were significantly decreased in the G3 group (P < 0.05). In addition, the alteration of fishmeal did not affect the digestive enzyme activities in the stomach, liver, and intestine, and there is no significant difference (P > 0.05). Importantly, with increasing brown fishmeal addition, the expression of Fas, Pparγ, Scd, and Stat3 showed a significant increase, while the expression of Bmp4 decreased significantly (P < 0.05). In this study, the addition of 20% white fishmeal and 35% brown fishmeal to the diet of Chinese soft-shelled turtles did not adversely affect growth performance. Therefore, 20% white fishmeal and 35% brown fishmeal are the most practical feed formulations for Chinese soft-shelled turtles in this study.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Tartarugas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo
10.
Bioinformatics ; 40(1)2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175776

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: de novo variants (DNVs) are variants that are present in offspring but not in their parents. DNVs are both important for examining mutation rates as well as in the identification of disease-related variation. While efforts have been made to call DNVs, calling of DNVs is still challenging from parent-child sequenced trio data. We developed Hare And Tortoise (HAT) as an automated DNV detection workflow for highly accurate short-read and long-read sequencing data. Reliable detection of DNVs is important for human genomics and HAT addresses this need. RESULTS: HAT is a computational workflow that begins with aligned read data (i.e. CRAM or BAM) from a parent-child sequenced trio and outputs DNVs. HAT detects high-quality DNVs from Illumina short-read whole-exome sequencing, Illumina short-read whole-genome sequencing, and highly accurate PacBio HiFi long-read whole-genome sequencing data. The quality of these DNVs is high based on a series of quality metrics including number of DNVs per individual, percent of DNVs at CpG sites, and percent of DNVs phased to the paternal chromosome of origin. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: https://github.com/TNTurnerLab/HAT.


Assuntos
Lebres , Tartarugas , Animais , Humanos , Tartarugas/genética , Lebres/genética , Exoma , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38255893

RESUMO

Male and female Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) have sex-dimorphic growth patterns, and males have higher commercial value because of their larger size and thicker calipash. Thus, developing sex-specific markers is beneficial to studies on all-male breeding in P. sinensis. Here, we developed an accurate and efficient workflow for the screening of sex-specific sequences with ZW or XY sex determination systems. Based on this workflow, female and male P. sinensis reference genomes of 2.23 Gb and 2.26 Gb were obtained using de novo assembly. After aligning and filtering, 4.01 Mb female-specific sequences were finally identified. Subsequently, the seven developed sex-specific primer pairs were 100% accurate in preliminary, population, and embryonic validation. The presence and absence of bands for the primers of P44, P45, P66, P67, P68, and P69, as well as two and one bands for the PB1 primer, indicate that the embryos are genetically female and male, respectively. NR and functional annotations identified several sex-determining candidate genes and related pathways, including Ran, Eif4et, and Crkl genes, and the insulin signaling pathway and the cAMP signaling pathway, respectively. Collectively, our results reveal that a ZW-type sex-determination system is present in P. sinensis and provide novel insights for the screening of sex-specific markers, sex-control breeding, and the studies of the sex determination mechanism of P. sinensis.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Tartarugas/genética , Répteis
12.
J Neurosci Res ; 102(1): e25274, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38284848

RESUMO

Comparative studies using reptiles as experimental animals in pain research could expand our knowledge on the evolution and adaptation of pain mechanisms. Currently, there are no data reported on the involvement of voltage-gated sodium ion channels on nociception in reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of Nav1.3, Nav1.7, and Nav1.8 ion channels in nociception in Speke's hinge-back tortoise. ICA 121341 (selective blocker for Nav1.1/Nav1.3), NAV 26 (selective blocker for Nav1.7), and A803467 (selective blocker for Nav1.8) were used to investigate the involvement of Nav1.3, Nav1.7, and Nav1.8, respectively. The chemicals were administered intracoelomically thirty minutes before the start of nociceptive tests. ICA 121341 did not cause a significant decrease in the time spent in pain-related behavior in all the nociceptive tests. NAV 26 and A8034667 caused a statistically significant decrease in the mean time spent in pain-related behavior in the formalin and capsaicin tests. Only A803467 caused a statistically significant increase in the mean latency to pain-related behavior in the hot plate test. NAV 26 and A803467 had no observable side effects. In conclusion, Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 are involved in the processing of chemically induced inflammatory pain in Speke's hinge back tortoise. In addition, Nav1.8 are also significantly involved in the development of thermal-induced pain-related behavior in this species of reptile. However, our results do not support the involvement of Nav1.3 on the development of chemical or thermal induced pain-related behavior in the Speke's hinge back tortoise.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Compostos de Anilina , Furanos , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 54(4): 728-737, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38251996

RESUMO

Spirorchiidosis, caused by blood flukes of the genus Spirorchis, is a disease of great concern for the critically endangered European pond turtle (EPT; Emys orbicularis) in Switzerland. The endogenous life cycle of the parasite often leads to systemic inflammatory reactions, thrombosis, and death. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the treatment of choice against adult Spirorchis spp. in green (Chelonia mydas) and in loggerhead (Caretta caretta) sea turtles and is therefore considered for the treatment of EPT. This study aimed to establish a safe, easily applicable PZQ treatment for EPT, based on pharmacokinetics and tolerability. Three application methods were tested in a total of 12 adult EPT. Each turtle received a total of 75 mg/kg PZQ (three doses of 25 mg/kg in 3-h intervals [q3h × 3]) via IM (n = 3 turtles), SC (n = 3 turtles), or PO (n = 6 turtles) administration. Blood was collected 3, 6, 24, and 48 h after the first administration to determine the plasma concentration of PZQ using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Maximum measured R-PZQ concentrations (Cmax) were reached after 6 h. The mean Cmax of the total PZQ (sum of R- and S-PZQ) in the PO-treated EPT group was 1,929 ng/ml. Significantly higher concentrations were measured after IM and SC injection (mean Cmax of total PZQ = 12,715 ng/ml and 10,114 ng/ml, respectively). Transient side effects were evident after IM administration (local swelling and lameness), whereas no adverse drug effects were observed after PO and SC administration. Based on these results and the ease of administration to EPT, SC injection of PZQ at 25 mg/kg q3h times 3 serves as promising treatment application for the future.


Assuntos
Praziquantel , Tartarugas , Animais , Praziquantel/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Marcha , Inflamação/veterinária
14.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 54(4): 766-775, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252000

RESUMO

Septicemia is commonly suspected of sea turtles entering rehabilitation. However, blood culture results of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) are infrequently reported in the literature. Aerobic blood cultures were performed for intake examinations of 167 green sea turtles undergoing rehabilitation at Brevard Zoo's Sea Turtle Healing Center, Melbourne, Florida, USA from 2017 to 2020. The incidence of positive cultures during intake examinations was 24% (40/167). The most common bacterial isolates identified were Vibrio alginolyticus, Shewanella algae, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Photobacterium damselae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. There was a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) between culture status and evidence of external injury. There was no significant association between culture status and Caryospora-like coccidia infection, or fibropapillomatosis. Culture-positive turtles had significantly lower (P < 0.05) total white blood cell, lymphocyte, monocyte, total protein, albumin, and calculated globulin values compared to turtles with negative blood cultures. Significantly more culture-positive turtles died in rehabilitation compared to culture-negative (P = 0.042). Positive blood cultures suggestive of septicemia are commonly found during intake examinations at a Florida sea turtle rehabilitation facility.


Assuntos
Sepse , Tartarugas , Animais , Hemocultura/veterinária , Florida/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/veterinária
15.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 54(4): 785-795, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252002

RESUMO

Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) face a variety of anthropogenic, infectious, and environmental threats and have been affected by high morbidity and mortality disease events. Wellness parameters in free-ranging eastern box turtles with a high prevalence of myiasis on Cape Cod, MA, were documented to identify epidemiologic trends or associations with several health parameters. There were 109 samples collected from 59 individual box turtles over the course of 4 mon. Six turtles died over the course of this study. Fly larvae infestations varied in severity and were observed in the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue (n = 18; 30.5%). Animals with myiasis had fewer plastron abnormalities than those without (P = 0.034), and all turtles found in bogs had evidence of fly larvae infections (P < 0.0001). Individuals with myiasis also had lower body condition index (P = 0.014), lower total white blood cells (P = 0.031), lower PCV (P < 0.0001), lower total solids (P < 0.0001), higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.0001), lower calcium (P = 0.018), and lower phosphorus (P = 0.017). Three turtles tested positive for terrapene herpesvirus 1, but presence was not associated with myiasis. Heavy metal analysis revealed no significant differences between turtles with and without myiasis. This study examined the health of a population of eastern box turtles, and continued health assessments will be beneficial in determining the impact of myiasis on future conservation plans.


Assuntos
Miíase , Tartarugas , Humanos , Animais , Miíase/epidemiologia , Miíase/veterinária , Massachusetts , Cálcio da Dieta , Larva
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1506, 2024 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233518

RESUMO

The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is sensitive to climate change and is responding by colonising the Western Mediterranean. To understand the rapid nesting increase in recent years in Spain, we sampled 45 hatchlings from 8 nests between 2016 and 2019. We sequenced a mtDNA D-loop region, genotyped 2291 SNPs using 2bRAD and collected data on clutch size, hatching success, and incubation duration. We confirmed that the colonisation has a Mediterranean and Atlantic mixed origin and we detected that these nests were laid by different females, except for two nests within the same season. Our results suggest that the recent increase in nesting is due to an increase in the number of colonising individuals rather than females born in the same area returning to breed. We hypothesize that this increase in the number of colonisers results from successful conservation efforts, feminisation of the populations of origin and earlier sexual maturation. However, the percentage of offspring females produced in Spain suggests that future returning individuals will aid to the settlement of the new population. These results allow defining the current status of this colonisation although future efforts are needed to detect remigrants to confirm the establishment of a resident population.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Tartarugas/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Tamanho da Ninhada , Maturidade Sexual , Comportamento de Nidação
17.
J Comp Pathol ; 208: 50-53, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194723

RESUMO

A mild pneumocoelom was diagnosed by computed tomography in a stranded juvenile loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). After gas extraction by ultrasound-guided puncture, the animal did not improve and was subjected to hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). After HBOT, the turtle developed marked subcutaneous emphysema and was found dead the following morning. Gross lesions included a distended right atrium with numerous gas bubbles within the epicardium, gas bubbles in the hepatic, gastric and mesenteric veins, a small gas-filled bulla in the left lung and diffuse haemorrhages in the encephalon. Histological lesions included gas-like emboli in the lumen of the right atrium with myocardial necrosis, gas-like emboli in the lumina of intestinal, pulmonary and renal blood vessels and severe meningeal haemorrhages. From a forensic pathology perspective, the subcutaneous emphysema of immediate onset after HBOT and the greater severity of the histological lesions in blood vessels, heart, lung and brain differentiate this case from other cases of gas embolism in turtles due to incidental capture. Two factors contributed to this outcome: the existence of a probably unresolved pneumocoelom and the application of HBOT without an initial diagnosis that accurately indicated its use. Therefore, as in human medicine, the use of HBOT in sea turtles with lung lesions and pneumocoelom is discouraged. This is the first description of an iatrogenic gas embolism in a sea turtle.


Assuntos
Embolia Aérea , Enfisema Subcutâneo , Tartarugas , Humanos , Animais , Embolia Aérea/veterinária , Hemorragia/veterinária , Enfisema Subcutâneo/veterinária , Doença Iatrogênica/veterinária
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 752, 2024 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38191897

RESUMO

Climate change and human activity threaten sea turtle nesting beaches through increased flooding and erosion. Understanding the environmental characteristics that enable nesting can aid to preserve and expand these habitats. While numerous local studies exist, a comprehensive global analysis of environmental influences on the distribution of sea turtle nesting habitats remains largely unexplored. Here, we relate the distribution of global sea turtle nesting to 22 coastal indicators, spanning hydrodynamic, atmospheric, geophysical, habitat, and human processes. Using state-of-the-art global datasets and a novel 50-km-resolution hexagonal coastline grid (Coastgons), we employ machine learning to identify spatially homogeneous patterns in the indicators and correlate these to the occurrence of nesting grounds. Our findings suggest sea surface temperature, tidal range, extreme surges, and proximity to coral and seagrass habitats significantly influence global nesting distribution. Low tidal ranges and low extreme surges appear to be particularly favorable for individual species, likely due to reduced nest flooding. Other indicators, previously reported as influential (e.g., precipitation and wind speed), were not as important in our global-scale analysis. Finally, we identify new, potentially suitable nesting regions for each species. On average, [Formula: see text] of global coastal regions between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] latitude could be suitable for nesting, while only [Formula: see text] is currently used by turtles, showing that the realized niche is significantly smaller than the fundamental niche, and that there is potential for sea turtles to expand their nesting habitat. Our results help identify suitable nesting conditions, quantify potential hazards to global nesting habitats, and lay a foundation for nature-based solutions to preserve and potentially expand these habitats.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Tartarugas , Humanos , Animais , Mudança Climática , Sistemas Computacionais , Inundações
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 716, 2024 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184706

RESUMO

Roads have often been identified as barriers to the movement of free-ranging animals. However, whether restoration of landscape connectivity across roadways can mitigate barriers to movement is insufficiently understood in light of indirect effects of roads on wildlife movement. We GPS-tagged free-ranging Mojave desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) to quantify movement behavioral states using hidden Markov models in relation to a major highway and to document use of existing, permeable culverts. We then used the observed movement behaviors to parameterize simulations of tortoise movement to evaluate alternative culvert designs and placements for enhancing connectivity across the roadway. Tortoises were most active during mid-day, in warm temperatures, and when close to the highway. The highway affected transition probabilities between movement states, as females were more likely than males to switch to an energy-demanding traveling movement state, remain in that state, and move farther than usual within that state. In contrast, males were more likely than females to continue in the low-energy resting state when close to the highway, but if traveling, to travel farther than usual. We observed two highway crossings by a tagged tortoise, which was a higher rate of crossing than in simulated tortoises. Simulated crossing rates increased with culvert size and culvert density, and size and density appeared more important for crossing than if culverts were placed singly or in pairs. Existing culvert densities across the region appeared potentially sufficient for long-term genetic connectivity, but only if retrofitted to allow for tortoise access and passing. We concluded that existing highway traffic may indirectly depress tortoise populations adjacent to the highway, particularly via negative impacts to female movements, and that existing culverts in washes should be retrofitted to allow for periodic tortoise crossings to improve structural connectivity for occasional passage.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Feminino , Animais , Masculino , Animais Selvagens , Movimento , Probabilidade , Temperatura
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 14, 2024 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Zarudny's spur-thighed tortoise or Iranian tortoise (Testudo graeca zarudnyi) has just been reported from Iran so far. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of season and gender on serum biochemical parameters of this valuable species in Iran. RESULTS: This study was performed on 20 clinically healthy adult Zarudny's spur-thighed tortoises. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and then serum biochemical parameters and body weight were measured in autumn and winter. The following biochemical parameters were measured: total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein, total protein, creatinine, urea, glucose, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, total bilirubin, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. Urea concentration increased significantly at emergence from hibernation. Also, in winter, total protein, phosphorous, creatinine, total bilirubin concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity decreased significantly compared to autumn, but aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were significantly higher than in autumn. There was no significant difference for the parameters mentioned above by gender, except for phosphorous. Phosphorous concentration in females was significantly higher than that of males in autumn. Cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in females were significantly higher than males in autumn and winter. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first study that monitors the serum biochemical parameters of adult Zarudny's spur-thighed tortoises based on season and gender. Seasonal reference intervals should be used for biochemical parameters in this valuable species. Also, sex-specific reference intervals for phosphate and cholesterol are necessary.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina , Tartarugas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Creatinina , Irã (Geográfico) , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Bilirrubina , L-Lactato Desidrogenase , Colesterol , Ureia , Lipoproteínas LDL
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