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1.
Nano Lett ; 21(19): 8304-8310, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597518

RESUMO

An ultrathin tactile sensor with directional sensitivity and capable of mapping at a high spatial resolution is proposed and demonstrated. Each sensor node consists of two gallium nitride (GaN) nanopillar light-emitting diodes. Shear stress applied on the nanopillars causes the electrons and holes to separate in the radial direction and reduces the light intensity emitted from the nanopillars. A sensor array comprising 64 sensor nodes was designed and fabricated. Two-dimensional directional sensitivity was experimentally confirmed with a dynamic range of 1-30 mN and an accuracy of ±1.3 mN. Tracking and mapping of an external force moving across the sensor array were also demonstrated. Finally, the proposed tactile sensor's sensitivity was tested with a fingertip gently moving across the sensor array. The sensor successfully registered the finger movement's direction and fingerprint pattern.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Mecânicos , Tato , Luz
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640895

RESUMO

Tactile rendering has been implemented in digital musical instruments (DMIs) to offer the musician haptic feedback that enhances his/her music playing experience. Recently, this implementation has expanded to the development of sensory substitution systems known as haptic music players (HMPs) to give the opportunity of experiencing music through touch to the hearing impaired. These devices may also be conceived as vibrotactile music players to enrich music listening activities. In this review, technology and methods to render musical information by means of vibrotactile stimuli are systematically studied. The methodology used to find out relevant literature is first outlined, and a preliminary classification of musical haptics is proposed. A comparison between different technologies and methods for vibrotactile rendering is performed to later organize the information according to the type of HMP. Limitations and advantages are highlighted to find out opportunities for future research. Likewise, methods for music audio-tactile rendering (ATR) are analyzed and, finally, strategies to compose for the sense of touch are summarized. This review is intended for researchers in the fields of haptics, assistive technologies, music, psychology, and human-computer interaction as well as artists that may make use of it as a reference to develop upcoming research on HMPs and ATR.


Assuntos
Música , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Percepção do Tato , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tecnologia , Tato
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126137, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492926

RESUMO

Fomites are known to spread infectious diseases, but their role in determining transmission risk remains unclear. The association of surface touch networks (STNs), proposed to explain this risk, with real-life surface contamination has not yet been demonstrated. To construct STNs, we collected surface touch data from 23 to 26 scholars through 2 independent experiments conducted in office spaces for 13 h each. In parallel, a tracer bacterium (Lactobacillus bulgaricus) was spread by a designated carrier in each experiment during normal activities; the subsequent extent of surface contamination was assessed using qPCR. The touch data were also analyzed using an agent-based model that predicted the observed contamination. Touching public (door handles) and hidden public (desks, chair seatbacks) surfaces that connected occupants, sparse hand-to-hand contact, and active carriers contributed significantly to contamination spread, which was also correlated with the size of the social group containing carriers. The natural and unsupervised experiments reflected realistic exposure levels of mouths (1-10 ppm of total contamination spread by one root carrier), nostrils (~1 ppm), and eyes (~0.1 ppm). We conclude that the contamination degree of known and hidden public surfaces can indicate fomite exposure risk. The social group effect could trigger superspreading events through fomite transmission.


Assuntos
Fômites , Tato , Mãos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
4.
Qual Health Res ; 31(9): 1570-1581, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510989

RESUMO

This study was a phenomenological exploration of the ethics of the nurse's touch in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). I explore several examples of touching encounters as gathered from NICU nurses through interview and observation, and organize the lived meanings around several thematic statements. These include the learning touch: finding a way to hold the baby, the marking touch: when touch lingers long after physical contact, the missing touch: touching without physical contact, the gnostic touch: the possibility of knowing an other and ourselves, and the call of touch: drawn to hold. Exploring the touching gestures of NICU nurses discloses the relational ethics inherent to caring practices. By attempting to articulate these practices, the hope is that the significance and contribution of the nurse's touch might be recognized and brought forward to our individual and professional consciousness, conversations, and curricula.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Tato , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502639

RESUMO

In this work, we extend the previously proposed approach of improving mutual perception during human-robot collaboration by communicating the robot's motion intentions and status to a human worker using hand-worn haptic feedback devices. The improvement is presented by introducing spatial tactile feedback, which provides the human worker with more intuitive information about the currently planned robot's trajectory, given its spatial configuration. The enhanced feedback devices communicate directional information through activation of six tactors spatially organised to represent an orthogonal coordinate frame: the vibration activates on the side of the feedback device that is closest to the future path of the robot. To test the effectiveness of the improved human-machine interface, two user studies were prepared and conducted. The first study aimed to quantitatively evaluate the ease of differentiating activation of individual tactors of the notification devices. The second user study aimed to assess the overall usability of the enhanced notification mode for improving human awareness about the planned trajectory of a robot. The results of the first experiment allowed to identify the tactors for which vibration intensity was most often confused by users. The results of the second experiment showed that the enhanced notification system allowed the participants to complete the task faster and, in general, improved user awareness of the robot's movement plan, according to both objective and subjective data. Moreover, the majority of participants (82%) favoured the improved notification system over its previous non-directional version and vision-based inspection.


Assuntos
Robótica , Retroalimentação , Mãos , Humanos , Tato , Interface Usuário-Computador
6.
Clin Lab ; 67(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of science and technology, self-service facilities have been widely used in hospitals. This study aimed to assess the microbial contamination characteristics on touch surfaces in outpatient, self-service facilities from Monday to Friday. METHODS: Touch surfaces in outpatient facilities were swabbed and surveyed for total microbial growth before and after work every morning. Selected bacteria were identified to screen for pathogenic organisms. RESULTS: There were 360 samples collected, 87 samples (24.2%) were culture-positive. Staphylococcus species were the main microbial contamination. The three most common bacteria were S. hominis, S. epidermidis and S. hemolyticus. After work, more microbial contamination was found on Monday (p = 0.029). There was no difference in sample positive rates between self-service facilities and manual service area. Although, the antibiotic resistance patterns of different staphylococcus species were different, the overall drug resistance rate is low. Only one S. aureus was methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: The self-service facilities' touch surfaces microbial contamination were similar to manual service area, but the more used, the more microbial contamination was found. Hospitals should enhance cleaning times of self-service facilities to keep them clean, especially on Mondays.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus , Tato , Humanos , Meticilina , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Staphylococcus
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577230

RESUMO

A tactile sensor array is a crucial component for applying physical sensors to a humanoid robot. This work focused on developing a palm-size tactile sensor array (56.0 mm × 56.0 mm) to apply object recognition for the humanoid robot hand. This sensor was based on a PCB technology operating with the piezoresistive principle. A conductive polymer composites sheet was used as a sensing element and the matrix array of this sensor was 16 × 16 pixels. The sensitivity of this sensor was evaluated and the sensor was installed on the robot hand. The tactile images, with resolution enhancement using bicubic interpolation obtained from 20 classes, were used to train and test 19 different DCNNs. InceptionResNetV2 provided superior performance with 91.82% accuracy. However, using the multimodal learning method that included InceptionResNetV2 and XceptionNet, the highest recognition rate of 92.73% was achieved. Moreover, this recognition rate improved when the object exploration was applied to demonstrate.


Assuntos
Robótica , Mãos , Tato , Percepção Visual
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372335

RESUMO

Tactile sensing is crucial for robots to manipulate objects successfully. However, integrating tactile sensors into robotic hands is still challenging, mainly due to the need to cover small multi-curved surfaces with several components that must be miniaturized. In this paper, we report the design of a novel magnetic-based tactile sensor to be integrated into the robotic hand of the humanoid robot Vizzy. We designed and fabricated a flexible 4 × 2 matrix of Si chips of magnetoresistive spin valve sensors that, coupled with a single small magnet, can measure contact forces from 0.1 to 5 N on multiple locations over the surface of a robotic fingertip; this design is innovative with respect to previous works in the literature, and it is made possible by careful engineering and miniaturization of the custom-made electronic components that we employ. In addition, we characterize the behavior of the sensor through a COMSOL simulation, which can be used to generate optimized designs for sensors with different geometries.


Assuntos
Robótica , Tato , Eletrônica , Dedos , Fenômenos Magnéticos
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372347

RESUMO

This work introduces an array prototype based on a Frequency Modulation (FM) encoding architecture to transfer multiple sensor signals on a single wire. The use case presented adopts Hall-effect sensors as an example to represent a much larger range of sensor types (e.g., proximity and temperature). This work aims to contribute to large area artificial skin systems which are a key element to enhance robotic platforms. Artificial skin will allow robotic platforms to have spatial awareness which will make interaction with objects and users safe. The FM-based architecture has been developed to address limitations in large-scale artificial skin scalability. Scalability issues include power requirements; number of wires needed; as well as frequency, density, and sensitivity bottlenecks. In this work, eight sensor signals are simultaneously acquired, transferred on a single wire and decoded in real-time. The overall taxel array current consumption is 36 mA. The work experimentally validates and demonstrates that different input signals can be effectively transferred using this approach minimizing wiring and power consumption of the taxel array. Four different tests using single as well as multiple stimuli are presented. Observations on performances, noise, and taxel array behaviour are reported. The results show that the taxel array is reliable and effective in detecting the applied stimuli.


Assuntos
Robótica , Pele Artificial , Tato
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372461

RESUMO

Texture recognition is important for robots to discern the characteristics of the object surface and adjust grasping and manipulation strategies accordingly. It is still challenging to develop texture classification approaches that are accurate and do not require high computational costs. In this work, we adopt a bionic tactile sensor to collect vibration data while sliding against materials of interest. Under a fixed contact pressure and speed, a total of 1000 sets of vibration data from ten different materials were collected. With the tactile perception data, four types of texture recognition algorithms are proposed. Three machine learning algorithms, including support vector machine, random forest, and K-nearest neighbor, are established for texture recognition. The test accuracy of those three methods are 95%, 94%, 94%, respectively. In the detection process of machine learning algorithms, the asamoto and polyester are easy to be confused with each other. A convolutional neural network is established to further increase the test accuracy to 98.5%. The three machine learning models and convolutional neural network demonstrate high accuracy and excellent robustness.


Assuntos
Biônica , Percepção do Tato , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Tato
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450721

RESUMO

Haptic technology allows us to experience tactile and force sensations without the need to expose ourselves to specific environments. It also allows a more immersive experience with virtual reality devices. This paper presents the development of a soft haptic glove for kinesthetic perception. It is lightweight and soft to allow for a more natural hand movement. This prototype actuates two fingers with two shape memory alloy (SMA) springs. Finite element (FE) simulations of the spring have been carried out to set the dimensions of the actuators. Flexible stretch sensors provide feedback to the system to calculate the tension of the cables attached to the fingers. The control can generate several recognizable levels of force for any hand position since the objects to be picked up can vary in weight and dimension. The glove can generate three levels of force (100, 200 and 300 g) to evaluate more easily the proper functioning. We realized tests on 15 volunteers simulating forces in various order after a quick training. We also asked volunteers about the experience for comfort, global experience and simplicity). Results were satisfactory in both aspects: the glove fulfilled its function, and the users were comfortable with it.


Assuntos
Ligas de Memória da Forma , Percepção do Tato , Dedos , Mãos , Humanos , Tato
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450813

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has shown superior clinical outcomes compared to open aortic valve replacement surgery. The loss of the natural sense of touch, inherited from its minimally invasive nature, could lead to misplacement of the valve in the aortic annulus. In this study, a cylindrical optical fiber sensor is proposed to be integrated with valve delivery catheters. The proposed sensor works based on intensity modulation principle and is capable of measuring and localizing lateral force. The proposed sensor was constituted of an array of optical fibers embedded on a rigid substrate and covered by a flexible shell. The optical fibers were modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams with both-end fixed boundary conditions. To study the sensing principle, a parametric finite element model of the sensor with lateral point loads was developed and the deflection of the optical fibers, as the determinant of light intensity modulation was analyzed. Moreover, the sensor was fabricated, and a set of experiments were performed to study the performance of the sensor in lateral force measurement and localization. The results showed that the transmitted light intensity decreased up to 24% for an external force of 1 N. Additionally, the results showed the same trend between the simulation predictions and experimental results. The proposed sensor was sensitive to the magnitude and position of the external force which shows its capability for lateral force measurement and localization.


Assuntos
Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Fibras Ópticas , Simulação por Computador , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Tato , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450834

RESUMO

Flexible magnetic-field-based tactile sensors (FMFTS) have numerous advantages including low cost, ease of manufacture, simple wiring, high sensitivity, and so on. Flexible magnetic-field-based tactile sensors need to be calibrated before use to build accurate mapping between contact force and magnetic field intensity measured by magnetic sensors; however, when considering remanence inconsistency of magnetic source, each FMFTS needs to be calibrated independently to enhance accuracy, and the complex preparation prevents FMFTS from being used conveniently. A robust estimation method of contact force and location that can tolerate remanence inconsistency of magnetic source in FMFTS is proposed. Firstly, the position and orientation of magnetic source were tracked using the Levenberg-Marquart algorithm, and the tracking results were insensitive to the remanence of magnetic source with appropriate cost function. Secondly, the mapping between magnitude and location of contact force and position and orientation of magnetic source was built with calibration of one sensor; the mapping only depends on the structural response of flexible substrate, and thus can be extended to estimate external force and location for other sensors with the same structure. The proposed method was evaluated in both simulations and experiments, and the results confirm that the estimation of magnitude and location of external force for FMFTS with the same structure and different remanence could reach acceptable accuracy, depending on single calibration. The proposed method can be used to simplify the calibration procedure and remove the barrier for large-scale application of FMFTS and replacement of damaged FMFTS.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tato , Calibragem , Campos Magnéticos , Fenômenos Magnéticos
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450833

RESUMO

Tactile sensors are an important medium for artificial intelligence systems to perceive their external environment. With the rapid development of smart robots, wearable devices, and human-computer interaction interfaces, flexible tactile sensing has attracted extensive attention. An overview of the recent development in high-performance tactile sensors used for smart systems is introduced. The main transduction mechanisms of flexible tactile sensors including piezoresistive, capacitive, piezoelectric, and triboelectric sensors are discussed in detail. The development status of flexible tactile sensors with high resolution, high sensitive, self-powered, and visual capabilities are focused on. Then, for intelligent systems, the wide application prospects of flexible tactile sensors in the fields of wearable electronics, intelligent robots, human-computer interaction interfaces, and implantable electronics are systematically discussed. Finally, the future prospects of flexible tactile sensors for intelligent systems are proposed.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Eletrônica , Humanos , Tato
15.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110477, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399473

RESUMO

Texture and structure of breads have been related to oral processing (FOP) performance and sensory perceptions, but moisture content might play a significant role. To evaluate the real impact of breads texture and structure, eliminating the possible role of moisture content, different toasted breads were investigated. Four commercial toasted sliced breads (white bread -WHB-, whole wheat bread -WWB-, non-added sugar bread -NSU-, non-added salt bread -NSA-) with similar ingredients but different texture and structure were selected. Texture and structure were instrumentally and sensory evaluated, besides FOP (total chewing time, number of chews until swallowing, chewing frequency, and mouthful) and bolus properties (moisture, saliva to bread ratio, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness). Toasted breads showed significant differences in hardness, cutting strength, and porosity, but panelists did not discriminate among them. FOP results indicated that harder samples (NSU) required longer mastication and a number of chews, and open crumb structures (WWB, WHB) with higher cell areas required less mastication. Also, bolus characteristics were affected by bread types, and bread with lower crumb hardness (WHB) produced more cohesive bolus. Having toasted breads allowed to eliminate possible influence of moisture content differences on sensory perception, mouthful and bolus water incorporation during mastication.


Assuntos
Pão , Percepção do Tato , Deglutição , Mastigação , Tato
16.
EMBO Rep ; 22(10): e53789, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423895

RESUMO

COVID-19 has forced us into social distancing against humans' need for physical contact. Will we return to consensual embrace after the pandemic or still keep our distance?


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tato , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Appl Ergon ; 97: 103541, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340012

RESUMO

This study investigated repetitive patterns in the locations of touch errors as a function of the shapes and positions of soft buttons on a smartphone for two-thumb text entry. Forty-three right-handed college students with smartphone-use experience were recruited for testing. An experimental application was developed, and the locations and frequencies of touch errors were measured for the button combinations of seven shapes and eight positions. More than 70.0 % of touch errors occurred within 2 mm from the boundaries of the buttons. In terms of direction, touch errors were primarily observed below the buttons, across all the button shapes and positions. Simultaneously, touch errors often appeared on the lateral sides of the buttons: (1) close to the proximal phalange of the thumbs when the buttons were placed near the initial positions of the thumbs and (2) close to the initial positions of the thumbs when the buttons were placed near the top and bottom ends of the keyboard.


Assuntos
Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Polegar , Mãos , Humanos , Smartphone , Tato
18.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 82: 102223, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343925

RESUMO

Human skin hosts a variety of microbes that can be transferred to surfaces ("touch microbiome"). These microorganisms can be considered as forensic markers similarly to "touch DNA". With this pilot study, we wanted to evaluate the transferability and persistence of the "touch microbiome" on a surface after the deposition of a fingerprint and its exposure for 30 days at room temperature. Eleven volunteers were enrolled in the study. Skin microbiome samples were collected by swabbing the palm of their hands; additionally, donors were asked to touch a glass microscope slide to deposit their fingerprints, that were then swabbed. Both human and microbial DNA was isolated and quantified. Amelogenin locus and 16 human STRs were amplified, whereas the V4 region of 16 S rRNA gene was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. STR profiles were successfully typed for 5 out of 22 "touch DNA" samples, while a microbiome profile was obtained for 20 out of 22 "touch microbiome" samples. Six skin core microbiome taxa were identified, as well as unique donor characterizing taxa. These unique taxa may have relevance for personal identification studies and may be useful to provide forensic intelligence information also when "touch DNA" fails. Additional future studies including greater datasets, additional time points and a greater number of surfaces may clarify the applicability of "touch microbiome" studies to real forensic contexts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Pele/microbiologia , Tato , Adulto , Idoso , Amelogenina/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Sequência de RNA
19.
Br J Nurs ; 30(15): 928-933, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379479

RESUMO

The C0VID-19 pandemic has challenged everyone in society, from children who are no longer able to attend school and nursery to adults trying to juggle working at home and vulnerable members of society who have needed to self-isolate. NHS staff and key workers also need to juggle their family situations and many will have to adapt their practice and ways of working to address the demands placed on the NHS during this time. The current pandemic has altered the nature of services being provided to patients, and staff are now wearing personal protective equipment, with many being redeployed to ward areas. This article considers the 6Cs of nursing and the challenges faced by staff during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a primary focus on care and compassion. The vital role that touch has in the care of the patient and family is also considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Empatia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Pandemias , Tato , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/enfermagem , Humanos
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