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1.
Nanoscale ; 13(35): 14866-14878, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533159

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the combination of extracellular (nano) vesicles (EVs) from pig adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) and a thermoresponsive gel, Pluronic® F-127 (PF-127), to prevent stricture formation after endoscopic resection in a porcine model. ADSC EVs were produced at a liter scale by a high-yielding turbulence approach from ADSCs 3D cultured in bioreactors and characterized in terms of size, morphology and membrane markers. The thermoresponsive property of the PF-127 gel was assessed by rheology. The pro-regenerative potency of ADSC EVs was investigated ex vivo in esophageal biopsies under starvation. In vivo tests were performed in a porcine model after extended esophageal endoscopic mucosal dissection (ESD). Pigs were randomized into 3 groups: control (n = 6), gel (n = 6) or a combination of 1.45 × 1012 EVs + gel (n = 6). Application of gel ± EVs was performed just after ESD with a follow-up finalized on day 21 post-ESD. There was a trend towards less feeding disorder in the EV + gel group in comparison with the gel and the control groups (16.67% vs. 66.7% vs. 83.33%, respectively) but without reaching a statistically significant difference. A significant decrease in the esophageal stricture rate was confirmed by endoscopic, radiological and histological examination for the EV + gel group. A decrease in the mean fibrosis area and larger regenerated muscularis mucosae were observed for the EV + gel group. In summary, the application of EVs + gel after extended esophageal endoscopic resection succeeded in preventing stricture formation with an anti-fibrotic effect. This nano-therapy may be of interest to tackle an unmet medical need considering that esophageal stricture is the most challenging delayed complication after extended superficial cancer resection by endoscopy.


Assuntos
Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Estenose Esofágica , Vesículas Extracelulares , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Células Estromais , Suínos
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 726967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484128

RESUMO

In March 2020, the WHO declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a global pandemic. Obesity was soon identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis, with an increased risk of intensive care admissions and mechanical ventilation, but also of adverse cardiovascular events. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue, chronic low-grade inflammation, and immune dysregulation with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes and overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, to implement appropriate therapeutic strategies, exact mechanisms must be clarified. The role of white visceral adipose tissue, increased in individuals with obesity, seems important, as a viral reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. After infection of host cells, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines creates a setting conducive to the "cytokine storm" and macrophage activation syndrome associated with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. In obesity, systemic viral spread, entry, and prolonged viral shedding in already inflamed adipose tissue may spur immune responses and subsequent amplification of a cytokine cascade, causing worse outcomes. More precisely, visceral adipose tissue, more than subcutaneous fat, could predict intensive care admission; and lower density of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) could be associated with worse outcome. EAT, an ectopic adipose tissue that surrounds the myocardium, could fuel COVID-19-induced cardiac injury and myocarditis, and extensive pneumopathy, by strong expression of inflammatory mediators that could diffuse paracrinally through the vascular wall. The purpose of this review is to ascertain what mechanisms may be involved in unfavorable prognosis among COVID-19 patients with obesity, especially cardiovascular events, emphasizing the harmful role of excess ectopic adipose tissue, particularly EAT.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/imunologia , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/patologia , Pericárdio , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
3.
Trials ; 22(1): 595, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic lower limb ischemia develops earlier and more frequently in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes remains the main cause of lower-extremity non-traumatic amputations. Current medical treatment, based on antiplatelet therapy and statins, has demonstrated deficient improvement of the disease. In recent years, research has shown that it is possible to improve tissue perfusion through therapeutic angiogenesis. Both in animal models and humans, it has been shown that cell therapy can induce therapeutic angiogenesis, making mesenchymal stromal cell-based therapy one of the most promising therapeutic alternatives. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of cell therapy based on mesenchymal stromal cells derived from adipose tissue intramuscular administration to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with critical limb ischemia and without possibility of revascularization. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial has been designed. Ninety eligible patients will be randomly assigned at a ratio 1:1:1 to one of the following: control group (n = 30), low-cell dose treatment group (n = 30), and high-cell dose treatment group (n = 30). Treatment will be administered in a single-dose way and patients will be followed for 12 months. Primary outcome (safety) will be evaluated by measuring the rate of adverse events within the study period. Secondary outcomes (efficacy) will be measured by assessing clinical, analytical, and imaging-test parameters. Tertiary outcome (quality of life) will be evaluated with SF-12 and VascuQol-6 scales. DISCUSSION: Chronic lower limb ischemia has limited therapeutic options and constitutes a public health problem in both developed and underdeveloped countries. Given that the current treatment is not established in daily clinical practice, it is essential to provide evidence-based data that allow taking a step forward in its clinical development. Also, the multidisciplinary coordination exercise needed to develop this clinical trial protocol will undoubtfully be useful to conduct academic clinical trials in the field of cell therapy in the near future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04466007 . Registered on January 07, 2020. All items from the World Health Organization Trial Registration Data Set are included within the body of the protocol.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Noma , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/terapia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112313, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474864

RESUMO

Tissue engineering strategies are widely used to model and study the bone marrow microenvironment in healthy and pathological conditions. Yet, while bone function highly depends on mechanical stimulation, the effects of biomechanical stimuli on the bone marrow niche, specifically on bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is poorly understood due to a lack of representative in vitro loading models. Here, we engineered a BMAT analog made of a GelMA (gelatin methacryloyl) hydrogel/medical-grade polycaprolactone (mPCL) scaffold composite to structurally and biologically mimic key aspects of the bone marrow microenvironment, and exploited an innovative bioreactor to study the effects of mechanical loading. Highly reproducible BMAT analogs facilitated the successful adipogenesis of human mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells. Upon long-term intermittent stimulation (1 Hz, 2 h/day, 3 days/week, 3 weeks) in the novel bioreactor, cellular proliferation and lipid accumulation were similar to unloaded controls, yet there was a significant reduction in the secretion of adipokines including leptin and adiponectin, in line with clinical evidence of reduced adipokine expression following exercise/activity. Ultimately, this innovative loading platform combined with reproducibly engineered BMAT analogs provide opportunities to study marrow physiology in greater complexity as it accounts for the dynamic mechanical microenvironment context.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Medula Óssea , Células da Medula Óssea , Gelatina , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual
6.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(240): 799-801, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508473

RESUMO

Osteochondroma usually arises from the metaphyseal region of growing bones. The occurrence of extraskeletal osteochondroma is rare with very few case reports. Para-articular osteochondroma is a type of extraskeletal osteochondroma. It frequently occurs around the knee, usually at infrapatellar Hoffa's fat pad. It is usually intracapsular but extrasynovial and arises from the capsule and connective tissues due to osteocartilaginous metaplasia. We present a case of 19-years male with anterior knee pain for 3 years, swelling, and deformity of the knee with flexion limitation for one year. Radiography revealed ovoid, corticated lesion free from adjoining bones. Mass interpreted as benign, so planned for excision. Well circumscribed nodule excised from the medial parapatellar approach. Histology revealed cartilaginous tissues surrounded by fibrous tissues with scattered enchondral ossification. Postoperatively and subsequent follow-up resulted in pain-free joint, complete recovery of range of motion with no clinicoradiological evidence of recurrence.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Osteocondroma , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Osteocondroma/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteocondroma/cirurgia
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511421

RESUMO

Madelung's disease is a rare disorder characterised by excessive and symmetrical deposits of adipose tissue, typically in the cervicofacial region. Alcohol is a known cause of the condition, however, there are reports that this condition is genetically inherited. Lipomatosis of the orbit has been described in the alcoholic Madelung's disease, however, in our case report, we believe this is the first reported instance of proptosis caused by the genetic form of the condition. We present a 69-year-old woman, with a medical history of genetic Madelung's disease, who presented with bilateral proptosis worse in her right eye. Her ocular examination was normal apart from exophthalmometry, showing bilateral proptosis. This was confirmed by an MRI, which further showed intraorbital fat deposition bilaterally. Due to the stability of her condition, no treatment was deemed necessary. We highlight the importance of monitoring for progressive optic nerve compromise and liposarcomatous malignant transformation.


Assuntos
Exoftalmia , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla , Lipomatose , Tecido Adiposo , Idoso , Exoftalmia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla/complicações , Lipomatose Simétrica Múltipla/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
8.
Georgian Med News ; (316-317): 135-141, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511460

RESUMO

The article discusses modern views on the metabolic characteristics of adipose tissue in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). An association has been shown between NAFLD and metabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and visceral obesity. The analysis of modern literature on adipose tissue as an endocrine organ is carried out. The recently revealed physiological and pathophysiological properties of adipokines are discussed. It has been documented that adiponectin counteracts the effect of angiotensin II on endothelial cells and prevents their apoptosis by increasing the association between eNOS and heat shock protein. Adiponectin can function as a negative regulator of angiogenesis. It inhibits the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and markedly inhibits the growth of new blood vessels. The ratio of adiponectin to leptin is a biomarker of adipose tissue dysfunction and correlates better and more accurately with insulin resistance than adiponectin or leptin. The researchers concluded that fatty tissue dysfunction caused by low adiponectin levels may contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation. Medications aimed at synthesizing adiponectin will be useful in the treatment of NAFLD, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Tecido Adiposo , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Leptina
9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(6): 2245-2250, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516061

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are responsible for intercellular communication. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived vesicles have been shown to have similar properties as functional mesenchymal stem cells. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic benefit of EVs obtained from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) on bone repair whereas using ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) biomaterial as a carrier. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A single critical size bone defect of 8 mm in diameter was created on the right side of rat calvarium using a custom-made punch needle. Animals were randomly divided into 5 groups: group 1 (no treatment), group 2 (bone graft), group 3 (ß-TCP + ADSC), group 4 (ß-TCP + EV), group 5 (ß-TCP). Eight weeks later, animals were sacrificed and histologic and radiologic evaluation was performed. RESULTS: Semiquantitative histologic scoring demonstrated significantly higher bone regeneration scores for groups 2, 3, and 4 compared to group 1. Radiologic imaging showed significantly higher bone mineral density for groups 2, 3, and 5 compared to group 1. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in either histologic or radiologic scoring. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that EVs provided from thermally induced ADSCs did not show any significant difference in bone regeneration when compared to ADSCs themselves. Future studies should focus on determining the optimum amount and content of EV application since these vary significantly depending on the microenvironment.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Regeneração Óssea , Osteogênese , Ratos , Células-Tronco
10.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(6): 2024-2028, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516069

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fat repositioning is an effective way to treat tear trough deformity (TTD) in Asians. Recent techniques mainly focused on the fixation technique, whereas how to precisely shape and individually quantify the fat pedicle has been ignored. This article introduced an individualized, targeted, and tension-free technique to fabricate a fan-shaped thin septum fat pedicle for repositioning. Furthermore, a layer-level fixation method was advocated to provide sufficient, continuous, uninterrupted filling of the TTD. From January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2018, 492 patients underwent this procedure. Through a transconjunctival incision, a continuous fan-shaped, tension-free, customized septum fat pedicle was precisely designed to match the TTD anatomy. The pedicle could either be elongated, or thickened, or debulked, or translocated, to meet the patients' individual needs. At the same time, a layer-level fat pedicle fixation technique was applied to fully interrupt the TTD. The mean operation time was 60 ±â€Š9.3 minutes. All patients demonstrated a significant improvement with elimination of both eye bags and TTD. High satisfaction was noted among the patients. No obvious resorption of the fat pedicles was observed, and the lower lid contour improvements were durable. One infection occurred after 3 days of surgery, and was resolved by removal of the suture followed by topical application of iodine and oral antibiotics for 3 to 5 days. No other complications were observed. Precisely repositioning transconjunctival fat using a layer-level fixation technique with a fan-shaped thin fat pedicle under a subperiosteal plane is an effective, lasting, and safe approach for individually treating TTD.


Assuntos
Blefaroplastia , Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Pálpebras/cirurgia , Humanos , Suturas
11.
Exp Gerontol ; 153: 111505, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate age-related changes in the intramuscular adipose tissue (IAT) of the tongue and geniohyoid muscle (GHM) and associated factors. DESIGN: Exploratory cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study included 89 participants recruited from a health survey, which included 38 younger adults (age range, 20-63 years) and 51 older adults (age range, 65-87 years). MEASUREMENTS: Age, body mass index, body fat, lean body mass, skeletal muscle mass index, trunk muscle mass index, tongue pressure, jaw opening force, and oral diadochokinesis were assessed. The cross-sectional area (CSA) and echo intensity (EI) of the tongue and GHM were measured using ultrasonography. IAT was assessed according to EI values. The factors related to the IAT of each muscle were examined using multiple regression analysis. We also investigated the correlation of IAT with factors related to oral function and systemic and morphological factors. RESULTS: Neither the EI of the tongue nor that of the GHM had a significant correlation with factors related to oral function and systemic factors. In the multiple regression analysis, significant explanatory variables for EI of the tongue and GHM were age (ß = 0.14, P = 0.019; tongue and ß = 0.13, P = 0.017; GHM) and the CSA of each muscle (ß = -0.01, P = 0.042; tongue and ß = -0.04, P = 0.003; GHM). EI was positively associated with age and negatively associated with muscle CSA. CONCLUSION: Age-related changes in the IAT show the same trend for both the tongue and GHM, unlike age-related changes in muscle mass. The IATs of the tongue and GHM were not significantly correlated with oral function and systemic factors. Therefore, EI may not be a useful index for the functional evaluation of the tongue and GHM.


Assuntos
Deglutição , Força Muscular , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Pressão , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371845

RESUMO

Because the world's population is deficient in dietary calcium, it is important to search for new sources of this essential mineral for the bones and the entire body. One of the innovative foods that could act as such a source is pumpkin enriched with calcium lactate by means of osmotic dehydration. Providing the body with easily absorbable calcium may have beneficial effects on the reconstruction of bone tissue. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with body weight and fat mass gain, and the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of consuming enriched pumpkin on the levels of adipokines and cytokines produced by the adipose tissue. This study was conducted on 12-month-old female Wistar rats that received nutritional intervention for 12 weeks. After termination of the rats, the levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 31 and interleukin 33 in serum and adipose tissue were determined, and the femurs were examined histopathologically. It was demonstrated that calcium-enriched pumpkin reduced bone marrow femoral adipocytes and also markedly decreased serum leptin levels in groups of rats after ovariectomy, which was associated with a decrease of fat content. Additionally, it seems that calcium-enriched pumpkin may reduce body weight gain often observed after menopause.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cucurbita , Alimentos Fortificados , Leptina/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/dietoterapia , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4829, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376643

RESUMO

Plasma hyaluronan (HA) increases systemically in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the HA synthesis inhibitor, 4-Methylumbelliferone, has been proposed to treat the disease. However, HA is also implicated in normal physiology. Therefore, we generated a Hyaluronan Synthase 2 transgenic mouse line, driven by a tet-response element promoter to understand the role of HA in systemic metabolism. To our surprise, adipocyte-specific overproduction of HA leads to smaller adipocytes and protects mice from high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Adipocytes also have more free glycerol that can be released upon beta3 adrenergic stimulation. Improvements in glucose tolerance were not linked to increased plasma HA. Instead, an HA-driven systemic substrate redistribution and adipose tissue-liver crosstalk contributes to the systemic glucose improvements. In summary, we demonstrate an unexpected improvement in glucose metabolism as a consequence of HA overproduction in adipose tissue, which argues against the use of systemic HA synthesis inhibitors to treat obesity and T2D.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
14.
Aesthet Surg J ; 41(9): NP1228-NP1236, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low survival rate is one of the main challenges in fat grafting. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate whether microfat obtained by a novel strategy promoted the survival and retention of fat grafts. METHODS: A 5-mm-diameter blunt tip cannula with large side holes (~30 mm2/hole) was used to obtain macrofat. A novel strategy based on a newly invented extracorporeal cutting device was then used to cut the macrofat into microfat, which was named adipose-derived progenitor cell enrichment fat (AER fat); Coleman fat was used as the control. Aliquots (0.5 mL) of both types of fat were transplanted into 10 nude mice and analyzed 10 weeks later. Western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence were performed to assess the AER fat characteristics and underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: The retention rate of fat grafts in AER fat-treated animals was significantly higher than that in the Coleman group (mean [standard deviation] 54.6% [13%] vs 34.8% [9%]; P < 0.05) after 10 weeks. AER fat contained more dipeptidyl peptidase-4-expressing progenitor cells (3.3 [0.61] × 103 vs 2.0 [0.46] × 103 cells/mL; P < 0.05), adipose-derived plastic-adherent cells (6.0 [1.10] × 104 vs 2.6 [0.17] × 104 cells/mL; P < 0.001), and viable adipocytes than Coleman fat. Moreover, histologic analysis showed that AER fat grafts had better histologic structure and higher capillary density. CONCLUSIONS: AER fat transplantation is a potential strategy to improve the survival and long-term retention of fat grafts. AER fat contained more dipeptidyl peptidase-4-expressing progenitor cells.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Adipócitos , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Células-Tronco
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26978, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed people's way of life and posed great challenges to plastic surgery. Most of plastic surgeries are considered elective surgeries and are recommended to be delayed. But breast reconstruction in plastic surgery is special. Doctors' associations from different countries have different rules on whether breast reconstruction surgery should be delayed. For the controversial topic of immediate breast reconstruction in the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted this study. METHODS: We searched English databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase. The publication time of papers was set to be from the establishment of the databases to February 2021. All studies on immediate breast reconstruction in the COVID-19 pandemic were included in our study. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies were included in this study. Four studies recommended the use of breast implants or tissue expansion for breast reconstruction surgery and had good results in their clinical practice. In addition, 1 study planned to use autologous free tissue transfer for breast reconstruction, and 1 study planned to use microsurgical techniques for breast reconstruction. But these 2 technologies are still in the planning stage and have not yet been implemented. CONCLUSIONS: In our opinion, breast cancer surgery belongs to confine operation, and breast reconstruction surgery should be performed immediately after the completion of breast cancer surgery. We recommend the use of breast implants for breast reconstruction surgery during the COVID-19 epidemic. Due to the limitations of the study, our proposed protocol for breast reconstruction surgery during the COVID-19 epidemic needs to be further validated in clinical studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mamoplastia , Pandemias , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Implantes de Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Mamoplastia/métodos , Mastectomia , Microcirurgia , SARS-CoV-2 , Dispositivos para Expansão de Tecidos , Transplante Autólogo
16.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117496, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438482

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the associations of adipose tissue trace element concentrations with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence over a 16-year follow-up period in an adult cohort from Southern Spain. 16-year T2DM incidence was gathered from hospital records. Chemical analyses of Cr, V, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se in adipose tissue were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable Cox-regression models were used. Complementary cross-sectional analyses with markers of glucose homeostasis at recruitment were performed by multivariable linear regression. Out of 214 participants, 39 developed T2DM during the follow-up. Adipose tissue concentrations of Fe (HR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.99 to 2.58, p = 0.057), Cr (HR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.07-2.33, p = 0.022) and Cu (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.58, p = 0.046) were individually associated with T2DM incidence. When Fe, Cr and Cu were simultaneously entered in a model, only Cr was significantly associated with T2DM incidence (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02-2.76, p = 0.041). Furthermore, adipose tissue V (ß = 0.283, p = 0.004) and Zn (ß = 0.217, p = 0.028) concentrations were positively associated with ß-pancreatic cell function (HOMA-ß), while Se showed an inverse association (ß = -0.049, p = 0.027). Although further research is warranted on the potential mechanisms of action, our results suggest that adipose tissue concentrations of certain trace elements (particularly Fe, Cr and Cu) are associated with the risk of incident T2DM, while V and Zn might have a protective effect. These biomarkers might complement prediction algorithms and contribute to identify patients with an increased risk of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Oligoelementos , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360685

RESUMO

The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) for treating cardiac ischemia strongly depends on their paracrine-mediated effects and their engraftment capacity in a hostile environment such as the infarcted myocardium. Adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells are a mixed population composed mainly of MSC and vascular cells, well known for their high angiogenic potential. A previous study showed that the angiogenic potential of SVF cells was further increased following their in vitro organization in an engineered tissue (patch) after perfusion-based bioreactor culture. This study aimed to investigate the possible changes in the cellular SVF composition, in vivo angiogenic potential, as well as engraftment capability upon in vitro culture in harsh hypoxia conditions. This mimics the possible delayed vascularization of the patch upon implantation in a low perfused myocardium. To this purpose, human SVF cells were seeded on a collagen sponge, cultured for 5 days in a perfusion-based bioreactor under normoxia or hypoxia (21% and <1% of oxygen tension, respectively) and subcutaneously implanted in nude rats for 3 and 28 days. Compared to ambient condition culture, hypoxic tension did not alter the SVF composition in vitro, showing similar numbers of MSC as well as endothelial and mural cells. Nevertheless, in vitro hypoxic culture significantly increased the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (p < 0.001) and the number of proliferating cells (p < 0.00001). Moreover, compared to ambient oxygen culture, exposure to hypoxia significantly enhanced the vessel length density in the engineered tissues following 28 days of implantation. The number of human cells and human proliferating cells in hypoxia-cultured constructs was also significantly increased after 3 and 28 days in vivo, compared to normoxia. These findings show that a possible in vivo delay in oxygen supply might not impair the vascularization potential of SVF- patches, which qualifies them for evaluation in a myocardial ischemia model.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Hipóxia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4768, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362888

RESUMO

Bariatric surgeries such as the Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG) are invasive but provide the most effective improvements in obesity and Type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized a potential role for the gut hormone Fibroblast-Growth Factor 15/19 which is increased after VSG and pharmacologically can improve energy homeostasis and glucose handling. We generated intestinal-specific FGF15 knockout (FGF15INT-KO) mice which were maintained on high-fat diet. FGF15INT-KO mice lost more weight after VSG as a result of increased lean tissue loss. FGF15INT-KO mice also lost more bone density and bone marrow adipose tissue after VSG. The effect of VSG to improve glucose tolerance was also absent in FGF15INT-KO. VSG resulted in increased plasma bile acid levels but were considerably higher in VSG-FGF15INT-KO mice. These data point to an important role after VSG for intestinal FGF15 to protect the organism from deleterious effects of VSG potentially by limiting the increase in circulating bile acids.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Glicemia , Densidade Óssea , Medula Óssea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso
19.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21752, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369602

RESUMO

Aging, obesity, and insulin resistance are associated with low levels of PGC1α and PGC1ß coactivators and defective mitochondrial function. We studied mice deficient for PGC1α and PGC1ß [double heterozygous (DH)] to investigate their combined pathogenic contribution. Contrary to our hypothesis, DH mice were leaner, had increased energy dissipation, a pro-thermogenic profile in BAT and WAT, and improved carbohydrate metabolism compared to wild types. WAT showed upregulation of mitochondriogenesis/oxphos machinery upon allelic compensation of PGC1α4 from the remaining allele. However, DH mice had decreased mitochondrial OXPHOS and biogenesis transcriptomes in mitochondria-rich organs. Despite being metabolically healthy, mitochondrial defects in DH mice impaired muscle fiber remodeling and caused qualitative changes in the hepatic lipidome. Our data evidence first the existence of organ-specific compensatory allostatic mechanisms are robust enough to drive an unexpected phenotype. Second, optimization of adipose tissue bioenergetics is sufficient to maintain a healthy metabolic phenotype despite a broad severe mitochondrial dysfunction in other relevant metabolic organs. Third, the decrease in PGC1s in adipose tissue of obese and diabetic patients is in contrast with the robustness of the compensatory upregulation in the adipose of the DH mice.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Heterozigoto , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Termogênese/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444895

RESUMO

(1) Background: Early childhood malnutrition may result in increased fat mass (FM) among school-aged children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We explored whether South African children with shorter stature have greater overall and abdominal FM compared to normal stature children. (2) Methods: Baseline assessments of body composition and weight were determined among school-aged children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression models tested associations of children's height and degree of stunting with FM, fat free mass (FFM), truncal fat mass (TrFM), and truncal fat free mass (TrFFM) overall and by sex. (3) Results: A total of 1287 children (619 girls, 668 boys) were assessed at baseline. Reduced child height was associated with higher FM and lower FFM and TrFFM, but these associations were reversed with increases in height. Girls classified as mildly or moderately/severely stunted had higher FM and TrFM but lower FFM and TrFFM, while no association was found for boys. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that efforts to reduce the non-communicable disease burden in LMICs should target growth-impaired children who may have greater overall FM and greater abdominal FM.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
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