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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 726967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484128

RESUMO

In March 2020, the WHO declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a global pandemic. Obesity was soon identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis, with an increased risk of intensive care admissions and mechanical ventilation, but also of adverse cardiovascular events. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue, chronic low-grade inflammation, and immune dysregulation with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes and overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, to implement appropriate therapeutic strategies, exact mechanisms must be clarified. The role of white visceral adipose tissue, increased in individuals with obesity, seems important, as a viral reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. After infection of host cells, the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines creates a setting conducive to the "cytokine storm" and macrophage activation syndrome associated with progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome. In obesity, systemic viral spread, entry, and prolonged viral shedding in already inflamed adipose tissue may spur immune responses and subsequent amplification of a cytokine cascade, causing worse outcomes. More precisely, visceral adipose tissue, more than subcutaneous fat, could predict intensive care admission; and lower density of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) could be associated with worse outcome. EAT, an ectopic adipose tissue that surrounds the myocardium, could fuel COVID-19-induced cardiac injury and myocarditis, and extensive pneumopathy, by strong expression of inflammatory mediators that could diffuse paracrinally through the vascular wall. The purpose of this review is to ascertain what mechanisms may be involved in unfavorable prognosis among COVID-19 patients with obesity, especially cardiovascular events, emphasizing the harmful role of excess ectopic adipose tissue, particularly EAT.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/imunologia , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/imunologia , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/patologia , Pericárdio , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371845

RESUMO

Because the world's population is deficient in dietary calcium, it is important to search for new sources of this essential mineral for the bones and the entire body. One of the innovative foods that could act as such a source is pumpkin enriched with calcium lactate by means of osmotic dehydration. Providing the body with easily absorbable calcium may have beneficial effects on the reconstruction of bone tissue. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with body weight and fat mass gain, and the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of consuming enriched pumpkin on the levels of adipokines and cytokines produced by the adipose tissue. This study was conducted on 12-month-old female Wistar rats that received nutritional intervention for 12 weeks. After termination of the rats, the levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 31 and interleukin 33 in serum and adipose tissue were determined, and the femurs were examined histopathologically. It was demonstrated that calcium-enriched pumpkin reduced bone marrow femoral adipocytes and also markedly decreased serum leptin levels in groups of rats after ovariectomy, which was associated with a decrease of fat content. Additionally, it seems that calcium-enriched pumpkin may reduce body weight gain often observed after menopause.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cucurbita , Alimentos Fortificados , Leptina/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/dietoterapia , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4829, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376643

RESUMO

Plasma hyaluronan (HA) increases systemically in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the HA synthesis inhibitor, 4-Methylumbelliferone, has been proposed to treat the disease. However, HA is also implicated in normal physiology. Therefore, we generated a Hyaluronan Synthase 2 transgenic mouse line, driven by a tet-response element promoter to understand the role of HA in systemic metabolism. To our surprise, adipocyte-specific overproduction of HA leads to smaller adipocytes and protects mice from high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. Adipocytes also have more free glycerol that can be released upon beta3 adrenergic stimulation. Improvements in glucose tolerance were not linked to increased plasma HA. Instead, an HA-driven systemic substrate redistribution and adipose tissue-liver crosstalk contributes to the systemic glucose improvements. In summary, we demonstrate an unexpected improvement in glucose metabolism as a consequence of HA overproduction in adipose tissue, which argues against the use of systemic HA synthesis inhibitors to treat obesity and T2D.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
4.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21752, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369602

RESUMO

Aging, obesity, and insulin resistance are associated with low levels of PGC1α and PGC1ß coactivators and defective mitochondrial function. We studied mice deficient for PGC1α and PGC1ß [double heterozygous (DH)] to investigate their combined pathogenic contribution. Contrary to our hypothesis, DH mice were leaner, had increased energy dissipation, a pro-thermogenic profile in BAT and WAT, and improved carbohydrate metabolism compared to wild types. WAT showed upregulation of mitochondriogenesis/oxphos machinery upon allelic compensation of PGC1α4 from the remaining allele. However, DH mice had decreased mitochondrial OXPHOS and biogenesis transcriptomes in mitochondria-rich organs. Despite being metabolically healthy, mitochondrial defects in DH mice impaired muscle fiber remodeling and caused qualitative changes in the hepatic lipidome. Our data evidence first the existence of organ-specific compensatory allostatic mechanisms are robust enough to drive an unexpected phenotype. Second, optimization of adipose tissue bioenergetics is sufficient to maintain a healthy metabolic phenotype despite a broad severe mitochondrial dysfunction in other relevant metabolic organs. Third, the decrease in PGC1s in adipose tissue of obese and diabetic patients is in contrast with the robustness of the compensatory upregulation in the adipose of the DH mice.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Heterozigoto , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Termogênese/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360705

RESUMO

Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are types of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have been used as tissue engineering models for bone, cartilage, muscle, marrow stroma, tendon, fat and other connective tissues. Tissue regeneration materials composed of hADSCs have the potential to play an important role in reconstituting damaged tissue or diseased mesenchymal tissue. In this study, we assessed and investigated the osteogenesis of hADSCs in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. We confirmed that the hADSCs successfully differentiated into bone tissues by ARS staining and quantitative RT-PCR. To gain insight into the detailed biological difference between the two culture conditions, we profiled the overall gene expression by analyzing the whole transcriptome sequencing data using various bioinformatic methods. We profiled the overall gene expression through RNA-Seq and further analyzed this using various bioinformatic methods. During differential gene expression testing, significant differences in the gene expressions between hADSCs cultured in 2D and 3D conditions were observed. The genes related to skeletal development, bone development and bone remodeling processes were overexpressed in the 3D culture condition as compared to the 2D culture condition. In summary, our RNA-Seq-based study proves effective in providing new insights that contribute toward achieving a genome-wide understanding of gene regulation in mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation and bone tissue regeneration within the 3D culture system.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Osteogênese , RNA-Seq , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco/citologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360741

RESUMO

The present review is aimed at analysing the current evidence concerning the potential modulation of obesity and/or diet in adipose tissue ACE2. Additionally, the potential implications of these effects on COVID-19 are also addressed. The results published show that diet and obesity are two factors that effectively influence the expression of Ace2 gene in adipose tissue. However, the shifts in this gene do not always occur in the same direction, nor with the same intensity. Additionally, there is no consensus regarding the implications of increased adipose tissue ACE2 expression in health. Thus, while in some studies a protective role is attributed to ACE2 overexpression, other studies suggest otherwise. Similarly, there is much debate regarding the role played by ACE2 in COVID-19 in terms of degree of infection and disease outcomes. The greater risk of infection that may hypothetically derive from enhanced ACE2 expression is not clear since the functionality of the enzyme seems to be as important as the abundance. Thus, the greater abundance of ACE2 in adipose tissue of obese subjects may be counterbalanced by its lower activation. In addition, a protective role of ACE2 overexpression has also been suggested, associated with the increase in anti-inflammatory factors that it may produce.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5006, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408135

RESUMO

Obesity is a strong risk factor for cancer progression, posing obesity-related cancer as one of the leading causes of death. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that endow cancer cells with metastatic properties in patients affected by obesity remain unexplored.Here, we show that IL-6 and HGF, secreted by tumor neighboring visceral adipose stromal cells (V-ASCs), expand the metastatic colorectal (CR) cancer cell compartment (CD44v6 + ), which in turn secretes neurotrophins such as NGF and NT-3, and recruits adipose stem cells within tumor mass. Visceral adipose-derived factors promote vasculogenesis and the onset of metastatic dissemination by activation of STAT3, which inhibits miR-200a and enhances ZEB2 expression, effectively reprogramming CRC cells into a highly metastatic phenotype. Notably, obesity-associated tumor microenvironment provokes a transition in the transcriptomic expression profile of cells derived from the epithelial consensus molecular subtype (CMS2) CRC patients towards a mesenchymal subtype (CMS4). STAT3 pathway inhibition reduces ZEB2 expression and abrogates the metastatic growth sustained by adipose-released proteins. Together, our data suggest that targeting adipose factors in colorectal cancer patients with obesity may represent a therapeutic strategy for preventing metastatic disease.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Reprogramação Celular , Neoplasias do Colo/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/genética , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445679

RESUMO

It has been more than three decades since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were first discovered. Many investigations have revealed the central regulators of PPARs in lipid and glucose homeostasis in response to different nutrient conditions. PPARs have attracted much attention due to their ability to improve metabolic syndromes, and they have also been proposed as classical drug targets for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus. In parallel, adipose tissue is known to play a unique role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and metabolic syndromes due to its ability to "safely" store lipids and secrete cytokines that regulate whole-body metabolism. Adipose tissue relies on a complex and subtle network of transcription factors to maintain its normal physiological function, by coordinating various molecular events, among which PPARs play distinctive and indispensable roles in adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism, adipokine secretion, and insulin sensitivity. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of PPARs with special emphasis on the roles of the different isotypes in adipocyte biology.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/fisiologia , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Homeostase , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445251

RESUMO

Exosomes secreted by adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC-exo) reportedly improve nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. Herein, we investigated whether pretreatment of ADSCs with FK506, an immunosuppressive drug that enhances nerve regeneration, could secret exosomes (ADSC-F-exo) that further augment nerve regeneration. Designed exosomes were topically applied to injured nerve in a mouse model of sciatic nerve crush injury to assess the nerve regeneration efficacy. Outcomes were determined by histomorphometric analysis of semi-thin nerve sections stained with toluidine blue, mouse neurogenesis PCR array, and neurotrophin expression in distal nerve segments. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) were used to profile potential exosomal proteins facilitating nerve regeneration. We observed that locally applied ADSC-exo and ADSC-F-exo significantly enhanced nerve regeneration after nerve crush injury. Pretreatment of ADSCs with FK506 failed to produce exosomes possessing more potent molecules for enhanced nerve regeneration. Proteomic analysis revealed that of 192 exosomal proteins detected in both ADSC-exo and ADSC-F-exo, histone deacetylases (HDACs), amyloid-beta A4 protein (APP), and integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) might be involved in enhancing nerve regeneration.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Exossomos , Regeneração Nervosa , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/terapia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Animais , Exossomos/metabolismo , Exossomos/transplante , Camundongos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/metabolismo
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444736

RESUMO

Pomegranate juice (Punica granatum) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine (Unani Medicine, Ayurveda); its main compounds are anthocyanins and ellagic acid, which have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and cardiovascular health effects. The objective was to evaluate the effect of pomegranate juice on inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular and physiological markers associated with obesity induced by a high-fat diet in a murine model. The results show that pomegranate juice reduces the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (cLDL) 39% and increases the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (cHDL) by 27%, leading to a 12%-18% decrease in the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In addition to reducing blood pressure by 24%, it also had an antiatherogenic effect by decreasing sE-selectin levels by 42%. On the other hand, the juice significantly increased adiponectin levels in adipose tissue, decreased levels of inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)), and inhibited the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Pomegranate juice requires clinical studies to prove its immunoregulatory and therapeutic effects on cardiovascular and atherogenic risks.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Inflamação , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Romã (Fruta) , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Quimiocina CCL2/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Energia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21847, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405464

RESUMO

Mounting evidence demonstrates that paternal diet programs offspring metabolism. However, the contribution of a pre-conception paternal high protein (HP) diet to offspring metabolism, gut microbiota, and epigenetic changes remains unclear. Here we show that paternal HP intake in Sprague Dawley rats programs protective metabolic outcomes in offspring. Compared to paternal high fat/sucrose (HF/S), HP diet improved body composition and insulin sensitivity and improved circulating satiety hormones and cecal short-chain fatty acids compared to HF/S and control diet (P < .05). Further, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to assess gut microbial composition, we observed increased alpha diversity, distinct bacterial clustering, and increased abundance of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Marvinbryantia in HP fathers and/or male and female adult offspring. At the epigenetic level, DNMT1and 3b expression was altered intergenerationally. Our study identifies paternal HP diet as a modulator of gut microbial composition, epigenetic markers, and metabolic function intergenerationally.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Epigênese Genética , Pai , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Insulina/metabolismo , Exposição Paterna , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Envelhecimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilidade , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônios/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resposta de Saciedade , Desmame
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371900

RESUMO

Excess caloric intake and body fat accumulation lead to obesity, a complex chronic disease that represents a significant public health problem due to the health-related risk factors. There is growing evidence showing that maternal obesity can program the offspring, which influences neonatal phenotype and predispose offspring to metabolic disorders such as obesity. This increased risk may also be epigenetically transmitted across generations. Thus, there is an imperative need to find effective reprogramming approaches in order to resume normal fetal development. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in vegetables and fruits that exert its anti-obesity effect through its powerful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Polyphenol supplementation has been proven to counteract the prejudicial effects of maternal obesity programming on progeny. Indeed, some polyphenols can cross the placenta and protect the fetal predisposition against obesity. The present review summarizes the effects of dietary polyphenols on obesity-induced maternal reprogramming as an offspring anti-obesity approach.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético , Obesidade Materna/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Dieta Saudável , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Materna/genética , Obesidade Materna/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
13.
Adipocyte ; 10(1): 408-411, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402717

RESUMO

Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is the cell-surface receptor enabling cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 is highly expressed in adipose tissue (AT), rendering AT a potential SARS-CoV-2 reservoir contributing to massive viral spread in COVID-19 patients with obesity. Although rodent and cell studies suggest that the polyphenol resveratrol alters ACE2, human studies are lacking. Here, we investigated the effects of 30-days resveratrol supplementation on RAS components in AT and skeletal muscle in men with obesity in a placebo-controlled cross-over study. Resveratrol markedly decreased ACE2 (~40%) and leptin (~30%), but did neither alter angiotensinogen, ACE and AT1R expression in AT nor skeletal muscle RAS components. These findings demonstrate that resveratrol supplementation reduces ACE2 in AT, which might dampen SARS-CoV-2 spread in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/patologia , Efeito Placebo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209351

RESUMO

In this study, the in vitro biocompatibility and osteoinductive ability of a recently developed biomorphic hydroxylapatite ceramic scaffold (B-HA) derived from transformation of wood structures were analyzed using human adipose stem cells (hASCs). Cell viability and metabolic activity were evaluated in hASCs, parental cells and in recombinant genetically engineered hASC-eGFP cells expressing the green fluorescence protein. B-HA osteoinductivity properties, such as differentially expressed genes (DEG) involved in the skeletal development pathway, osteocalcin (OCN) protein expression and mineral matrix deposition in hASCs, were evaluated. In vitro induction of osteoblastic genes, such as Alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), Bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein (BGLAP), SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3), Sp7 transcription factor (SP7) and Transforming growth factor, beta 3 (TGFB3) and Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 11 (TNFSF11)/Receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) ligand (RANKL), involved in osteoclast differentiation, was undertaken in cells grown on B-HA. Chondrogenic transcription factor SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9), tested up-regulated in hASCs grown on the B-HA scaffold. Gene expression enhancement in the skeletal development pathway was detected in hASCs using B-HA compared to sintered hydroxylapatite (S-HA). OCN protein expression and calcium deposition were increased in hASCs grown on B-HA in comparison with the control. This study demonstrates the biocompatibility of the novel biomorphic B-HA scaffold and its potential use in osteogenic differentiation for hASCs. Our data highlight the relevance of B-HA for bone regeneration purposes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Durapatita/química , Osteogênese , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Tecidos Suporte/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
15.
Life Sci ; 282: 119812, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265362

RESUMO

AIMS: Among all the treatments for Multiple Sclerosis, stem cell transplantation, such as ADSCs, has attracted a great deal of scientific attention. On the other hand, Edaravone, as an antioxidant component, in combination with stem cells, could increase the survival and differentiation potential of stem cells. MAIN METHODS: 42 rats were divided into: Control, Cuprizone (CPZ), Sham, Edaravone (Ed), hADSCs, and Ed/hADSCs groups. Following induction of cuprizone, induced MS model, behavioral tests were designed to evaluate motor function during. Luxal fast blue staining was done to measure the level of demyelination and remyelination. Immunofluorescent staining was used to evaluate the amount of MBP, OLIG2, and MOG proteins. The mRNA levels of human MBP, MOG, and OLIG2 and rat Mbp, Mog, and Olig2 were determined via RT-PCR. KEY FINDINGS: Flow cytometry analysis exhibited that the extracted cells were positive for CD73 (93.8 ± 3%) and CD105 (91.6 ± 3%), yet negative for CD45 (2.06 ± 0.5%). Behavioral tests, unveiled a significant improvement in the Ed (P < 0.001), hADSCs (P < 0.001), and Ed/hADSCs (P < 0.001) groups compared to the others. In the Ed/hADSCs group, the myelin density was significantly higher than that in the Ed treated and hADSCs treated groups (P < 0.01). Edaravone and hADSCs increased the expression of Mbp, Mog, and Olig2 genes in the cuprizone rat models. Moreover, significant differences were seen between the Ed treated and hADSCs treated groups and the Ed/hADSCs group (P < 0.05 for Mbp and Olig2 and P < 0.01 for Mog). SIGNIFICANCE: Edaravone in combination with hADSCs reduced demyelination and increased oligodendrogenesis in the cuprizone rat models.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Edaravone/farmacologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Ratos
16.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(3): R75-R91, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260412

RESUMO

Obesity is a global pandemic with a large health and economic burden worldwide. Bodyweight is regulated by the ability of the CNS, and especially the hypothalamus, to orchestrate the function of peripheral organs that play a key role in metabolism. Gut hormones play a fundamental role in the regulation of energy balance, as they modulate not only feeding behavior but also energy expenditure and nutrient partitioning. This review examines the recent discoveries about hormones produced in the stomach and gut, which have been reported to regulate food intake and energy expenditure in preclinical models. Some of these hormones act on the hypothalamus to modulate thermogenesis and adiposity in a food intake-independent fashion. Finally, the association of these gut hormones to eating, energy expenditure, and weight loss after bariatric surgery in humans is discussed.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4434, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290249

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a main driver of cardiovascular diseases. The ability of macrophages to scavenge excess lipids implicate them as mediators in this process and understanding the mechanisms underlying macrophage lipid metabolism is key to the development of new treatments. Here, we investigated how adipose tissue macrophages regulate post-prandial cholesterol transport. Single-cell RNA sequencing and protected bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that ingestion of lipids led to specific transcriptional activation of a population of resident macrophages expressing Lyve1, Tim4, and ABCA1. Blocking the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 inhibited lysosomal activation and the release of post-prandial high density lipoprotein cholesterol following a high fat meal. Both effects were recapitulated by chloroquine, an inhibitor of lysosomal function. Moreover, clodronate-mediated cell-depletion implicated Tim4+ resident adipose tissue macrophages in this process. Thus, these data indicate that Tim4 is a key regulator of post-prandial cholesterol transport and adipose tissue macrophage function and may represent a novel pathway to treat dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ativação Transcricional , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203025

RESUMO

Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are data aggregation tools based on computer technology that assist clinicians to promote healthy weight management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We carried out a randomised controlled 3-month trial to implement lifestyle modifications in breast cancer (BC) patients by means of CDSS during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 55 BC women at stages I-IIIA were enrolled. They were randomly assigned either to Control group, receiving general lifestyle advice (n = 28) or the CDSS group (n = 27), to whom the CDSS provided personalised dietary plans based on the Mediterranean diet (MD) together with physical activity guidelines. Food data, anthropometry, blood markers and quality of life were evaluated. At 3 months, higher adherence to MD was recorded in the CDSS group, accompanied by lower body weight (kg) and body fat mass percentage compared to control (p < 0.001). In the CDSS arm, global health/quality of life was significantly improved at the trial endpoint (p < 0.05). Fasting blood glucose and lipid levels (i.e., cholesterol, LDL, triacylglycerols) of the CDSS arm remained unchanged (p > 0.05) but were elevated in the control arm at 3 months (p < 0.05). In conclusion, CDSS could be a promising tool to assist BC patients with lifestyle modifications during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298949

RESUMO

Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors inhibit the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We determined whether changes in perirenal fat (PRAT) by a SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin (Ipra) contribute to the suppression of DN development. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were used as a DN model and were treated with or without Ipra for 6 weeks. Ipra treatment reduced urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and glomerular hypertrophy in HFD-fed mice. In the PRAT of Ipra-treated mice, adipocyte size was increased, and inflammation, fibrosis, and adipocyte death were suppressed. In conditioned medium made from PRAT (PRAT-CM) of Ipra-treated mice, the concentration of leptin was significantly lower than PRAT-CM of mice without Ipra treatment. Serum leptin concentration in renal vein positively correlated with UAE. PRAT-CM from HFD-fed mice showed greater cell proliferation signaling in mouse glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) than PRAT-CM from standard diet-fed mice via p38MAPK and leptin-dependent pathways, whose effects were significantly attenuated in PRAT-CM from Ipra-treated mice. These findings suggest that Ipra-induced PRAT expansion may play an important role in the improvement of DN in HFD-fed mice. In vitro experiments suggest that reduced PRAT-derived leptin by Ipra could inhibit GECs proliferation, possibly contributing to the suppression of DN development.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Tiofenos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299261

RESUMO

Many approaches have been used in the effective management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A recent paradigm shift has focused on the role of adipose tissues in the development and treatment of the disease. Brown adipose tissues (BAT) and white adipose tissues (WAT) are the two main types of adipose tissues with beige subsets more recently identified. They play key roles in communication and insulin sensitivity. However, WAT has been shown to contribute significantly to endocrine function. WAT produces hormones and cytokines, collectively called adipocytokines, such as leptin and adiponectin. These adipocytokines have been proven to vary in conditions, such as metabolic dysfunction, type 2 diabetes, or inflammation. The regulation of fat storage, energy metabolism, satiety, and insulin release are all features of adipose tissues. As such, they are indicators that may provide insights on the development of metabolic dysfunction or type 2 diabetes and can be considered routes for therapeutic considerations. The essential roles of adipocytokines vis-a-vis satiety, appetite, regulation of fat storage and energy, glucose tolerance, and insulin release, solidifies adipose tissue role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and the complications associated with the disease.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
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