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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10595-10603, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475817

RESUMO

While ß-cryptoxanthin is hypothesized to have a preventive effect on lifestyle-related diseases, its underlying mechanisms are unknown. We investigated the effect of ß-cryptoxanthin on energy metabolism in adipose tissues and its underlying mechanism. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat) containing 0 or 0.05% ß-cryptoxanthin for 12 weeks. ß-cryptoxanthin treatment was found to reduce body fat gain and plasma glucose level, while increasing energy expenditure. The expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 was elevated in adipose tissues in the treatment group. Furthermore, the in vivo assays showed that the Ucp1 mRNA expression was higher in the ß-cryptoxanthin treatment group, an effect that disappeared upon cotreatment with a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) antagonist. In conclusion, we report that ß-cryptoxanthin reduces body fat and body weight gain and that ß-cryptoxanthin increases the expression of UCP1 via the RAR pathway.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , beta-Criptoxantina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4475-4478, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366547

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is involved in the development of cancer, lifestyle-related diseases, and autoimmune diseases. It also influences the severity of these diseases. Macrophages that accumulate in tumor tissues and adipose tissues of obesity have been shown to increase expression of inflammatory cytokines, thereby inducing inflammatory changes in these tissues. The macrophage phenotype is believed to be important in mediating inflammatory changes in tissues. Recently, monocytes/macrophages activated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were demonstrated to suppress increased expression of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1 ß, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α). By suppressing the increased expression of chemotaxis-related and inflammation-related factors, monocytes/macrophages activated with low-dose LPS are considered to suppress the migration of macrophages into tissues and to regulate inflammatory changes in these tissues, respectively. The effects of macrophages activated with low-dose LPS were different from those of macrophages activated with high-dose LPS. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of monocytes/macrophages activation by low-dose LPS.


Assuntos
Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-8/genética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
3.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 155, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most fatty acids (FAs) making up the adipose tissue in mammals have a dietary origin and suffer little modification when they are stored. However, we propose that some of those FAs, specifically those that can be synthesised or modified by mammals, are also being influenced by thermal forces and used as part of the mechanism to regulate core body temperature. As FA desaturation increases, adipose tissues can reach colder temperatures without solidifying. The ability to cool the superficial fat tissues helps create a thermal gradient, which contributes to body heat loss reduction. Therefore, it is expected that animals exposed to colder environments will possess adipose tissues with higher proportions of desaturated FAs. Here, through a model selection approach that accounts for phylogeny, we investigate how the variation in FA desaturation in 54 mammalian species relates to the thermal proxies: latitude, physical environment (terrestrial, semi-aquatic and fully-aquatic) and hair density. RESULTS: The interaction between the environment (terrestrial, semi- or fully-aquatic) and the latitude in which the animals lived explained best the variation of FA desaturation in mammals. Aquatic mammals had higher FA desaturation compared to terrestrial mammals. Semi-aquatic mammals had significantly higher levels of desaturated FAs when living in higher latitudes whereas terrestrial and fully-aquatic mammals did not. To account for dietary influence, a double bond index was calculated including all FAs, and revealed no correlation with latitude in any of the groups. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that FA modification is an important component of the thermoregulatory strategy, particularly in semi-aquatic mammals. Potentially this is because, like terrestrial mammals, they experience the greatest air temperature variations across latitudes, but they lack a thick fur coat and rely primarily on their blubber. Unlike fully-aquatic mammals, extremely thick blubber is not ideal for semi-aquatic mammals, as this is detrimental to their manoeuvrability on land. Therefore, the adipose tissue in semi-aquatic mammals plays a more important role in keeping warm, and the modification of FAs becomes crucial to withstand cold temperatures and maintain a pliable blubber.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Geografia , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Animais , Cabelo/anatomia & histologia
4.
Anim Genet ; 50(5): 439-448, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328299

RESUMO

Elucidation of the pig microRNAome is essential for interpreting functional elements of the genome and understanding the genetic architecture of complex traits. Here, we extracted small RNAs from skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and we compared their expression levels between one Western breed (Yorkshire) and seven indigenous Chinese breeds. We detected the expression of 172 known porcine microRNAs (miRNAs) and 181 novel miRNAs. Differential expression analysis found 92 and 12 differentially expressed miRNAs in adipose and muscle tissue respectively. We found that different Chinese breeds shared common directional miRNA expression changes compared to Yorkshire pigs. Some miRNAs differentially expressed across multiple Chinese breeds, including ssc-miR-129-5p, ssc-miR-30 and ssc-miR-150, are involved in adipose tissue function. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs are associated mainly with signaling pathways rather than metabolic and biosynthetic processes. The miRNA-target gene and miRNA-phenotypic traits networks identified many hub miRNAs that regulate a large number of target genes or phenotypic traits. Specifically, we found that intramuscular fat content is regulated by the greatest number of miRNAs in muscle tissue. This study provides valuable new candidate miRNAs that will aid in the improvement of meat quality and production.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Sus scrofa/classificação , Sus scrofa/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Músculos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
5.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 369-377, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279218

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by immune cell infiltration and inflammation. Purinergic receptors such as P2X1, 4 and 7 are expressed on immune cells and their activation contributes with an inflammatory response. However, the simultaneous expression of P2X1, 4 and 7 during overweight or obesity have not been described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine single and simultaneously expression and function of the P2X1, 4 and 7 receptors in lymphocytes and CD4 + T cells from peripheral blood (PB) and adipose tissue (AT). Our results showed a higher expression of the P2X4 receptor on CD4 + T cells from PB regarding P2X7 and P2X1 receptor expression. In addition, P2X4 receptor expression on CD4 + T cells from PB and AT was increased in individuals with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2. Moreover, a higher simultaneous expression of the P2X4 and P2X7 receptors on CD4 + T cells from AT compared to CD4 + T cells expressing P2X1 and P2X7 receptors simultaneously. Besides, CD4 + T cells expressing P2X4 and P2X7 receptors from PB and AT were augmented in individuals with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2. In addition, the percentage of lymphocytes and also CD4 + T cells expressing P2X4 receptor were elevated both in PB and AT compared to cells expressing P2X7 or P2X1. However, CD4 + T cells expressing P2X4 and P2X7 were augmented in AT compared to PB. The function of the receptors showed a lower shedding of CD62 L in adipose tissue mononuclear cells (ATMC) compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and a greater participation of P2X4 in the mobilization of intracellular calcium. We concluded that it was possible to determine for the first time the simultaneous expression of purinergic receptors in ATMC, where the P2X4 receptor has a greater participation in the activation of CD4 + T cells possibly modulating the function of the other two receptors.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X1/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X4/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(8): 771-778, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339764

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of hydrocortisone administration on serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations, abdominal fat distribution, and mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin in abdominal adipose tissue of dogs. ANIMALS: 12 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES: Dogs received hydrocortisone (8.5 mg/kg; n = 6) or a placebo (6) orally every 12 hours for 90 days. Serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured with a canine-specific ELISA on the day before (day 0; baseline) and during (days 1, 3, 7, 30, 60, and 90) administration. On days 0, 30, 60, and 90, abdominal fat mass was quantified with CT, and mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin in abdominal fat was analyzed by use of a PCR assay. RESULTS: Hydrocortisone administration resulted in an increase in visceral fat mass on days 60 and 90, compared with the mass at baseline. Visceral fat mass at the level of L3 increased during hydrocortisone administration. Serum leptin concentration began to increase on day 1 and was significantly higher than the baseline concentration on days 30 and 60. Serum adiponectin concentration on days 30, 60, and 90 was significantly lower than the baseline concentration. Leptin and adiponectin mRNA expression in abdominal fat was greater on day 30, compared with expression at baseline, but lower on days 60 and 90, compared with expression on day 30. Serum leptin concentration and visceral fat mass were correlated. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Hydrocortisone administration affected abdominal fat distribution and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations through dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin expression.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/biossíntese , Cães , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Leptina/biossíntese , Adiponectina/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Physiol Rev ; 99(4): 1701-1763, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339053

RESUMO

Obesity is increasingly prevalent and is associated with substantial cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue distribution and morphology play a key role in determining the degree of adverse effects, and a key factor in the disease process appears to be the inflammatory cell population in adipose tissue. Healthy adipose tissue secretes a number of vasoactive adipokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and changes to this secretory profile will contribute to pathogenesis in obesity. In this review, we discuss the links between adipokine dysregulation and the development of hypertension and diabetes and explore the potential for manipulating adipose tissue morphology and its immune cell population to improve cardiovascular health in obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
8.
Life Sci ; 232: 116672, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336120

RESUMO

AIMS: Obesity is not only associated with metabolic diseases but is also a symptom of menopause in women. To date, there are no effective drugs for the management of obesity, and it is important to find new agents with fewer side effects, for the treatment of obesity. This study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effect of 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, and its underlying mechanism in rats with ovariectomy-induced obesity. MAIN METHODS: Ovariectomy (Ovx) rats were treated with 17-DMAG (1 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally) for eight weeks from one week after surgery. The body weight, food intake, locomotor activity, adipogenic- and autophagy-related protein expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were measured in sham and Ovx rats. KEY FINDINGS: Compared with sham rats, Ovx rats showed increased weight gain, food intake, WAT mass, TG levels, adipogenic protein expression, and decreased locomotor activity. Furthermore, autophagy-related proteins and Foxo3a of WAT were significantly increased in Ovx rats. However, with the exclusion of increased food intake, the changes induced by Ovx were all reversed in 17-DMAG-treated Ovx rats. In addition, the expression of Hsp70 and phosphorylation of Akt increased in 17-DMAG-treated Ovx rats. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that 17-DMAG significantly ameliorated obesity induced by Ovx, and this phenomenon is accompanied by the downregulation of adipogenic-related and autophagy-related proteins as well as the upregulation of Akt-phosphorylation and Hsp70 expression. Therefore, 17-DMAG may be a potential agent for preventing or treating obesity in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Lactamas Macrocíclicas/farmacologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
10.
Biomed Khim ; 65(3): 239-244, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258148

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to investigate the features of expression and adiponectin content in the adipocyte culture of subcutaneous, epicardial, and perivascular adipose tissue and the effect of various doses of rosuvastatin on these processes. 29 patients with coronary artery disease were examined. Adipocytes were isolated from the samples of SAT, EAT and PVAT which were taken during coronary artery bypass surgery, followed by cultivation in the presence of rosuvastatin and evaluation of gene expression and adiponectin concentration. Adipocytes SAT, EAT and PVAT differed in the level of adiponectin secretion and expression of its gene. On day 1 of cultivation the expression of the adiponectin gene in the EAT was 2.3 times lower than in the PVAT. On day 2 of cultivation the expression of the adiponectin gene was reduced both in the EAT and the PVAT as compared to the SAT. When rosuvastatin was added at a concentration of 1 mmol/L, adiponectin gene expression in PVAT was higher than when rosuvastatin was added at a concentration of 5 mmol/L, in the adipocyte culture of SAT effect was opposite. Thus, the adipocytes of EZhT and, to a greater extent, PAS, can be a therapeutic target for statins in the case of the pathological activation of adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiponectina/genética , Células Cultivadas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/farmacologia
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2837-2849, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267132

RESUMO

Ketosis is a major metabolic disorder of high-yielding dairy cows during the transition period. Although metabolic adaptations of the adipose tissue are critical for a successful transition, beyond lipolysis, alterations within adipose tissue during ketosis are not well known. The objective of this study was to investigate the adipose tissue proteome of healthy or ketotic postpartum cows to gain insights into biological adaptations that may contribute to disease outcomes. Adipose tissue biopsy was collected on 5 healthy and 5 ketotic cows at 17 (±4) d postpartum and ketosis was defined according to the clinical symptoms and serum ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Morphology micrographs stained by hematoxylin-eosin showed that adipocytes were smaller in ketotic cows than in healthy cows. The isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification was applied to quantitatively identify differentially expressed proteins (DEP) in the adipose tissue. We identified a total of 924 proteins, 81 of which were differentially expressed between ketotic and healthy cows (P < 0.05 and fold changes >1.5 or <0.67). These DEP included enzymes and proteins associated with various carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism processes. The top pathways differing between ketosis and control cows were glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, glucagon signaling pathway, cysteine and methionine metabolism, biosynthesis of amino acids, and the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway. The identified DEP were further validated by western blot and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Key enzymes associated with carbohydrate metabolism such as pyruvate kinase 2, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit α), lactate dehydrogenase A , phosphoglucomutase 1, and 6-phosphofructokinase 1 were upregulated in ketotic cows. The expression and phosphorylation state of critical regulators of lipolysis such as perilipin-1 and hormone-sensitive lipase were also upregulated in ketotic cows. Furthermore, key proteins involved in maintaining innate immune response such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein and regakine-1 were downregulated in ketotic cows. Overall, data indicate that ketotic cows during the transition period have altered carbohydrate, lipid metabolism, and impaired immune function in the adipose tissue. This proteomics analysis in adipose tissue of ketotic cows identified several pathways and proteins that are components of the adaptation to ketosis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Cetose/veterinária , Leite/metabolismo , Proteoma , Proteômica , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Bovinos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Cetose/metabolismo , Lactação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Fosforilação , Período Pós-Parto , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Animal ; 13(S1): s4-s10, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280752

RESUMO

Historically, pre-pubertal development of the bovine mammary gland (MG) has received little attention compared to later development. Recent evidence suggests not only that this period represents a very active time in the development of the MG but also that the first 90 days of life can partially dictate future productivity of the lactating cow. The MG, often considered quiescent during early life (first 3 months), is now known to increase in size by over 60-fold in the same period. The importance of sex steroids in MG development is well classified, but a complex signaling network exists among estrogen, progesterone and other growth factors and hormones. Complicating our understanding of this developmental period further is the discovery that pre-weaning nutrition of the calf not only influences the growth of the mammary parenchyma but may also alter the way in which it responds to mammogenic stimuli. Recent data suggest that feeding calves a higher plane of nutrition improves the ability of the mammary epithelium to respond to estradiol and also alters the way in which the mammary parenchyma and fat pad communicate. It is clear that early life nutrition, although able to influence the MG, is still poorly understood mechanistically. For example, additional evidence suggests that increased feeding rates in early life alter the morphology of myoepithelial cells in the mammary epithelium. Further data have also suggested a role for other cell types, such as immune cells, in the penetration of the mammary parenchyma into the fat pad during the early life development of the MG suggesting that mammary development is not only controlled by the local tissue population (parenchyma and fat pad) but perhaps systemically by other tissue types (i.e., immune system). Understanding the roles of these various stimuli and signaling pathways as they relate to the development of the MG in early life may hold the key to unlocking the potential for the optimal development of this crucial organ and, in turn, may lead to improvements in other phases of mammary development and milk yield potential.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Progesterona/metabolismo , Desmame
13.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(6): 406-418, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have indicated that the plasticizer di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects lipid accumulation; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. We aim to clarify the effect of DEHP on lipid metabolism and the role of TYK2/STAT1 and autophagy. METHODS: In total, 160 Wistar rats were exposed to DEHP [0, 5, 50, 500 mg/(kg•d)] for 8 weeks. Lipid levels, as well as mRNA and protein levels of TYK2, STAT1, PPARγ, AOX, FAS, LPL, and LC3 were detected. RESULTS: The results indicate that DEHP exposure may lead to increased weight gain and altered serum lipids. We observed that DEHP exposure affected liver parenchyma and increased the volume or number of fat cells. In adipose tissue, decreased TYK2 and STAT1 promoted the expression of PPARγ and FAS. The mRNA and protein expression of LC3 in 50 and 500 mg/(kg•d) groups was increased significantly. In the liver, TYK2 and STAT1 increased compensatorily; however, the expression of FAS and AOX increased, while LPL expression decreased. Joint exposure to both a high-fat diet and DEHP led to complete disorder of lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that DEHP induces lipid metabolism disorder by regulating TYK2/STAT1. Autophagy may play a potential role in this process as well. High-fat diet, in combination with DEHP exposure, may jointly have an effect on lipid metabolism disorder.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/induzido quimicamente , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , TYK2 Quinase/metabolismo
14.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(6): 517-524, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168041

RESUMO

Abdominal fat accumulation causes metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension, leading to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diets are known to contribute to the development or prevention of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have reported that the quality of dietary proteins may be an important modulator of the risk of this syndrome. We investigated the effects of consuming egg white protein (EWP) or lactic-fermented egg white (LE), an easy-to-consume form of egg white, on the development of metabolic syndrome in animal models and humans. In comparison with casein, dietary EWP decreased lymphatic lipid transport in thoracic lymph duct-cannulated rats. In an in vitro experiment, EWP pepsin hydrolysate decreased the cholesterol micellar solubility and cholesterol transfer rate from micelles to oil phase, and increased water-holding capacity, settling volume in water, and relative viscosity compared with casein pepsin hydrolysate. The daily consumption of LE for 8 weeks reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Furthermore, dietary EWP reduced the body fat mass of rats by increasing the body protein mass and accelerating hepatic ß-oxidation. The daily consumption of LE for 12 weeks reduced the visceral fat area and improved the ratio of the visceral to subcutaneous fat area. Taken together, these results indicated that dietary EWP and LE would be useful for preventing or alleviating metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Dieta , Proteínas Dietéticas do Ovo/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Dietéticas do Ovo/farmacologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Linfa/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Micelas , Oxirredução , Pepsina A/farmacologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Solubilidade , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Ducto Torácico/metabolismo
15.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 70(1)2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172973

RESUMO

Obesity is characterised by imbalance in lipid metabolism manifested by high concentrations of circulating triacylglycerols and total cholesterol as well as low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Abnormalities related to these lipids lead to metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Despite extensive research, it is still unclear why a subset of obese subjects develop metabolic syndrome, while others do not. The aim of our work was to assess total and plasma membrane expressions of cholesterol transport proteins: adipocyte ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1), adipocyte ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1), class B scavenger receptor (SR-BI) in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. To keep our preliminary study group uniform, we focused on women, who constitute the majority of bariatric patients. The study was performed on 34 patients: 24 morbidly obese women subjected to bariatric surgery, half of whom had metabolic syndrome; and 10 lean subjects undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Total and plasma membrane expressions of cholesterol transport proteins (SR-BI, ABCA1 and ABCG1) were assessed in samples of both visceral and subcutaneous adipose and analysed in relation to other clinical and laboratory parameters. We demonstrated lower plasma membrane expressions of ABCG1 in visceral adipose tissue of obese patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to lean ones. In addition, total ABCG1 expressions in both types of adipose tissue were lower in morbidly obese patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Plasma membrane ABCA1 expressions in visceral adipose tissue were lower in the group of morbidly obese patients without metabolic syndrome, compared to lean patients. We did not find any significant differences in SR-BI expressions. Because of ABCG1 is responsible for cholesterol efflux to HDL, reduced plasma membrane expression of ABCG1 in VAT of morbidly obese women with metabolic syndrome may leads to a significantly decreased concentration of HDL in serum. This may be also confirmed by high positive correlation between both parameters.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Life Sci ; 232: 116603, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254587

RESUMO

AIMS: Although anabolic steroids (AS) and trans-fatty acids overload exerts systemic toxicity and are independent risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, their interaction remains poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the impact of a diet rich in trans-fatty acids (HFD) combined with AS on glycemic control, lipid profile, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and pancreas microstructure and expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. MAIN METHODS: Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were randomized into 6 groups treated for 12 weeks with a standard diet (SD) or a diet rich in C18:1 trans-fatty isomers (HFD), alone or combined with 10 or 20 mg/kg testosterone cypionate (AS). KEY FINDINGS: Our results indicated that AS improved glycemic control, upregulated gene expression of Glut-4 and CPT-1 in skeletal muscle, FAS, ACC and UCP-1 in adipose tissue. AS also reduced total and LDL cholesterol in mice fed a SD. When combined with the HFD, AS was unable to induce microstructural adaptations in adipose tissue, pancreatic islets and ß-cells, but potentiated GCK and Glut-2 (pancreas) and Glut-4 and CPT-1 (skeletal muscle) upregulation. HFD plus AS also downregulated FAS and ACC gene expression in adipose tissue. Combined with HFD, AS increased triacylglycerol circulating levels, improved insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicated that HFD and AS can interact to modulates glycemic control and lipid profile by a mechanism potentially related with a reprogramming of genes expression in organs such as the pancreas, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Congêneres da Testosterona/genética , Congêneres da Testosterona/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Trans/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Carga Glicêmica/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Trans/fisiologia
17.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 982-991, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146318

RESUMO

Odontocete cetaceans bioaccumulate high concentrations of endocrine disrupting persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (DDE), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) - collectively DDTs - but few studies have explored DDTs-mediated endocrine disruption in cetaceans. Herein, we use remotely collected blubber biopsies from common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting a site with high localized DDTs contamination to study the relationships between DDTs exposure and steroid hormone homeostasis in cetaceans. We quantified blubber steroid hormone concentrations by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and blubber POP concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We detected six steroid hormones in blubber, including progesterone (P4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP4), androstenedione (AE), testosterone (T), cortisol (F), and cortisone (E). Sampled dolphins (n = 62) exhibited exposure to DDT, DDE, DDD, chlordanes (CHLDs), mirex, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs). Using principal components analysis (PCA), we determined that blubber DDTs primarily loaded to the first principal component (PC1) explaining 81.6% of the total variance in POP exposure, while the remaining POPs primarily loaded to the PC2 (10.4% of variance). PC1 scores were negatively correlated with blubber T in males and blubber F in females, suggesting that exposure to DDTs impacted androgen and corticosteroid homeostasis. These conclusions were further supported by observed negative correlations between T and o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDD in males sampled in the fall, and between F and the six individual DDTs and ∑6DDTs in females. Overall, these results suggest that POP-mediated endocrine disruption may have occurred in this stock of dolphins, which could negatively impact their health and fitness. However, this study relied on uncontrolled incidental exposures, making it impossible to establish a causal relationship between DDTs exposure and endocrine effects. Importantly, this study demonstrates that remotely collected blubber biopsies are a useful matrix for studying endocrine disruption in marine mammals.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/metabolismo , DDT/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Esteroides/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Golfo do México , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Testosterona/metabolismo
18.
Gene ; 711: 143937, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Vaginal atrophy is characterized by thinning of vaginal epithelial layers and decreased local blood flow. We aimed to evaluate the regenerative effects of Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) and Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDSC) on vaginal atrophy in rat menopause model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into 4 (four) groups: sham, control, ADMSC, BMDSC. Vaginal epithelial thickness, structure of the lamina propria, blood vessels in the lamina propria, collagen deposition, and muscle structure were evaluated. Anti ER α, VEGF, VEGFR 1, Bax and bcl-2 antibodies were analyzed. Beta actin gene was used as endogenous control. Genetical differences among the groups were compared by using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U test. p < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS: Epithelial thickness of ADMSC group was higher than control group, but less than sham group Epithelial thickness of BMDSC group was less than sham group. Lamina propria and muscle tissue of ADMSC and BMDSC groups were found to be similar to sham group. VEGFR-1, VEGF, Bax and ER-α staining levels were higher in ADMSC and BMDSC groups than control group. ADMSC group stained stronger with VEGFR-1 and VEGF than BMDSC group. Bcl-2 staining level was increased in ADMSC applied group. No statistically significant difference was detected in Bax and Bcl-2 genes and Bax-/Bcl-2 ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Although genetic expression might have ended and could not be significantly demonstrated, histological and immunohistochemical results favor ADMSC application in vaginal atrophy rather than BMDSC.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Vagina/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Atrofia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Ratos , Vagina/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
19.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(3): 491-496, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218341

RESUMO

Adipose tissue is the energy storage organ of the body, and excess energy is stored in adipocytes in the form of lipid droplets. The homeostasis of adipose tissue is the basis for the body to maintain normal metabolic activity. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an important lipid mediator in the body. It is synthesized in almost all tissues and participates in the regulation of many physiological processes such as blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, and inflammation. PGE2 is abundant in white adipose tissue, where it is involved in the regulation of fat metabolism. PGE2 plays its biological role through binding to four G protein coupled receptors (prostaglandin E2 receptors), including EP-1, -2, -3, and -4. The EP4 subtype has been proved to play an important role in adipogenesis and adipose metabolism: it could inhibit adipogenesis while it was activated, whereas its knockout could promote lipolysis. This review summarized the relationship between EP4 and adipose metabolism, hoping to identify new targets of drug development for metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/fisiologia , Adipócitos , Humanos
20.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 117(2): 130-136, 2019 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular (CV) events are highly prevalent in systemic necrotising vasculitides (SNV). Visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT) ratio has been shown to be associated with CV events in various diseases. We aimed to assess the relevance of abdominal adipose tissue measurement to predict major CV events (MCVEs) in SNV. METHODS: Patients with SNV were successively included in a longitudinal study assessing MCVEs and other sequelae. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was performed to evaluate abdominal adipose tissue. Patients were prospectively followed for MCVEs, defined as myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, arterial revascularisation and/or hospitalisation for or death from CV causes. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty consecutive SNV patients were included and analysed (54 males, mean age 53±18 years). High CV risk was found in 28 (23.3%) patients. In univariate analysis, age, male gender, VDI, VAT/SAT ratio and serum troponin level were significantly associated with high CV risk, whereas age and VAT/SAT ratio remained independently associated with high CV risk. Variables associated with high tertile of VAT/SAT ratio included age and metabolic risk factors. After median follow-up of 42 months, 19 (16%) patients experienced MCVEs. Hazard ratios for incident MCVEs compared with 1st tertile of VAT/SAT ratio were 7.22 (1.02-51.3; p=0.048) and 9.90 (3.15-31.2; p=0.0002) in the 2nd and 3rd tertile, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal visceral adipose tissue is a reliable surrogate marker of CV risk and predicts incident MCVEs in SNV patients. Abdominal adipose tissue should be probably evaluated routinely in these patients to assess CV risk.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Vasculite Sistêmica/complicações , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Vasculite Sistêmica/metabolismo
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