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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445514

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin, a well-known chemotherapeutic agent, can induce severe neuropathic pain, which can seriously decrease the quality of life of patients. JI017 is an herb mixture composed of Aconitum carmichaelii, Angelica gigas, and Zingiber officinale. Its anti-tumor effect has been reported; however, the efficacy of JI017 against oxaliplatin-induced allodynia has never been explored. Single oxaliplatin injection [6 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, (i.p.)] induced both cold and mechanical allodynia, and oral administration of JI017 (500 mg/kg) alleviated cold but not mechanical allodynia in mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis demonstrated that the upregulation of mRNA of spinal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and astrocytes following oxaliplatin injection was downregulated after JI017 treatment. Moreover, TRPV1 expression and the activation of astrocytes were intensely increased in the superficial area of the spinal dorsal horn after oxaliplatin treatment, whereas JI017 suppressed both. The administration of TRPV1 antagonist [capsazepine, intrathecal (i.t.), 10 µg] attenuated the activation of astrocytes in the dorsal horn, demonstrating that the functions of spinal TRPV1 and astrocytes are closely related in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain. Altogether, these results suggest that JI017 may be a potent candidate for the management of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy as it decreases pain, spinal TRPV1, and astrocyte activation.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Aconitum/química , Administração Oral , Angelica/química , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Gengibre/química , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperalgesia/genética , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361583

RESUMO

The persistence of effervescence and foam collar during a Champagne or sparkling wine tasting constitute one, among others, specific consumer preference for these products. Many different factors related to the product or to the tasting conditions might influence their behavior in the glass. However, the underlying factor behind the fizziness of these wines involves a second in-bottle alcoholic fermentation, also well known as the prise de mousse. The aim of this study was to assess whether a low temperature (13 °C) or a high temperature (20 °C) during the in-bottle fermentation might have an impact on the effervescence and the foaming properties (i.e., collar height and bubble size) of three French sparkling wines (a Crémant de Loire and two Champagne wines), under standard tasting conditions. Our results showed that sparkling wines elaborated at 13 °C and served in standard tasting conditions (i.e., 100 mL, 18 °C) had better ability to keep the dissolved CO2 (between 0.09 and 0.30 g/L) in the liquid phase than those elaborated at 20 °C (with P < 0.05). Most interestingly, we also observed, for the Crémant de Loire and for one Champagne wine, that the lower the temperature of the prise de mousse, the smaller (with P < 0.05) the bubbles in the foam collar throughout the wine tasting.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Temperatura Baixa , Vinho
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445208

RESUMO

The transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is a cold sensor in humans, activated by low temperatures (>10, <28 °C), but also a polymodal ion channel, stimulated by voltage, pressure, cooling compounds (menthol, icilin), and hyperosmolarity. An increased number of experimental results indicate the implication of TRPM8 channels in cold thermal transduction and pain detection, transmission, and maintenance in different tissues and organs. These channels also have a repercussion on different kinds of life-threatening tumors and other pathologies, which include urinary and respiratory tract dysfunctions, dry eye disease, and obesity. This compendium firstly covers newly described papers on the expression of TRPM8 channels and their correlation with pathological states. An overview on the structural knowledge, after cryo-electron microscopy success in solving different TRPM8 structures, as well as some insights obtained from mutagenesis studies, will follow. Most recently described families of TRPM8 modulators are also covered, along with a section of molecules that have reached clinical trials. To finalize, authors provide an outline of the potential prospects in the TRPM8 field.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Sensação Térmica , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/genética , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Doenças Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Respiratórias/genética , Doenças Respiratórias/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPM/química , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Doenças Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Urológicas/genética , Doenças Urológicas/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444161

RESUMO

The window-to-wall ratio (WWR) significantly affects the indoor thermal environment, causing changes in buildings' energy demands. This research couples the "Envi-met" model and the "TRNSYS" model to predict the impact of the window-to-wall ratio on indoor cooling energy demands in south Hunan. With the coupled model, "Envi-met + TRNSYS", fixed meteorological parameters around the exterior walls are replaced by varied data provided by Envi-met. This makes TRNSYS predictions more accurate. Six window-to-wall ratios are considered in this research, and in each scenario, the electricity demand for cooling is predicted using "Envi-met + TRNSYS". Based on the classification of thermal perception in south Hunan, the TRNSYS predictions of the electricity demand start with 30 °C as the threshold of refrigeration. The analytical results reveal that in a 6-storey residential building with 24 households, in order to maintain the air temperature below 30 °C, the electricity required for cooling buildings with 0% WWR, 20% WWR, 40% WWR, 60% WWR, 80% WWR, and 100% WWR are respectively 0 KW·h, 19.6 KW·h, 133.7 KW·h, 273.1 KW·h, 374.5 KW·h, and 461.9 KW·h. This method considers the influence of microclimate on the exterior wall and improves the accuracy of TRNSYS in predicting the energy demand for indoor cooling.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Microclima , Meteorologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
6.
Planta ; 254(3): 46, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370110

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The epigenetic could be an important, but seldom assessed, mechanisms in plants inhabiting cold ecosystems. Thus, this review could help to fill a gap in the current literature. Low temperatures are one of the most critical environmental conditions that negatively affect the growth, development, and geographic distribution of plants. Exposure to low temperatures results in a suit of physiological, biochemical and molecular modifications through the reprogramming of the expression of genes and transcription factors. Scientific evidence shows that the average annual temperature has increased in recent years worldwide, with cold ecosystems (polar and high mountain) being among the most sensitive to these changes. However, scientific evidence also indicates that there would be specific events of low temperatures, due it is highly relevant to know the capacity for adaptation, regulation and epigenetic memory in the face of these events, by plants. Epigenetic regulation has been described to play an important role in the face of environmental stimuli, especially in response to abiotic stress. Several studies on epigenetic mechanisms have focused on responses to stress as drought and/or salinity; however, there is a gap in the current literature considering those related to low temperatures. In this review, we focus on systematizing the information published to date, related to the regulation of epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA-dependent silencing mechanisms, in the face of plant´s stress due to low temperatures. Finally, we present a schematic model about the potential responses by plants taking in count their epigenetic memory; considering a global warming scenario and with the presence or absence of extreme specific events of low temperatures.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Temperatura Baixa , Ecossistema , Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4713, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354054

RESUMO

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a cold-sensitive species that often faces chilling stress, which adversely affects growth and reproduction. However, the genetic basis of low-temperature adaptation in maize remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that natural variation in the type-A Response Regulator 1 (ZmRR1) gene leads to differences in chilling tolerance among maize inbred lines. Association analysis reveals that InDel-35 of ZmRR1, encoding a protein harboring a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) phosphorylation residue, is strongly associated with chilling tolerance. ZmMPK8, a negative regulator of chilling tolerance, interacts with and phosphorylates ZmRR1 at Ser15. The deletion of a 45-bp region of ZmRR1 harboring Ser15 inhibits its degradation via the 26 S proteasome pathway by preventing its phosphorylation by ZmMPK8. Transcriptome analysis indicates that ZmRR1 positively regulates the expression of ZmDREB1 and Cellulose synthase (CesA) genes to enhance chilling tolerance. Our findings thus provide a potential genetic resource for improving chilling tolerance in maize.


Assuntos
Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/fisiologia , Alelos , Temperatura Baixa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
8.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(7): 878-880, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412762

RESUMO

In the trend of global warming and the increasing number of participating in high-intensity sports, the incidence of heat stroke is increasing year by year. Heat stroke is categorized to the class of heat emergent diseases. If there is no quick and effective treatment, the mortality rate is as high as 50%. Early, rapid, and effective cooling is the key point in the treatment of heat stroke. The early recognition and rapid lowering the core body temperature to 38.9 centigrade within 30 minutes of exertional heat stroke results in better clinical outcome with the fewest complications, however, the "golden 30 minutes" is far from enough to complete emergency transport and evaluation. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a first aid suit for heat stroke suitable for field treatment and transportation, so as to achieve the treatment goal of early rapid and effective cooling in field environment. For this purpose, the medical staff of the department of critical care medicine of the Eighth Medical Center of the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital designed and developed the split first aid suit, which is suitable for heat stroke patient in the harsh environment lacking medical supplies and water during transportation. The medical staff who designed the first aid suit obtained a National Utility Model Patent of China (ZL 2020 2 1627326.4). The split heat stroke first aid suit is composed of four main parts: a sleeveless coat, a hat, sleeves and wrapped pants. All of them are made by temperature changeable fabric which is a composite material made by fine porous silica gel particles and potassium nitrate. The cuffs of the sleeveless top of the clothes part and the sleeves are connected as a whole by the connecting pieces; and the front end of the hem of the clothes part and the wrapped trousers are also connected as a whole by the connecting pieces, which is convenient for fixing and transportation. In order to control the water injection quantity, the water injection bag and the corresponding components are designed to ensure the same amount of water can be injected to the heat stroke first aid suit at each time, so the same frigorific effect can be attainable. The service temperature is 14-18 centigrade, so it will not cause local frostbite to patients when used for a long time. This split-type first aid suit can be used in the movement, rescue and transportation of heat stroke patients. It is easy to carry and use with accurate cooling effect with low cost, moreover, it is reusable and can be widely used for on-site emergency and transportation of heat stroke patients.


Assuntos
Golpe de Calor , Hipotermia Induzida , Militares , Temperatura Baixa , Primeiros Socorros , Golpe de Calor/terapia , Humanos
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 107: 87-97, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412790

RESUMO

Micro-mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolites were obtained by the post-treatment of tetrahydroxy ammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) solution with different concentration. The hierarchical pore structure formed during the desilication process facilitates the dispersion of Pt nanoparticles and Pt/ZSM-5 catalysts exhibit rather high catalytic activity for the deep oxidation of various VOCs at low temperature. The catalyst treated with TPAOH of 0.1 mol/L (Pt/ZSM-5(0.1)) shows the lowest degradation temperature (T90%) of 128 and 142°C, respectively for benzene and n-hexane. Compared with the untreated Pt/ZSM-5 catalyst, the abundant mesopores, small Pt particle size and finely dispersed Pt contribute to the superior catalytic activity and stability of the Pt/ZSM-5 catalysts for VOCs removal. More importantly, the existence of H2O in the feed gases hardly affected the activity of Pt/ZSM-5(0.1) catalyst at the low reaction temperature of 128°C, which is very important for VOCs low-temperature removal in the future practical applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Catálise , Temperatura Baixa , Oxirredução , Temperatura
10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(5): 058701, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397226

RESUMO

Extreme events provide relevant insights into the dynamics of climate and their understanding is key for mitigating the impact of climate variability and climate change. By applying large deviation theory to a state-of-the-art Earth system model, we define the climatology of persistent heatwaves and cold spells in key target geographical regions by estimating the rate functions for the surface temperature, and we assess the impact of increasing CO_{2} concentration on such persistent anomalies. Hence, we can better quantify the increasing hazard due to heatwaves in a warmer climate. We show that two 2010 high impact events-summer Russian heatwave and winter Dzud in Mongolia-are associated with atmospheric patterns that are exceptional compared to the typical ones but typical compared to the climatology of extremes. Their dynamics is encoded in the natural variability of the climate. Finally, we propose and test an approximate formula for the return times of large and persistent temperature fluctuations from easily accessible statistical properties.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Modelos Teóricos , Temperatura Baixa , Ecossistema , Temperatura Alta
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 369, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low temperature severely limits the growth, yield, and geographic distributions of soybean. Soybean plants respond to cold stress by reprogramming the expression of a series of cold-responsive genes. However, the intrinsic mechanism underlying cold-stress tolerance in soybean remains unclear. A. thaliana tolerant to chilling and freezing 1 (AtTCF1) is a regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) family protein and regulates freezing tolerance through an independent C-repeat binding transcription factor (CBF) signaling pathway. RESULTS: In this study, we identified a homologous gene of AtTCF1 in soybean (named GmTCF1a), which mediates plant tolerance to low temperature. Like AtTCF1, GmTCF1a contains five RCC1 domains and is located in the nucleus. GmTCF1a is strongly and specifically induced by cold stress. Interestingly, ectopic overexpression of GmTCF1a in Arabidopsis greatly increased plant survival rate and decreased electrolyte leakage under freezing stress. A cold-responsive gene, COR15a, was highly induced in the GmTCF1a-overexpressing transgenic lines. CONCLUSIONS: GmTCF1a responded specifically to cold stress, and ectopic expression of GmTCF1a enhanced cold tolerance and upregulated COR15a levels. These results indicate that GmTCF1a positively regulates cold tolerance in soybean and may provide novel insights into genetic improvement of cold tolerance in crops.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Genes de Plantas , Soja/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Soja/fisiologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4696, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349113

RESUMO

Productive ribosomal RNA (rRNA) compaction during ribosome assembly necessitates establishing correct tertiary contacts between distant secondary structure elements. Here, we quantify the response of the yeast proteome to low temperature (LT), a condition where aberrant mis-paired RNA folding intermediates accumulate. We show that, at LT, yeast cells globally boost production of their ribosome assembly machinery. We find that the LT-induced assembly factor, Puf6, binds to the nascent catalytic RNA-rich subunit interface within the 60S pre-ribosome, at a site that eventually loads the nuclear export apparatus. Ensemble Förster resonance energy transfer studies show that Puf6 mimics the role of Mg2+ to usher a unique long-range tertiary contact to compact rRNA. At LT, puf6 mutants accumulate 60S pre-ribosomes in the nucleus, thus unveiling Puf6-mediated rRNA compaction as a critical temperature-regulated rescue mechanism that counters rRNA misfolding to prime export competence.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Eucariotos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Temperatura Baixa , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteoma/metabolismo , Dobramento de RNA , Precursores de RNA/química , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico/química , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Eucariotos/química , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444044

RESUMO

The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the reproducibility of lower limbs skin temperature after cold stress test using the Game Ready system. Skin temperature of fourteen participants was measured before and after cold stress test using the Game Ready system and it was repeated the protocol in four times: at 9:00, at 11:00, at 19:00, and at 9:00 h of the posterior day. To assess skin temperature recovery after cold stress test, a logarithmic equation for each region was calculated, and constant (ß0) and slope (ß1) coefficients were obtained. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error (SE), and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV) were determined. No differences were observed between measurement times in any of the regions for the logarithmic coefficients (p > 0.38). Anterior thigh (ß0 ICC 0.33-0.47; ß1 ICC 0.31-0.43) and posterior knee (ß0 ICC 0.42-0.58; ß1 ICC 0.28-0.57) were the regions with the lower ICCs, and the other regions presented values with a fair and good reproducibility (ICC > 0.41). Posterior leg was the region with the better reproducibility (ß0 ICC 0.68-0.78; ß1 ICC 0.59-0.74; SE 3-4%; within-subject CV 7-12%). In conclusion, cold stress test using Game Ready system showed a fair and good reproducibility, especially when the posterior leg was the region assessed.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Temperatura Cutânea , Temperatura Baixa , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361018

RESUMO

H+-ATP-ases, which support proton efflux through the plasma membrane, are key molecular transporters for electrogenesis in cells of higher plants. Initial activities of the transporters can influence the thresholds of generation of electrical responses induced by stressors and modify other parameters of these responses. Previously, it was theoretically shown that the stochastic heterogeneity of individual cell thresholds for electrical responses in a system of electrically connected neuronal cells can decrease the total threshold of the system ("diversity-induced resonance", DIR). In the current work, we tested a hypothesis about decreasing the thresholds of generation of cooling-induced electrical responses in a system of electrically connected plant cells with increasing stochastic spatial heterogeny in the initial activities of H+-ATP-ases in these cells. A two-dimensional model of the system of electrically connected excitable cells (simple imitation of plant leaf), which was based on a model previously developed in our works, was used for the present investigation. Simulation showed that increasing dispersion in the distribution of initial activities of H+-ATP-ases between cells decreased the thresholds of generation of cooling-induced electrical responses. In addition, the increasing weakly influenced the amplitudes of electrical responses. Additional analysis showed two different mechanisms of the revealed effect. The increasing spatial heterogeneity in activities of H+-ATP-ases induced a weak positive shift of the membrane potential at rest. The shift decreased the threshold of electrical response generation. However, the decreased threshold induced by increasing the H+-ATP-ase activity heterogeneity was also observed after the elimination of the positive shift. The result showed that the "DIR-like" mechanism also participated in the revealed effect. Finally, we showed that the standard deviation of the membrane potentials before the induction of action potentials could be used for the estimation of thresholds of cooling-induced plant electrical responses. Thus, spatial heterogeneity in the initial activities of H+-ATP-ases can be a new regulatory mechanism influencing the generation of electrical responses in plants under actions of stressors.


Assuntos
Potenciais da Membrana , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Bombas de Próton/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Células Vegetais/fisiologia
15.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443466

RESUMO

Bees and their products are useful bioindicators of anthropogenic activities and could overcome the deficiencies of air quality networks. Among the environmental contaminants, mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that can accumulate in living organisms. The first aim of this study was to develop a simple analytical method to determine Hg in small mass samples of bees and beehive products by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The proposed method was optimized for about 0.02 g bee, pollen, propolis, and royal jelly, 0.05 g beeswax and honey, or 0.1 g honeydew with 0.5 mL HCl, 0.2 mL HNO3, and 0.1 mL H2O2 in a water bath (95 °C, 30 min); samples were made up to a final volume of 5 mL deionized water. The method limits sample manipulation and the reagent mixture volume used. Detection limits were lower than 3 µg kg-1 for a sample mass of 0.02 g, and recoveries and precision were within 20% of the expected value and less than 10%, respectively, for many matrices. The second aim of the present study was to evaluate the proposed method's performances on real samples collected in six areas of the Lazio region in Italy.


Assuntos
Abelhas/química , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Cucumis melo/química , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Mel/análise , Itália , Pólen/química , Própole/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Ceras/análise
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444520

RESUMO

Temperature change is an important meteorological indicator reflecting weather stability. This study aimed to examine the effects of ambient temperature change on non-accidental mortality using diurnal temperature change (DTR) and temperature change between neighboring days (TCN) from two perspectives, intra-day and inter-day temperature change, and further, to explore seasonal variations of mortality, identify the susceptible population and investigate the interaction between temperature change and apparent temperature (AT). We collected daily data on cause-specific mortality, air pollutants and meteorological indicators in Shenzhen, China, from 1 January 2013 to 29 December 2017. A Quasi-Poisson generalized linear regression combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) were conducted to estimate the effects of season on temperature change-related mortality. In addition, a non-parametric bivariate response surface model was used to explore the interaction between temperature change and AT. The cumulative effect of DTR was a U-shaped curve for non-accidental mortality, whereas the curve for TCN was nearly monotonic. The overall relative risks (RRs) of non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality were 1.407 (95% CI: 1.233-1.606), 1.470 (95% CI: 1.220-1.771) and 1.741 (95% CI: 1.157-2.620) from exposure to extreme large DTR (99th) in cold seasons. However, no statistically significant effects were observed in warm seasons. As for TCN, the effects were higher in cold seasons than warm seasons, with the largest RR of 1.611 (95% CI: 1.384-1.876). The elderly and females were more sensitive, and low apparent temperature had a higher effect on temperature change-related non-accidental mortality. Temperature change was positively correlated with an increased risk of non-accidental mortality in Shenzhen. Both female and elderly people are more vulnerable to the potential adverse effects, especially in cold seasons. Low AT may enhance the effects of temperature change.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China/epidemiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444619

RESUMO

Global endeavors to respond to the problems caused by climate change and are leading to higher temperatures inside homes, which can cause skin conditions (such as eczema), lethargy, and poor concentration; disturbed sleep and fatigue are also rising. The energy performance of buildings is influenced by interactions and associations of numerous different variables, such as the envelope specifications as well as the design, technologies, apparatuses, and occupant behaviours. This paper introduces simple and sustainable strategies that are not dependent on expensive or sophisticated technologies, as they rely only on the actions practiced by the building's occupants (movable window shading, and nighttime natural ventilation) instead of completely relying on high-cost mechanical cooling systems in buildings located in the main Eastern Mediterranean climates represented in the country of Jordan. These low-energy solutions could be applied to low-income houses in hot areas to avoid health problems, such as dermatological diseases, and save a significant amount of energy. The final results indicate that window shading has significant potential in reducing the cooling load in different climate zones. Natural ventilation exhibits high energy-saving abilities in climates that have cool nights, whereas its abilities in hot climates where nights are moderate is limited.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Jordânia , Transição de Fase , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360484

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have quantified the association between ambient temperature and diarrhoea. However, to our knowledge, no study has quantified the temperature association for severe diarrhoea cases. In this study, we quantified the association between mean temperature and two severe diarrhoea outcomes, which were mortality and hospital admissions accompanied with dehydration and/or co-morbidities. Using a 12-year dataset of three urban districts of the National Capital Region, Philippines, we modelled the non-linear association between weekly temperatures and weekly severe diarrhoea cases using a two-stage time series analysis. We computed the relative risks at the 95th (30.4 °C) and 5th percentiles (25.8 °C) of temperatures using minimum risk temperatures (MRTs) as the reference to quantify the association with high- and low-temperatures, respectively. The shapes of the cumulative associations were generally J-shaped with greater associations towards high temperatures. Mortality risks were found to increase by 53.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 29.4%; 81.7%)] at 95th percentile of weekly mean temperatures compared with the MRT (28.2 °C). Similarly, the risk of hospitalised severe diarrhoea increased by 27.1% (95% CI: 0.7%; 60.4%) at 95th percentile in mean weekly temperatures compared with the MRT (28.6 °C). With the increased risk of severe diarrhoea cases under high ambient temperature, there may be a need to strengthen primary healthcare services and sustain the improvements made in water, sanitation, and hygiene, particularly in poor communities.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura Alta , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Temperatura
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360903

RESUMO

Despite the fact that many studies have examined the effectiveness of different gaseous postharvest treatments applied at low temperature to maintain table grape quality, the use of ethanol vapor has hardly been investigated. Thus, this work has studied the effectiveness of ethanol vapor-generating sachets in the maintenance of It 681-30 table grape quality, a new cultivar, during storage at low temperature and after the shelf-life period at 20 °C. To this end, various quality assessments have been carried out and the effect of the ethanol treatment on the expression of different genes (phenylpropanoids, transcription factors, PRs, and aquaporins) was determined. The results indicated that the application of ethanol vapor reduced the total decay incidence, weight loss, and the rachis browning index in It 681-30 grapes stored at 0 °C and after the shelf-life period at 20 °C, as compared to non-treated samples. Moreover, the modulation of STS7 and the different PR genes analyzed seems to play a part in the molecular mechanisms activated to cope with fungal attacks during the postharvest of It 681-30 grapes, and particularly during the shelf-life period at 20 °C. Furthermore, the expression of aquaporin transcripts was activated in samples showing higher weight loss. Although further work is needed to elucidate the role of ethanol in table grape quality, the results obtained in this work provide new insight into the transcriptional regulation triggered by ethanol treatment.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Etanol/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gases/farmacologia , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Aquaporinas/genética , Frutas/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Reação de Maillard/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/genética , Volatilização
20.
Lancet ; 398(10301): 685-697, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between high and low temperatures and increases in mortality and morbidity have been previously reported, yet no comprehensive assessment of disease burden has been done. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the global and regional burden due to non-optimal temperature exposure. METHODS: In part 1 of this study, we linked deaths to daily temperature estimates from the ERA5 reanalysis dataset. We modelled the cause-specific relative risks for 176 individual causes of death along daily temperature and 23 mean temperature zones using a two-dimensional spline within a Bayesian meta-regression framework. We then calculated the cause-specific and total temperature-attributable burden for the countries for which daily mortality data were available. In part 2, we applied cause-specific relative risks from part 1 to all locations globally. We combined exposure-response curves with daily gridded temperature and calculated the cause-specific burden based on the underlying burden of disease from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, for the years 1990-2019. Uncertainty from all components of the modelling chain, including risks, temperature exposure, and theoretical minimum risk exposure levels, defined as the temperature of minimum mortality across all included causes, was propagated using posterior simulation of 1000 draws. FINDINGS: We included 64·9 million individual International Classification of Diseases-coded deaths from nine different countries, occurring between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 31, 2016. 17 causes of death met the inclusion criteria. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, lower respiratory infection, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease showed J-shaped relationships with daily temperature, whereas the risk of external causes (eg, homicide, suicide, drowning, and related to disasters, mechanical, transport, and other unintentional injuries) increased monotonically with temperature. The theoretical minimum risk exposure levels varied by location and year as a function of the underlying cause of death composition. Estimates for non-optimal temperature ranged from 7·98 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 7·10-8·85) per 100 000 and a population attributable fraction (PAF) of 1·2% (1·1-1·4) in Brazil to 35·1 deaths (29·9-40·3) per 100 000 and a PAF of 4·7% (4·3-5·1) in China. In 2019, the average cold-attributable mortality exceeded heat-attributable mortality in all countries for which data were available. Cold effects were most pronounced in China with PAFs of 4·3% (3·9-4·7) and attributable rates of 32·0 deaths (27·2-36·8) per 100 000 and in New Zealand with 3·4% (2·9-3·9) and 26·4 deaths (22·1-30·2). Heat effects were most pronounced in China with PAFs of 0·4% (0·3-0·6) and attributable rates of 3·25 deaths (2·39-4·24) per 100 000 and in Brazil with 0·4% (0·3-0·5) and 2·71 deaths (2·15-3·37). When applying our framework to all countries globally, we estimated that 1·69 million (1·52-1·83) deaths were attributable to non-optimal temperature globally in 2019. The highest heat-attributable burdens were observed in south and southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and North Africa and the Middle East, and the highest cold-attributable burdens in eastern and central Europe, and central Asia. INTERPRETATION: Acute heat and cold exposure can increase or decrease the risk of mortality for a diverse set of causes of death. Although in most regions cold effects dominate, locations with high prevailing temperatures can exhibit substantial heat effects far exceeding cold-attributable burden. Particularly, a high burden of external causes of death contributed to strong heat impacts, but cardiorespiratory diseases and metabolic diseases could also be substantial contributors. Changes in both exposures and the composition of causes of death drove changes in risk over time. Steady increases in exposure to the risk of high temperature are of increasing concern for health. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade/tendências , Teorema de Bayes , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia
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