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1.
Indian J Med Ethics ; IX(2): 109-114, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented impact on many sectors globally including research. We assessed the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the research portfolio, and on the approval turnaround time for research protocols submitted to the Scientific and Ethics Review Unit (SERU), at the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI). METHODS: We compared research protocols submitted between October 01, 2019 and March 31, 2020 (Period 1), to those submitted between April 1 and September 30, 2020 (Period 2). A document review tool was used to extract data from the 198 research protocols reviewed and approved over the two periods. RESULTS: In the two periods under review, the single largest percentage of protocols (89/198, 45.4%) involved infectious and parasitic diseases, and the single largest percentage of study designs was cross-sectional (75/198, 38%). Before the pandemic, the median time taken to review KEMRI-linked protocols was 87 days and for non-KEMRI linked protocols it was 121 days. During the pandemic, approval turnaround time dropped for both KEMRI and non-KEMRI protocols to 66 days and 92 days, respectively, due to the streamlined processes at the KEMRI SERU. CONCLUSION: The research portfolio was minimally affected by the pandemic. The adoption of email submission, and faster-than-usual processing and review protocols during the pandemic reduced the approval turnaround time.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , COVID-19 , Pesquisa , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Protocolos Clínicos , Tempo , Quênia , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Psychoanal Q ; 93(2): 249-272, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38814152

RESUMO

An attempt is made to encircle time and the times psychoanalytically. They are understood as the result of the interplay of different psychic systems: Timelessness of the Ucs system (psychic reality), actual time in the Pcpt-Cs (perceptual reality), and vectorial-linear time in the Cs/Pcs systems (reality principle). Time shows itself in the moment of presence, but it can only show itself if there is a temporal antecedent. At the same time, time and space are intertwined, so that the past is initially the place where something happened. However, the interplay of the mental systems with time and space can only develop in the object relationship. A short clinical example of an autistoid perversion illustrates this dynamic.


Assuntos
Teoria Psicanalítica , Humanos , Tempo , Terapia Psicanalítica , Percepção do Tempo , Psicanálise
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8237, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589450

RESUMO

Coffee professionals have long known that the "roast profile," i.e., the temperature versus time inside the roaster, strongly affects the flavor and quality of the coffee. A particularly important attribute of brewed coffee is the perceived sourness, which is known to be strongly correlated to the total titratable acidity (TA). Most prior work has focused on laboratory-scale roasters with little control over the roast profile, so the relationship between roast profile in a commercial-scale roaster and the corresponding development of TA to date remains unclear. Here we investigate roast profiles of the same total duration but very different dynamics inside a 5-kg commercial drum roaster, and we show that the TA invariably peaks during first crack and then decays to its original value by second crack. Although the dynamics of the TA development varied with roast profile, the peak TA surprisingly exhibited almost no statistically significant differences among roast profiles. Our results provide insight on how to manipulate and achieve desired sourness during roasting.


Assuntos
Coffea , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura , Tempo
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 928: 172218, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580109

RESUMO

In natural habitats, especially in arid and semi-arid areas that are fragile ecosystems, vegetation degradation is one of the most important factors affecting the variability of soil health. Studying physicochemical and biological parameters that serve as indicators of soil health offers important information on the potential risk of land degradation and the progression of changes in soil performance and health during recovery periods. This study specifically examines the impact of vegetation degradation on soil health indicators and the duration needed to improve the physical, chemical, and biological parameters in a semi-arid mountainous area site types with the dominance of Quercus macranthera Fisch & C.A. Mey and Carpinus orientalis Miller in northern Iran. In different years (2003, 2013, and 2023), litter and soil samples (at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm) were collected in different types of degraded sites. Additionally, in 2023, a non-degraded site was chosen as a control and similar samples were collected. A total of 48 litter (12 samples for each of the study site types) and 144 soil (4 study site types × 3 depths × 12 samples) samples were collected. In order to investigate the spatial changes of soil basal respiration (or CO2 emission), which is involved in global warming, from each site type, 50 soil samples were taken along two 250-meter transects. The findings showed that litter P and Mg contents in the non-degraded site were 1.6 times higher than in degraded site types (2003). Following vegetation degradation, soil fertility indicators decreased by 2-4 times. The biota population was lower by about 80 % under the degraded site types (2003) than in the non-degraded site, and the density of fungi and bacteria in the degraded site types was almost half that of the non-degraded site types. Geostatistics showed the high variance (linear model) of CO2 emissions in areas without degradation. In addition, vegetation degradation significantly reduced soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Although soil health indicators under the degraded vegetation have improved over time (30 years), results showed that even thirty years is not enough for the full recovery of a degraded ecosystem, and more time is needed for the degraded area to reach the same conditions as the non-degraded site. Considering the time required for natural restoration in degraded site types, it is necessary to prioritize the conservation of vegetation and improve the ecosystem restoration process with adequate interventions.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Florestas , Solo , Solo/química , Clima , Meio Ambiente , Irã (Geográfico) , Quercus , Betulaceae , Tempo , Biota , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
5.
Eye Contact Lens ; 50(6): 259-264, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dry eye is a common condition that can decrease the quality of life. This survey-based study of persons with dry eye investigated self-reported treatments (initial, current), out-of-pocket expenses, time spent on self-management, sources of care, and sources of information about their condition. METHODS: Online dry eye newsletters and support groups were emailed a link to an electronic survey asking members to participate. Survey respondents were not required to answer every question. RESULTS: In total, 639 persons with self-reported dry eye responded (86% women, 14% men [n=623]; mean ± SD age, 55 ± 14 years [n=595]). Artificial tears were the most reported intervention (76% initially, 71% currently). The median (interquartile range) out-of-pocket treatment cost annually was $500 ($200-$1,320 [n=506]). In addition, 55% (n=544) estimated 5 to 20 min daily on self-management; 22% spent an hour or more. Ophthalmologists provided most dry eye care (67%, n=520). Only 48% (n=524) reported that their primary source of dry eye information came from their eye care clinician. CONCLUSIONS: Artificial tears are the primary treatment for dry eye. Ophthalmologists provide most dry eye care, but half of patients report that their eye care provider is not their primary source of information. Almost one fourth of patients spend an hour or more daily on treatments.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Síndromes do Olho Seco/economia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/prevenção & controle , Síndromes do Olho Seco/terapia , Fonte de Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Lubrificantes Oftálmicos/economia , Lubrificantes Oftálmicos/uso terapêutico , Oftalmologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Autogestão/economia , Autogestão/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tempo , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
8.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 188: 43-54, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447710

RESUMO

The emergence, evolution, and spread of life on Earth have all occurred in the geomagnetic field, and its extensive biological effects on living organisms have been documented. The charged characteristics of metal ions in biological fluids determine that they are affected by electromagnetic field forces, thus affecting life activities. Iron metabolism, as one of the important metal metabolic pathways, keeps iron absorption and excretion in a relatively balanced state, and this process is precisely and completely controlled. It is worth paying attention to how the iron metabolism process of living organisms is changed when exposed to electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the processes of iron absorption, storage and excretion in animals (mammals, fish, arthropods), plants and microorganisms exposed to electromagnetic field were summarized in detail as far as possible, in order to discover the regulation of iron metabolism by electromagnetic field. Studies and data on the effects of electromagnetic field exposure on iron metabolism in organisms show that exposure profiles vary widely across species and cell lines. This process involves a variety of factors, and the complexity of the results is not only related to the magnetic flux density/operating frequency/exposure time and the heterogeneity of the observed object. A systematic review of the biological regulation of iron metabolism by electromagnetic field exposure will not only contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of its biological effects and mechanism, but also is necessary to improve human awareness of the health related risks of electromagnetic field exposure.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos , Mamíferos , Humanos , Animais , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Tempo , Ferro/metabolismo
9.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 45(4): 379-385, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of MR imaging in emergency settings has been limited by availability, long scan times, and sensitivity to motion. This study assessed the diagnostic performance of an ultrafast brain MR imaging protocol for evaluation of acute intracranial pathology in the emergency department and inpatient settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-six adult patients who underwent brain MR imaging in the emergency department and inpatient settings were included in the study. All patients underwent both the reference and the ultrafast brain MR protocols. Both brain MR imaging protocols consisted of T1-weighted, T2/T2*-weighted, FLAIR, and DWI sequences. The ultrafast MR images were reconstructed by using a machine-learning assisted framework. All images were reviewed by 2 blinded neuroradiologists. RESULTS: The average acquisition time was 2.1 minutes for the ultrafast brain MR protocol and 10 minutes for the reference brain MR protocol. There was 98.5% agreement on the main clinical diagnosis between the 2 protocols. In head-to-head comparison, the reference protocol was preferred in terms of image noise and geometric distortion (P < .05 for both). The ultrafast ms-EPI protocol was preferred over the reference protocol in terms of reduced motion artifacts (P < .01). Overall diagnostic quality was not significantly different between the 2 protocols (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: The ultrafast brain MR imaging protocol provides high accuracy for evaluating acute pathology while only requiring a fraction of the scan time. Although there was greater image noise and geometric distortion on the ultrafast brain MR protocol images, there was significant reduction in motion artifacts with similar overall diagnostic quality between the 2 protocols.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Pacientes Internados , Adulto , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/patologia , Tempo
10.
Urogynecology (Phila) ; 30(3): 314-319, 2024 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484248

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: No-show appointments, or scheduled appointments that patients do not attend without giving notice of cancellation, are a prevalent problem in the outpatient setting. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the proportion of patients by decades of life who "no-show" to their urogynecology appointments. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort included women 20 years and older who did not show to their urogynecologic clinical encounters at an academic practice between January 1, 2022, and December 31, 2022. Demographics and visit history were recorded. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients by decade of age who were a "no-show" to their appointments. All decades were compared with women in their 70s, the decade with the most patients seen. Secondary outcomes included descriptive data of patients. Descriptive statistics and χ2 analyses were used. RESULTS: The cohort of 450 no-show encounters (composed of 391 patients), out of 6729 encounters, demonstrated an overall no-show rate of 6.7%. Baseline demographics of "no-show" patients were 67.3% White and 27.4% Black. The odds of women in their 20s-50s who no-show was 2-3 times higher than women in their 70s (P < 0.01). The highest no-show rates occurred in 20s (12.6%) and 40s (11.8%). Forty-six patients missed multiple appointments. The odds of a Black patient having multiple no-shows was 3.15 times higher than the odds of a White patient. CONCLUSIONS: No-show rates are low in this urogynecology practice. Younger women are more likely to no-show. This knowledge can facilitate potential double bookings necessary for urgent appointments and to maximize resource utilization.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Pacientes não Comparecentes , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Tempo
11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 23(1): 110, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reduction of myocardial infarction (MI) and narrowing the gap between the populations with and without diabetes are important goals of diabetes care. We analyzed time trends for sex-specific incidence rates (IR) of first MI (both non-fatal MI and fatal MI) as well as separately for first non-fatal MI and fatal MI in the population with and without diabetes. METHODS: Using data from the KORA myocardial infarction registry (Augsburg, Germany), we estimated age-adjusted IR in people with and without diabetes, corresponding relative risks (RR), and time trends from 1985 to 2016 using Poisson regression. RESULTS: There were 19,683 people with first MI (34% fatal MI, 71% men, 30% with diabetes) between 1985 and 2016. In the entire study population, the IR of first MI decreased from 359 (95% CI: 345-374) to 236 (226-245) per 100,000 person years. In men with diabetes, IR decreased only in 2013-2016. This was due to first non-fatal MI, where IR in men with diabetes increased until 2009-2012, and slightly decreased in 2013-2016. Overall, fatal MI declined stronger than first non-fatal MI corresponding to IRs. The RR of first MI substantially increased among men from 1.40 (1.22-1.61) in 1985-1988 to 2.60 (2.26-2.99) in 1997-2000 and moderately decreased in 2013-2016: RR: 1.75 (1.47-2.09). Among women no consistent time trend for RR was observed. Time trends for RR were similar regarding first non-fatal MI and fatal MI. CONCLUSIONS: Over the study period, we found a decreased incidence of first MI and fatal MI in the entire study population. The initial increase of first non-fatal MI in men with diabetes needs further research. The gap between populations with and without diabetes remained.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Infarto do Miocárdio , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Incidência , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Risco , Tempo , Fatores de Risco
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(12): e2311077121, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470923

RESUMO

The memory benefit that arises from distributing learning over time rather than in consecutive sessions is one of the most robust effects in cognitive psychology. While prior work has mainly focused on repeated exposures to the same information, in the real world, mnemonic content is dynamic, with some pieces of information staying stable while others vary. Thus, open questions remain about the efficacy of the spacing effect in the face of variability in the mnemonic content. Here, in two experiments, we investigated the contributions of mnemonic variability and the timescale of spacing intervals, ranging from seconds to days, to long-term memory. For item memory, both mnemonic variability and spacing intervals were beneficial for memory; however, mnemonic variability was greater at shorter spacing intervals. In contrast, for associative memory, repetition rather than mnemonic variability was beneficial for memory, and spacing benefits only emerged in the absence of mnemonic variability. These results highlight a critical role for mnemonic variability and the timescale of spacing intervals in the spacing effect, bringing this classic memory paradigm into more ecologically valid contexts.


Assuntos
Memória , Rememoração Mental , Aprendizagem , Memória de Longo Prazo , Tempo
13.
Phys Med Biol ; 69(8)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479022

RESUMO

Objective.Multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MC MRI) can obtain more comprehensive anatomical information of the same scanning object but requires a longer acquisition time than single-contrast MRI. To accelerate MC MRI speed, recent studies only collect partial k-space data of one modality (target contrast) to reconstruct the remaining non-sampled measurements using a deep learning-based model with the assistance of another fully sampled modality (reference contrast). However, MC MRI reconstruction mainly performs the image domain reconstruction with conventional CNN-based structures by full supervision. It ignores the prior information from reference contrast images in other sparse domains and requires fully sampled target contrast data. In addition, because of the limited receptive field, conventional CNN-based networks are difficult to build a high-quality non-local dependency.Approach.In the paper, we propose an Image-Wavelet domain ConvNeXt-based network (IWNeXt) for self-supervised MC MRI reconstruction. Firstly, INeXt and WNeXt based on ConvNeXt reconstruct undersampled target contrast data in the image domain and refine the initial reconstructed result in the wavelet domain respectively. To generate more tissue details in the refinement stage, reference contrast wavelet sub-bands are used as additional supplementary information for wavelet domain reconstruction. Then we design a novel attention ConvNeXt block for feature extraction, which can capture the non-local information of the MC image. Finally, the cross-domain consistency loss is designed for self-supervised learning. Especially, the frequency domain consistency loss deduces the non-sampled data, while the image and wavelet domain consistency loss retain more high-frequency information in the final reconstruction.Main results.Numerous experiments are conducted on the HCP dataset and the M4Raw dataset with different sampling trajectories. Compared with DuDoRNet, our model improves by 1.651 dB in the peak signal-to-noise ratio.Significance.IWNeXt is a potential cross-domain method that can enhance the accuracy of MC MRI reconstruction and reduce reliance on fully sampled target contrast images.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tempo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Razão Sinal-Ruído
14.
Eur J Radiol ; 173: 111381, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428253

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine how much timesaving and reduction of interruptions reading room assistants can provide by taking over non-image interpretation tasks (NITs) from radiology residents during on-call hours. METHODS: Reading room assistants are medical students who were trained to take over NITs from radiology residents (e.g. answering telephone calls, administrative tasks and logistics) to reduce residents' workload during on-call hours. Reading room assistants' and residents' activities were tracked during 6 weekend dayshifts in a tertiary care academic center (with more than 2.5 million inhabitants in its catchment area) between 10 a.m. and 5p.m. (7-hour shift, 420 min), and time spent on each activity was recorded. RESULTS: Reading room assistants spent the most time on the following timesaving activities for residents: answering incoming (41 min, 19%) and outgoing telephone calls (35 min, 16%), ultrasound machine related activities (19 min, 9%) and paramedical assistance such as supporting residents during ultrasound guided procedures and with patients (17 min, 8%). Reading room assistants saved 132 min of residents' time by taking over NITs while also spending circa 31 min consulting the resident, resulting in a net timesaving of 101 min (24%) during a 7-hour shift. The reading room assistants also prevented residents from being interrupted, at a mean of 18 times during the 7-hour shift. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the implementation of reading room assistants to radiology on-call hours could provide a timesaving for residents and also reduce the number of times residents are being interrupted during their work.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Radiologia , Humanos , Carga de Trabalho , Radiologia/educação , Radiografia , Tempo
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5604, 2024 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453950

RESUMO

Control charts are a statistical approach for monitoring cancer data that can assist discover patterns, trends, and unusual deviations in cancer-related data across time. To detect deviations from predicted patterns, control charts are extensively used in quality control and process management. Control charts may be used to track numerous parameters in cancer data, such as incidence rates, death rates, survival time, recovery time, and other related indicators. In this study, CDEC chart is proposed to monitor the cancer patients recovery time censored data. This paper presents a composite dual exponentially weighted moving average Cumulative sum (CDEC) control chart for monitoring cancer patients recovery time censored data. This approach seeks to detect changes in the mean recovery time of cancer patients which usually follows Weibull lifetimes. The results are calculated using type I censored data under known and estimated parameter conditions. We combine the conditional expected value (CEV) and conditional median (CM) approaches, which are extensively used in statistical analysis to determine the central tendency of a dataset, to create an efficient control chart. The suggested chart's performance is assessed using the average run length (ARL), which evaluates how efficiently the chart can detect a change in the process mean. The CDEC chart is compared to existing control charts. A simulation study and a real-world data set related to cancer patients recovery time censored data is used for results illustration. The proposed CDEC control chart is developed for the data monitoring when complete information about the patients are not available. So, instead of doping the patients information we can used the proposed chart to monitor the patients information even if it is censored. The authors conclude that the suggested CDEC chart is more efficient than competitor control charts for monitoring cancer patients recovery time censored data. Overall, this study introduces an efficient new approach for cancer patients recovery time censored data, which might have significant effect on quality control and process improvement across a wide range of healthcare and medical studies.


Assuntos
Ditiocarb/análogos & derivados , Instalações de Saúde , Neoplasias , Humanos , Simulação por Computador , Tempo , Controle de Qualidade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
16.
Trials ; 25(1): 175, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The demand for plasma products is growing, necessitating an increase in plasma collection by plasmapheresis. While the 20th edition of the European Guidelines permits plasma donors in Europe to donate with 96-h donation intervals, the potential short- and long-term consequences of high-frequency plasma donations on donor health remain unknown. This study aims to measure the effect of plasma donation frequency on plasma protein composition, including total serum protein (TSP) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), in Norwegian male blood donors. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) included 120 male blood donors who were randomized into two intervention groups and one control group: high-frequency plasma donors (HFPDs) who donated 650 mL of plasma 3 times every 2 weeks, whereas regular-frequency plasma donors (RFPDs) who donated 650 mL of plasma 1 time every 2 weeks. The control group consisted of whole blood donors. The primary outcomes are the concentrations of TSP and IgG. DISCUSSION: The findings from this study may have implications for recommendations related to donor health and plasma donation frequencies and may contribute to supporting the strategic independence of plasma products in Norway and Europe without compromising donor health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT05179200 . Registered December 20th, 2021.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Plasmaferese , Masculino , Humanos , Plasmaferese/métodos , Imunoglobulina G , Tempo , Europa (Continente) , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7004, 2024 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38523154

RESUMO

Traditional survey methods can provide noisy data arising from recall, memory and other biases. Technological advances (particularly in neuroscience) are opening new ways of monitoring physiological processes through non-intrusive means. Such dense continuous data provide new and fruitful avenues for complementing self-reported data with a better understanding of human dynamics and human interactions. In this study, we use a survey to collect positive affect (feelings) data from more than 300 individuals over a period of 24 h, and at the same time, map their core activities (5000 recorded activities in total) with measurements of their heart rate variability (HRV). Our results indicate a robust correlation between the HRV measurements and self-reported affect. By drawing on the neuroscience and wellbeing literature we show that dynamic HRV results are what we expect for positive affect, particularly when performing activities like sleep, travel, work, exercise and eating. This research provides new insights into how to collect HRV data, model and interpret it.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Sono , Humanos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Tempo
18.
Cogn Sci ; 48(3): e13425, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500335

RESUMO

Temporal perspectives allow us to place ourselves and temporal events on a timeline, making it easier to conceptualize time. This study investigates how we take different temporal perspectives in our temporal gestures. We asked participants (n = 36) to retell temporal scenarios written in the Moving-Ego, Moving-Time, and Time-Reference-Point perspectives in spontaneous and encouraged gesture conditions. Participants took temporal perspectives mostly in similar ways regardless of the gesture condition. Perspective comparisons showed that temporal gestures of our participants resonated better with the Ego- (i.e., Moving-Ego and Moving-Time) versus Time-Reference-Point distinction instead of the classical Moving-Ego versus Moving-Time contrast. Specifically, participants mostly produced more Moving-Ego and Time-Reference-Point gestures for the corresponding scenarios and speech; however, the Moving-Time perspective was not adopted more than the others in any condition. Similarly, the Moving-Time gestures did not favor an axis over the others, whereas Moving-Ego gestures were mostly sagittal and Time-Reference-Point gestures were mostly lateral. These findings suggest that we incorporate temporal perspectives into our temporal gestures to a considerable extent; however, the classical Moving-Ego and Moving-Time classification may not hold for temporal gestures.


Assuntos
Gestos , Percepção do Tempo , Humanos , Fala , Tempo
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(3)2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541244

RESUMO

Anti-reflux surgery (ARS) is an efficient treatment option for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Despite growing evidence of the efficacy and safety of ARS, medications including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remain the most commonly administered treatments for GERD. Meanwhile, ARS can be an effective treatment option for patients who need medications continuously or for those who are refractory to PPI treatment, if proper candidates are selected. However, in practice, ARS is often regarded as a last resort for patients who are unresponsive to PPIs. Accumulating ARS-related studies indicate that surgery is equivalent to or better than medical treatment for controlling typical and atypical GERD symptoms. Furthermore, because of overall reduced medication expenses, ARS may be more cost-effective than PPI. Patients are selected for ARS based on endoscopic findings, esophageal acid exposure time, and PPI responsiveness. Although there is limited evidence, ARS may be expanded to include patients with normal acid exposure, such as those with reflux hypersensitivity. Additionally, other factors such as age, body mass index, and comorbidities are known to affect ARS outcomes; and such factors should be considered. Nissen fundoplication or partial fundoplication including Dor fundoplication and Toupet fundoplication can be chosen, depending on whether the patient prioritizes symptom improvement or minimizing postoperative symptoms such as dysphagia. Furthermore, efforts to reduce and manage postoperative complications and create awareness of the long-term efficacy and safety of the ARS are recommended, as well as adequate training programs for new surgeons.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Laparoscopia , Humanos , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/cirurgia , Fundoplicatura , Resultado do Tratamento , Tempo
20.
Environ Pollut ; 347: 123763, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492749

RESUMO

The retention time (RT) of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is crucial for database matching in non-targeted screening (NTS) analysis. In this study, we developed a machine learning (ML) model to predict RTs of CECs in NTS analysis. Using 1051 CEC standards, we evaluated Random Forest (RF), XGBoost, Support Vector Regression (SVR), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with molecular fingerprints and chemical descriptors to establish an optimal model. The SVR model utilizing chemical descriptors resulted in good predictive capacity with R2ext = 0.850 and r2 = 0.925. The model was further validated through laboratory NTS compound characterization. When applied to examine CEC occurrence in a large wastewater treatment plant, we identified 40 level S1 CECs (confirmed structure by reference standard) and 234 level S2 compounds (probable structure by library spectrum match). The model predicted RTs for level S2 compounds, leading to the classification of 153 level S2 compounds with high confidence (ΔRT <2 min). The model served as a robust filtering mechanism within the analytical framework. This study emphasizes the importance of predicted RTs in NTS analysis and highlights the potential of prediction models. Our research introduces a workflow that enhances NTS analysis by utilizing RT prediction models to determine compound confidence levels.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Tempo
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