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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18486, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895781

RESUMO

We have been examining the Comprehensive Health Check of the Fukushima Health Management Survey of residents of 13 municipalities who were forced by the government to evacuate due to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE). Our findings showed that evacuation is a risk factor for polycythemia and suggested that experiencing an unprecedented disaster and exposure to chronic stress due to evacuation might be a cause of polycythemia.We analyzed the relationship between the prevalence of polycythemia and the following factors observed in the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey in an observational study with a cross-sectional design: traumatic symptoms, depression status, socioeconomic factors such as residential environment, and working situation after the GEJE. Target population of the survey included men and women who were at least 15 years of age and who lived in the evacuation zones specified by the government. Participants analyzed consisted of 29,474 persons (12,379 men and 16,888 women) who had participated in both the 2011 Comprehensive Health Check and Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey from June 2011 through March 2012.The prevalence of polycythemia was not associated with mental states associated with traumatic symptoms (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Scale ≥ 44) and depression status (Kessler 6-item Scale ≥ 13). Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that there was a tendency for males to develop polycythemia, with characteristics such as being aged 65 years and older, highly educated, obese (body mass index ≥ 25), hypertensive, diabetic, having liver dysfunction, and a smoker being significantly related to the prevalence of polycythemia.Our findings conclusively demonstrated that polycythemia was not significantly related to psychological factors, but was significantly related to the onset of lifestyle-related disease after the GEJE.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Policitemia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causalidade , Comorbidade , Terremotos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Policitemia/etiologia , Policitemia/psicologia , Prevalência , Tsunamis , Adulto Jovem
2.
Disasters ; 44(1): 3-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231813

RESUMO

There is an assumption that with the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Second World ceased to exist. Yet the demise of the Communist bloc as a geopolitical reality did not mean that it stopped exerting a defining influence over how people think and behave. This article examines how the postsocialist state in Kazakhstan deals with potential crises such as earthquakes and the extent to which the Soviet legacy still shapes intellectual debates, state structures, and civil society organisations in in that country. Drawing on fieldwork and interviews, this paper re-examines the Second World in its historical context and re-establishes it as a conceptual framework for considering disaster risk reduction in the former Soviet bloc. It argues that it is essential to pay attention to this legacy in Kazakhstan both in policy and practice if earthquake risk reduction is to be made more effective.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Socialismo , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Políticas
3.
Disasters ; 44(1): 179-204, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231847

RESUMO

New Zealand introduced a seismic retrofitting policy in the wake of the catastrophic Canterbury earthquakes of 2010-11. The aim was to enforce seismic strengthening of earthquake-prone commercial buildings throughout the country. This study focuses on regional urban centres and the economic obstacles to strengthening their aging building stock. In investigating one town, Whanganui, we describe conditions, analyse cases, and identify incentives that apply equally to many other towns in New Zealand. We argue that incentives that suit high-growth, high-value major urban centres are a poor fit for the periphery. Around the world, many places need to upgrade their privately-owned building stock to protect it from disasters, while governments face similar challenges as they struggle to initiate the strengthening of commercial buildings. We analyse the current incentive schemes that aim to support the achievement of policy goals and suggest alternative incentive schemes that can be implemented to improve strengthening outcomes.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Terremotos , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Políticas , Cidades , Humanos , Nova Zelândia
4.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(2): 111-119, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779739

RESUMO

Responding to a major disaster requires coordination and communication across all critical infrastructure sectors, including emergency management and drinking water and wastewater. This paper describes how in planning for an earthquake in the Cascadia Subduction Zone, the various bureaus in the City of Portland developed robust relationships by participating in joint exercises and events, coordinating on damage assessments and collaborating on planning efforts. The paper also describes the various tools and resources provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency to help water utilities and emergency management agencies to strengthen their relationships.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Água Potável , Terremotos , Águas Residuárias
5.
Int Heart J ; 60(6): 1253-1258, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666454

RESUMO

On March 11, 2011, a great earthquake, known as the Great East Japan Earthquake, hit northeastern Japan, resulting in a tsunami that caused a nuclear disaster, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, forcing about 160,000 people to evacuate. We, therefore, sought to examine the effects of this evacuation on the onset of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death (SD) in Fukushima Prefecture, three years after the earthquake. We divided the evacuation zone into two areas, whole evacuation zone (Area 1) and partial evacuation zone (Area 2), and we defined the north district of the prefecture as the control area (Area 3). We cross-referenced the death certificate data with data from the Fukushima Prefecture acute myocardial infarction registration survey. For each area, we tallied the number of people who fell into the SD, myocardial infarction (MI), and MI suspected groups. We calculated the age-adjusted incidence rates and analyzed the differences in the adjusted incidence rates across three years using a Poisson regression model. The age-adjusted death rate of the SD group was significantly higher in 2011 in all areas than in 2012 or 2013 (P < 0.05). The total death rate was higher in Area 1 in March 2011, just after the disaster, than in the other two areas. The rate of SD was also higher in Area 1 than in the other areas in March 2011. The incidence of sudden cardiac death might have increased just after the Great East Japan Earthquake in the evacuation area, but not in other areas in Fukushima Prefecture.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita/epidemiologia , Terremotos , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Tsunamis , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 81-87, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590837

RESUMO

In the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and accompanying tsunami struck the Tohoku region of Japan. The tsunami washed away old equipment containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) stored in the region's factories, and these PCBs may have leaked out of their casings into the marine environment. In this study, we evaluate marine PCB contamination by comparing mussels collected before (in 2005) and after (June 2011) the tsunami. PCB contamination levels were significantly elevated in mussel samples collected after the tsunami in June 2011 (3 months after the tsunami). This indicates that PCBs (specifically, formulation KC-400) leaked out of old equipment swept away by the tsunami and accumulated in mussels. PCBs were estimated to have an environmental half-life (EHL) in mussels of 4 months. Our results show that an earthquake and subsequent tsunami can cause elevated PCB contamination in the marine environment.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Terremotos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Tsunamis , Animais , Japão , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 103-111, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564737

RESUMO

Supplying safe livestock products made from healthy animals is the primary purpose of the agriculture industry, making it essential to include agriculture in the One Health approach to disaster preparedness and response. After the Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011, and the following crisis at the Fukushima Nuclear Complex, producing and supplying safe livestock products became a challenging issue, because the area was highly polluted with radiation leaks from the nuclear plants. To produce livestock products that satisfied the safety standards for radioactive materials in food for humans, it was necessary to create feeding management guidelines and set standard limits for radioactive materials in animal feeds. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) established provisional maximum limits on radioactive caesium in feeds in order to secure safe food for the nation. Furthermore, there were other issues that Japan's livestock industry had to tackle. The authors outline key measures taken by the Livestock Industry Department of the MAFF to reconstruct the livestock industry, which was a small but important part of the whole reconstruction plan. They also discuss the measures implemented to protect companion animals.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Gado , Saúde Única , Agricultura , Animais , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Humanos , Japão
8.
Nature ; 574(7777): 185-186, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597969

Assuntos
Desastres , Terremotos
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 333-336, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544421

RESUMO

Earthquake is a serious natural disaster. The earthquake that occurs in schistosomiasis-endemic areas not only causes direct human and economic losses, but also induces secondary disasters that greatly threaten public health safety in affected areas. This paper analyzed the impact of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and 2013 Lushan Earthquake on schistosomiasis transmission in Sichuan Province, and proposed emergency measures and assessment activitiesresponding to schistosomiasis following earthquake disasters. The experiences from schistosomiasis control after two earthquake disasters in Sichuan Province may provide insights into the emergency control in other regions or after other natural disasters.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Saúde Pública , Esquistossomose , China , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose/transmissão
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509982

RESUMO

Severe natural disasters and related secondary disasters are a huge menace to society. Currently, it is difficult to identify risk formation mechanisms and quantitatively evaluate the risks associated with disaster chains; thus, there is a need to further develop relevant risk assessment methods. In this research, we propose an earthquake disaster chain risk evaluation method that couples Bayesian network and Newmark models that are based on natural hazard risk formation theory with the aim of identifying the influence of earthquake disaster chains. This new method effectively considers two risk elements: hazard and vulnerability, and hazard analysis, which includes chain probability analysis and hazard intensity analysis. The chain probability of adjacent disasters was obtained from the Bayesian network model, and the permanent displacement that was applied to represent the potential hazard intensity was calculated by the Newmark model. To validate the method, the Changbai Mountain volcano earthquake-collapse-landslide disaster chain was selected as a case study. The risk assessment results showed that the high-and medium-risk zones were predominantly located within a 10 km radius of Tianchi, and that other regions within the study area were mainly associated with very low-to low-risk values. The verified results of the reported method showed that the area of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.817, which indicates that the method is very effective for earthquake disaster chain risk recognition and assessment.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Modelos Teóricos , Teorema de Bayes , Deslizamentos de Terra , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514264

RESUMO

Sichuan is a province in Southwest China that is famous worldwide for its earthquakes. However, few quantitative studies in China have probed the correlations between rural households' financial preparation, disaster experience, and disaster-risk perception. Using survey data of 327 rural households from four areas stricken by the Wenchuan Earthquake and Lushan Earthquake in Sichuan, the ordinary least square (OLS) method was used to quantitatively explore the correlations between these three factors. The results show that rural households' total family cash income, asset diversity, and whether rural households can borrow money from relatives and friends whenever there is a catastrophe such as an earthquake are significantly negatively correlated with the probability of disaster occurrence. Asset diversity and whether rural households can borrow money from banks whenever there is a catastrophe such as an earthquake are significantly positively related to the severity of disaster occurrence. The severity of residents' disaster experience is not significantly correlated with the probability of disaster occurrence, but is significantly positively related to the severity of the disaster. The research results can provide useful enlightenment for the improvement of financial preparedness and disaster risk management for rural households in earthquake-stricken areas.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/economia , Terremotos/economia , Percepção , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Planejamento em Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Desastres , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487834

RESUMO

Media exposure during a traumatic event has been found to be associated with negative psychological consequences. However, the post-disaster role of the mass media and the possible positive psychological consequences of media exposure has received less attention. In the present study, we hypothesized that exposure to memorial media reports would lead to improved post-traumatic growth (PTG). Further, we evaluated the moderating role of self-esteem and long-term post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the relationship between media exposure and PTG. Using a cross-sectional design, we surveyed individuals (N = 1000, mean age = 45.62, 43.5% male) who were recruited from disaster-affected communities ten years after the 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake which was the largest country-level trauma in the past three decades. Results revealed that individuals with lower self-esteem or lower PTSD symptoms would have higher psychological growth with greater exposure to memorial news reports. For individuals who reported having both high levels of self-esteem and PTSD symptoms, the relationship between media exposure and PTG was negative. These findings help present trauma in a new light, particularly regarding the rapid and instantaneous new coverage of the digital age. This study also has multi-disciplinary, cross-cultural, and clinical implications for the fields of psychology, public health, and communications.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Autoimagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adulto , China , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Nature ; 573(7772): 42-43, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485064

Assuntos
Terremotos
15.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 248(4): 239-252, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406089

RESUMO

Many studies have consistently reported the bidirectional relationship between problem drinking and psychological distress following a disaster, but the risk factors of problem drinking following a disaster remain unclear. In this study, we therefore aimed to explore the risk factors associated with the incidence of problem drinking among evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. We used the data for evacuees of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, obtained from the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey. A total of 12,490 individuals from 13 municipalities, which included the evacuation order areas after the accident, completed surveys between 2012 and 2013. The CAGE (Cutting down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty feeling, and Eye-opener) questionnaire was used to screen the participants for alcohol dependence, and a score ≥ 2 indicated problem drinking. Logistic regression models were applied to investigate the possible predictors of problem drinking. The results showed that insufficient sleep and heavy drinking (≥ 4 drinks per day) were significant risk factors for the incidence of problem drinking in both men and women. Additional risk factors included family financial issues due to the disaster and trauma symptoms among men and a diagnosed history of mental illness among women. Other remaining variables were not significantly associated with problem drinking. The present study is the first to identify the risk factors for problem drinking following a compound disaster. Our findings could be used to develop a primary intervention program to improve evacuees' health and lives following a disaster.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Terremotos , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370366

RESUMO

The social network has emerged as an essential component in group decision making (GDM) problems. Thus, this paper investigates the social network GDM (SNGDM) problem and assumes that decision makers offer their preferences utilizing additive preference relations (also called fuzzy preference relations). An optimization-based approach is devised to generate the weights of decision makers by combining two reliable resources: in-degree centrality indexes and consistency indexes. Based on the obtained weights of decision makers, the individual additive preference relations are aggregated into a collective additive preference relation. Further, the alternatives are ranked from best to worst according to the obtained collective additive preference relation. Moreover, earthquakes have occurred frequently around the world in recent years, causing great loss of life and property. Earthquake shelters offer safety, security, climate protection, and resistance to disease and ill health and are thus vital for disaster-affected people. Selection of a suitable site for locating shelters from potential alternatives is of critical importance, which can be seen as a GDM problem. When selecting a suitable earthquake shelter-site, the social trust relationships among disaster management experts should not be ignored. To this end, the proposed SNGDM model is applied to evaluate and select earthquake shelter-sites to show its effectiveness. In summary, this paper constructs a novel GDM framework by taking the social trust relationship into account, which can provide a scientific basis for public emergency management in the major disasters field.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Planejamento em Desastres , Terremotos , Abrigo de Emergência , Processos Grupais , Rede Social , Consenso , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Abrigo de Emergência/métodos , Abrigo de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Confiança
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nepal was hit by two devastating earthquakes in 2015 that disrupted its socio-economic system and shattered many lives, resulting in increased mental health issues during the post-earthquake phase. Disasters can have severe mental health impacts on the affected population, making it necessary to enhance resilience within communities and to help them to adapt well in the face of adversities. From these earthquakes, this study looks to identify measures needed to develop community mental resilience for disaster preparedness in Nepal. METHOD: We conducted this research using the qualitative case study method and thematic analysis (TA). RESULT: Several activities were carried out by organizations to support the psycho-social aspects of communities, but were challenged by existing barriers. After considering the present context, this study presents five recommendations for mental resilience and also suggests the utilization of existing resources, such as faith-based organizations and teachers in the communities. Despite the considerable impact, communities demonstrate their own resilience, to some extent, through the culture of sharing and helping each other. CONCLUSIONS: A firm commitment is required from the government to enhance resilience by mainstreaming mental health in all areas of disaster management and planning.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Resiliência Psicológica , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Nepal/epidemiologia
18.
Science ; 365(6455): 750-751, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439780

Assuntos
Terremotos , Japão
20.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(1): 32-39, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462361

RESUMO

This case study describes how New Zealand's Parliamentary Counsel Office (PCO) continued to operate at a predefined level under difficult circumstances in 2016, following a major earthquake. It shows how a large seismic event in one part of New Zealand physically impacted its capital city, Wellington, located on another island. Operating from one of the safest and most secure buildings in Wellington, the PCO was completing extensive renovations at the time of the earthquake. Although this raised the disruption level up several notches, it could not be allowed to affect the service it provided to the government. The PCO was flexible in finding solutions to problems created by not having full access to its usual resources for over a week. The technology performed as it should, and key staff across the organisation knew what needed to be done and when it had to be done, with or without reference to the business continuity plans. Despite a successful outcome, certain issues were identified post-incident that needed working on. These issues related to communication between those managing the incident. The lesson here was to make way for people as well as procedure by having (and using) a suitable and robust communications plan. Loss of resources was exacerbated because of the event's timing. Through goodwill and a bit of luck, the PCO was provided with crucial resources by two nearby government entities.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Terremotos , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Organizações
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