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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100497], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231871

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the eye defocus curves (DCs) obtained with stimuli on red, green, and white backgrounds and to investigate the applicability of the duochrome test (DT) in different age groups. Methods: 12 elderly (ELD: 59.3 ± 3.9 years) and 8 young (YG: 22.1 ± 1.1 years) subjects were recruited. An optometric assessment with the DT was carried out to obtain the subjective refraction at distance. DCs at distance on green, white, and red backgrounds were measured and the following parameters were deduced: dioptric difference between red-green, green-white, red-white focal positions (minima of the DCs), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and widths of the DCs for red, green, and white. Results: The DC difference between the green-white focal positions (mean ± standard deviation) was -0.12±0.17 diopters (D) (ELD, p = 0.012) and -0.11±0.12 D (YG, p = 0.039), while the red-white difference was not statistically significant. The DC red-green difference was 0.20±0.16 D (ELD, p = 0.002) and 0.18±0.18 D (YG, p = 0.008). The ELD BCVA with green background was significantly worse than BCVA with red (p = 0.007) and white (p = 0.007). The mean value of the DC's width in ELD for green (1.01±0.36 D) was higher than for red (0.77±0.21 D) and for white (0.84±0.35 D), but with no statistical significance. Conclusion: Both age groups showed a slight focusing preference for red when using white light. Moreover, ELD showed a worse BCVA with a green compared to a red background. Despite these results deduced by DC analyses, these aspects do not compromise the possibility of using the DT in clinical practice both in the young and in the elderly. Furthermore, the difference of about 0.20 D between red-green DC in both groups confirms the clinical appropriateness of the widespread use of 0.25 D step as the standard minimum difference in power between correcting lenses.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Visão Ocular , Acuidade Visual , Fundo de Olho , Lentes de Contato , Testes Visuais
2.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100510], jul.-sept2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231872

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the association between visual symptoms and use of digital devices considering the presence of visual dysfunctions. Methods: An optometric examination was conducted in a clinical sample of 346 patients to diagnose any type of visual anomaly. Visual symptoms were collected using the validated SQVD questionnaire. A threshold of 6 hours per day was used to quantify the effects of digital device usage and patients were divided into two groups: under and above of 35 years old. A multivariate logistic regression was employed to investigate the association between digital device use and symptoms, with visual dysfunctions considered as a confounding variable. Crude and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) were calculated for each variable. Results: 57.02 % of the subjects reported visual symptoms, and 65.02% exhibited some form of visual dysfunction. For patients under 35 years old, an association was found between having visual symptoms and digital device use (OR = 2.10, p = 0.01). However, after adjusting for visual dysfunctions, this association disappeared (OR = 1.44, p = 0.27) and the association was instead between symptoms and refractive dysfunction (OR = 6.52, p < 0.001), accommodative (OR = 10.47, p < 0.001), binocular (OR = 6.68, p < 0.001) and accommodative plus binocular dysfunctions (OR = 46.84, p < 0.001). Among patients over 35 years old, no association was found between symptoms and the use of digital devices (OR = 1.27, p = 0.49) but there was an association between symptoms and refractive dysfunction (OR = 3.54, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Visual symptoms are not dependent on the duration of digital device use but rather on the presence of any type of visual dysfunction: refractive, accommodative and/or binocular one, which should be diagnosed.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais , Campos Visuais , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual , Visão Binocular , Inquéritos e Questionários , Optometria
3.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100491], jul.-sept2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231873

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The invention described herein is a prototype based on computer vision technology that measures depth perception and is intended for the early examination of stereopsis. Materials and methods: The prototype (software and hardware) is a depth perception measurement system that consists on: (a) a screen showing stereoscopic models with a guide point that the subject must point to; (b) a camera capturing the distance between the screen and the subject's finger; and (c) a unit for recording, processing and storing the captured measurements. For test validation, the reproducibility and reliability of the platform were calculated by comparing results with standard stereoscopic tests. A demographic study of depth perception by subgroup analysis is shown. Subjective comparison of the different tests was carried out by means of a satisfaction survey. Results: We included 94 subjects, 25 children and 69 adults, with a mean age of 34.2 ± 18.9 years; 36.2 % were men and 63.8 % were women. The DALE3D platform obtained good repeatability with an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between 0.94 and 0.87, and coefficient of variation (CV) between 0.1 and 0.26. Threshold determining optimal and suboptimal results was calculated for Randot and DALE3D test. Spearman's correlation coefficient, between thresholds was not statistically significant (p value > 0.05). The test was considered more visually appealing and easier to use by the participants (90 % maximum score). Conclusions: The DALE3D platform is a potentially useful tool for measuring depth perception with optimal reproducibility rates. Its innovative design makes it a more intuitive tool for children than current stereoscopic tests. Nevertheless, further studies will be needed to assess whether the depth perception measured by the DALE3D platform is a sufficiently reliable parameter to assess stereopsis.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Visão Binocular , Percepção de Profundidade , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais
4.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100512], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231875

RESUMO

Purpose: In children under 20 years, refractive development targets a cycloplegic refractive error of +0.5 to +1.5D, while presbyopes over 40 years generally have non-cycloplegic errors of ≥ +1D. Some papers suggest these periods are separated by a period of myopic refractive error (i.e., ≤ –0.50D), but this remains unclear. Hence, this work investigates the mean cycloplegic refractive error in adults aged between 20 – 40 years. Methods: In 2002 a cross-sectional study with stratified cluster sampling was performed on the population of Tehran, providing cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error data for the right eyes of 3,576 participants, aged 30.6 ± 18.6 years (range: 1–86 years). After grouping these data into age groups of 5 years, the refractive error histogram of each group was fitted to a Bigaussian function. The mean of the central, emmetropized peak was used to estimate the mean refractive error without the influence of myopia. Results: The mean cycloplegic refractive error at the emmetropized peak decreased from +1.10 ± 0.11D (95 % confidence interval) to +0.50 ± 0.04D before 20 years and remains stable at that value until the age of 50 years. The non-cycloplegic refractive error also sees a stable phase at 0.00 ± 0.04D between 15 – 45 years. After 45 – 50 years both cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error become more hypermetropic over time, +1.14 ± 0.12D at 75 years. Conclusions: The cycloplegic refractive error in adults is about +0.50D between 20 – 50 years, disproving the existence of the myopic period at those ages.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Visão Ocular , Testes Visuais , Erros de Refração , Emetropia , Estudos Transversais , Irã (Geográfico)
5.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100514], jul.-sept2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231876

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze binocular vision of individuals aged 18 to 35 years diagnosed with keratoconus, utilizing spectacles and rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses. Research was led by the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, México and Fundación Universitaria del Área Andina Pereira, Colombia. Methods: A single center, prospective non-randomized, comparative, interventional, open-label study, in which the differences in binocular vision performance with both spectacles and RGP contact lenses was carried out from December 2018 to December 2019. Sampling was performed according to consecutive cases with keratoconus that met the inclusion criteria until the proposed sample size was reached. Results: Rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses notably enhanced distance and near visual acuity in keratoconus patients compared to spectacles. Visual alignment analysis shows exophoria at both distances and is slightly higher with RGP contact lenses. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05), with 82.5 % presenting compensated phoria with spectacles and pnly 42.50% with RGP contact lenses. Stereoscopic vision improved while wearing RGP contact lenses (42.59 %), although accommodation and accommodative flexibility remained within normal ranges. Conclusions: Patients with keratoconus fitted with RGP contact lenses have improved binocular vision skills such as visual acuity, stereopsis, and accommodative flexibility. However, even when the vergence and motor system is decompensated with respect to normal ranges, the range between break and recovery points for both fusional reserves and the near point of convergence (NPC) improves with the use of RGP contact lenses, giving indications of an adaptive condition of the motor system from the medium to the long term.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Ceratocone , Óculos , Lentes de Contato , Visão Binocular , Testes Visuais , Colômbia , México , Oftalmologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 60(4): 316-321, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583054

RESUMO

The International Myopia Institute introduced the concept of "pre-myopia" in 2019, defining it as children with refractive error ≤+0.75 D and >-0.50 D. By considering baseline refractive error, age, and other quantifiable risk factors, there is a significant likelihood that individuals falling into this category may develop myopia in the future. Therefore, it is deemed worthwhile to implement preventative intervention measures.This article delves into the epidemiology of premyopia in children and adolescents, the criteria for determining pre-myopia, the characteristics of refractive changes, and the existing evidence gaps in pre-myopia control technology. Furthermore, it explores the role and advantages of implementing pre-myopia control to enhance efforts in preventing and managing myopia. The paper highlights the essential value and future trajectory of pre-myopia control in the comprehensive management of myopia. The ultimate goal is to foster collaboration with professionals, aiming to discuss innovative strategies for effectively preventing and managing the onset and progression of myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia , Erros de Refração , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Miopia/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular , Testes Visuais , Fatores de Risco
9.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(4): 7, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568607

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the agreement of retinoscope-based peripheral refraction techniques with the criterion standard open-field autorefractor. Methods: Fifty young adults (mean age, 24 ± 3 years) participated in this study. Two masked, experienced senior examiners carried out central refraction and peripheral refraction at the temporal 22° (T22°) and nasal 22° (N22°) eccentricities. Peripheral refraction techniques were (a) peripheral refraction using ancillary retinoscope component (P-ARC), (b) retinoscopy with eye rotation, and (c) open-field autorefractor. Peripheral refraction with retinoscopy values was compared with an open-field autorefractor (Shinn Nippon NVision-K) to assess the agreement. All measurements were taken from the right eye under noncycloplegic conditions. Results: The mean difference ±95% limits of agreement of peripheral refraction values obtained using P-ARC from T22° (+0.11 diopters [D] ± 1.20 D; P = 0.20) or N22° (+0.13 D ± 1.16 D; P = 0.13) were comparable with open-field autorefractor. The eye rotation technique compared to autorefractor showed a significant difference for T22° (+0.30 D ± 1.26 D; P = 0.002); however, there was an agreement for N22° (+0.14 D ± 1.16 D; P = 0.10). With respect to the identification of peripheral refraction patterns, examiners were able to identify relative peripheral hyperopia in most of the participants (77%). Conclusions: Peripheral refraction with P-ARC was comparable with open-field autorefractor at T22° and N22° eccentricities. Peripheral retinoscopy techniques can be another approache for estimating and identifying peripheral refraction and its patterns in a regular clinical setting. Translational Relevance: Retinoscope with P-ARC has high potential to guide and enable eye care practitioners to perform peripheral refraction and identify peripheral refraction patterns for effective myopia management.


Assuntos
Hiperopia , Retinoscópios , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Adulto , Refração Ocular , Testes Visuais , Olho
10.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(3): 14, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502142

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the testability, performance, and test-retest variability (TRV) of visual acuity (VA) assessment using the Freiburg Visual Acuity Test (FrACT) compared to the LEA Symbols Test (LEA) in preschool children. Methods: In 134 preschool children aged 3.0 to 6.8 years, monocular VA of each eye was measured twice with a four-orientation Landolt C version of the FrACT and once with the LEA. FrACT runs were preceded by a binocular run for explanatory purposes. Test order alternated between subjects. Optotypes were presented on a computer monitor (FrACT) or on cards (LEA) at a distance of 3 m. Results: Overall, 68% completed the FrACT (91/134 children) and 88% completed the LEA (118/134 children). Testability depended on age: FrACT, 19% (<4 years) and 87% (≥4 years); LEA, 70% (<4 years) and 95% (≥4 years). Mean ± SD VA difference between tests was 0.11 ± 0.19 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], with LEA reporting better acuity. The difference depended on age (0.27 ± 0.23 logMAR [<4 years], 0.09 ± 0.18 logMAR [≥4 years], P < 0.001) and on test sequence (higher age dependence of FrACT VAs for LEA first, P < 0.001). The 95% limits of agreement for the FrACT TRV were ±0.298 logMAR. Conclusions: The examiner-independent FrACT, using international reference Landolt C optotypes, can be used to assess VA in preschool children aged ≥4 years, with reliability comparable to other pediatric VA tests. Translational Relevance: Use of the automated FrACT for VA assessment in preschool children may benefit objectivity and validity as it is a computerized test and employs the international reference Landolt C optotype.


Assuntos
Testes Visuais , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acuidade Visual
11.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 143, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38549060

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the correlation of angles α and κ with the refractive and biological parameters in children. METHODS: This case-series study included 438 eyes of 219 children (males/females = 105/114, age: 3-15 years). Ocular biometric parameters, including axial length, corneal radius of curvature (CR), white-to-white distance (WTW), angle κ and angle α, were measured using IOL Master 700; auto-refraction were assessed under cycloplegia. The eyes were assigned to different groups based on CR, WTW, and gender to compare the angles α and κ, and analyze the correlations between the differences of biological parameters on angles α and κ. RESULTS: The means of axial length, CR, WTW, angle α, and angle κ were 23.24 ± 1.14 mm, 7.79 ± 0.27 mm, 11.68 ± 0.41 mm, 0.45 ± 0.25 mm, and 0.27 ± 0.22 mm, respectively. Angle α was correlated with CR and WTW (fixed effect coefficient [FEC] = 0.237, p = 0.015; FEC = -0.109, p = 0.003; respectively), and angle κ also correlated with CR and WTW (FEC = 0.271, p = 0.003; FEC = -0.147, p < 0.001, respectively). Comparing subgroups, the large CR and small WTW group had larger angles α (0.49 ± 0.27 vs. 0.41 ± 0.21, p < 0.001; 0.46 ± 0.27 vs. 0.44 ± 0.21, p < 0.05, respectively) and κ (0.29 ± 0.25 vs. 0.24 ± 0.15, p < 0.01; 0.29 ± 0.25 vs. 0.26 ± 0.19, p < 0.05, respectively). The differences in interocular angles α and κ showed correlation with interocular WTW (r = - 0.255, p < 0.001; r = - 0.385, p < 0.001). Eyes with smaller WTW tended to have larger angle κ (0.28 ± 0.27 vs. 0.25 ± 0.15, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The size of angle α/κ may be correlated to CR and WTW, and a larger WTW eye may suggest a smaller angle κ compared with the fellow eye.


Assuntos
Presbiopia , Refração Ocular , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Testes Visuais , Córnea , Biometria , Comprimento Axial do Olho
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7429, 2024 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548804

RESUMO

To investigate the efficacy of the Korean version of the Minnesota low vision reading chart. A Korean version consisting of 38 items was prepared based on the MNREAD acuity chart developed by the University of Minnesota. A linguist composed the representative sentences, each containing nine words from second and third grade levels of elementary school. Reading ability was measured for 20-35-year-old subjects with normal visual acuity (corrected visual acuity of logMAR 0.0 or better). The maximum reading speed (words per minute [wpm]) for healthy participants, reading acuity (smallest detectable font size), and critical print size (smallest font size without reduction of reading speed) were analyzed. The average age of the subjects was 28.3 ± 2.6 years (male:female ratio, 4:16). The average reading time for 38 sentences was 3.66 ± 0.69 s, with no differences in the average maximum reading speed between sentences (p = 0.836). The maximum reading speed was 174.2 ± 29.3 and 175.4 ± 27.8 in the right and left eye, respectively. Reading acuity was measured as logMAR 0.0 or better in 80% of the cases. All subjects showed a critical print size of 0.2 logMAR or better. The overall reading ability can be measured using the Korean version of the MNREAD acuity chart, thereby making it useful in measuring the reading ability of those with Korean as their native language.


Assuntos
Testes Visuais , Baixa Visão , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Acuidade Visual , Idioma , República da Coreia
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(3): 17, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470328

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the longitudinal changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in children with different refractive status. Methods: A total of 2290 children 3 to 14 years old who attended the first year of kindergarten (G0), first year of primary school (G1), fourth year of primary school (G4), or first year of junior high school (G7) in Guangzhou, China, were recruited and followed up for 2 years. All participants received cycloplegic autorefraction, axial length measurement and SFCT measurement using a CIRRUS HD-OCT device. Children were divided into groups of persistent non-myopia (PNM), persistent myopia (PM), or newly developed myopia (NDM). Children in the PNM and PM groups were further divided into subgroups of stable refraction (absolute mean annual spherical equivalent refraction [SER] change < 0.5 D) and refractive progression (absolute mean annual SER change ≥ 0.5 D). Results: The mean ± SD ages for the G1 to G7 cohorts were 3.89 ± 0.30, 6.79 ± 0.47, 9.71 ± 0.34, and 12.54 ± 0.38, years, respectively. SFCT consistently decreased in the NDM group across the G1 to G7 cohorts (all P < 0.001) and exhibited variability across different age cohorts in the PNM and PM groups. Further subgroup analysis revealed significant thickening of SFCT in the PNM-stable group among the G0, G1, and G7 cohorts (all P < 0.05), whereas it remained stable among all cohorts in the PM-stable group (all P > 0.05). Conversely, SFCT exhibited thinning in the G4 and G7 cohorts in the PM-progressive group (both P < 0.01) and for the entire cohort of children in the PNM-progressive group (P = 0.012). Conclusions: SFCT increased in nonmyopic children with stable refraction, remained stable in myopic children maintained stable refraction, and decreased in those with refractive progression, whether they were myopic or not.


Assuntos
Miopia , Testes Visuais , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Refração Ocular , China , Miopia/diagnóstico
14.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 127, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466499

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed the develop and validate a computerized version of the MNREAD for the assessment of reading speed for children. METHODS: A computerized version of the MNREAD was built in Psykinematix software using the same parameters as the physical chart. We measured the reading velocity of 104 children (n = 44 of the 3rd grade; n = 60 of the 5th grade). Bland-Altaman analysis was used to quantify agreement between two chart measurements. RESULTS: Comparison between the 3rd and 5th-grade children for physical and computerized MNREAD versions showed statistical differences in Maximum Reading Speed (F = 2669.6; p < 0.001), Critical Print Size (F = 17.49; p < 0.001), and Reading Acuity (F = 14.19; p = 0.002) with huge effect size (η2 = 0.930). No differences were found between the versions within grades. Bland-Altman analysis showed 95% of the data points within ± 2 s of the mean difference, suggesting a similarity between versions of the MNREAD parameters. CONCLUSION: Our reading speed values for children in the 5th grade were higher than previous studies, suggesting a better quality of the assessment in the computerized version. Tolerance Limits were calculated as normality references for clinical purposes.


Assuntos
Leitura , Testes Visuais , Criança , Humanos , Acuidade Visual , Escolaridade , Software
15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 130, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528448

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Photoscreeners have been shown to provide excellent measurements of the refractive error. However, whether they could be used for assessing cycloplegic refraction has not been examied. This study aimed to evaluate the agreement between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic measurements obtained using a photoscreener and stationary autorefractor, respectively. METHODS: This study included all patients undergoing routine ophthalmic examination at the Hygeia Clinic (Poland) from June to July 2022. Each patient underwent non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refraction assessments using the 2WIN photoscreener (Adaptica SRL, Padova, Italy) and an ARK-1 stationary autorefractor ARK-1 (Nidek Co Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), respectively. Each pair of assessments was conducted in random order, and all values were determined at a vertical distance of 12 mm. The agreement between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic measurements was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman and ABCD ellipsoids. RESULTS: This analysis included 82 patients, of which 52 were female. Their mean age was 34.39 ± 13.13 years. The non-cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) did not differ significantly between the 2WIN (- 1.22 ± 2.45) and ARK-1 (- 1.19 ± 2.96) devices (p = 0.580). However, the cycloplegic SE values demonstrated more negative values with the 2WIN device (- 1.13 ± 2.19) than with the ARK-1 device (- 0.75 ± 3.03; p = 0.007). The non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic measurements were strongly correlated between the devices (r = 0.9473 and 0.9411, respectively). However, the correlation between their cycloplegic shifts in SE was low (r = 0.2645). Ellipsoid refraction aligned better non-cycloplegic (ARK-1 = 1.00; 2WIN = 1.74) than with cycloplegic refraction (ARK-1 = 1.43; 2WIN = 1.90). CONCLUSION: While the cycloplegic measurements obtained with the 2WIN photoscreener were strongly correlated with those obtained with the ARK-1 stationary autorefractor for most of the analyzed parameters, they should not be considered interchangeable.


Assuntos
Midriáticos , Erros de Refração , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Testes Visuais , Refração Ocular , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Japão
16.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 44(3): 546-553, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379462

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Habitual viewing behaviour is widely believed to be an important contributing factor to the onset and progression of myopia and may be task dependent. The purpose of this study was to quantify the habitual viewing distance of children performing five different tasks on a smartphone digital device. METHODS: The real-time viewing distance in 38 children with their habitual correction was measured using software (MyopiaApp) on a handheld (Google Pixel 3) device. Five tasks were performed in a randomised sequence: playing a game, watching video in a light (680 lux) and dark (5.5 lux) environment and reading small (8 pt) and large (16 pt) text. ANCOVA statistical analysis was used to evaluate the effect of task, group (myope vs. non-myope) and arm length on the median relative viewing distance. RESULTS: Arm length was not correlated with viewing distance in any of the tasks, and there was no significant difference in viewing distance between any of the tasks. Specifically, a two-way mixed ANCOVA indicated that task, refractive group (myopic vs. non-myopic), age and arm length, as well as all two-way interactions were not significantly associated with viewing distance. Overall, 60% of the total variance in viewing distance was accounted for by individual differences. CONCLUSIONS: The average handheld viewing distance was similar across a variety of everyday tasks in a representative sample of myopic and emmetropic children. Neither arm length, age nor refractive group were associated with viewing distance in any of the tasks. Importantly, myopic children of a given size did not hold the smartphone digital device at a different distance for any task than their equally sized non-myopic peers. However, both groups exhibited high inter-individual variability in mean viewing distance, indicating some subjects performed all tasks at further distances while other subjects used at nearer distances.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular , Miopia , Criança , Humanos , Refração Ocular , Testes Visuais , Emetropia
17.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 90, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38413901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at comparing drivers' and non-drivers' results in the Adult Developmental Eye Movement with Distractors test (ADEMd) and the Useful Field of View test (UFOV). METHODS: One hundred and twenty Spaniards (mean age 50.90 ± 17.32 years) without eye disease voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Participants in a single experimental session completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic, health, eyesight, and driving information. They also performed the ADEMd and UFOV tests randomly following standardized protocols. The ADEMd is a visual-verbal test that measures saccadic efficiency and visual attention. Brown-Forsythe (B-F) tests with Games-Howell post-hoc adjustments were conducted to assess differences between groups. Groups were formed according to sex, age (young adults, adults, and older adults), and driver/non-driver for further analysis. Additionally, associations between dependent variables were assessed through Spearman's correlations. RESULTS: Drivers obtained significantly better results in the ADEMd compared with non-drivers. Non-significant differences between drivers and non-drivers were encountered in the UFOV. Additionally, significant differences were observed between sexes and age groups. It is worth highlighting that non-driver's age significantly correlated with worse ADEMd performance (rho = .637 to .716). This correlation was non-significant in drivers. Similarly, reading hours significantly correlated with better ADEMd performance in non-drivers (rho = - .291 to - .363), but not in drivers. The only significant correlations between ADEMd and UFOV tests were found in drivers (rho = .307 to .410). CONCLUSION: Considering all the discussed results, it could be hypothesized that the driving task promotes abilities, such as oculomotor and cognitive function, which are relevant for the performance in the ADEMd. However, this hypothesis is based on correlational outcomes and further studies should causally assess this possible relation.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Idoso , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Testes Visuais , Movimentos Oculares
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3750, 2024 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355981

RESUMO

Uncorrected refractive error has predominantly been delivered through commercial entrepreneurship in Kenya. However, to achieve the 2030 IN SIGHT, integration of other forms of entrepreneurship such as the social entrepreneurship is desirable to supplement the efforts of the dominant commercial entrepreneurship. Therefore, this study intended to undertake a SWOT analysis of the current models used by social enterprises in scaling effective refractive error coverage to achieve the 2030 IN SIGHT in Kenya. A review of the seven national strategic plans for eye health in Kenya was undertaken to get a glimpse on the efforts directed towards uncorrected refractive error in achieving the 2030 IN SIGHT. The review was inclined towards assessing the efforts directed by the strategic plans towards scaling human resource, spectacle provision and refraction points. A SWOT analysis was undertaken based on the financial, impact and the approach report for each model. A key informant interview was conducted with a representative and three to five members of the social enterprise about the model. Thereafter, the modified SWOT analysis based on the review and the interview was presented to the representatives of the social enterprises. Purposive sampling was used to identify seven models used by social enterprises in the delivery of refractive error services in Kenya. Finally, the recommendations were presented to key opinion leaders for an input through a Delphi technique. Out of the seven national strategic plans for eye health reviewed, only the strategic plan 2020-2025 intends to establish optical units within 15 different counties in Kenya. Of the seven models currently utilized by social enterprises, only the Kenya Society for the Blind has integrated the telemedicine concept. On application of mHealth, all of the social enterprises models tend to embrace the approach for screening activities. None of the models has a strengthened referral pathway utilizing telereferral and telemedicine. Out of all the models, only Operation Eyesight Universal, Fred Hollow Foundation and Peek Acuity do not depend on sales of subsidized spectacles for sustainability. Every model has the capacity to propel the delivery of refractive error services depending on its comprehensiveness. However, for the 2030 IN SIGHT to be achieved, models prioritizing human resource through telemedicine integration, service provision across all sectors, awareness creation and enhancing cost efficiency are desirable.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração , Humanos , Quênia , Erros de Refração/terapia , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Refração Ocular , Projetos de Pesquisa , Testes Visuais
19.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 79, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378511

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate objective and subjective refraction differences in healthy young adults. METHODS: Data concerning candidates for the Israeli Air Force Flight Academy, as well as active air force pilots in all stages of service who underwent a routine health checkup between the years 2018 and 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Objective refraction measured using a single autorefractometer was compared with subjective refraction measured by an experienced military optometrist during the same visit. The results were converted to power vectors (spherical equivalent [SE], J0, and J45). To interpret astigmatism using power vector values, the cylinder power (Cp) was determined. RESULTS: This study included 1,395 young adult participants. The average age was 22.17 years (range, 17-39, 84.8% males). The average SE was - 0.65 ± 1.19 diopter (D) compared with - 0.71 ± 0.91D in the auto- and subjective refraction, respectively (p = 0.001). Cp was 0.91 ± 0.52D and 0.67 ± 0.40D, respectively (p < 0.001). This difference was more common in older participants (p < 0.001). J0 and J45 value differences were not significant. The absolute SE value of subjective refraction was lower in the myopic (p < 0.001) and hyperopic (p < 0.001) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Young hyperopic participants tended to prefer "less plus" in subjective refraction compared with autorefraction. Young myopic participants tended to prefer "less minus" in subjective refraction compared with autorefraction. All participants, but mainly older participants, preferred slightly "less Cp" than that measured using autorefraction; The astigmatic axis did not differ significantly between the methods.


Assuntos
Hiperopia , Miopia , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Refração Ocular , Testes Visuais
20.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0288512, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the development and investigate the accuracy of a novel smartphone-based Contrast Sensitivity (CS) application, the K-CS test. METHODS: A total of 67 visually impaired and 50 normal participants were examined monocularly using the novel digital K-CS test and the Pelli-Robson (PR) chart. The K-CS test examines letter contrast sensitivity in logarithmic units, using eight levels of contrast from logCS = ~0,1 to logCS = ~2,1 at two spatial frequencies of 1.5 and 3 cycles per degree (cpd). The K-CS test was compared to the gold standard, PR test and intra-session test repeatability was also examined. RESULTS: The K-CS test in normally sighted was found to agree well with the PR, providing comparable mean scores in logCS (±SD) (K-CS = 1.908 ± 0.06 versus PR = 1.93 ± 0.05) at 1.5 cpd and mean (± SD) logCS at 3 cpd (K-CS = 1.83 ± 0.13 versus PR = 1.86 ± 0.07). The mean best corrected visual acuity of visually impaired participants was 0.67 LogMAR (SD = 0.21) and the K-CS was also found to agree well with the Pelli-Robson in this group, with an equivalent mean (±SD) logCS at 1.5 cpd: (K-CS = 1.19 ± 0.27, PR = 1.15 ± 0.31), 3 cpd: K-CS = 1.01 ± 0.33, PR = 0.94 ± 0.34. Regarding the intra-session test repeatability, both the K-CS test and the PR test showed good repeatability in terms of the 95% limits of agreement (LoA): K-CS = ±0.112 at 1.5 cpd and ±0.133 at 3 cpd, PR = ±0.143 at 1.5 cpd and ±0.183 in 3 cpd in visually impaired individuals. CONCLUSION: The K-CS test provides a quick assessment of the CS both in normally sighted and visually impaired individuals. The K-CS could serve as an alternative tool to assess contrast sensitivity function using a smartphone and provides results that agree well with the commonly used PR test.


Assuntos
Sensibilidades de Contraste , Smartphone , Humanos , Testes Visuais/métodos
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