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1.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 137(5): 14-21, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726853

RESUMO

Purpose - to comparatively analyze the wavefront aberrations and biometric parameters of the eyes with various degrees of myopia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 134 eyes of 67 patients with mild, moderate and high myopia aged 7-28 (mean age 19.3±1.5 years). The following biometric parameters were examined: anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), axial length (AL), as well as corneal and total aberrations. The parameters were studied on the Galilei G6 system (Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG, Switzerland) and the OPD-Scan III aberrometer (Nidek, Japan). Spherical aberration (SA) was estimated as the sum of Z4+Z8+Z12. RESULTS: As the refraction increased, the root mean square higher-order aberrations (RMS HOA) also increased significantly: from 0.24±0.02 µm in mild myopia to 0.45±0.03 µm in high myopia, and in eyes with AL of ≥27.0 mm - to 0.57±0.02 µm (p=0.01). An increase in vertical tilt, vertical coma and vertical trefoil were also observed. Total SA was positive and increased in eyes with moderate myopia compared to those with low myopia (from 0.02±0.01 µm to 0.06±0.02 µm, p=0.02), which coincided with changes in the internal optics of the eye: an increase in ACD and a decrease in LT. At the same time, no differences in corneal aberrations were observed among patients with low and moderate myopia. A significant decrease of SA occurred in high myopia (from 0.06 µm in low myopia to 0.015±0.02 µm in high myopia). The average value of SA was 0.005±0.01 µm in eyes with AL of ≥27.0 mm and appeared to be negative in 40% of cases. The average value of corneal SA was negative (-0.002±0.01µm) in eyes with AL of ≥27.0 mm. This group had predominantly patients with congenital myopia. CONCLUSION: An increase of total positive SA in patients with moderate myopia compared to those with low myopia is associated with changes in the internal optics of the eye (ACD, LT). Significant increase of higher-order aberrations and decrease of SA with the transition to negative values was observed in patients with high axial myopia.


Assuntos
Miopia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biometria , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Topografia da Córnea , Humanos , Miopia/diagnóstico , Refração Ocular , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(10): 1523-1528, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the changes in refractive status of amblyopic patients with partially refractive esotropia (PAET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Amblyopic patients with PAET were enrolled. Non-amblyopic patients with full refractive accommodative esotropia (RAET) were included in the study as a control group. Preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spherical equivalent (SE), astigmatism, stereoacuity, and deviations at near and distance were evaluated and statistically compared within the study group. Mean BCVA, SE, astigmatism were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The patient and the control groups were composed of 58 eyes of 29 patients per group. There were statistically significant differences between pre- and postoperative mean astigmatism and SE between the patient and control groups. The mean astigmatism was higher in amblyopic eyes when compared with the eyes in the control group (P:0.009). During the follow-up period, changes in SE and astigmatism were not different between groups. CONCLUSION: The mean SE and astigmatism were changed in both amblyopic patients with PAET and non-amblyopic patients with RAET during the follow-up period. This suggested that neither amblyopia nor strabismus surgery has an effect on refractive status in patients with PAET.


Assuntos
Ambliopia , Esotropia , Ambliopia/complicações , Ambliopia/epidemiologia , Esotropia/complicações , Esotropia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual
3.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(12): 12, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614164

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of the current study was to develop and validate an automated contrast sensitivity (CS) test using a live- detection of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and an adaptive psychometric procedure. In addition, the study sought to replicate the known effect of defocus on CS for the OKN-based measurements in emmetropic participants. Methods: Fifteen participants viewed a horizontally moving grating while their eyes were tracked with an infra-red (IR) eye-tracker. To simulate the clinical conditions of the CS measurements, the participants were stimulated monocularly as the left eye was occluded by an IR filter. The horizontal eye position was continuously analyzed for OKN responses, and the stimulus contrast was changed by an adaptive psychometric method depending on the outcome. Furthermore, the newly proposed OKN live-detection was verified against an offline analysis and an expert-observer judgement. The OKN-based CS was measured for six spatial frequencies at normal vision and three levels of defocus using spherical convex lenses. Results: The newly proposed OKN live-detection method showed a sufficient detection performance for implementation of adaptive procedures, and the detection rate is similar or better compared to offline detection methods. Spatial frequency and defocus had a significant effect on the OKN-based CS (P < 0.0001 for both). Conclusions: The current study presents a novel method to measure motion CS in an automated way, combining the real-time detection of OKN and an adaptive psychometric procedure. Furthermore, the known effect of defocus on CS was successfully replicated with the newly developed tool. Translational Relevance: OKN-based CS is a novel approach to assess spatial vision, which is sensitive to subtle effects of defocus, allowing use with nonverbal patients and infants. Furthermore, the newly developed tool may improve the performance of such measurements.


Assuntos
Sensibilidades de Contraste , Nistagmo Optocinético , Humanos , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Testes Visuais , Visão Ocular
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639251

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study first proposed the application of a double-mirror system (DMS) to extend viewing distance and investigate the accommodative response of schoolchildren under a DMS. METHOD: Fifty-seven subjects aged between 7 and 12 years old were recruited in this study, and the experiment was divided into two stages. The first stage consisted of a case history inquiry, a refraction state, and a visual function examination. In the second stage, the subjects gazed at an object at distances of 0.4 m, 2.285 m, and through a DMS, respectively, and their accommodative responses were measured using an open-field autorefractor. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the schoolchildren's accommodative response between subjects gazing at an object at 2.285 m (0.14 ± 0.35 D, p > 0.05) and those gazing at it through a DMS (0.20 ± 0.35 D). However, their accommodative response showed a significant difference between subjects gazing at an object at 0.4 m and 2.285 m and those gazing at it at 0.4 m and through a DMS. CONCLUSION: In this experiment, the results of the children's accommodative response measured at 2.285 m or through a DMS are very similar. The viewing distance can be extended by a DMS, resulting in accommodative relaxation. This result may have potential applications in myopia control.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular , Miopia , Criança , Humanos , Testes Visuais
5.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(10): 724-726, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619941

RESUMO

The prevalence of myopia in China is increasing. The early onset and rapid progression of myopia in younger children have attracted more attention. The establishment of standardized children's refractive development records is the basis of myopic prevention and control. It would be helpful to follow the refractive status and pay more attention to the refractive development of potential myopic children, so as to reduce the prevalence of myopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 724-726).


Assuntos
Miopia , Testes Visuais , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
6.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(12): 18, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647962

RESUMO

Purpose: The goal of this study is to develop a hierarchical Bayesian model (HBM) to better quantify uncertainty in visual acuity (VA) tests by incorporating the relationship between VA threshold and range across multiple individuals and tests. Methods: The three-level HBM consisted of multiple two-dimensional Gaussian distributions of hyperparameters and parameters of the VA behavioral function (VABF) at the population, individual, and test levels. The model was applied to a dataset of quantitative VA (qVA) assessments of 14 eyes in 4 Bangerter foil conditions. We quantified uncertainties of the estimated VABF parameters (VA threshold and range) from the HBM and compared them with those from the qVA. Results: The HBM recovered covariances between VABF parameters and provided better fits to the data than the qVA. It reduced the uncertainty of their estimates by 4.2% to 45.8%. The reduction of uncertainty, on average, resulted in 3 fewer rows needed to reach a 95% accuracy in detecting a 0.15 logMAR change of VA threshold or both parameters than the qVA. Conclusions: The HBM utilized knowledge across individuals and tests in a single model and provided better quantification of the uncertainty of the estimated VABF, especially when the number of tested rows was relatively small. Translational Relevance: The HBM can increase the accuracy in detecting VA changes. Further research is necessary to evaluate its potential in clinical populations.


Assuntos
Olho , Testes Visuais , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Incerteza , Acuidade Visual
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548303

RESUMO

A 58-year-old woman presented to us with sudden onset diminution of vision for 10 days following trauma while using mobile phone. Patient had a history of posterior iris claw implantation 3 years ago. On examination, the patient was aphakic and intraocular lens (IOL) was seen enclaved on nasal side and disenclaved on temporal side on ultrasound biomicroscopy. Patient underwent surgery for re-enclavation of temporal haptic by lifting the IOL using 23-gauge pars plana trocar. Patient had a postoperative uncorrected visual acuity of 6/9 and best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 with refraction. Re-enclavation of partially disenclaved posterior iris claw lens is a minimally invasive technique to restore visual acuity in such cases.


Assuntos
Implante de Lente Intraocular , Lentes Intraoculares , Corpo Ciliar , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual
8.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(9): 1126-1128, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500538

RESUMO

The study objective was to assess the correlation of time outdoors in sunlight hours with spherical equivalent refraction (SER) and other variables. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, between January and April 2019. A total of 110 Individuals were included via convenient sampling, with myopia defined as having at least -0.5 D (SER ≤ -0.5 D). Collection of Questionnaires with interviews regarding eye care behaviour along with auto-refraction was done, followed by calculation of spherical equivalent refraction. Those having high myopia of 6 D or more (SER ≤ - 6 D), hyperopia of 0.5 D or more (SER ≥ +0.5 D), and history significant for ocular trauma and surgeries, were excluded. After data cleaning and their entry, analyses were done using SPSS version 26. The mean age data, available for 105 individuals, was 15.4 ± 3.69 years. Spearman's correlation was used for right SER with time outdoors in summers (r= +0.25, p=0.008) and winters (r= +0.243, p=0.010), indicating an inverse relationship with myopia. Females had more myopic refraction than males, but the independent sample t-test was not significant. Logistic regression was used and a protective effect was found for both summer and winter time outdoors, while education level was associated with myopia. Key Words: Myopia, Spherical equivalent refraction (SER), Sunlight exposure.


Assuntos
Miopia , Luz Solar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Refração Ocular , Testes Visuais
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(10): 2625-2628, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571600

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of ocular and systemic disease affecting visual function among state transport corporation bus drivers in a south Indian district. Methods: This retrospective study analysed the records of all the drivers who presented to a south Indian tertiary-care eye hospital in 2019 for their mandatory annual ocular check-up. Details reviewed included demographic details; refraction; presence of systemic and ocular diseases with vision-threatening potential; presence of ocular conditions responsible for visual loss and the treatment administered. Results: 3042 drivers (mean age, 47.0 ± 5.7 years) were evaluated. Visual function-threatening systemic diseases were present in 25.0% drivers, out of which diabetes mellitus (18.7%) was the most common pathology. The most common ocular problem was refractive error (45.0%). Visual function-threatening ocular diseases were present in 9.5% drivers. Diabetic retinopathy, visually-significant cataract, glaucoma and central serous chorioretinopathy were noted in 4.0%, 1.9%, 1.7% and 0.8% drivers. Surgical intervention was required in 2.2% drivers. Thirteen drivers were temporarily deemed unfit for driving heavy-weight vehicles. Conclusion: Several bus drivers suffer from vision-threatening systemic and ocular diseases. Some of them require surgical intervention to retain fitness. A complete ocular and systemic evaluation of diseases with vision-threatening potential should be performed at the time of renewal of the driving license. The drivers should be educated about the systemic diseases which can affect their driving skills and must be encouraged to seek medical help at an early stage.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais , Visão Ocular
11.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(9): 1070-1077, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570031

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The Ohio Contrast Cards are a repeatable test of contrast sensitivity, and they reveal higher contrast sensitivity for low-vision patients than is shown by the Pelli-Robson chart. PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the contrast sensitivity results and test/retest ±limits of agreement for the Ohio Contrast Cards and the Pelli-Robson letter contrast sensitivity chart on two challenging groups of participants, and to compare the Ohio Contrast Card results with grating acuity and the Pelli-Robson results with letter acuity. METHODS: The Ohio Contrast Card and Pelli-Robson tests were each performed twice by two different examiners within one visit on 40 elder patients in Primary Vision Care (>65 years old) and 23 to 27 low-vision school-aged students. Grating acuity was measured using the Teller Acuity Cards (all participants), and letter acuity was measured using ClearChart (elders) or the Bailey-Lovie chart (students). RESULTS: The ±95% limits of agreement were similar for the Ohio Contrast Cards and the Pelli-Robson chart. The elders' limits of agreement were ±0.27 (Ohio Contrast Cards) and ±0.28 (Pelli-Robson); the students' limits of agreement were ±0.42 (Ohio Contrast Cards) and ±0.51 (Pelli-Robson). However, Ohio Contrast Card results were 0.41 log10 Michelson units more sensitive than the Pelli-Robson chart (over one line on the Pelli-Robson chart) for the elders and 0.90 log10 Michelson units (three lines on the Pelli-Robson chart) more sensitive for the elders (0.11 and 0.6 log10 Weber units, respectively). The Pelli-Robson results were correlated with letter acuities and Ohio Contrast Card results for both groups, and the Ohio Contrast Card results were correlated with Teller Acuity Card acuities for the elders. CONCLUSIONS: The Ohio Contrast Cards and Pelli-Robson chart are similarly repeatable. Both contrast sensitivity tests can provide additional clinical information that is not available through visual acuity testing, and Ohio Contrast Card may provide additional information not available from the Pelli-Robson chart.


Assuntos
Testes Visuais , Baixa Visão , Idoso , Criança , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Humanos , Ohio , Acuidade Visual
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16141, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373485

RESUMO

To assess the repeatability and comparability of the Galilei G4 versus the Cassini topographer in post-refractive eyes and in normal eyes, including older patients representative of an initial cataract evaluation. Simulated keratometric (simK), total corneal and posterior corneal power and astigmatism were evaluated in both post-refractive and normal eyes. Repeatability was measured by calculating within-subject standard deviation (Sw), coefficient of variation (CoV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Vector analyses and Bland-Altman plots were employed to assess agreement between devices. We studied 32 subjects with a history of refractive surgery and 32 subjects without a history of refractive surgery undergoing cataract surgery. The mean age was 55 ± 18.5 years and the age range was 21.5-91.5 years. In non-refractive and post-refractive eyes, the ICC was > 0.9 (P < 0.001) for all corneal powers and for simK and total corneal astigmatism for both analyzers. The ICC for posterior corneal astigmatism magnitude using the Galilei was 0.62 and 0.67 and for the Cassini 0.55 and 0.38 in normal and post-refractive eyes, respectively. In both post-refractive and normal eyes, the Galilei G4 and Cassini analyzers have high repeatability in simK, total, and posterior corneal power and low repeatability for posterior corneal astigmatism.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/fisiopatologia , Catarata/fisiopatologia , Córnea/fisiopatologia , Topografia da Córnea/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Astigmatismo/diagnóstico , Catarata/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Testes Visuais/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil ; 71(3): 110-117, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (COVID-19) global pandemic has been a poignant reminder of the value of telehealth services to deliver care, especially as a means of reducing the risk of infectious disease transmission caused by close personal contact, decreasing unnecessary travel for medical consultations, and limiting the number of individuals in waiting rooms. The role of telehealth in ophthalmology has historically been limited to store-and-forwarding of images, much like what is used in radiology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Remote evaluation using two-way audio-video communications over the initial 10-week period of clinic shutdowns. Visual acuity (VA) measurement was attempted using a printed single surrounded HOTV or Snellen chart. The VA measurement of fellow eyes was compared to the prior in person clinical visit. External and strabismus examinations were also conducted. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were evaluated with a mean age 12.5 years (range 5 months to 82 years). Twenty of 58 (34%) were younger than 5 years of age. Reasons for evaluation were strabismus in 26 patients (45%), refractive error in 25 (43%), and amblyopia in 10 patients (19%). Recognition visual acuity was obtained in 69% (40 of 58), including every patient older than 5 years of age. Nine children from 2 to 5 years of age (mean 3 years) were unable to perform HOTV VA testing. Of nine children unable to do complete VA testing, five had been premature and seven had developmental delay. There was a mean bias of -0.12 logMAR in favor of the prior in office test in the right eyes of 21 non-amblyopic patients. The 95% limits of agreement between the in-person visit and the subsequent telehealth video visit logMAR VA were +0.20 logMAR upper limit, -0.44 logMAR lower limit. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth video visits provided basic ophthalmic information in patients who are physically incapable to come to the office, leading to improved triage. Vision could be tested remotely in young children, but we found substantial variability in the measurement of clinically normal eyes. Improvements in the reliability of at-home visual acuity testing are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Consulta Remota/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atropina/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Óculos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Oftalmologia/métodos , Pediatria/métodos , Consulta Remota/organização & administração , Privação Sensorial , Estrabismo/fisiopatologia , Estrabismo/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Testes Visuais/métodos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360169

RESUMO

In our work, we determined the value of visual acuity (VA) with ETDRS charts (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study). The purpose of the study was to determine the measurement reliabilities, calculating the correlation coefficient interclass (ICC), the value of the error associated with the measure (SEM), and the minimal detectable change (MDC). Forty healthy subjects took part. The mean age was 23.5 ± 3.1 (19 to 26) years. Visual acuities were measured with ETDRS charts (96% ETDRS chart nº 2140) and (10% SLOAN Contrast Eye Test chart nº 2153). The measurements were made (at 4 m) under four conditions: Firstly, photopic conditions with high contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) and after 15 min of visual rest, mesopic conditions with high and low contrast. Under photopic conditions and high contrast, the ICC = 0.866 and decreased to 0.580 when the luminosity and contrast decreased. The % MDC in the four conditions was always less than 10%. It was minor under photopic conditions and HC (5.83) and maximum in mesopic conditions and LC (9.70). Our results conclude a high reliability of the ETDRS test, which is higher in photopic and high contrast conditions and lower when the luminosity and contrast decreases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Adulto , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
15.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(1): 445-456, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394327

RESUMO

Background: Reduced visual function is associated with diminished quality of life as well as decreased physical and mental health. Poor visual function related to cataracts is also a risk factor for falls and traffic accidents, which may lead to hospital admissions and limit independence. Objective: To evaluate patients' satisfaction, visual functions and spectacle independence among patients in the Central Region of Ghana who had cataract surgery in one eye. Methods: A hospital-based prospective cohort study was carried out on 146 patients booked for cataract surgery: 16 were lost through follow-ups whilst 130 completed the study. Visual functions including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis and colour vision were assessed before and after a month of cataract surgery. Objective and subjective refractions were performed to determine the post-surgery refractive status of the participants. Participants completed the NEI-VFQ 25 questionnaire and the scores obtained were used as a construct of their satisfaction. Results: The NEI-VFQ 25 questionnaire scores indicated patients' satisfaction was high with an average quality of life score of 77.46. Patients satisfaction was strongly correlated with contrast sensitivity (r=0.653, p<0.001) but moderately correlated with visual acuity (r=-0.554, p<0.001), stereopsis (r=0.490, p<0.001) and colour vision (r=0.466, p<0.001). Contrast sensitivity was a better predictor of patients' satisfaction than visual acuity and stereopsis. Spectacle independence at distance was achieved in only 44.6% of the participants and 5.4% at near. There was a significant (p>0.001) association between spectacle independence and the two types of cataract surgery performed which included Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) and Extracapsular Cataract Extraction (ECCE). Among those who were spectacle independent, 53.4% of them were low vision patients. Conclusion: Satisfaction of patients after cataract surgery was high but was greatly influenced by visual functions with contrast sensitivity being a better predictor of satisfaction than visual acuity and stereopsis. Spectacle independence after cataract surgery was low at distance and extremely low at near. The type of cataract surgery performed influenced thespectacle independence.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Catarata/psicologia , Óculos/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular/efeitos adversos , Lentes Intraoculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
16.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(8): 920-928, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460453

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Cycloplegia is often restricted in screening settings. Previous studies have evaluated noncycloplegic refraction for screening, but their data are not fully applicable to school-aged African children. This article adds to the literature by investigating this in school-aged African children. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of noncycloplegic autorefraction (NCA) and noncycloplegic retinoscopy (NCR) to detect refractive errors in school-aged African children and quantify differences between noncycloplegic and cycloplegic refraction measures. METHODS: Autorefraction and retinoscopy were performed on 150 children aged 6 to 15 years before and after cyclopentolate cycloplegia. Subjective refraction was performed by the same examiner after cycloplegia. Noncycloplegic and cycloplegic measurements were compared, and the data were assessed with receiver operating characteristic curves and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: With the exception of cylindrical vector J0 (P = .17) and J45 (P = .08) obtained with NCR, all mean measures of NCA and NCR significantly differed from mean cycloplegic subjective refraction measurements by -0.71 ± 0.67 (P ≤ .001; 95% confidence interval, -2.02 to +0.60) and -0.75 ± 0.68 (P ≤ .001; 95% confidence interval, -2.08 to +0.58), respectively. Mean spherical power between the two tests did not differ (NCA -NCR, mean bias of -0.037 ± 0.675 and 95% limits of agreement of -1.36 to 1.286; P = .51). The sensitivities for detecting any refractive error for NCR and NCA were 86.8 and 82.9%, respectively, and the specificities were 82.0% for NCR and 82.4% for NCA. Performance of both tests was excellent for myopia (area under the curve, >0.90; sensitivity, ≥90%) and similar (P = .13), but the specificities for detecting hyperopia were 78.0% for NCR and 80.0% for NCA. CONCLUSIONS: Noncycloplegic refraction may accurately detect astigmatism and myopia in this population but may elicit higher myopic values and lower hyperopic values than using cycloplegic refraction.


Assuntos
Refração Ocular , Erros de Refração , Criança , Ciclopentolato , Humanos , Midriáticos , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Testes Visuais
17.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(8): 929-935, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460454

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: There are limited studies assessing reading performance and children's difficulties with dyslexia especially when reading Arabic, a language that has a substantially different script from English and other Latin-based languages. PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) measure reading performance in children with dyslexia by acuity level and (2) conduct an indirect comparison between the effects of dyslexia on Arabic versus English readers. METHODS: Twenty children aged 9 to 12 years with dyslexia and 30 controls aged 9 to 11 years were included in the study. Reading performance was evaluated using maximum reading speed, reading acuity, and critical print size (CPS). Two Arabic charts, the Balsam Alabdulkader-Leat chart and the International Reading Speed Texts chart, were used to evaluate reading performance. The number of errors was calculated and plotted against print size. RESULTS: ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the two groups in all reading performance measures (P < .05). Reading speed for children with dyslexia was significantly lower than that for the control group (33 vs. 90 standard-length words per minute). Critical print sizes were 0.25 and 0.10 logMAR for children with dyslexia and the control group, respectively. Reading acuity was worse for children with dyslexia in comparison with the control group. Error number above the CPS was significantly higher in children with dyslexia than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Reading speed measures were lower for children with dyslexia compared with controls. Children with dyslexia required larger CPS to read at their maximum speed, indicating that larger print sizes may improve reading with greater speed. The difference in reading performance measures between controls and children with dyslexia is higher when reading Arabic than when reading English. This suggests that the intricate Arabic script and crowding may more strongly affect children with dyslexia reading Arabic.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Idioma , Criança , Humanos , Leitura , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual
18.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(8): 971-975, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460456

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: On average, older adults (60+) with normal vision read the International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) 37.8 words per minute slower than the standardized values provided by the IReST manufacturer. When assessing reading speed in older adults, clinicians should bear in mind that the IReST norms do not account for these age-related differences. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to validate the IReST in an English-speaking Canadian sample of older adults (60+). METHODS: Canadian English-speaking older adults (n = 25) read all 10 IReST aloud using the same protocol from the original IReST validation study. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the older adult sample and the published IReST values for each text (mean difference, -37.84; 95% confidence interval, -41.34 to -34.34). CONCLUSIONS: Reading speeds of older (60+) Canadian adults fell outside of the standardized values of the English language IReST. Researchers/clinicians who wish to assess older adults' reading speed using the IReST ought to take this discrepancy into account.


Assuntos
Leitura , Testes Visuais , Idoso , Canadá , Humanos , Idioma
19.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 84(6): 561-568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide guidance on the frequency and components of eye examinations for healthy children aged 0 to 5 years. METHODS: These guidelines were developed based on the medical literature and clinical experience of an expert committee. PubMed/Medline searches were performed, with selected publications not restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, or observational studies. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation profile was applied when suitable, and for issues without scientific evidence, recommendations were based on expert consensus. Recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Academy of Ophthalmology, Royal College of Ophthalmologists, and Canadian Ophthalmological Society were also reviewed. The final guideline document was approved by the Brazilian Pediatric Ophthalmology Society and by the Brazilian Pediatric Society. RESULTS: Newborns must undergo the red reflex test and inspection of the eyes and adnexa by a pediatrician within 72 hours of life. The red reflex test should be repeated by the pediatrician during childcare consultations at least three times per year during the first 3 years of life. If feasible, a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination may be performed between 6 and 12 months of age. Until 36 months of age, the pediatrician should assess the infant's visual development milestones, age-appropriate assessment of visual function, ocular fixation, and eye alignment. At least one comprehensive ophthalmologic examination should be performed at 3 to 5 years of age. The examination should minimally include inspection of the eyes and adnexa, age-appropriate visual function assessment, evaluations of ocular motility and alignment (cover tests), cycloplegic refraction, and dilated fundus. CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines concerning the frequency of ophthalmic assessment are important tools for directing physicians regarding best practices that avoid treatable vision problems that affect children's development, school, and social performance and cause unnecessary permanent vision loss.


Assuntos
Estrabismo , Testes Visuais , Canadá , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos , Transtornos da Visão , Visão Ocular
20.
Optom Vis Sci ; 98(8): 959-970, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387583

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: Evidence supporting the contributions of near work in myopia is equivocal. Findings from this pilot study suggest that a high prevalence of myopia in ultra-Orthodox boys may be attributed to intense near work at school and learning to read in preschool at an early age. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess factors that may influence myopia in three groups of Jewish boys with different educational demands. METHODS: Healthy ultra-Orthodox, religious, and secular Jewish boys (n = 36) aged 8 to 12 years participated. Refractive status, education, time spent reading and writing, and electronic device use were assessed using a questionnaire, and time outdoors and physical activity were assessed objectively using an Actiwatch. Data were analyzed with χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons. RESULTS: Ultra-Orthodox (n = 14) and religious (n = 13) children had greater myopia prevalence compared with secular children (n = 9; P = .01), despite no differences in parental myopia. Actigraph data showed that there were no differences in activity (P = .52) or time spent outdoors (P = .48) between groups. Ultra-Orthodox children learned to read at a younger age and spent more hours at school (P < .001 for both). All groups engaged in a similar amount of near work while not in school (P = .52). However, ultra-Orthodox boys had less electronic device use than did religious (P = .007) and secular children (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates that ultra-Orthodox, religious, and secular children have distinct educational demands but similar time outdoors, physical activity, and near work while not in school. The findings suggest that near work at school and/or learning to read in preschool at an early age may contribute to previously reported differences in refractive error between groups. However, conclusions should be confirmed in a larger sample size.


Assuntos
Miopia , Criança , Humanos , Judeus , Judaísmo , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Testes Visuais
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