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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 6111-6114, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019365

RESUMO

This study describes a fully automated method of expressive language assessment based on vocal responses of children to a sentence repetition task (SRT), a language test that taps into core language skills. Our proposed method automatically transcribes the vocal responses using a test-specific automatic speech recognition system. From the transcriptions, a regression model predicts the gold standard test scores provided by speech-language pathologists. Our preliminary experimental results on audio recordings of 104 children (43 with typical development and 61 with a neurodevelopmental disorder) verifies the feasibility of the proposed automatic method for predicting gold standard scores on this language test, with averaged mean absolute error of 6.52 (on a observed score range from 0 to 90 with a mean value of 49.56) between observed and predicted ratings.Clinical relevance-We describe the use of fully automatic voice-based scoring in language assessment including the clinical impact this development may have on the field of speech-language pathology. The automated test also creates a technological foundation for the computerization of a broad array of tests for voice-based language assessment.


Assuntos
Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Voz , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22165, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925781

RESUMO

Aphasia shows high incidence in stroke patients and seriously impairs language comprehension, verbal communication, and social activities. Therefore, screening aphasic patients during the acute phase of stroke is crucial for language recovery and rehabilitation. The present study developed a Chinese version of the Language Screening Test (CLAST) and validated it in post-stroke patients.The CLAST was adapted from the Language Screening Test developed by Constance et al to incorporate Chinese cultural and linguistic specificities, and administered to 207 acute stroke patients and 89 stabilized aphasic or non-aphasic patients. Based on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) test, its reliability and validity were assessed. A cut-off for the CLAST in Chinese patients was determined by ROC curve analysis.The CLAST comprised 5 subtests and 15 items, including 2 subscores, namely expression (8 points, assessing naming, repetition, and automatic speech) and receptive (7 points maximum, evaluating picture recognition, and verbal instructions) indexes. Analysis of the alternate-form reliability of the questionnaire showed a retest correlation coefficient of 0.945 (P < .001). Intraclass correlation coefficients of three rating teams were >0.98 (P < .001). Internal consistency analysis showed a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.909 (P < .001). The non-aphasia group showed higher scores than the aphasia group (14.2 ±â€Š1.3 vs 10.6 ±â€Š3.8) (P < .01). The questionnaire showed good construct validity by factor analysis. ROC curve analysis showed high sensitivity and specificity for the CLAST, with a cut-off of 13.5.The CLAST is suitable for Chinese post-stroke patients during the acute phase, with high reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity.


Assuntos
Afasia/diagnóstico , Afasia/etiologia , Testes de Linguagem/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 51(4): 1187-1189, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956007

RESUMO

Purpose The Computerized Language ANalysis-Index of Productive Syntax (CLAN-IPSyn) system is designed to facilitate automatic computation of the IPSyn measure of productive child syntax. Roberts et al. (2020) conducted a thorough comparison of hand-generated and automatic scores on the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn) measure (Scarborough, 1990) and found a high level of error for CLAN-IPSyn. We report on the use of the Roberts et al. analysis to reduce and eliminate errors in CLAN-IPSyn, to improve its accuracy. Method Scores provided by manual and machine scoring of the 20 transcripts used in Roberts et al. (2020) were compared. Divergences in point assignment were examined and significant modifications made to the CLAN-IPSyn program to increase its accuracy. Conclusion The currently available, free version of CLAN at https://talkbank.org is now significantly more correct in terms of exemplars produced, and should assist clinicians and researchers in using the revised IPSyn (Altenberg et al. 2018).


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Idioma , Criança , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105078, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Left hemisphere stroke often results in a variety of language deficits due to varying patterns of damage to language networks. The Cookie Theft picture description task, a classic, quick bedside assessment, has been shown to quantify narrative speech reliably. In this study, we utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess language network white matter tract correlates of lexical-semantic and syntactic impairments longitudinally. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with mild to severe language impairments after left hemispheric lobar and/or subcortical ischemic stroke underwent the Cookie Theft picture description test and DTI up to three different time points: within the first three months, six months and twelve months after stroke. Dorsal and ventral stream language pathways were segmented to obtain DTI integrity metrics of both hemispheres. Multivariable regression models and partial correlation analyses adjusted for age, education, and lesion load were conducted to evaluate the temporal DTI profile of the white matter microstructural integrity of the language tracts as neural correlates of narrative speech within the first year after stroke. RESULTS: Among all the major language white matter pathways, the integrity of the left arcuate (AF), inferior fronto-occipital, and inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF) were related to picture description performance. After FDR correction, left ILF fractional anisotropy correlated with syntactic cohesiveness (r=0.85,p=0.00087) within the first three months after stroke, whereas at one year post-stroke, the strongest correlations were found between lexical-semantic performance and left AF radial diffusivity (r = -0.71, p = 0.00065). CONCLUSION: Our study provides a temporal profile of associations between the integrity of the main language pathways and lexical semantics and syntactic impairments in left hemispheric strokes.


Assuntos
Afasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Fala , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Afasia/fisiopatologia , Afasia/psicologia , Afasia/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Semântica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fonoterapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
5.
Codas ; 32(3): e20180245, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609222

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate, through a systematic review, how three assessment instruments for children's vocabulary (Test of Childhood language ABFW, Expressive Vocabulary Test - EVT, and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - PPVT) have been used in Brazilian research, verifying its purposes of uses and the main results of the researches. RESEARCH STRATEGY: This review was organized in three studies. Study 1 referred to the process of a priori search and Study 2 referred to the a posteriori search. We searched for three Brazilian's database (CAPES, SciELO, and PePSIC). SELECTION CRITERIA: For Study 1, we selected empirical studies containing research data with one of the three-targeted tests, using typically developing school children (7 to 10 years old). For Study 2, we enlarged the age range for pre-school and extended the search to non-typically developing children. DATA ANALYSIS: The selected articles were fully read and synthesized in a table containing the study's aims, the age range of the sample, instrument, research design, main results, and journal. RESULTS: We found out 24 articles, most of which from the speech-language therapy area. The results indicated the predominance of cross-sectional and observational studies, aiming to delineate the cognitive profile of children with some developmental disturbance, with or without control groups. None of the researches conducted a psychometric inquiry of the instruments. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, it is necessary to carry out research focusing on the psychometric inquiry of instruments for evaluating the vocabulary in pre-school and school-age children.


Assuntos
Fonoterapia , Vocabulário , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem
6.
Neurology ; 95(9): e1134-e1143, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the nature and extent of minor neuropsychological deficits in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and their association with CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD). METHOD: We analyzed data from n = 449 cognitively normal participants (n = 209 healthy controls, n = 240 patients with SCD) from an interim data release of the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Longitudinal Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Study (DELCODE). An extensive neuropsychological test battery was applied at baseline for which we established a latent, 5 cognitive domain factor structure comprising learning and memory, executive functions, language abilities, working memory, and visuospatial functions. We compared groups in terms of global and domain-specific performance and correlated performance with different CSF markers of AD pathology. RESULTS: We observed worse performance (Cohen d = ≈0.25-0.5, adjusted for age, sex differences with analysis of covariance) in global performance, memory, executive functions, and language abilities for the SCD group compared to healthy controls. In addition, worse performance in these domains was moderately (r = ≈0.3) associated with lower CSF ß-amyloid42/40 and CSF ß-amyloid42/phosphorylated tau181 in the whole sample and specifically in the SCD subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Within the spectrum of clinically unimpaired (i.e., before mild cognitive impairment) cognitive performance, SCD is associated with minor deficits in memory, executive function, and language abilities. The association of these subtle cognitive deficits with AD CSF biomarkers speaks to their validity and potential use for the early detection of underlying preclinical AD.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Memória de Curto Prazo , Navegação Espacial , Idoso , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fosforilação , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630383

RESUMO

Bilingual exposure (BE) and socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with children's development, but their specific and unique effects are still unclear. This study analyzed the influence of these environmental factors on a set of cognitive and linguistic abilities in preschoolers to disentangle their effects. One hundred-eleven Italian-speaking preschool children (mean age = 61 months; SD = 6.8) growing in a monolingual or multilingual context completed an assessment of cognitive (theory of mind, inhibition, attention shifting and working memory) and linguistic abilities (vocabulary, grammar, narrative comprehension, lexical access). The results of hierarchical regressions with predictors variation in BE (both Length and Daily exposure) and SES on each ability, shown a specific contribution of variation in SES, after controlling for BE, in vocabulary, grammar, and working memory (WM), and a specific contribution of variation in BE, over and above effect of SES, in vocabulary, narrative comprehension and WM. In addition, we found an interaction between these factors in predicting the performance of the theory of mind task (ToM). To conclude, variations in BE and SES are related independently to individual differences in linguistic and cognitive skills of children in preschool.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Idioma , Multilinguismo , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Classe Social , Vocabulário
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236798, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730307

RESUMO

This study compares how lexical inferencing and dictionary consultation affect L2 vocabulary acquisition. Sixty-one L1 Arabic undergraduates majoring in English language read target words in semi-authentic English reading materials and were either asked to guess their meaning or look it up in a dictionary. A pre- and delayed post-test measured participants' knowledge of target words and overall vocabulary size. The results show a significant and comparable learning effect for both vocabulary learning strategies (VLS), with a higher pre-test vocabulary size related to a larger learning effect for both VLS. In addition, the better participants were at guessing correctly, the better they learned words through inferencing. The results suggest that both VLS are equally effective for our learner group and that learners' overall vocabulary size influences the amount of learning that occurs when using these VLS.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Leitura , Estudantes/psicologia , Vocabulário , Adulto , Dicionários como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Brain Nerve ; 72(7): 811-818, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641578

RESUMO

The Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA) is the most frequently used comprehensive aphasia rating scale in Japan. Although the SLTA has been verified for reliability, verification for validity is inadequate. The purpose of this study was to examine criterion-related validity of the SLTA. The SLTA was performed on patients who had passed 3months or more after onset of the aphasia-causing disease such as stroke, and the Japanese version of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) was subsequently performed. We investigated age, gender, disease, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for total score and each item of the SLTA and the WAB. There were 20participants (14males, 6females), with a mean age of 68.5±12.5years. Correlations of the SLTA and the WAB were as follows: SLTA total index score and WAB aphasia quotient; r=0.870 (P<0.001), SLTA Writing factor and WAB (VI) Writing; r=0.852 (P<0.001), SLTA writing instructions and WAB writing instructions; r=0.807 (P<0.001). Many of the correlations of Z-scores between sub-tests were r≥0.7. The SLTA has criteria-related validity and now the aphasia test that has been tested for reliability and validity. (Received July 22, 2019; Accepted March 4, 2020; Published July 1, 2020).


Assuntos
Afasia , Testes de Linguagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Afasia/diagnóstico , Afasia/etiologia , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
10.
J Fluency Disord ; 64: 105762, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to determine whether differences exist between young English- and Korean-speaking children who stutter (CWS) in the loci of stuttering. METHOD: Participants were 10 Korean-speaking and 11 English-speaking CWS between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Participants produced narratives while viewing various picture scenes and a wordless picture book. RESULTS: Findings indicated that Korean-speaking CWS stuttered more on content than function words whereas English-speaking CWS stuttered more on function than content words. Furthermore, both Korean- and English-speaking CWS tended to stutter more on utterance-initial words. These findings appear to be related to the differences in linguistic/syntactic structures between Korean and English. Specifically, in the Korean-speaking CWS's narratives, most utterance-initial words (73.60 %) were content words whereas in the English-speaking CWS's narratives, most utterance-initial words (83.57 %) were function words. CONCLUSION: These preliminary findings, although in need of replication with a larger sample size, seem to suggest that the word class (i.e., content/function words) contributions to stuttering loci are more language-specific whereas the word position (i.e., utterance-initial position) contributions to stuttering loci are more language-nonspecific. Given that the true characteristics of stuttering may be rather language-nonspecific than language-specific, further research may need to focus more on stuttering loci related to word position than word class.


Assuntos
Testes de Linguagem/normas , Gagueira/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , República da Coreia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231525, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302350

RESUMO

Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM) has gained great popularity in the last decades as a methodology for longitudinal data analysis. The usual assumption of normally distributed repeated measures has been shown as problematic in real-life data applications. Namely, performing normal GMM on data that is even slightly skewed can lead to an over selection of the number of latent classes. In order to ameliorate this unwanted result, GMM based on the skew t family of continuous distributions has been proposed. This family of distributions includes the normal, skew normal, t, and skew t. This simulation study aims to determine the efficiency of selecting the "true" number of latent groups in GMM based on the skew t family of continuous distributions, using fit indices and likelihood ratio tests. Results show that the skew t GMM was the only model considered that showed fit indices and LRT false positive rates under the 0.05 cutoff value across sample sizes and for normal, and skewed and kurtic data. Simulation results are corroborated by a real educational data application example. These findings favor the development of practical guides of the benefits and risks of using the GMM based on this family of distributions.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Leitura
12.
Codas ; 32(2): e20190015, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study presents the process of developing of an instrument for collective evaluation of reading fluency and comprehension of secondary elementary school students in grades 6-9 and verifies the effect of schooling on performance in the instrument. METHODS: 100 students regularly enrolled in grades 6-9 in secondary elementary public schools participated in the study. The construction of the instrument involved seven steps, with the participation of two judges. The instrument was composed of narrative text appropriate for secondary elementary school students and for 10 multiple choice questions, which five were literal questions and five were inferential questions. RESULTS: The results showed a better performance for the participants with higher schooling in fluency and in reading comprehension. The reading fluency presented positive and moderate correlations with the reading comprehension. CONCLUSION: The instrument is easy to apply and analyze, and can be used in clinical, educational and research context to measure the performance of students in grades 6-9 in fluency and reading comprehension.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Testes de Linguagem/normas , Leitura , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Setor Público , Estudantes
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229857, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150570

RESUMO

Previous research established that young children are sensitive to prosodic cues discriminating between syntactic structures of otherwise similarly sounding sentences in a language unknown to them. In this study, we explore the role of working memory that children might deploy for the purpose of the sentence-level prosodic discrimination. Nine-year old Slovenian monolingual and bilingual children (N = 70) were tested on a same-different prosodic discrimination task in a language unknown to them (French) and on the working memory measures in the form of forward and backward digit span and non-word repetition tasks. The results suggest that both the storage and processing components of the working memory are involved in the prosodic discrimination task.


Assuntos
Idioma , Memória de Curto Prazo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala , Aprendizagem Verbal
14.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101424, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Touch screen devices are now ubiquitous, and their usage by young children is increasing. However, the effects of these devices on young children are still unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to address the associations of touch screen device exposure with symptomatic emotional and behavioral problems and language development in children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. METHOD: A total of 161 primary caregivers of children between the ages of 18 and 36 months were recruited from the pediatric ward and outpatient clinic at a medical center in southern Taiwan. All caregivers were asked to fill out the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 (CBCL 1½-5) and a questionnaire on basic personal information and touch screen device usage, and they were also interviewed with the Communication and Language Screening Test for Birth to Three Chinese-Speaking Infant-Toddlers (CLST). Independent t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to examine the differences among the categories in the demographic variables and to characterize the touch screen device usage behaviors. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the relationship between language delay and the extent of touch screen device exposure. After primary univariate analysis, we used multiple regression models to examine the relationships among the effects of touch screen device usage behaviors on children's emotional and behavioral problems and language development. RESULT: The children's mean age was 25.63 months (SD = 5.35). Children who spent more time on touch screen devices were more likely to have emotional problems (ß = .219, p < .010, 95 % CI: .279-1.518), anxious/depressive symptoms (ß = .206, p < .050, 95 % CI: .170-1.244), somatic complaints (ß = .291, p < .001, 95% CI: .455-1.462), social withdrawal symptoms (ß = .194, p < .050, 95 % CI: 0.133-1.150), attention problems (ß = .300, p < .001, 95 % CI: .432-1.267), and aggressive behaviors (ß = .247, p < .010, 95 % CI: .967-3.983). The effects were not noted on language development (ß = -.136, p < .100, 95 % CI: -2.595-.147). CONCLUSION: Young children who spent more time on touch screen devices were more likely to have emotional problems, anxious/depressive symptoms, somatic complaints, social withdrawal symptoms, attention problems, and aggressive behaviors, but not language delay.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Smartphone/tendências , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180156, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049151

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a Speech-language Pathology (SLP) program and verify its effects on the reading comprehension of dyslexic students. METHODS: Participants were eleven 4th and 5th-grade Elementary School students, eight boys and three girls, aged 9-11 years, diagnosed with developmental dyslexia. All individuals underwent the therapeutic program, which was composed of 16 sessions divided into four levels of complexity. A text adapted according to the Cloze technique and reading comprehension and orthography tasks were used in each session. The schoolchildren had their reading comprehension assessed pre- and post-program using a text available at the Test of Reading Comprehension of Expository Texts, adapted for application of the structural Cloze technique without support, according to the Evaluation of Reading Comprehension Levels. RESULTS: The participants showed better performance in reading comprehension at the post-program assessment not only in the filling of blanks in the text adapted according to the Cloze technique and in the Responses to Reading Comprehension Questions, but also in the level of reading comprehension achieved. CONCLUSION: The SLP program improved the reading comprehension performance and increased motivation to reading of dyslexic schoolchildren. Both the Cloze technique and the Reading Comprehension Questions were useful tools to develop and identify changes in the reading comprehension of the students assessed. This study is relevant because it prepared and verified the effects of a specific remediation program for schoolchildren with dyslexia by proposing the use of texts adapted according to the Cloze technique combined with other various tasks of reading comprehension and orthography.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Dislexia/reabilitação , Transtornos da Linguagem/reabilitação , Leitura , Distúrbios da Fala/reabilitação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Estudantes
16.
Brain ; 143(3): 844-861, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068789

RESUMO

The loss and recovery of language functions are still incompletely understood. This longitudinal functional MRI study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying language recovery in patients with post-stroke aphasia putting particular emphasis on the impact of lesion site. To identify patterns of language-related activation, an auditory functional MRI sentence comprehension paradigm was administered to patients with circumscribed lesions of either left frontal (n = 17) or temporo-parietal (n = 17) cortex. Patients were examined repeatedly during the acute (≤1 week, t1), subacute (1-2 weeks, t2) and chronic phase (>6 months, t3) post-stroke; healthy age-matched control subjects (n = 17) were tested once. The separation into two patient groups with circumscribed lesions allowed for a direct comparison of the contributions of distinct lesion-dependent network components to language reorganization between both groups. We hypothesized that activation of left hemisphere spared and perilesional cortex as well as lesion-homologue cortex in the right hemisphere varies between patient groups and across time. In addition, we expected that domain-general networks serving cognitive control independently contribute to language recovery. First, we found a global network disturbance in the acute phase that is characterized by reduced functional MRI language activation including areas distant to the lesion (i.e. diaschisis) and subsequent subacute network reactivation (i.e. resolution of diaschisis). These phenomena were driven by temporo-parietal lesions. Second, we identified a lesion-independent sequential activation pattern with increased activity of perilesional cortex and bilateral domain-general networks in the subacute phase followed by reorganization of left temporal language areas in the chronic phase. Third, we observed involvement of lesion-homologue cortex only in patients with frontal but not temporo-parietal lesions. Fourth, irrespective of lesion location, language reorganization predominantly occurred in pre-existing networks showing comparable activation in healthy controls. Finally, we detected different relationships of performance and activation in language and domain-general networks demonstrating the functional relevance for language recovery. Our findings highlight that the dynamics of language reorganization clearly depend on lesion location and hence open new perspectives for neurobiologically motivated strategies of language rehabilitation, such as individually-tailored targeted application of neuro-stimulation.


Assuntos
Afasia/fisiopatologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Idioma , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Lobo Temporal/patologia
17.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 26: 75-81, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Language is a complex neurodevelopmental phenomenon. Approximately 45% of children born very preterm (VP) show mild-to-severe language problems throughout childhood. Nevertheless, in most hospitals in Europe language functions are not routinely assessed at follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To give clear indications for extensive language assessment in school-aged children born VP, based on routinely assessed intelligence and behavioral problems. METHOD: Language functions of 63 10-year-old children born VP (<32 weeks' gestation) without major handicaps were compared to their intellectual and executive functions and behavioral problems. Using multiple linear regression analyses, the predictive value of perinatal factors and the association with neurodevelopmental factors of low language were measured. RESULTS: The mean language score was significantly lower than the verbal intelligent quotient (VIQ; mean difference = 6.4, p < .001, d=.48) and the mean vocabulary knowledge (mean difference = 9.3, p < .001, d=.70). Besides, VIQ (ß = .649, p = .001) and performance IQ (PIQ; ß = .260, p = .035) were significantly associated with language scores. Significant predictors of language scores were number of days of assisted ventilation (ß = -.592, p = .015) and mother's vocabulary knowledge (ß =.473, p = .014), rather than mother's educational level (ß =.139, p = .956). CONCLUSIONS: Children born VP had language problems that were not expected from their significantly higher VIQ and vocabulary knowledge. Clinicians assessing these children should be aware of possible language problems, which cannot be detected with a simple vocabulary task. Our findings provide evidence of the need for adequate language assessments by a speech-language pathologist in children born VP, especially in those with VIQ scores in the low average range.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Idioma , Adolescente , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Gravidez
18.
Dyslexia ; 26(1): 18-35, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043745

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the relationship between reading difficulties in native language (NL: Polish) and English as a foreign language in dyslexia in English and Polish students, respectively, and to develop a model of relations between NL phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, verbal short-term memory, and reading in English. Thirteen English students with dyslexia (ED), 15 without (END) and 16 Polish students with dyslexia (PD) and 16 without (PND) participated. We found that dyslexic deficits and different phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence rules between Polish and English interfered with the accuracy and fluency of word and nonword decoding and word recognition. Whereas END scored higher than PD and PND in all reading measures, ED did not, despite a NL advantage. When compared with PND, ED performed equal in nonword decoding, which depends to a higher degree on phoneme-to-grapheme conversion rather than lexical access. When compared with PD, ED performed equally in nonword fluency, which is most likely a nonscript-dependant skill. More variance in reading was explained by NL than FL factors, even if analogical NL/FL skills predicted a given variable. While in ED and END, these relationships agreed with the literature; in PD and PND, NL phonological awareness was not beneficial for English as a foreign language reading.


Assuntos
Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Fonética , Leitura , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Polônia , Estudantes , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2145, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034257

RESUMO

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have been shown to have abnormal brain morphometry or function, which are associated with psychological symptoms such as stress, depression or anxiety. The present work recruited 20 Crohn's disease patients in remission (CDs) and 20 age-gender-handedness-education matched healthy controls (HCs) and compared their brain white matter microstructural properties using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Additionally, we examined the correlations between the microstructural properties and cognition (verbal fluency language task, VF) and affect (anxiety) in both groups as well as disease duration in CDs. Results showed that CDs exhibited significant alterations in microstructural properties compared to HCs in various white matter tracts relevant to language function despite no significant difference in VF scores. Furthermore, CDs' microstructural changes exhibited correlations with anxiety level and disease duration. These findings suggest that CD patients may experience changes in white matter microstructural properties which may be a biomarker of neuropsychiatric comorbidities of CD.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Cognição , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Remissão Espontânea
20.
J Fluency Disord ; 63: 105747, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058092

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Numerous "small N" studies of language ability in children who stutter have produced differing conclusions. We combined test and spontaneous language data from a large cohort of children who stutter (CWS) and typically fluent peers, gathered from independent laboratories across the US, to appraise a variety of lexical measures. METHOD: Standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary test data and spontaneous language samples from 99 pairs of CWS (ages 25-100 months), and age-, gender-, and SES-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS) were compared. Language sample transcripts were analyzed with four measures of lexical diversity. Correlations between lexical diversity measures and expressive vocabulary scores were also calculated. RESULTS: On standardized tests of both receptive and expressive vocabulary, there were significant differences between CWS and CWNS. In contrast, on spontaneous language measures of lexical diversity, CWS did not differ in their lexical diversity, across analyses, compared to CWNS. Three of the four lexical diversity analyses, MATTR, VocD, and NDW, were significantly correlated with each other. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to confirm prior findings of relative disadvantage on standardized vocabulary tests for a very large sample of well-matched CWS. However, spontaneous language measures of lexical diversity did not distinguish the groups. This relative weakness in CWS may emerge from task differences: CWS are free to encode their own spontaneous utterances but must comply with explicit lexical prompts in standardized testing situations.


Assuntos
Idioma , Gagueira , Vocabulário , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Masculino
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