Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.225
Filtrar
1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 130-147, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092150

RESUMO

The development of verbal fluency is associated with the maturation of executive function skills, such as the ability to inhibit irrelevant information, shift between tasks, and hold information in working memory. Some evidence suggests that multilinguistic upbringing may underpin disadvantages in verbal fluency and lexical retrieval, but can also afford executive function advantages beyond the language system including possible beneficial effects in older age. This study examined the relationship between verbal fluency and executive function in 324 individuals across the lifespan by assessing the developmental trajectories of English monolingual and multilingual children aged 7-15 years (N = 154) and adults from 18 to 80 years old (N = 170). The childhood data indicated patterns of improvement in verbal fluency and executive function skills as a function of age. Multilingual and monolingual children had comparable developmental trajectories in all linguistic and non-linguistic measures used in the study with the exception of planning, for which monolingual children showed a steeper improvement over the studied age range relative to multilingual children. For adults, monolinguals and multilingual participants had comparable performance on all measures with the exception of nonverbal inhibitory control and response times on the Tower of London task: monolinguals showed a steeper decline associated with age. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that verbal fluency was associated with working memory and fluid intelligence in monolingual participants but not in multilinguals. These findings raise the possibility that early acquisition of an additional language may impact on the development of the functional architecture serving high-level human cognition.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Multilinguismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Dev Psychol ; 57(8): 1210-1227, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591566

RESUMO

To examine whether children's acquisition of perspective-marking language supports development in their ability to reason about mental states, we conducted a longitudinal study testing whether proficiency with complement clauses around age 3 explained variance in false-belief reasoning 6 months later. Forty-five English-speaking 2- and 3-year-olds (23 female, Time 1 age range = 33-41 months) from middle-class families in the North-West of England took part in the study, which addresses a series of uncertainties in previous studies. We avoided the confound of using complement clauses in the false-belief tests, assessed complement-clause proficiency with a new comprehensive test designed to capture gradual development, and controlled for individual differences in executive functioning that could affect both linguistic and sociocognitive performance. Further, we aimed to disentangle the influence of two aspects of complement-clause acquisition: proficiency with the perspective-marking syntactic structure itself and understanding of the specific mental verbs used in this syntactic structure. To investigate direction of causality, we also tested whether early false-belief reasoning predicted later complement-clause proficiency. The results provide strong support for the hypothesis that complement-clause acquisition promotes development in false-belief reasoning. Proficiency with the general structure of complement-clause constructions and understanding of the specific mental verbs "think" and "know" in third-person complements at Time 1 both contributed uniquely to predicting false-belief performance at Time 2. However, false-belief performance at Time 1 also contributed uniquely to predicting complement-clause proficiency at Time 2. Together, these results indicate a bidirectional relationship between linguistic and sociocognitive development. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Estudos Longitudinais
3.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(10): 3826-3842, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520218

RESUMO

Purpose This study examined the use of African American English (AAE) among a group of young Latinx bilingual children and the accuracy of the English Morphosyntax subtest of the Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment (BESA) in classifying these children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD). Method Children (N = 81) between the ages of 4;0 and 7;1 (years;months) completed a narrative task and the BESA Morphosyntax subtest. We identified DLD based on four reference measures. We compared specific dialectal features used by children with DLD and their typically developing peers. We also conducted an overall analysis of the BESA subtest and subsequent item-level analyses to determine if particular items were more likely to contribute to the correct classification of the participants. Results Children with DLD used three AAE forms in their narrative samples (subject-verb agreement, zero copula/auxiliary, or zero past tense) more frequently than their typically developing peers. Area-under-the-curve estimates for the cloze, sentence repetition, and composite scores of the BESA indicated that the assessment identified children with DLD in the sample with good sensitivity. Item analysis indicated that the majority of items (84%) significantly differentiated typically developing children and children with DLD. Conclusions The BESA English Morphosyntax subtest appears to be a valid tool for the identification of DLD in children exposed to AAE and Spanish. We provide practical implications and suggestions for future research addressing the identification of DLD among children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem
4.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(6): 2528-2541, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582275

RESUMO

Purpose We compared the Risk subtest of the Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation-Screening Test (DELV-Screening Test Risk) with two other screeners when administered to low-income prekindergartners (pre-K) who spoke African American English (AAE) in the urban South. Method Participants were 73 children (six with a communication disorder and 67 without) enrolled in Head Start or a publicly funded pre-K in an urban Southern city. All children completed the DELV-Screening Test Risk, the Fluharty Preschool Speech and Language Screening Test-Second Edition (FLUHARTY-2), and the Washington and Craig Language Screener (WCLS). Test order was counterbalanced across participants. Results DELV-Screening Test Risk error scores were higher than those reported for its standardization sample, and scores on the other screeners were lower than their respective standardization/testing samples. The 52% fail rate of the DELV-Screening Test Risk did not differ significantly from the 48% rate of the WCLS. Fail rates of the FLUHARTY-2 ranged from 34% to 75%, depending on the quotient considered and whether scoring was modified for dialect. Although items and subtests assumed to measure similar constructs were correlated to each other, the three screeners led to inconsistent pass/fail outcomes for 44% of the children. Conclusions Like other screeners, the DELV-Screening Test Risk subtest may lead to high fail rates for low-income pre-K children who speak AAE in the urban South. Inconsistent outcomes across screeners underscore the critical need for more study and development of screeners within the field.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Idioma , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Fala
5.
Res Dev Disabil ; 117: 104042, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal language development in both expressive and receptive domains occurs in most children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), although the language deficit is not a core symptom of ASD. However, previous studies disagree on the difference in the degree of impairment between expressive and receptive language in ASD. Existing research has concentrated on vocabulary and 'global expressive and receptive language', often using parental reports for language assessment. Moreover, most of these studies have focused on toddlers and preschoolers with ASD, whereas data from school-aged children with ASD are very limited. At the same time, the age of children might account for the inconsistencies across publications on expressive-receptive language difference in children with ASD. AIMS: The goal of the study was to directly compare the expressive and receptive language abilities of Russian primary-school-aged children with ASD (7-11 years old) at the levels of vocabulary, morphosyntax, and discourse. METHODS: 82 children with ASD participated in language testing. We used tests from the Russian Child Language Assessment Battery in order to assess vocabulary, morphosyntax, and discourse in expressive and receptive domains. RESULTS: Our results revealed different expressive and receptive patterns, depending on the linguistic level and tests complexity. Importantly, we showed that children's non-verbal IQ partly accounted for the difference between production and comprehension abilities. CONCLUSIONS: The expressive-better-than-receptive pattern in language has been considered by some authors as the unique hallmark of ASD. However, several studies, including our own, show that this is not a universal characteristic of ASD. We also revealed that expressive and receptive language patterns differed depending on the linguistic level, children's non-verbal IQ, and assessment tools.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Federação Russa , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
J Commun Disord ; 93: 106146, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with early language delays are at increased risk of persistent language impairment. Early identification and intervention are desirable. Parent-report inventories are useful screening tools, but the screening context places limits at their length. Validity of parent-report screening tools in languages other than English has been rarely reported in detail. AIMS: The aim was to establish the concurrent validity of an existing 40-item parent-report vocabulary screening tool in Czech, using a picture-based examiner-administered comprehension and production task as a concurrent measure of vocabulary. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Parents of 200 children aged 1;3 to 3;6 were given the screening inventory, in which they were asked if their child says or comprehends each of 40 words. At the same time, children were administered a picture-based comprehension and production task. Concurrent validity of the inventory was examined using correlations, partial correlations, and regression analyses controlling for age. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: The partial Spearman correlation (controlling for age) between production scores from parent-report and production scores from the examiner-administered task was 0.53; for comprehension, the correlation between parent report and test scores was 0.36. These values are similar to those reported for short and full versions of MacArthur-Bates CDI for 2-year-olds. CONCLUSION & IMPLICATIONS: A 40-item tool shows clear concurrent relations with an examiner-administered picture comprehension and production task. The study demonstrates that short parent-report tools may be useful in early identification of language impairments, and they may be a good option particularly in languages that have limited repertoire of assessment instruments.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Vocabulário , Pré-Escolar , República Tcheca , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(9): 3564-3570, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383594

RESUMO

Purpose This study examined the influences of bilingualism and developmental language disorder (DLD) on nonverbal processing speed. DLD is associated with slower processing speed, but the extent to which slowing extends to bilingual populations is not established. The possible presence of bilingual cognitive effects could also lead to faster processing speed among bilingual children. Method Participants included 108 children of ages 6-8 years, including 56 Spanish-English bilinguals (29 with DLD and 27 with typical development) and 52 English-only monolinguals (25 with DLD and 27 with typical development). Language testing (in both languages for bilingual children) was combined with parent and school report to classify children as having DLD or typical language development. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were excluded from the sample. Reaction time from a choice visual detection task was used to index nonverbal processing speed. Results Children with DLD demonstrated slower processing speed than their typically developing peers, whereas bilingual children demonstrated faster processing speed than monolinguals. The effects of DLD and bilingualism did not interact. Conclusions This study replicates prior findings of slowed processing speed among children with DLD in both monolingual and bilingual children. Evidence of faster processing speed among bilingual children contributes to the complex literature surrounding the circumstances of bilingual cognitive effects. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.15138747.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(9): 3578-3593, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407377

RESUMO

Purpose A wealth of studies has assessed the diagnostic value of the nonword repetition task (NWRT) for the detection of developmental language disorder (DLD) in the clinical context of speech and language therapy, first in monolingual children and, more recently, in bilingual children. This review article reviews this literature systematically and conducts a meta-analysis on the discriminative power of this type of task in both populations. Method Three databases were used to select articles based on keyword combinations, which were then reviewed for relevance and methodological rigor based on internationally recognized checklists. From an initial pool of 488 studies, 46 studies were selected for inclusion in the systematic review, and 35 of these studies could be included in a meta-analysis. Results Most of the articles report significant discrimination between children with and without DLD in both monolingual and bilingual contexts, and the meta-analysis shows a large mean effect size. Three factors (age of the child, linguistic status, and language specificity of the task) yielded enough quantitative data for further exploration. Subgroups analysis shows variance in effect sizes, but none of the three factors, neither their interactions, were significant in a metaregression. We discuss how other, less explored factors (e.g., nature of the stimuli, scoring methods) could also contribute to differences in results. Sensitivity and specificity analyses reported in 33 studies confirmed that, despite possible effect size differences, the diagnostic accuracy of the NWRT is generally near thresholds considered to be discriminatory. It generally increases when it is combined with other tasks (e.g., parental questionnaire). Conclusions This review indicates that the NWRT is a promising diagnostic tool to identify children with DLD in monolingual and bilingual contexts with a large mean effect size. However, it seems necessary to choose the precise NWRT materials based on the children's language background and to complement the assessment sessions with other tools in order to ensure diagnosis and to obtain complete language profile of the child. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.15152370.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística
9.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(5): 2275-2295, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269597

RESUMO

Purpose Nonword repetition has been endorsed as a less biased method of assessment for children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, but there are currently no systematic reviews or meta-analyses on its use with bilingual children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of nonword repetition in the identification of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children. Method Using a key word search of peer-reviewed literature from several large electronic databases, as well as ancestral and forward searches, 13 studies were identified that met the eligibility criteria. Studies were evaluated on the basis of quality of evidence, design characteristics, and reported diagnostic accuracy. A meta-regression analysis, based on study results, was conducted to identify task characteristics that may be associated with better classification accuracy. Results Diagnostic accuracy across studies ranged from poor to good. Bilingual children with LI performed with more difficulty on nonword repetition tasks than those with typical language. Quasi-universal tasks, which account for the phonotactic constraints of multiple languages, exhibited better diagnostic accuracy and resulted in less misidentification of children with typical language than language-specific tasks. Conclusions Evidence suggests that nonword repetition may be a useful tool in the assessment and screening of LI in bilingual children, though it should be used in conjunction with other measures. Quasi-universal tasks demonstrate the potential to further reduce assessment bias, but extant research is limited.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem
10.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(5): 2069-2079, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280024

RESUMO

Purpose Nonword repetition has been cited as a measure of phonological working memory and continues to gain status as a clinical tool used to identify language impairment in school-age children. Less is known about nonword repetition skills in the toddler population. Method The current study presents a detailed analysis of errors by segmenting nonwords into word, syllable, and phoneme levels. Errors were also analyzed for type (e.g., addition, substitution, deletion). The Test of Early Nonword Repetition was used to measure performance in a sample of 36 typically developing children, aged 24-48 months. Clinical assessments including parent report, language sampling procedures, and standardized assessments were also administered. Results As a group, participants produced significantly more syllable errors compared to word-level errors; however, most errors were made at the phoneme level. Errors of addition were the least common error type, and no differences between substitutions or deletions were present for the entire sample. Toddlers (aged 2 years) produced more syllable-level errors compared to older children (aged 3 years). Substitution errors were positively correlated with performance on clinical measures of language, whereas deletion errors were negatively correlated with performance. Conclusion Nonword repetition performance patterns in young children may be associated with language delay or language impairment and have both clinical and theoretical relevance.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fonética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3140-3158, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255982

RESUMO

Purpose Developmental language disorder (DLD) is defined by persistent difficulties with language, but a growing body of evidence suggests that it is also associated with domain-general and nonverbal information-processing deficits. However, the interconnections between cognitive functions, both nonverbal and language related, are still unclear. With the aim of gaining more comprehensive insight into the cognitive deficits related to DLD, we investigated and compared the cognitive structure of children with DLD and typically developing (TD) children. Method As a part of the Helsinki longitudinal SLI study, monolingual Finnish preschoolers (N = 154; TD group: n = 66, DLD group: n = 88) were assessed with 23 tasks measuring nonverbal and verbal reasoning, language processing, memory, visuomotor functions, attention, and social cognition. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed to examine latent constructs and to test measurement invariance between the TD and DLD groups. Results Measurement invariance was not found across the TD and DLD groups. Best fitting structure for TD children included factors reflecting verbal abilities, processing speed/short-term memory, visuomotor functions, and visuoconstructive abilities/nonverbal reasoning. The DLD group's structure comprised nonverbal abilities, naming/expressive language, verbal comprehension, and verbal/declarative memory. Conclusions The findings suggest that the structure of cognitive functions differs in TD children and children with DLD already at preschool age. Nonverbal functions seem more unified, whereas verbal functions seem more varying in preschoolers with DLD compared to TD children. The results can be used in future research for prognosis of DLD and planning interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Compreensão , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Memória de Curto Prazo
12.
Cognition ; 213: 104788, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226063

RESUMO

Adults who as children were adopted into a different linguistic community retain knowledge of their birth language. The possession (without awareness) of such knowledge is known to facilitate the (re)learning of birth-language speech patterns; this perceptual learning predicts such adults' production success as well, indicating that the retained linguistic knowledge is abstract in nature. Adoptees' acquisition of their adopted language is fast and complete; birth-language mastery disappears rapidly, although this latter process has been little studied. Here, 46 international adoptees from China aged four to 10 years, with Dutch as their new language, plus 47 matched non-adopted Dutch-native controls and 40 matched non-adopted Chinese controls, undertook across a two-week period 10 blocks of training in perceptually identifying Chinese speech contrasts (one segmental, one tonal) which were unlike any Dutch contrasts. Chinese controls easily accomplished all these tasks. The same participants also provided speech production data in an imitation task. In perception, adoptees and Dutch controls scored equivalently poorly at the outset of training; with training, the adoptees significantly improved while the Dutch controls did not. In production, adoptees' imitations both before and after training could be better identified, and received higher goodness ratings, than those of Dutch controls. The perception results confirm that birth-language knowledge is stored and can facilitate re-learning in post-adoption childhood; the production results suggest that although processing of phonological category detail appears to depend on access to the stored knowledge, general articulatory dimensions can at this age also still be remembered, and may facilitate spoken imitation.


Assuntos
Idioma , Percepção da Fala , Adoção , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Percepção , Fonética
13.
Codas ; 33(5): e20200168, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the influence of schooling on reading speed measures in Elementary School and Junior High, also aims to explore the levels of accuracy of the variables of reading speed in the epidemiological investigation stages of cases. METHODS: 535 students from the 2nd to the 9th grade from a private school and a state school system participated in the study. The oral reading of a simple text was evaluated in the following parameters: words read per minute and correctly words read per minute. Descriptive statistics and T-test measures with the significance of 5% were conducted, besides the z-score, standardized and individual. RESULTS: The results corroborate the literature review which shows an increase in reading speed with the progression of schooling. The reading fluency was presented in the construction process between the 2nd and 7th grades, with stabilization from the 7th year. A more fluent and homogeneous reading was sedimented between the 7th and 9th grades. The study proposes the interpretation of the findings with scales suggestive of the deficit using the z-score. The data are stratified from values suggestive of significant deficit to non-suggestive, with a total of five strata. The stratification allows a clearer reference on which point the scholar found in the expected ranges for their schooling. CONCLUSION: The measures of the expected values according to schooling are essential for better-quality knowledge of reading development, to provide reference standards for adequate monitoring in the clinical and educational sphere and prediction of reading skills and difficulties.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Leitura , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
Codas ; 33(6): e20200169, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the performance of preschoolers with typical language development in tasks of expressive vocabulary and oral narrative and to verify possible correlations. METHODS: The study included 39 children aged 4 to 6 years old, of both genders, with no complaints about language development. Mothers answered a questionnaire of socioeconomic classification, while the ABFW Vocabulary Test was used to evaluate the vocabulary and the book "Frog, where are you?" was used to elicit the child's oral narrative. The data collected were submitted to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. RESULTS: Regarding expressive vocabulary, the majority of preschoolers (92.3%) had the usual verbal designation (UVD) suitable for the age group, and the semantic fields with the highest UVD were "animals", "shapes and colors", "toys and musical instruments", "transportation" and those with children were "professions" and "local". The predominant type of narrative was causal, followed by intentional. There was no correlation between UVD and the use of words in the narratives, but there was a positive correlation between the total and the number of different words used in the narrative. CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between the expressive vocabulary (UVD) and the use of words in the narrative, but the preschoolers who used more words in their narratives also showed greater lexical variety in this sample.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Vocabulário , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Narração , Semântica
15.
Codas ; 33(4): e20190028, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess whether bilingualism, on a language switching experiment, is associated with higher or lower accuracy and speed of the rapid automatized naming of objects and investigate the influence of language switching on reading speed. METHODS: The performance of 50 Brazilian bilingual children in the Rapid Automatized Naming Task, whose L1 was Brazilian Portuguese and who were exposed to English daily at school, was assessed. Forty-seven monolingual (Brazilian Portuguese) children were grouped according to age. RESULTS: Language switching interfered with the performance of the bilingual children in the Rapid Automatized Naming Task in terms of speed and accuracy. No correlations were found between the performance in the RAN task and Reading Speed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian bilingual students showed poor performance in the rapid naming task on the switch trial when compared to monolingual students, showing higher rates of mistakes, especially hesitations. Only the performance of bilingual students in the rapid naming task in L2 correlated with L1 reading speed.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Brasil , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Leitura
16.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(7): 2750-2765, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232699

RESUMO

Purpose This study evaluates the effectiveness of a nonword repetition (NWR) task in discriminating between Palestinian Arabic-speaking children with developmental language disorder (DLD) and age-matched typically developing (TD) children. Method Participants were 30 children with DLD aged between 4;0 and 6;10 (years;months) and 60 TD children aged between 4;0 and 6;8 matched on chronological age. The Arabic version of a Quasi-Universal NWR task was administered. The task comprises 30 nonwords that vary in length, presence of consonant clusters (CCs) and wordlikeness ratings. Responses were scored using an item-level scoring method to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the task. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted to determine the best cutoff point with the highest sensitivity and specificity values, and likelihood ratios were calculated. Results Children with DLD scored significantly lower on the NWR task than their age-matched TD peers. Only the DLD group was influenced by the phonological complexity of the nonwords, with nonwords with two CC being more difficult than nonwords with no or only one CC. For both groups, three-syllable nonwords were repeated less accurately than two- and one-syllable nonwords. Also, high word-like nonwords were repeated more accurately than nonwords with low wordlikeness ratings. The best cutoff score had sensitivity and specificity of 93% and highly informative likelihood ratios. Conclusions NWR was an area of difficulty for Palestinian Arabic-speaking children with DLD. NWR showed excellent discriminatory power in differentiating Arabic-speaking children diagnosed with DLD from their age-matched TD peers. NWR appears to hold promise for clinical use as it is a useful indicator of DLD in Arabic. These results need to be further validated using population-based studies. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14880360.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 50(5): 1013-1030, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279796

RESUMO

Children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) display impaired phonological and/or morpho-syntactic skills. To detect these impairments, it would be of value to devise tasks that assess specific markers of implicit linguistic competence. We administered a forced choice semantic categorization task developed in Italian (Belacchi and Cubelli in Journal of psycholinguistic research 41:295-310, 2012) for detecting the implicit use of grammatical gender markers in classifying epicenes names of animals: phonological and/or syntactic. Seventy Italian children with expressive-phonological DLD (mean age: 61.20 months) were compared with a same-size control group. Overall, the children with DLD performed more poorly than the control group. Also, the DLD participants used the phonological index to a significantly lesser extent, confirming their specific impairment in the phonological processing of words. The current study provided evidence for the status of phonological discrimination skills as a precursor of language development, and the value of using categorization tasks to assess implicit linguistic competence in children with DLD.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Itália , Idioma , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística
18.
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 56(4): 858-872, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given that standardized language measures alone are inadequate for identifying functionally defined developmental language disorder (fDLD), this study investigated whether non-linguistic cognitive abilities (procedural learning, motor functions, executive attention, processing speed) can increase the prediction accuracy of fDLD in children in linguistically diverse settings. METHODS & PROCEDURES: We examined non-linguistic cognitive abilities in mono- and bilingual school-aged children (ages 8-12) with and without fDLD. Typically developing (TD) children (14 monolinguals, 12 bilinguals) and children with fDLD (28 monolinguals, 12 bilinguals) completed tasks measuring motor functions, procedural learning, executive attention and processing speed. Children were assigned as fDLD based on parental or professional concerns regarding children's daily language functioning. If no concerns were present, children were assigned as TD. Standardized English scores, non-verbal IQ scores and years of maternal education were also obtained. Likelihood ratios were used to examine how well each measure separated the fDLD versus TD groups. A binary logistic regression was used to test whether combined measures enhanced the prediction of identifying fDLD status. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: A combination of linguistic and non-linguistic measures provided the best distinction between fDLD and TD for both mono- and bilingual groups. For monolingual children, the combined measures include English language scores, functional motor abilities and processing speed, whereas for bilinguals, the combined measures include English language scores and procedural learning. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: A combination of non-linguistic and linguistic measures significantly improved the distinction between fDLD and TD for both mono- and bilingual groups. This study supports the possibility of using non-linguistic cognitive measures to identify fDLD in linguistically diverse settings. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: What is already known on the subject Given that standardized English language measures may fail to identify functional language disorder, we examined whether supplementing English language measures with non-linguistic cognitive tasks could resolve the problem. Our study is based on the hypothesis that non-linguistic cognitive abilities contribute to language processing and learning. This is further supported by previous findings that children with language disorder exhibit non-linguistic cognitive deficits. What this paper adds to existing knowledge The results indicated that a combination of linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive abilities increased the prediction of functional language disorder in both mono- and bilingual children. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? This study supports the possibility of using non-linguistic cognitive measures to identify the risk of language disorder in linguistically diverse settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem
19.
J Commun Disord ; 93: 106127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139554

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Children adopted from Eastern Europe were assessed at ages 6 to 7 years and results were compared to the same children when they were 8 years. Patterns of relative strengths and weaknesses in language, verbal memory and literacy were analyzed. Variables that predicted reading and writing were determined. METHOD: Children adopted from Eastern Europe between 1;0 and 4;11 years of age were assessed at ages 6 to 7 years and age 8 years on a variety of tests that measured language, verbal memory and literacy. Results were compared across ages, and language, verbal memory and literacy domains. RESULTS: Group means for all measures fell within the average range at both ages. The children's scores were not significantly different from test norms except for measures of rapid naming and number repetition. However, a larger than expected percentage of children scored -1SD below the mean on decontextualized measures of verbal working memory and reading fluency. At age 8 years 24% of children received speech language therapy services and 26% had repeated a grade level. Vocabulary, expressive syntax, verbal short-term memory and writing were areas of relative strength. Higher level vocabulary knowledge was strongly correlated with all literacy measures. CONCLUSION: As a group, Eastern European adoptees scored average on measures of language and literacy at 6 or 7 years and again at age 8 years. However, 26% of the children had repeated a grade and 24% were still receiving speech and language services. Vocabulary was an area of strength reflecting the children's enriched adopted home environments. In-depth knowledge of vocabulary was the best predictor of reading and writing. Some aspects of working memory were a strength but others were not. Rapid naming was also a weakness.


Assuntos
Criança Adotada , Criança , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fala
20.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 52(3): 877-888, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170746

RESUMO

Purpose This study describes the language diversity (the within-group variability in dual-language skills) of a sample of Latino dual-language learners (preschoolers, 3-5 years of age) and how language diversity is related to home and classroom factors. Method A sample of 161 caregivers and their preschoolers participated in this study. Caregivers and a sample of 19 teachers reported on demographic factors and home and classroom language environments. Children were assessed in various domains of both Spanish and English to evaluate their language proficiency skills in each language. Latent profile analysis was used to generate profiles of the diversity of bilingual skills of young dual-language learners. Results Four profiles of dual-language skills emerged, characterized by balanced versus uneven skills and phonology and morphosyntax domains. The domains within each language served as markers to distinguish the profiles from one another, specifically morphosyntax and phonology. The results underscore the linguistic heterogeneity of preschool Latino dual-language learners. Conclusions Findings reflect the importance of highlighting the strengths of language diversity of preschool Latino dual-language learners instead of employing a monolithic, "one-size-fits-all" approach when considering how to best support them. Furthermore, the home environment plays an important role in supporting Spanish language skills, especially if such support is not necessarily provided at school.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...