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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(2): 104566, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Better understanding of clinical predictors of aphasia outcome is of the utmost importance, in patients' rehabilitation planning, expectation management, and further physiopathology understanding. We aimed to identify clinical predictors of long-term poststroke aphasia's outcome. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal observation study of patients with left-Middle Cerebral Artery stroke with aphasia. Patients were evaluated at baseline, day 7 and 6 months with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Aphasia Rapid Test Other demographic variables and vascular risk factors were collected. A linear regression was performed to identify best predictors of aphasia at 6 months. FINDINGS: We included 113 patients with a left hemisphere stroke, with 81 reaching the final evaluation. Aphasia Handicap Score at 6 months was predicted by baseline total NIHSS (ß = .077, 95%CI = [.026, .127]. P = .004), infarct volume on CT-scan (ß = .009, 95%CI = [.003, .015]. P = .003), single word repetition at baseline (ß = .188, 95%CI = [.040, .335]. P = .013), and infection during hospitalization (ß = .759, 95%CI = [.263, 1.255]. P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Aphasia's outcome in patients with stroke is predicted by a single word repetition task at baseline. Infection during hospitalization has a negative impact on aphasia's outcome at 6 months.


Assuntos
Afasia/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Linguagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Afasia/diagnóstico , Afasia/psicologia , Afasia/reabilitação , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/reabilitação , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180204, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851209

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to translate and culturally adapt, for Brazil, the battery of tests "Evaluación de los procesos lectores - PROLEC-SE-R", for students of Elementary School cycle II, and Senior High School. METHODS: The following stages of translation and cultural adaptation were followed: (1) Translation; (2) Synthesis of translations; (3) Back-translation; (4) Evaluation by specialist committee; (5) Pilot study: Undertaken in a sample of 70 students, 10 from each school year, in two sessions; and (6) Evaluation and appreciation of all the reports written by the researcher and specialist committee. RESULTS: modifications to the tests of PROLEC-SE-R are not necessary as indicated in the pilot study, both in the collective and individual version. The procedure received good acceptance by the evaluated students and there were no complaints or reports of difficulty in understanding the tests and instructions. CONCLUSION: the procedure is appropriate for the Brazilian reality and can be used to evaluate Elementary School II and Senior High School students. A standardization study is necessary in a representative sample of the population.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Leitura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Compreensão , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Estudantes
3.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180130, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664368

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the level of passive vocabulary in boys and girls belonging to the Mapuche ethnic group, using the Vocabulary Test in Images Revised version (TEVI-R). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twenty-six children, both gender, between 4 to 7 years old participated in the study. The performance of passive vocabulary was measured through the application of the TEVI-R, analyzing the variables age and gender, as well as performing an analysis of the items and the number of errors. RESULTS: The performance of these children is not influenced by gender or age. There are potential sources of error in the items of the instruments related to the cultural, geographical relevance and graphic quality of them. CONCLUSION: No association was observed by gender or differences by age in the study population. The possibility of developing new instruments or revising the available ones is discussed, given the characteristics of their native language, obtaining reliable results and respecting the elements that are part of their culture.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Vocabulário , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Masculino , Grupos Populacionais
4.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180158, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664369

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Analyze and characterize the oral language of a group of children participating in an auditory rehabilitation program, with at least five years of dispositive use, based on skills of receptive and expressive language measured trough the verbal comprehension RDLS scale. METHODS: Transversal and prospective study, evaluating 6 children with age between 8 and 11 years old, all with neurosensory bilateral severe deafness, average time of cochlear implant use of at least 5 years. The evaluation was performed using the RDLS scale, a Brazilian variant of the American scale known as Reynell Developmental Language Scales (RDLS). It consists of the comprehension scale, expression scale, in addition to sub-scales: structure, vocabulary and content. RESULTS: The naming skills were significantly better when compared to abilities involving pragmatic language functions, demonstrated by the sub-scales of content and structure, like the description of a figure and construction of longer sentences or syntactic organization compared to objects, words and figures identification. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences between the Comprehension and Expression scales; however, we noted that the performances in more complex structures, like sentences recognition, were inferior to their word recognition performances. These results imply possible implementation of educational and rehabilitation programs for children using cochlear implant.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/reabilitação , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem/normas , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Vocabulário
6.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 39(3): 105-114, jul.-sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185829

RESUMO

Background: pragmatics is an area of language that may be impaired in a wide variety of disorders. However, there is a dearth of instruments for the assessment of pragmatic abilities. The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) is the most widespread test, although more adaptations of this instrument to other languages are necessary. Aims: in this paper we (1) develop a pilot study to adapt the CCC-2 to the Galician language, (2) check the capacity of this version to assess communicative difficulties in Galician speakers from 4 to 16 years of age, and (3) we also check its capacity to discriminate the linguistic profiles of different disorders. Method: the reference profile of the Galician CCC-2 was established with a sample of 48 schoolchildren. Comparisons of the scores obtained by children with ASD (n=11), ADHD (n=10), Down Syndrome (DS) (n=9) and Typical Development (n=10) were carried out. Results: the Galician CCC-2 (1) accurately identified children with and without communicative impairments, (2) distinguished between profiles with predominance of pragmatic (ASD and ADHD) and structural disorders (DS), and (3) distinguished between different profiles with predominance of pragmatic impairment. Conclusions: the Galician CCC-2 seems to be a useful instrument to assess pragmatic disorders and to differentiate among different clinical groups


Introducción: la pragmática es un área del lenguaje que puede verse afectada en una amplia variedad de trastornos. Sin embargo, hay una escasez de instrumentos para la evaluación de las habilidades pragmáticas. El Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) es la prueba más utilizada, aunque se necesitan más adaptaciones de este instrumento a otros idiomas. Objetivos: en este documento 1)desarrollamos un estudio piloto para adaptar el CCC-2 al gallego; 2)comprobamos la capacidad de esta versión para evaluar las dificultades comunicativas en hablantes de gallego de 4 a 16años, y 3)también comprobamos su capacidad para discriminar perfiles lingüísticos de diferentes trastornos. Método: el perfil de referencia del CCC-2 gallego se estableció con una muestra de 48 escolares. Se realizaron comparaciones de las puntuaciones obtenidas por los niños con TEA (n=11), TDAH (n=10), síndrome de Down (SD; n=9) y desarrollo normal (n=10). Resultados: el CCC-2 gallego 1)identificó con precisión a los niños con trastornos comunicativos y sin ellos; 2)distinguió entre los perfiles con predominio de trastornos pragmáticos (TEA y TDAH) y estructurales (SD), y 3)distinguió entre los diferentes perfiles con predominio del deterioro pragmático. Conclusiones: parece que el CCC-2 gallego es un instrumento útil para evaluar trastornos pragmáticos y para diferenciar entre diferentes grupos clínicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Transtornos da Comunicação , Psicometria/instrumentação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Síndrome de Down , Comparação Transcultural , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade
7.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 126: 109619, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reading and writing skills are important for hearing-impaired children since these skills help them to develop their language skills, but the prevalence of reading/writing difficulties and its effects on language development aspects among them are unclear. In this study, we identified language development features and demographic factors of Japanese hearing-impaired children diagnosed as having reading/writing difficulties. METHODS: We analyzed data from a total of 546 sever-to-profound pre-school and elementary school hearing-impaired children for this study. Children with reading/writing difficulties (Group A) were defined as children obtaining low scores (-1.5 SD compared to others in the same grade) in the Screening Test of Reading and Writing for Japanese Primary School Children (STRAW), and we compared other language development features (communication ability, vocabulary, syntax and academic achievement) and demographic factors to those of hearing-impaired children with normal reading and writing skills (Group B). We assessed language development domains as outcomes using the Assessment of Language Development for Japanese Children (ALADJIN) package, and analyzed the results stratified by age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-10, and 11-12 years) using multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of reading/writing difficulties was 20.1% among the participants. Almost all point estimates in each language development domain showed better odds ratios (OR) except Criterion Referenced Test -II (CRT-II) mathematics in 11- to 12-year-olds in fully-adjusted models. Among 9- to 10-year-olds, the ORs (95% confidence interval) for fair academic achievement measured by CRT-II were 2.60 (1.09-6.20) for Japanese and 3.02 (1.29-7.11) for mathematics in Group B, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: Reading and writing are important for language development of hearing-impaired children, especially for academic achievement during the middle phase of elementary school. Screening for reading/writing difficulties is important for appropriate intervention and to prevent language and academic delays among hearing-impaired children.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Perda Auditiva , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Leitura , Redação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Testes de Linguagem , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Matemática , Vocabulário
8.
Res Dev Disabil ; 92: 103443, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374382

RESUMO

This study examined the role of visual statistical learning in reading and writing and its relationship to orthographic awareness in Hong Kong Chinese children with and without developmental dyslexia. Thirty-five 7- to 8-year-old children with developmental dyslexia and 37 chronologically age-matched controls were tested on visual statistical learning, orthographic awareness, nonverbal cognitive ability, Chinese word reading, and word dictation tasks. Visual statistical learning was assessed using a triplet learning paradigm that required children to detect the temporal order of visual stimuli. Orthographic awareness was measured with a novel character invention task that required children to create pseudocharacters using untaught stroke patterns according to the rules of Chinese character orthography. Children with dyslexia performed significantly worse than their age-matched controls on both the visual statistical learning and orthographic awareness tasks. Furthermore, visual statistical learning was significantly associated with orthographic awareness and word reading. These findings suggest that Chinese children with dyslexia are impaired in visual statistical learning and that such deficits may be related to disrupted orthographic learning abilities, thereby contributing to their reading difficulties.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Dislexia/reabilitação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Leitura , Redação , Criança , Cognição , Dislexia/psicologia , Feminino , Percepção de Forma , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Aprendizagem Espacial
9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 4740-4750, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440869

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with deficient comprehension of figurative language and, specifically, idioms. Theories ascribe this to deficits in specific abilities (e.g., Theory of Mind [ToM]; executive functions [EF]; general language skills), but no comprehensive theory has resulted. This study investigated the differential contribution of various abilities to idiom comprehension among children and adolescents with ASD compared to matched controls with typical development (TD). The TD group outperformed the ASD group in idiom comprehension. However, whereas EF predicted idiom comprehension in the TD group, vocabulary predicted idiom comprehension in the ASD group. Our findings emphasize the link between general language competence and figurative language comprehension in ASD and point to different processing mechanisms in each group.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Testes de Linguagem , Linguagem , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Criança , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Vocabulário
10.
Res Dev Disabil ; 93: 103456, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invented spelling has been viewed as a window to young children's spelling development. AIMS: This longitudinal study investigated the developmental trends in invented spelling as a function of phoneme position in very young ESL children. It also investigated cognitive-linguistic precursors of L2 spelling difficulties. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We identified 2 groups of spellers in kindergarten based on their invented spelling performances at the end of kindergarten: average spellers and at-risk spellers. The two groups were compared on invented spelling performance at varied phoneme positions of a word. They were also administered a battery of cognitive-linguistic tasks, including letter knowledge, phonemic awareness, vocabulary and rapid automatized naming at an earlier timepoint. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Both groups performed better in invented spelling on initial consonants than on medial vowels, which in turn were better than final consonants at two time points. In addition, the average spellers improved significantly more than the at-risk spellers at all phoneme positions. Vocabulary was a significant predictor of spelling difficulties when other crucial cognitive-linguistic variables were taken into consideration simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The current findings suggest the unique features of invented spelling development in L2 learners and identified precursors to L2 spelling difficulties. Very young average and at-risk L2 spellers showed differential gains in L2 invented spelling. Implications of the present study are (1) invented spelling at kindergarten is able to differentiate average and at-risk spellers and (2) invented spelling training and vocabulary intervention could be useful in the remediation of spelling difficulties.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Dislexia Adquirida , Aprendizagem , Multilinguismo , Vocabulário , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dislexia Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Dislexia Adquirida/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Fonética , Leitura
11.
Brain Lang ; 197: 104676, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419589

RESUMO

Many patients who meet core/root criteria for Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) are not classifiable as a recognized variant and are often excluded from neuroimaging studies. Here, we detail neurological, neuropsychological, speech and language assessments, and anatomic and molecular neuroimaging (MRI, PiB-PET, and FDG-PET) for fifteen (8 female) clinically unclassifiable PPA patients. Median age of onset was 64 years old with median 3 years disease duration at exam. Three patients were amyloid positive on PiB-PET. 14/15 patients had abnormal FDG-PETs with left predominant hypometabolism, affecting frontal, temporal, parietal, and even occipital lobes. Patients had mild to severe clinical presentations. Visualization of the FDG-PETs principal component analysis revealed patterns of hypometabolism similar to those seen in the PPA variants and suggests the brain regions affected in unclassifiable PPA patients are no different from those who are more easily classifiable. These findings may inform future modifications to the diagnostic criteria to improve diagnostic classification.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva/patologia , Afasia Primária Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Análise de Componente Principal , Fala/fisiologia
12.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180177, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460569

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to present findings on language, behavior, and neurodevelopment in a girl diagnosed with Angelman Syndrome, evaluated when she was three and eight years old. METHODS: The following evaluation instruments were used: Observation of Communication Behavior, Early Language Milestone (ELM) Scale, and Denver Developmental Screening Test, 2nd edition (DDST-II). RESULTS: In this case report, presence of AS phenotype signals such as wide mouth and wide-spaced teeth, tongue thrusting, strabismus, up slanting palpebral fissures, and sialorrhea are verified. Expressive and receptive deficits were verified in the language assessment, with the absence of orality and loss of comprehension with very similar performances in both evaluations. The ELM and DDST-II tests indicated severe impairment of all abilities evaluated at both three and eight years of age. Performance was quite similar in both evaluations in all areas of child development. Little progress was observed over time despite the great therapeutic and educational investment. CONCLUSION: The presence of a complex scenario such as AS demands high complexity clinical needs, a situation that is worsened due to scarcity of therapeutic resources that could minimize the harmful impacts of AS and culminate in increased quality of life for the AS population and their families.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/reabilitação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/reabilitação , Síndrome de Angelman/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Angelman/psicologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor
13.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(6): 481-484, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To screen for language delay in very low birth weight (VLBW) children between 6 months to 3 years using Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum, 0-3 years. METHODS: VLBW inborn neonates at a corrected age of 6 months to 3 years visiting follow-up clinic were enrolled. Children with hearing loss were excluded. Prevalence and predictors of language delay were ascertained. RESULTS: Of 200 enrolled subjects, out of the 1400 VLBW discharged, 64 (32%) had language delay. On multivariate analysis, late onset sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus and poor socioeconomic status were significant predictors of language delay. Abnormal neurological examination and suspect development were also associated with language delay. CONCLUSIONS: In VLBW children, the frequency of language delay is quite high. These children should be screened for language delay.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Programas de Rastreamento , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Res Dev Disabil ; 92: 103444, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge are independent predictors of reading fluency for deaf children in different grades. AIMS: This study examined the relative contributions of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge to Chinese deaf children's reading fluency in grades 3-4 (lower grades; mean age 14.08 years) and 5-6 (higher grades; mean age 15.05 years). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: One hundred and forty-one deaf children and 163 hearing children were enrolled. All children completed assessments of general cognitive ability, onset and tone awareness, vocabulary knowledge and reading fluency. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The results showed that for lower-grade deaf children, the unique effect of onset awareness on reading fluency was not statistically significant, but it was an independent predictor in higher grades; for lower-grade hearing children, onset awareness accounted for variance in reading fluency, but its effect was not significant in higher grades. No significant effect of tone awareness was found in deaf or hearing children. However, vocabulary knowledge significantly explained the variance in reading fluency for all subgroups. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The predictive patterns of phonological awareness on reading fluency are complex and depend on many factors, while vocabulary knowledge is an important and consistent predictor for both deaf and hearing children.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Cognição , Surdez , Fonética , Leitura , Vocabulário , Pré-Escolar , China , Surdez/psicologia , Surdez/reabilitação , Feminino , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação
15.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219924, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348790

RESUMO

The FMR1 premutation (PM) is relatively common in the general population. Evidence suggests that PM carriers may exhibit subtle differences in specific cognitive and language abilities. This study examined potential mechanisms underlying such differences through the study of gaze and language coordination during a language processing task (rapid automatized naming; RAN) among female carriers of the FMR1 PM. RAN taps a complex set of underlying neuropsychological mechanisms, with breakdowns implicating processing disruptions in fundamental skills that support higher order language and executive functions, making RAN (and analysis of gaze/language coordination during RAN) a potentially powerful paradigm for revealing the phenotypic expression of the FMR1 PM. Forty-eight PM carriers and 56 controls completed RAN on an eye tracker, where they serially named arrays of numbers, letters, colors, and objects. Findings revealed a pattern of inefficient language processing in the PM group, including a greater number of eye fixations (namely, visual regressions) and reduced eye-voice span (i.e., the eyes' lead over the voice) relative to controls. Differences were driven by performance in the latter half of the RAN arrays, when working memory and processing load are the greatest, implicating executive skills. RAN deficits were associated with broader social-communicative difficulties among PM carriers, and with FMR1-related molecular genetic variation (higher CGG repeat length, lower activation ratio, and increased levels of the fragile X mental retardation protein; FMRP). Findings contribute to an understanding of the neurocognitive profile of PM carriers and indicate specific gene-behavior associations that implicate the role of the FMR1 gene in language-related processes.


Assuntos
Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Fala , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Função Executiva , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/psicologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Autorrelato , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 767-769, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207864

RESUMO

Evaluating patients' verbal fluency by counting the number of unique words (e.g., animals) produced in a short-period (e.g., 1-3 min) is one of the most widely employed cognitive tests in psychiatric research. We introduce new methods to analyze fluency output that leverage modern computational language technology. This enables moving beyond simple word counts to charting the temporal dynamics of speech and objectively quantifying the semantic relationship of the utterances. These metrics can greatly expand the current psychiatric research toolkit and can help refine clinical theories regarding the nature of putative language differences in patients.


Assuntos
Testes de Linguagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psiquiatria/métodos , Fala/fisiologia , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Psiquiatria/tendências , Semântica
17.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 17(2): 199-210, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162120

RESUMO

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects with DLB remain under-diagnosed, especially in the early stage of the disease, when they can show subtle neurocognitive disorders similar to subjects with AD. In order to refine the differential diagnosis between these two neurodegenerative diseases and to improve patients' care, our speech therapy study aimed to analyze their ability to tell a story by producing a narrative discourse (ND). METHOD: 25 participants with DLB and 12 participants with AD underwent a ND test based on an illustrated story. The test was selected from the French language assessment corpus GREMOTS. The grading of the ND was done according to the following six parameters: lexicon, syntax, pragmatics, presence of the main actions, quality of discourse and informativeness. RESULTS: In the early stage, a quarter of the participants with DLB are under cut-off score for ND, and this proportion strongly increases in the advanced stage. In contrast, all the participants with AD show a pathological ND in both stages. In the early stage, the ND abilities appear significantly better preserved in participants with DLB than in participants with AD. No difference is found in the advanced stage. This result highlights two distinct language profiles, with the participants with AD being significantly less informative than the participants with DLB in the early stage. Furthermore, the participants with DLB show pathological scores spreading over the six parameters, whereas the participants with AD have more selective impairments. Indeed, the informativeness of participants with AD is 100% pathological while their syntax is 100% preserved. DISCUSSION: These results are encouraging as they could enable speech therapists to better adjust their follow-up according to the linguistic profile of the patients and to educate caregivers more appropriately. Further research on language issues in DLB and AD is essential.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referência , Fonoterapia
18.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 124: 22-29, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lack of formal tests to assess the various dimension of language in Persian is one of the main challenges of speech and language pathologists in Iran. The purpose of this study was to develop a Persian Syntax Comprehension Test to assess the syntax comprehension in Persian speaking children aged 4-10 years old. METHODS: the study included four phases. In the first phase, syntactic structures of Persian were extracted and then, items generation was performed. In the second phase, content validity was determined and images were designed for the items. In the third phase, two pilot studies were carried out and difficulty and discrimination indices for items were determined and in the last phase, 788 typically-developing children (436 children aged 4-6 and 352 children aged 6-10 years old) and 15 children with Developmental language disorder were recruited then, psychometric properties (construct and concurrent validity, test-retest, and split-half reliability) were evaluated. In the final step, standard score and percentile were calculated. We used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 24.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) for the statistical analysis of the data. The significance level was (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Final version of Persian syntax comprehension test contains 24 syntactic structures and 96 items. Items' Difficulty indices were between 0.33 and 0.90. There was a significant difference among the age groups for the mean total score of the Persian syntax comprehension test. In addition, a high correlation existed between total scores of this test and those of grammar understanding subtest of Test of langue development (r = 0.52, P < 0.001). The correlation of total Persian syntax comprehension test score of the two rounds of test performance and the split-half coefficient were estimated to be 0.56 and 0.85, respectively. CONCLUSION: It seems that the Persian Syntax comprehension test has satisfactory values for the reliability and validity measures, and it can be used as a suitable instrument by researchers and clinicians.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Dev Sci ; 22(5): e12875, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162875

RESUMO

In many low- and middle-income countries, young children learn a mother tongue or indigenous language at home before entering the formal education system where they will need to understand and speak a country's official language(s). Thus, assessments of children before school age, conducted in a nation's official language, may not fully reflect a child's development, underscoring the importance of test translation and adaptation. To examine differences in vocabulary development by language of assessment, we adapted and validated instruments to measure developmental outcomes, including expressive and receptive vocabulary. We assessed 505 2-to-6-year-old children in rural communities in Western Kenya with comparable vocabulary tests in three languages: Luo (the local language or mother tongue), Swahili, and English (official languages) at two time points, 5-6 weeks apart, between September 2015 and October 2016. Younger children responded to the expressive vocabulary measure exclusively in Luo (44%-59% of 2-to-4-year-olds) much more frequently than did older children (20%-21% of 5-to-6-year-olds). Baseline receptive vocabulary scores in Luo (ß = 0.26, SE = 0.05, p < 0.001) and Swahili (ß = 0.10, SE = 0.05, p = 0.032) were strongly associated with receptive vocabulary in English at follow-up, even after controlling for English vocabulary at baseline. Parental Luo literacy at baseline (ß = 0.11, SE = 0.05, p = 0.045) was associated with child English vocabulary at follow-up, while parental English literacy at baseline was not. Our findings suggest that multilingual testing is essential to understanding the developmental environment and cognitive growth of multilingual children.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Alfabetização/estatística & dados numéricos , Multilinguismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pais , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vocabulário
20.
Cerebellum ; 18(4): 791-806, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111430

RESUMO

Language processing depends on an integrated circuit involving the left supratentorial language areas and the right posterior lateral cerebellar hemisphere (lobule VI, lobule VII, Crus I, and Crus II). Reorganization of the language system after lesions of the cerebral language areas includes also cerebellar relocation. This is the first study assessing functional language reorganization after lesions concerning primarily the cerebellum, using a fMRI paradigm of phonological covert word production task in six children operated for right cerebellar astrocytoma and in 15 typically developing children. We found right cerebellar and left frontal activations in healthy controls and high variability of reorganizational patterns in patients with early right cerebellar lesion. Also lesions not located in the areas typically involved in language tasks (Crus I and Crus II) can cause reorganization between the two hemispheres or hemispheric language reinforcement of the original lateralization. We discuss the role of several variables in determining the reorganizational pattern such as the site, extension, and timing of surgery. No variables revealed as predictors, suggesting that co-occurring influence of other biological and/or pathological factors are not yet demonstrated. Lesions in the postero-lateral cerebellum seem related to less efficient language performances, as an indicator of the system's functioning.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cerebelares/cirurgia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Linguagem , Adolescente , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Testes de Linguagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Período Pós-Operatório
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