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1.
Arch Toxicol ; 98(4): 1225-1236, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427119

RESUMO

So far, the majority of in vitro toxicological experiments are conducted after an acute 24 h treatment that does not represent a realistic human chemical exposure. Recently, new in vitro approaches have been proposed to study the chemical toxicological effect over several days in order to be more predictive of a representative exposure scenario. In this study, we investigated the genotoxic potential of chemicals (direct or bioactived clastogen, aneugen and apoptotic inducer) with the γH2AX and pH3 biomarkers, in the human liver-derived HepaRP cell line. We used different treatment durations, with or without a three-day recovery stage (release period), before genotoxicity measurement. Data were analysed with the Benchmark Dose approach. We observed that the detection of clastogenic compounds (notably for DNA damaging agents) was more sensitive after three days of repeated treatment compared to one or three treatments over 24 h. In contrast, aneugenic chemicals were detected as genotoxic in a similar manner whether after a 24 h exposure or a three-day repeated treatment. Globally, the release period decreases the genotoxicity measurement substantially. For DNA damaging agents, after high concentration treatments, γH2AX induction was always observed after a three-day release period. In contrast, for DNA topoisomerase inhibitors, no effect could be observed after the release period. In conclusion, in the HepaRP cell line, there are some important differences between a one-day acute and a three-day repeated treatment protocol, indicating that different cell treatment procedures may differentiate chemical genotoxic mechanisms of action more efficiently.


Assuntos
Histonas , Mutagênicos , Humanos , Histonas/metabolismo , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Aneugênicos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , DNA
2.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 65(1-2): 47-54, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465801

RESUMO

The etiology of bladder cancer among never smokers without occupational or environmental exposure to established urothelial carcinogens remains unclear. Urinary mutagenicity is an integrative measure that reflects recent exposure to genotoxic agents. Here, we investigated its potential association with bladder cancer in rural northern New England. We analyzed 156 bladder cancer cases and 247 cancer-free controls from a large population-based case-control study conducted in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Overnight urine samples were deconjugated enzymatically and the extracted organics were assessed for mutagenicity using the plate-incorporation Ames assay with the Salmonella frameshift strain YG1041 + S9. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of bladder cancer in relation to having mutagenic versus nonmutagenic urine, adjusted for age, sex, and state, and stratified by smoking status (never, former, and current). We found evidence for an association between having mutagenic urine and increased bladder cancer risk among never smokers (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.3-11.2) but not among former or current smokers. Risk could not be estimated among current smokers because nearly all cases and controls had mutagenic urine. Urinary mutagenicity among never-smoking controls could not be explained by recent exposure to established occupational and environmental mutagenic bladder carcinogens evaluated in our study. Our findings suggest that among never smokers, urinary mutagenicity potentially reflects genotoxic exposure profiles relevant to bladder carcinogenesis. Future studies are needed to replicate our findings and identify compounds and their sources that influence bladder cancer risk.


Assuntos
Mutagênicos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Bexiga Urinária , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , New England/epidemiologia , Carcinógenos , Testes de Mutagenicidade
3.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 65(1-2): 67-75, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525651

RESUMO

Genotoxicity of styrene monomer was evaluated in male Fischer 344 rats using the alkaline comet assay for DNA damage, micronucleus assay for cytogenetic damage and the Pig-a assay for gene mutations. In a dose range finding (DRF) study, styrene was administered by oral gavage in corn oil for 28 consecutive days at 0, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day. The bioavailability of styrene was confirmed in the DRF by measuring its plasma levels at approximately 7- or 15-min following dosing. The 1000 mg/kg/day group exceeded the maximum tolerated dose based on body weight and organ weight changes and signs of central nervous system depression. Based on these findings, doses of 0, 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day (for 28 or 29 days) were selected for the genotoxicity assays. Animals were sacrificed 3-4 h after treatment on Day 28 or 29 for assessing various genotoxicity endpoints. Pig-a mutant frequencies and micronucleus frequencies were determined in peripheral blood erythrocytes. The comet assay was conducted in the glandular stomach, duodenum, liver, lung, and kidney. These studies were conducted in accordance with the relevant OECD test guidelines. Oral administration of styrene did not lead to genotoxicity in any of the investigated endpoints. The adequacy of the experimental conditions was assured by including animals treated by oral gavage with the positive control chemicals ethyl nitrosourea and ethyl methane sulfonate. Results from these studies supplement to the growing body of evidence suggesting the lack of in vivo genotoxic potential for styrene.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Estireno , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estireno/toxicidade , Eritrócitos , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Testes para Micronúcleos/métodos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos
4.
Environ Mol Mutagen ; 65(1-2): 4-24, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38545858

RESUMO

ToxTracker is a mammalian cell reporter assay that predicts the genotoxic properties of compounds with high accuracy. By evaluating induction of various reporter genes that play a key role in relevant cellular pathways, it provides insight into chemical mode-of-action (MoA), thereby supporting discrimination of direct-acting genotoxicants and cytotoxic chemicals. A comprehensive interlaboratory validation trial was conducted, in which the principles outlined in OECD Guidance Document 34 were followed, with the primary objectives of establishing transferability and reproducibility of the assay and confirming the ability of ToxTracker to correctly classify genotoxic and non-genotoxic compounds. Reproducibility of the assay to predict genotoxic MoA was confirmed across participating laboratories and data were evaluated in terms of concordance with in vivo genotoxicity outcomes. Seven laboratories tested a total of 64 genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals that together cover a broad chemical space. The within-laboratory reproducibility (WLR) was up to 98% (73%-98% across participants) and the overall between-laboratory reproducibility (BLR) was 83%. This trial confirmed the accuracy of ToxTracker to predict in vivo genotoxicants with a sensitivity of 84.4% and a specificity of 91.2%. We concluded that ToxTracker is a robust in vitro assay for the accurate prediction of in vivo genotoxicity. Considering ToxTracker's robust standalone accuracy and that it can provide important information on the MoA of chemicals, it is seen as a valuable addition to the regulatory in vitro genotoxicity battery that may even have the potential to replace certain currently used in vitro battery assays.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Mamíferos , Animais , Humanos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Genes Reporter
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 275: 116244, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537480

RESUMO

A risk assessment on the aquatic toxicity of the plant biostimulant strigolactone mimic (2-(4-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-furan-2-yloxy)-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione (SL-6) was performed using a suite of standardised bioassays representing different trophic groups and acute and chronic endpoints. In freshwater, three trophic groups of algae, crustacea and fish were used. Whilst in seawater, algae (unicellular and macroalgae), Crustacea and Mollusca were employed. In addition, the genotoxicity of SL-6 was determined with the comet assessment performed on unicellular marine algae, oysters, and fish embryos. This was the first time ecotoxicity tests have been performed on SL-6. In freshwater, the lowest LOEC was measured in the unicellular algae at 0.31 mg/L SL-6. Although, similar LOEC values were found for embryo malformations and impacts on hatching rate in zebrafish (LOEC 0.31-0.33 mg/L). Consistent malformations of pericardial and yolk sac oedemas were identified in the zebrafish embryos at 0.31 mg/L. In marine species, the lowest LOEC was found for both Tisbe battagliai mortality and microalgae growth at an SL-6 concentration of 1.0 mg/L. Significant genotoxicity was observed above control levels at 0.0031 mg/L SL-6 in the unicellular algae and 0.001 mg/L SL-6 in the oyster and zebrafish larvae. When applying the simple risk assessment, based on the lowest NOECs and appropriate assessment factors, the calculated predicted no effect concentration (PNEC), for the ecotoxicity and the genotoxicity tests were 1.0 µg/L and 0.01 µg/L respectively.


Assuntos
Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Lactonas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Larva , Crustáceos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 382, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528501

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze anti-MMP mode of action of Quaternary Ammonium Silane (QAS, codenamed as k21) by binding onto specific MMP site using computational molecular simulation and Anti-Sortase A (SrtA) mode of action by binding onto specific site using computational molecular simulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In silico Molecular Dynamics (MD) was used to determine the interactions of K21 inside the pocket of the targeted protein (crystal structure of fibroblast collagenase-1 complexed to a diphenyl-ether sulphone based hydroxamic acid; PDB ID: 966C; Crystal structure of MMP-2 active site mutant in complex with APP-derived decapeptide inhibitor. MD simulations were accomplished with the Desmond package in Schrödinger Drug Discovery Suite. Blood samples (~ 0.5 mL) collected into K2EDTA were immediately transferred for further processing using the Litron MicroFlow® PLUS micronucleus analysis kit for mouse blood according to the manufacturer's instructions. Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test of K21 Molecule was performed to evaluate K21 and any possible metabolites for their potential to induce point mutations in amino acid-requiring strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) (WP2 uvrA (tryptophan-deficient)). RESULTS: Molecular Simulation depicted that K21 has a specific pocket binding on various MMPs and SrtA surfaces producing a classical clouting effect. K21 did not induce micronuclei, which are the result of chromosomal damage or damage to the mitotic apparatus, in the peripheral blood reticulocytes of male and female CD-1 mice when administered by oral gavage up to the maximum recommended dose of 2000 mg/kg. The test item, K21, was not mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 and E. coli strain WP2 uvrA in the absence and presence of metabolic activation when tested up to the limit of cytotoxicity or solubility under the conditions of the test. CONCLUSION: K21 could serve as a potent protease inhibitor maintaining the physical and biochemical properties of dental structures.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Compostos de Amônio/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Mutagênicos/farmacologia , Metaloproteinases da Matriz
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338650

RESUMO

The Ames/quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) International Challenge Projects, held during 2014-2017 and 2020-2022, evaluated the performance of various predictive models. Despite the significant insights gained, the rules allowing participants to select prediction targets introduced ambiguity in model performance evaluation. This reanalysis identified the highest-performing prediction model, assuming a 100% coverage rate (COV) for all prediction target compounds and an estimated performance variation due to changes in COV. All models from both projects were evaluated using balance accuracy (BA), the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), the F1 score (F1), and the first principal component (PC1). After normalizing the COV, a correlation analysis with these indicators was conducted, and the evaluation index for all prediction models in terms of the COV was estimated. In total, using 109 models, the model with the highest estimated BA (76.9) at 100% COV was MMI-VOTE1, as reported by Meiji Pharmaceutical University (MPU). The best models for MCC, F1, and PC1 were all MMI-STK1, also reported by MPU. All the models reported by MPU ranked in the top four. MMI-STK1 was estimated to have F1 scores of 59.2, 61.5, and 63.1 at COV levels of 90%, 60%, and 30%, respectively. These findings highlight the current state and potential of the Ames prediction technology.


Assuntos
Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Humanos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Correlação de Dados
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 273: 116125, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394755

RESUMO

2-Methylfuran (2-MF) is an important member of the furan family generated during food thermal processing. An in-vivo multiple endpoint genotoxicity assessment system was applied to explore the genotoxic mode of action and threshold of 2-MF. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 2-MF by oral gavage at doses of 0.16, 0.625, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg.bw/day for 120 days. An additional 15 days were granted for recovery. The Pig-a gene mutation frequency of RET and RBC showed significant increases among the 2-MF groups on day 120. After a 15-day recovery period, the Pig-a gene mutation frequency returned to levels similar to those in the vehicle control. The tail intensity (TI) values of peripheral blood cells at a dose of 10 mg/kg.bw/day significantly increased from day 4 and remained at a high level after the recovery period. No statistical difference was found in the micronucleus frequency of peripheral blood between any 2-MF dose group and the corn oil group at any timepoint. 2-MF may not induce the production of micronuclei, but it could cause DNA breakage. It could not be ruled out that 2-MF may accumulate in vivo and cause gene mutations. Hence, DNA, other than the spindle, may be directly targeted. The mode of action of 2-MF may be that it was metabolized by EPHX1 to more DNA-active metabolites, thus leading to oxidative and direct DNA damage. The point of departure (PoD) of 2-MF-induced genotoxicity was derived as 0.506 mg/kg bw/day.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reticulócitos , Ratos , Animais , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes para Micronúcleos , Reticulócitos/metabolismo , Furanos/toxicidade , Furanos/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Testes de Mutagenicidade
9.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 37(2): 181-198, 2024 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316048

RESUMO

A thorough literature review was undertaken to understand how the pathways of N-nitrosamine transformation relate to mutagenic potential and carcinogenic potency in rodents. Empirical and computational evidence indicates that a common radical intermediate is created by CYP-mediated hydrogen abstraction at the α-carbon; it is responsible for both activation, leading to the formation of DNA-reactive diazonium species, and deactivation by denitrosation. There are competing sites of CYP metabolism (e.g., ß-carbon), and other reactive species can form following initial bioactivation, although these alternative pathways tend to decrease rather than enhance carcinogenic potency. The activation pathway, oxidative dealkylation, is a common reaction in drug metabolism and evidence indicates that the carbonyl byproduct, e.g., formaldehyde, does not contribute to the toxic properties of N-nitrosamines. Nitric oxide (NO), a side product of denitrosation, can similarly be discounted as an enhancer of N-nitrosamine toxicity based on carcinogenicity data for substances that act as NO-donors. However, not all N-nitrosamines are potent rodent carcinogens. In a significant number of cases, there is a potency overlap with non-N-nitrosamine carcinogens that are not in the Cohort of Concern (CoC; high-potency rodent carcinogens comprising aflatoxin-like-, N-nitroso-, and alkyl-azoxy compounds), while other N-nitrosamines are devoid of carcinogenic potential. In this context, mutagenicity is a useful surrogate for carcinogenicity, as proposed in the ICH M7 (R2) (2023) guidance. Thus, in the safety assessment and control of N-nitrosamines in medicines, it is important to understand those complementary attributes of mechanisms of mutagenicity and structure-activity relationships that translate to elevated potency versus those which are associated with a reduction in, or absence of, carcinogenic potency.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos , Nitrosaminas , Humanos , Animais , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Nitrosaminas/toxicidade , Nitrosaminas/metabolismo , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Roedores/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Carbono , Testes de Mutagenicidade
10.
Mutagenesis ; 39(2): 69-77, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301659

RESUMO

Chemical safety testing plays a crucial role in product and pharmacological development, as well as chemoprevention; however, in vitro genotoxicity safety tests do not always accurately predict the chemicals that will be in vivo carcinogens. If chemicals test positive in vitro for genotoxicity but negative in vivo, this can contribute to unnecessary testing in animals used to confirm erroneous in vitro positive results. Current in vitro tests typically evaluate only genotoxicity endpoints, which limits their potential to detect non-genotoxic carcinogens. The frequency of misleading in vitro positive results can be high, leading to a requirement for more informative in vitro tests. It is now recognized that multiple-endpoint genotoxicity testing may aid more accurate detection of carcinogens and non-carcinogens. The objective of this review was to evaluate the utility of our novel, multiple-endpoint in vitro test, which uses multiple cancer-relevant endpoints to predict carcinogenic potential. The tool assessed micronucleus frequency, p53 expression, p21 expression, mitochondrial respiration, cell cycle abnormalities and, uniquely, cell morphology changes in human lymphoblastoid cell lines, TK6 and MCL-5. The endpoints were used to observe cellular responses to 18 chemicals within the following categories: genotoxic carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, toxic non-carcinogens, and misleading in vitro positive and negative agents. The number of endpoints significantly altered for each chemical was considered, alongside the holistic Integrated Signature of Carcinogenicity score, derived from the sum of fold changes for all endpoints. Following the calculation of an overall score from these measures, carcinogens exhibited greater potency than non-carcinogens. Genotoxic carcinogens were generally more potent than non-genotoxic carcinogens. This novel approach therefore demonstrated potential for correctly predicting whether chemicals with unknown mechanism may be considered carcinogens. Overall, while further validation is recommended, the test demonstrates potential for the identification of carcinogenic compounds. Adoption of the approach could enable reduced animal use in carcinogenicity testing.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , Carcinógenos , Animais , Humanos , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Testes de Carcinogenicidade/métodos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Dano ao DNA , Técnicas In Vitro
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 184: 114428, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38163454

RESUMO

Spermidine is a polyamine consumed in the diet, endogenously biosynthesized in most cells, and produced by the intestinal microbiome. A variety of foods contribute to intake of spermidine along with other polyamines. Spermidine trihydrochloride (spermidine-3HCl) of high purity can be produced using an engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Spermidine has a demonstrated history of safe use in the diet; however, limited information is available in the public literature to assess the potential toxicity of spermidine-3HCl. To support a safety assessment for this spermidine-3HCl as a dietary source of spermidine, authoritative guideline and good laboratory practice (GLP) compliant in vitro genotoxicity assays (bacterial reverse mutation and mammalian micronucleus assays) and a 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity study in rats were conducted with spermidine-3HCl. Spermidine-3HCl was non-genotoxic in the in vitro assays, and no adverse effects were reported in the 90-day oral toxicity study up to the highest dose tested, 12500 ppm, equivalent to 728 mg/kg bw/day for males and 829 mg/kg bw/day for females. The subchronic no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is 728 mg/kg bw/day.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Espermidina , Masculino , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Espermidina/toxicidade , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mamíferos , Testes de Mutagenicidade
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272634

RESUMO

5-Aminoisophthalic acid and 5-nitroisophthalic acid (5-NIPA) are potential impurities in preparations of 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid, which is a key intermediate in the synthesis of the iodinated contrast agent iopamidol. We have studied their mutagenicity in silico (quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSAR) and by the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test). First, the compounds were screened with the tools Derek Nexus™ and Leadscope®. Both compounds were flagged as potentially mutagenic (class 3 under ICH M7). However, contrary to the in silico prediction, neither chemical was mutagenic in the Ames test (plate incorporation method) with or without S9 metabolic activation.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Mutagênicos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/química , Meios de Contraste/toxicidade , Iopamidol/toxicidade , Simulação por Computador , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272629

RESUMO

The Ames MPF™ is a miniaturized, microplate fluctuation format of the Ames test. It is a standardized, commercially available product which can be used to assess mutagenicity in Salmonella and E. coli strains in 384-well plates using a color change-based readout. Several peer-reviewed comparisons of the Ames MPF™ to the Ames test in Petri dishes confirmed its suitability to evaluate the mutagenic potential of a variety of test items. An international multicenter study involving seven laboratories tested six coded chemicals with this assay using five bacterial strains, as recommended by the OECD test guideline 471. The data generated by the participating laboratories was in excellent agreement (93%), and the similarity of their dose response curves, as analyzed with sophisticated statistical approaches further confirmed the suitability of the Ames MPF™ assay as an alternative to the Ames test on agar plates, but with advantages with respect to significantly reduced amount of test substance and S9 requirements, speed, hands-on time and, potentially automation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia coli/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Mutagênese , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272631

RESUMO

Potential genotoxicity is one of the essential considerations in the safety assessment of chemicals to which humans may be exposed. Several endpoints are used to evaluate genotoxicity, but, in each case, a binary assessment (negative/positive) is demanded by regulators. The use of binary assessment has rarely been questioned, although we have pointed out some questions and difficulties with regard to the statistical methods used and the evaluation of biological significance, both of which inform the calls of negative/ positive. Here, we discuss these issues further, focusing on ambiguity and uncertainty in the binary paradigm, and we seek a new direction for genotoxicity assessment. To this end, we need to understand, acknowledge, and accept these ambiguities and study-related uncertainties and then to consider new strategies for safety assessment. We also discuss the communication of ambiguity and uncertainty in risk communication.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Medição de Risco
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 184: 114437, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185402

RESUMO

The use of nano-based dietary supplements is increasing around the world, as nanotechnology can help enhance nutrient bioavailability. ALP1018 is a newly developed iron-zinc complex supplement designed as a nanoformulation to improve the efficacy of iron and zinc supplementation. However, safety concerns have been raised, as there is no clear evaluation of ALP1018 toxicity. The goal of this study was to determine the potential mutagenicity and genotoxicity of ALP1018 through three standard screenings: the Ames test, which evaluates bacterial reverse mutations; the in vitro test of chromosomal aberration in Chinese hamster lung cells; and the in vivo micronucleus assay using ICR mice. ALP1018 showed no mutagenic effect, as no increase was observed in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix) in revertant colonies on all the bacterial strains used in the Ames test. No structural chromosomal abnormalities were observed in the presence or absence of the S9 mix in mammalian cells used in the chromosomal aberration assay. In the micronucleus test, the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was not significantly increased in mouse bone marrow cells. Based on these findings, we can conclude that ALP1018 is safe to use and has no mutagenic or genotoxic potential.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Dano ao DNA , Cricetinae , Camundongos , Animais , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Testes para Micronúcleos , Cricetulus , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Ferro , Zinco
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 185: 114484, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38280474

RESUMO

Can's polyester coatings are intended to replace epoxy-phenolic ones due to rising safety concern regarding the potential release of bisphenol A under increased regulations and consumer pressure. In this study, hazard linked to the migration of non-intentionally added substances from a single polyester-coated tin plate (5 batches) to canned food has been studied. Migration tests were performed using acetonitrile (ACN) and ethanol (EtOH) 95 %. Non-targeted analyses by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of four cyclic oligoesters classified as Cramer class III substances with an estimated exposure (calculated for French population only) below the threshold of toxicological concern value of 1.5 µg/kg b.w./day, suggesting a no safety concern. Moreover, migrates were tested using in vitro genotoxicity DNA damage response (DDR) test and mini mutagenicity test (MMT) with different strains of S. Typhimurium using direct incorporation (TA100, TA98, TA102, TA1537) and pre-incubation (TA100, TA98) methods. Samples were negative in both bioassays suggesting the absence of genotoxicity/mutagenicity of the mixtures. To verify any false negative response due to matrix effect, migrates were spiked with corresponding positive controls in parallel with the MMT and the DDR test. No matrix effect was observed in these experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Poliésteres , Poliésteres/toxicidade , Poliésteres/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/análise , Testes de Mutagenicidade
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(9): 13141-13154, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240981

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) toxicity is a pressing concern for several soils, especially in organic viticulture. The objective of this work was to assess Cu toxicity on the non-target organism Eisenia fetida, employing both traditional and novel tools for early identification of Cu-induced damages. In addition to traditional tests like avoidance and reproductive toxicity experiments, other tests such as the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and gut microbiome analysis were evaluated to identify early and more sensitive pollution biomarkers. Four sub-lethal Cu concentrations were studied, and the results showed strong dose-dependent responses by the earthworm avoidance test and the exceeding of habitat threshold limit at the higher Cu doses. An inverse proportionality was observed between reproductive output and soil Cu concentration. Bioaccumulation was not detected in earthworms; soil concentrations of potentially bioavailable Cu were not affected by E. fetida presence or by time. On the contrary, the SCGE test revealed dose-dependent genotoxicity for the 'tail length' parameter already at the second day of Cu exposition. Gut microbiome analysis a modulation of microbial composition, with the most aboundant families being Pectobateriaceae, Comamonadaceae and Microscillaceae. Bacillaceae increased over time and showed adaptability to copper up to 165 mg/kg, while at the highest dose even the sensitive Acetobacteriaceae family was affected. The research provided new insights into the ecotoxicity of Cu sub-lethal doses highlighting both alterations at earthworms' cellular level and changes in their gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/análise , Solo , Oligoquetos/fisiologia , Fazendas , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Testes de Mutagenicidade
18.
Toxicol Sci ; 198(1): 40-49, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230821

RESUMO

Methylcarbamate (MC), a reaction product between dimethyl dicarbonate and ammonia or ammonium ion, is a potent hepatocarcinogen in F344 rats. Various genotoxicity tests have shown negative results for MC. Although previous studies have described the effects of MC on the liver, including the formation of characteristic basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions (CIs) in hepatocytes, the toxicological significance of CIs and their involvement in hepatocarcinogenesis remain unclear. In the current study, to elucidate the mechanisms of MC hepatocarcinogenesis, we examined hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity after 4 weeks of administration of MC using gpt delta rats with an F344 genetic background as a reporter gene transgenic animal model. Histopathologically, single-cell necrosis, karyomegaly, and the formation of CIs positive for Feulgen staining were observed in hepatocytes at the carcinogenic dose, demonstrating the hepatotoxicity of MC. CIs were also detected as large micronuclei in liver micronucleus tests but not in the bone marrow, suggesting that MC could cause chromosomal instability specifically in the livers of rats. Reporter gene mutation assays demonstrated that MC did not induce mutagenicity even in the liver. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that CIs exhibited loss of nuclear envelope integrity, increased heterochromatinization, and accumulation of DNA damage. An increase in liver STING protein levels suggested an effect on the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase/stimulator of interferon genes innate immune pathway. Overall, these data demonstrated the possible occurrence of chromothripsis-like chromosomal rearrangements via CIs. Thus, the formation of CIs could be a crucial event in the early stage of MC-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in F344 rats.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Mutagênicos , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Hepatócitos , Carcinogênese
19.
Mutagenesis ; 39(2): 146-155, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183270

RESUMO

The two-test in vitro battery for genotoxicity testing (Ames and micronucleus) has in the majority of cases replaced the three-test battery (as two-test plus mammalian cell gene mutation assay) for the routine testing of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and agrochemical metabolites originating from food and feed as well as from water treatment. The guidance for testing agrochemical groundwater metabolites, however, still relies on the three-test battery. Data collated in this study from 18 plant protection and related materials highlights the disparity between the often negative Ames and in vitro chromosome aberration data and frequently positive in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation assays. Sixteen of the 18 collated materials with complete datasets were Ames negative, and overall had negative outcomes in in vitro chromosome damage tests (weight of evidence from multiple tests). Mammalian cell gene mutation assays (HPRT and/or mouse lymphoma assay (MLA)) were positive in at least one test for every material with this data. Where both MLA and HPRT tests were performed on the same material, the HPRT seemed to give fewer positive responses. In vivo follow-up tests included combinations of comet assays, unscheduled DNA synthesis, and transgenic rodent gene mutation assays, all gave negative outcomes. The inclusion of mammalian cell gene mutation assays in a three-test battery for groundwater metabolites is therefore not justified and leads to unnecessary in vivo follow-up testing.


Assuntos
Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase , Linfoma , Camundongos , Animais , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Ensaio Cometa , Roedores , Agroquímicos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Dano ao DNA
20.
Int J Toxicol ; 43(2): 157-164, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38048784

RESUMO

Methyl ester sulphonate (MES) is an anionic surfactant that is suitable to be used as an active ingredient in household products. Four palm-based MES compounds with various carbon chains, namely C12, C14, C16 and C16/18 MES, were assayed by the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 and the Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA, with the aim of establishing the safety data of the compounds, specifically their mutagenicity. The test was also carried out on linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) for comparison. The plate incorporation method was conducted according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline 471. All compounds were tested at five analysable non-cytotoxic concentrations, varying from .001 mg/plate to 5 mg/plate, with and without S-9 metabolic activation. All tested concentrations showed no significant increase in the number of revertant colonies compared to revertant colonies of the negative control. The Ames test indicated that each concentration of C12, C14, C16, C16/18 MES, and LAS used in this study induced neither base-pair substitutions nor frame-shift mutations in the S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 and the E. coli strain WP2 uvrA. The results showed that C12, C14, C16 and C16/18 MES have no potential mutagenic properties in the presence and absence of S-9 metabolic activation, similarly to LAS. Therefore, the MES is safe to be used as an alternative to petroleum-based surfactants for household cleaning products.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Mutagênicos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Escherichia coli/genética , Ésteres , Mutação , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Tensoativos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos
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