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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 2): 142578, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038809

RESUMO

The increasing trend of adopting organic fertilization in rice production can impact grain yields and soil methane (CH4) emissions. To simulate these impacts in the absence of long-term field data, a process-based biogeochemical model, Denitrification and Decomposition (DNDC version 9.5) was used. The model was calibrated against a single year greenhouse study and validated using a previously published one-year field trial from 1990, both comparing varying fertilization systems in rice production in southeast Texas, USA. In both the greenhouse and the field studies, lower grain yield and greater soil CH4 emissions were observed in organically fertilized systems. Calibrated model simulations of the greenhouse study correlated with the observed daily CH4 emissions (conventional r2 = 0.87; organic r2 = 0.91) and SOC (r2 = 0.83); but, the model overestimated yield of conventional systems (slope = 1.2) and underestimated yield of organic systems (slope = 0.68). For the field study, agreement between simulated and observed yields and CH4 emissions resulted in slopes close to 1. A simple organic system with urea and straw amendment from the field study was an input available in DNDC whereas the slow release, pelletized organic fertilizer used in the greenhouse study, Nature Safe, was not modeled well by DNDC. The validated model was used to simulate 22 years of rice production and predicted that the differences in yield and CH4 emissions between treatments would diminish with time. In the model simulations, the overall soil health was enhanced when managed with organic fertilization compared to conventional inorganic fertilizers. Model simulations could be improved further by including site-specific calibration of soil organic C, and soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.


Assuntos
Metano , Oryza , Agricultura , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo , Texas
2.
Environ Pollut ; 268(Pt B): 115685, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011574

RESUMO

A program to reintroduce the Northern Aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) in south Texas and the southwestern United States was initiated in the late 1970s. Fledgling Aplomado falcons were first released in the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge in 1993 and the first nesting pair in the area was recorded by 1995. During 2004-2017 we collected addled eggs from nesting pairs in the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge and Matagorda Island in south Texas, to determine if environmental contaminants in Aplomado falcon eggs had decreased over time and if eggshell thickness values were similar to those in the pre-DDT era. We analyzed organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs in 60 egg homogenates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eggshells were measured to determine thickness and to correlate with contaminant concentrations. Mean concentration in eggs were 244 ng/g ww for p,p'- DDE, 270 ng/g ww for PCBs and 10 ng/g ww for PBDEs. These values were lower than those reported in a previous study for eggs collected between 1999 and 2003, with a mean of 821 ng/g ww for p,p'-DDE and 1228 ng/g ww for total PCBs. Eggshell thickness ranged from 0.206 mm to 0.320 mm (n = 156). Overall, contaminant concentrations in eggs of Aplomado falcons were low, at levels not likely to impact the recovery of the species. Data from this and previous studies indicate that DDE has decreased significantly in eggs of Aplomado falcons over the last 25 years in south Texas. Breeding populations have been steady at over 30 breeding pairs in south Texas since 2011, although they decreased to 24 pairs in 2018 following Hurricane Harvey.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Falconiformes , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Animais , Ovos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Texas
3.
J Surg Educ ; 78(1): 315-320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739443

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has engendered rapid and significant changes in patient care. Within the realm of surgical training, the resultant reduction in clinical exposure and case volume jeopardizes the quality of surgical training. Thus, our general surgery residency program proceeded to develop a tailored approach to training that mitigates impact on resident surgical education and optimizes clinical exposure without compromising safety. Residents were engaged directly in planning efforts to craft a response to the pandemic. Following the elimination of elective cases, the in-house resident complement was effectively decreased to reduce unnecessary exposure, with a back-up pool to address unanticipated absences and needs. Personal protective equipment availability and supply, the greatest concern to residents, has remained adequate, while being utilized according to current guidelines. Interested residents were given the opportunity to work in designated COVID ICUs on a volunteer basis. With the decrease in operative volume and clinical duties, we shifted our educational focus to an intensive didactic schedule using a teleconferencing platform and targeted areas of weakness on prior in-service exams. We also highlighted critical COVID-19 literature in a weekly journal club to better understand this novel disease and its effect on surgical practice. The long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on resident education remains to be seen. Success may be achieved with commitment to constant needs assessment in the changing landscape of healthcare with the goal of producing a skilled surgical workforce for public service.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência , Gestão da Segurança , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Texas/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 143484, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203558

RESUMO

Changing environments of temperature, precipitation and moisture availability can affect vegetation in ecosystems, by affecting regeneration from the seed bank. Our objective was to explore the responses of soil seed bank germination to climate-related environments along geographic gradients. We collected seed banks in baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps along the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico Coast in the United States, which have distinct temperature and/or precipitation gradients, and germinated them in a greenhouse. The frequency, richness and seed density of species germinated from the seed bank were compared between various geographic locations, experimental water regimes (saturated, flooded) and wetland types (tidal, non-tidal and inland swamps). We also analyzed the relationship of seed density to the environment by using a Non-metric Multi-dimensional Scaling (NMDS) model. Sixty-one species germinated from the seed bank, differing in pattern by geographic location, experimental water regime and wetland type. The foundation species (i.e., T. distichum and Cephalanthus occidentalis) germinated with a niche affinity for the northern part of the latitudinal gradient (Tennessee and Illinois) and these species may shift northward with climate change. Some species had higher seed density in the locations that were subject to more persistent drought conditions (e.g., Texas) including Cyperus rotundus and Gratiola virginiana, indicating that these species may be better adapted to sites with high temperature and low precipitation. In contrast, certain species including Saururus cernuus and Ludwigia palustris were present throughout the range of these gradients, and so may be more resilient to any future climate shifts. We found that the regeneration potential of baldcypress swamps might be altered by changes in local and climate environment because of nuances of responses of seed banks to climates along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Our study can help predict vegetation regeneration potential to climate change environments depending on the ability of these species to disperse and maintain seed banks.


Assuntos
Banco de Sementes , Taxodium , Ecossistema , Germinação , Golfo do México , Illinois , Mississippi , Sementes , Solo , Tennessee , Texas , Áreas Alagadas
5.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111694, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248815

RESUMO

Policies that mandate environmental flows (e-flows) can be powerful tools for freshwater conservation, but implementation of these policies faces many hurdles. To better understand these challenges, we explored two key questions: (1) What additional data are needed to implement e-flows? and (2) What are the major socio-political barriers to implementing e-flows? We surveyed water and natural resource decision makers in the semi-arid Red River basin, Texas-Oklahoma, USA, and used social network analysis to analyze their communication patterns. Most respondents agreed that e-flows can provide important benefits and identified the same data needs. However, respondents sharply in their beliefs on other issues, and a clustering analysis revealed two distinct groups of decision makers. One cluster of decision makers tended to be bearish, or pessimistic, and believed that: current flow conditions are not adequate, there are many serious socio-political barriers to implementation, water conflicts will likely increase in the future, and climate change is likely to exacerbate these issues. The other cluster of respondents was bullish, or optimistic: they foresaw fewer future water conflicts and fewer socio-political barriers to implementation. Despite these differences, both clusters largely identified the same data needs and barriers to e-flows implementation. Our social network analysis revealed that the frequency of communication between clusters was not significantly different than the frequency of communication within clusters. Overall, our results suggest that the different perspectives of decision-makers could complicate efforts to implement e-flows and proactively plan for climate change. However, there are opportunities for collaboration on addressing common data needs and barriers to implementation. Overall, our study provides a key socio-environmental perspective on e-flows implementation from a semi-arid and socio-politically complex river basin and contextualizes the many challenges facing e-flows implementation in river basins globally.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Água , Animais , Bovinos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Rios , Texas
6.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 2005-2008, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare access has changed drastically during the COVID-19 pandemic. Elective medical procedures, including routine office visits, were restricted raising concerns regarding opioid and benzodiazepine provider and prescription availability. OBJECTIVE: To examine how the cancelation of elective medical procedures due to COVID-19 impacted the dispensing of opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions in Texas. METHODS: Interrupted time series analyses were preformed to examine changes in prescription trends for opioids and benzodiazepines before and after the restriction on elective medical procedures. Samples of patients who filled an opioid or benzodiazepine prescription from January 5, 2020 to May 12, 2020 were identified from the Texas Prescription Monitoring Program. Elective medical procedures were restricted starting March 23, 2020 indicating the beginning of the intervention period. RESULTS: Restricting elective procedures was associated with a significant decrease in the number of patients (ß = -6029, 95%CI = -8810.40, -3246.72) and prescribers (ß = -2784, 95%CI = -3671.09, -1896.19) filling and writing opioid prescriptions, respectively. Also, the number of patients filling benzodiazepine prescriptions decreased significantly (ß = -1982, 95%CI = -3712.43, -252.14) as did the number of prescribers (ß = -708.62, 95%CI = -1190.54, -226.71). CONCLUSION: Restricting elective procedures resulted in a large care gap for patients taking opioid or benzodiazepine prescriptions.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos , Texas
7.
J Sch Health ; 91(1): 3-8, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a need to understand caregiver preferences for their children's instructional format for the start of the 2020 to 2021 academic year. The purpose of the current study was to assess caregiver preferences for on-campus versus virtual learning at home during the fall and factors associated with these preferences. METHODS: Participants were caregivers of 4436 children and adolescents who were enrolled in pre-kindergarten through high school at a large, public school district in Texas. Caregivers were asked to complete an anonymous, online survey about their initial preferences for their student's back to the school learning environment. RESULTS: Caregivers of high- and middle-school students were more likely to endorse a preference for an on-campus/virtual hybrid instructional format and less likely to endorse a preference for a traditional, face-to-face instructional format compared to caregivers of elementary school students. Regardless of the school level, concerns about child health and safety were the factor most strongly associated with caregiver preferences for on-campus versus virtual learning at home during the fall. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the importance of school re-opening plans offering virtual options and addressing caregiver concerns about children's health and safety amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , /organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança/normas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Texas/epidemiologia
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105418, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152594

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Differences in access to stroke care and compliance with standard of care stroke management among patients of varying racial and ethnic backgrounds and sex are well-characterized. However, little is known on the impact of telestroke in addressing disparities in acute ischemic stroke care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of acute ischemic stroke patients evaluated over our 17-hospital telestroke network in Texas from 2015-2018. Patients were described as Non-Hispanic White (NHW) male or female, Non-Hispanic Black (NHB) male or female, or Hispanic (HIS) male or female. We compared frequency of tPA and mechanical thrombectomy (MT) utilization, door-to-consultation times, door-to-tPA times, and time-to-transfer for patients who went on to MT evaluation at the hub after having been screened for suspected large vessel occlusion at the spoke. RESULTS: Among 3873 patients (including 1146 NHW male (30%) and 1134 NHW female (29%), 405 NHB male (10%) and 491 NHB female (13%), and 358 HIS male (9%) and 339 HIS female (9%) patients), we did not find any differences in door-to consultation time, door-to-tPA time, time-to-transfer, frequency of tPA administration, or incidence of MT utilization. CONCLUSION: We did not find racial, ethnic, and sex disparities in ischemic stroke care metrics within our telestroke network. In order to fully understand how telestroke alleviates disparities in stroke care, collaboration among networks is needed to formulate a multicenter telestroke database similar to the Get-With-The Guidelines.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos , Telemedicina , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , /etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transferência de Pacientes , Fatores Raciais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Texas/epidemiologia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento
10.
Front Public Health ; 8: 596607, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33324601

RESUMO

Objectives: We study how the state-wide shelter-in-place order affected social distancing and the number of cases and deaths in Texas. Methods: We use daily data at the county level. The COVID-19 cases and fatalities data are from the New York Times. Social distancing measures are from SafeGraph. Both data are retrieved from the Unfolded Studio website. The county-level COVID-related policy responses are from the National Association of Counties. We use an event-study design and regression analysis to estimate the effect of the state-wide shelter-in-place order on social distancing and the number of cases and deaths. Results: We find that the growth rate of cases and deaths is significantly lower during the policy period when the percentage of the population that stays at home is highest. The crucial question is whether the policy has a causal impact on the sheltering percentages. The fact that some counties in Texas adopted local restrictive policies well before the state-wide policy helps us address this question. We do not find evidence that this top-down restrictive policy increased the percentage of the population that exercised social distancing. Discussion: Shelter-in-place policies are more effective at the local level and should go along with efforts to inform and update the public about the potential consequences of the disease and its current state in their localities.


Assuntos
Abrigo de Emergência , Política de Saúde , Modelos Estatísticos , /diagnóstico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Texas
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321718

RESUMO

Rural populations in the United States are faced with a variety of health disparities that complicate access to care. Community health workers (CHWs) and their Spanish-speaking counterparts, promotores de salud, are well-equipped to address rural health access issues, provide education, and ultimately assuage these disparities. In this article, we compare community health workers in the states of Indiana and Texas, based on the results of two separate research studies, in order to (1) investigate the unique role of CHWs in rural communities and (2) understand how their advocacy efforts represent a central form of caregiving. Drawing on ethnographic, qualitative data-including interviews, photovoice, and participant observation-we analyze how CHWs connect structurally vulnerable clients in rural areas to resources, health education, and health and social services. Our primary contribution to existing scholarship on CHWs is the elaboration of advocacy as a form of caregiving to improve individual health outcomes as well as provoke structural change in the form of policy development. Finally, we describe how CHWs became especially critical in addressing disparities among rural populations in the wake of COVID-19, using their advocacy-as-caregiving role that was developed and well-established before the pandemic. These frontline workers are more vital than ever to address disparities and are a critical force in overcoming structural vulnerability and inequities in health in the United States.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Defesa do Paciente , Serviços de Saúde Rural , População Rural , Humanos , Indiana , Texas , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis
12.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321892

RESUMO

Previous work has indicated that canine parvovirus (CPV) prevalence in the Central Texas region may follow yearly, periodic patterns. The peak in CPV infection rates occurs during the summer months of May and June, marking a distinct "CPV season". We hypothesized that human activity contributes to these seasonal changes in CPV infections. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in drastic changes in human behavior which happened to synchronize with the CPV season in Central Texas, providing a unique opportunity with which to assess whether these society-level behavioral changes result in appreciable changes in CPV patient populations in the largest CPV treatment facility in Texas. In this work, we examine the population of CPV-infected patients at a large, dedicated CPV treatment clinic in Texas (having treated more than 5000 CPV-positive dogs in the last decade) and demonstrate that societal-behavioral changes due to COVID-19 were associated with a drastic reduction in CPV infections. This reduction occurred precisely when CPV season would typically begin, during the period immediately following state-wide "reopening" of business and facilities, resulting in a change in the typical CPV season when compared with previous years. These results provide evidence that changes in human activity may, in some way, contribute to changes in rates of CPV infection in the Central Texas region.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/terapia , Parvovirus Canino/patogenicidade , Prevalência , Política Pública , Texas/epidemiologia
13.
J Prof Nurs ; 36(6): 685-691, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308572

RESUMO

When the COVID-19 pandemic forced university campuses and healthcare agencies to temporarily suspend both undergraduate and graduate direct care educational experiences, nursing programs had to formulate alternative plans to facilitate clinical learning. Texas Woman's University used this opportunity to assemble a faculty group tasked with creating a set of college-wide guidelines for virtual simulation use as a substitution for traditional face-to-face clinical. The process included completing a needs assessment of both undergraduate and graduate level programs across three campuses and identifying regulatory requirements and limitations for clinical experiences. The task force utilized the information gathered to develop evidence-based recommendations for simulation hour equivalence ratios and compiled a list of virtual activities and products faculty could use to complete clinical experiences. Undergraduate and graduate student surveys were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the transition to virtual clinical experiences. Overall, the majority of survey results were positive regarding virtual simulation experiences providing students with valuable opportunities to enhance their learning. Negative comments regarding the impact of COVID-19 on a personal level included issues involving internet access and web conferencing logistics, lack of motivation to study, family difficulties, and faculty inexperience teaching in an online environment. Undergraduate pre-licensure students were provided with opportunities to successfully complete all remaining required clinical hours virtually, while graduate students were allowed to complete non-direct care hours as applicable using virtual clinical experiences.


Assuntos
/enfermagem , Educação a Distância/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Pandemias , /epidemiologia , Docentes de Enfermagem , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas
14.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(5): 373-382, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174191

RESUMO

Senior care facilities house populations that are highly vulnerable to impacts from natural hazard events. Recent events in Florida and Texas highlight the need for senior care facilities to prepare to shelter-in-place during and immediately after a natural hazard event occurs and be self-sufficient for extended periods afterward. Interviews with emergency managers and senior facility administrators in New Jersey emphasize how regional planning efforts can be used successfully to improve preparedness at senior facilities and coordination with the emergency response community. While preparedness efforts vary across New Jersey, the southern region has shown success through focused connections between facilities and emergency managers that have led to successful coordination of emergency evacuation of facilities.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Emergências , Florida , Humanos , New Jersey , Texas
15.
Am J Nurs ; 120(12): 24-33, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181527

RESUMO

OVERVIEW: In 2012, the Institute of Medicine Roundtable on Health Literacy established 10 attributes of a health literate health care organization that, if instated, would improve health information and empower patients to make more informed health decisions. Few studies have assessed how well organizations meet these attributes. PURPOSE: This study sought to describe the extent to which health care systems in North Texas were adopting policies and practices that address the 10 attributes of a health literate health care organization. More specifically, we sought to describe key organizational leaders' and clinicians' perceptions in this regard. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a mixed-methods study, conducted with a convenience sample of 74 key informants from 13 hospitals across five health care systems. Informants provided demographic data, and their perceptions of the extent to which their hospital met the 10 attributes were measured via the Health Literate Health Care Organization 10-item questionnaire (HLHO-10) and semistructured interviews. RESULTS: Mean scores for HLHO-10 items ranged from 3.74 to 5.39, with 7 as a maximum score. Qualitative data provided richer content, elaborating on the survey results. Workforce training in health literacy, patient inclusion in health information development and evaluation, and communication about health care costs were rated the lowest and were described as issues of concern. CONCLUSION: Study findings indicated limited leadership and little systemic promotion of efforts to ensure health literate health care organizations, although individual health literacy champions sometimes stepped up with creative initiatives.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Letramento em Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hospitais , Objetivos Organizacionais , Humanos , National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas , Estados Unidos
16.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720971390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has a major impact on first responders. Scarce personal protective equipment (PPE) has forced them to conserve and reuse some of their PPE. The efficacy of these practices in preventing transmission of COVID-19 from patients to first responders is unclear. There are limited data on the prevalence of antibodies specific for COVID-19 exposure in these front-line workers. AIM: Our objective was to determine the prevalence of positive immunoglobulin G antibody specific to COVID-19 among first responders in Lubbock, Texas. METHODS: Blood samples were collected on 683 asymptomatic first responders who work in Lubbock, Texas and the surrounding area, after informed consents were signed. IgG antibody to SARS-CoV-2 was measured using Abbott's SARS-CoV-2 IgG Reagent Kit in combination with the SARS-CoV-2 IgG Calibrator Kit on the Abbott's ARCHITECT i1000SR analyzer. RESULTS: The prevalence of IgG specific antibodies to COVID-19 was 0.73%, five of the 683 participants tested positive. Four of those who tested positive had no known prior SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposure without adequate PPE. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of IgG specific antibodies to COVID-19 was much lower than expected in our study population despite high sensitivity and specificity of the test reagent. The most likely explanations for this finding include limited exposure, inadequate time for a IgG response, possible clearance of COVID-19 infection locally by the respiratory tract IgA defense system without eliciting a systemic IgG response, and short persistence of IgG antibodies in mild or asymptomatic cases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Socorristas , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções Assintomáticas , Cidades , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Texas/epidemiologia
17.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720970717, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135551

RESUMO

The severity of COVID-19 ranges from asymptomatic subclinical infections to severe acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Patients admitted to the hospital have increased mortality rates and patients requiring intensive care have significantly increased mortality rates. Multiple factors influence these outcomes. This study used simple demographic information available on admission to evaluate possible associations between these variables and outcomes, including mortality and length of stay. Clinical outcomes in 63 patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in West Texas were reviewed. Older patients, patients admitted from nursing homes, and patients admitted to medical intensive care units had increased mortality. Unadjusted analysis indicated that males had increased mortality. Adjusted analysis indicated that males spent nearly 5 days longer in the hospital than females. In summary, age, chronic illness requiring nursing home placement, and acute severe illness requiring intensive care unit admission identify patients with worse prognoses. In addition, males will likely have a longer length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While greenness has been associated with lower depression, the generalizability of this association in arid landscapes remains undetermined. We assessed the association between depression and residential greenness, but also brownness and grayness among nursing students living in El Paso, Texas (the Chihuahuan desert). METHODS: Depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale and greenness with the normalized difference vegetation index across three buffer sizes (i.e., 250, 500, and 1000 m). Using data from the National Land Cover Database, two additional measures of land patterns were analyzed: grayness and brownness. Structural equation models were used to assess the relationships of these land patterns to depression and quantify the indirect effects of peer alienation. RESULTS: After adjusting for individual characteristics, at buffers 250 m, greenness was not associated with a decrease in the Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) of depression (IRR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.12-2.10); however, grayness and brownness were respectively associated with increases by 64% (IRR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.07-2.52) and decreases by 35% (IRR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.42-0.99). At buffer 250 m, peer alienation explained 17.43% (95% CI, -1.79-36.66) of the association between depression and brownness, suggesting a pathway to depression. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an association between depression and residential greenness in El Paso, Texas. However, we did observe a protective association between brownness and depression and an adverse association with grayness. These results have theoretical implications as they were based on commonly used frameworks in this literature, and adverse association of brownness (and the lack of greenness) and depression was expected.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Texas/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242889, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253280

RESUMO

All 4 dengue viruses (DENV) cause sporadic outbreaks of human disease in the Rio Grande Valley along the US-Mexico border. In addition, West Nile virus (WNV) is enzootic in most border communities, and is the only arbovirus known to cause human disease in the El Paso, Texas community. In an effort to determine if DENV were also endemic in the El Paso community, a serosurvey was conducted among mothers at the time of delivery of their babies in selected hospitals. Cord-blood plasma samples obtained from mothers were tested for DENV antibody by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and a multiplex microsphere immunoassay. All DENV antibody positive plasma samples were also tested for WNV antibody by the same assays to consider the possibility that DENV antibody positive samples reflected WNV cross reactive antibody. The results indicated that 0.74% (11/1,472) of the mothers had a previous DENV infection and that 3.3% (48/1,472) had a previous WNV infection. Of these mothers, 0.20% (3/1,472) had antibody to both DENV and WNV as evidence of infection by both viruses. The results indicated that 0.2% (3/1472) of the mothers were positive for antibody to only WNV envelope, thus suggesting an undetermined flavivirus infection. Although 6 of the 11 DENV antibody positive mothers did not have a history of travel to a DENV endemic country, the findings of this survey provided further evidence of local transmission of WNV and suggested the possibility of focal autochthonous transmission of DENV in the El Paso community.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Dengue/sangue , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/patogenicidade , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , México/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gestantes , Testes Sorológicos , Texas/epidemiologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253288

RESUMO

There is considerable speculation that prisons are a breeding ground for radicalization. These concerns take on added significance in the era of mass incarceration in the United States, where 1.5 million people are held in state or federal prisons and around 600,000 people are released from prison annually. Prior research relies primarily on the speculation of prison officials, media representations, and/or cross-sectional designs to understand the imprisonment-extremism nexus. We develop a tripartite theoretical model to examine continuity and change in activism and radicalism intentions upon leaving prison. We test these models using data from a large probability sample of prisoners (N = 802) in Texas interviewed in the week preceding their release from prison and then reinterviewed 10 months later using a validated scale of activism and radicalism intentions. We arrive at three primary conclusions. First, levels of activism decline upon reentry to the community (d = -0.30, p < .01), while levels of radicalism largely remain unchanged (d = -0.08, p = .28). What is learned and practiced in prison appears to quickly lose its vitality on the street. Second, salient groups and organizations fell in importance after leaving prison, including country, race/ethnicity, and religion, suggesting former prisoners are occupied by other endeavors. Finally, while we identify few correlates of changes in extremist intentions, higher levels of legal cynicism in prison were associated with increases in both activism and radicalism intentions after release from prison. Efforts designed to improve legal orientations could lessen intentions to support non-violent and violent extremist actions. These results point to an imprisonment-extremism nexus that is diminished largely by the realities of prisoner reentry.


Assuntos
Intenção , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Prisões , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Texas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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