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1.
Mycopathologia ; 189(4): 51, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864977

RESUMO

Data on the epidemiology of tinea capitis (TC), an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, are scarce in Cameroon. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of TC among school-children in the Dschang Subdivision, Western Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2021 in Dschang including pupils aged 5-13. First, a standardized questionnaire was administered to participant for the collection of sociodemographic data. Then, samples were collected and cultured onto Sabouraud-Chloramphenicol-Gentamicin Agar. The etiological agents were identified based on their morphological features and with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 1070 children were clinically examined and 108 (10.1%) children presented with TC lesions. The mean age of the 1070 participants was 8.3 ± 2.6 years (range: 5-13 years); 772 (72.2%) were males. The use of borehole water (OR = 0.01, 95%CI[0.001-0.03]), spring water (OR = 0.2, 95%CI[0.08-0.50]), rainwater (OR = 0.004, 95%CI[0.001-0.016]), and hairdressing salons visits (OR = 0.413, 95%CI[0.196-0.872]) were associated with a decreased TC risk in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. In contrast, sharing bed with siblings (OR = 4.48, 95%CI[2.095-9.60]) was associated with an increased TC risk in children. Among the 32 dermatophytes isolated in culture, Microsporum audouinii was the most frequent (43.8%), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (25.0%) and T. soudanense (25.0%). Microsporum canis and T. violaceum were both rarely isolated. Further studies are warranted to assess the association of TC with domestic water usage that has been highlighted in this study.


Assuntos
Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Humanos , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Pré-Escolar , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação
2.
Mycoses ; 67(6): e13751, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kerion is a severe type of tinea capitis that is difficult to treat and remains a public health problem. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiologic features and efficacy of different treatment schemes from real-world experience. METHODS: From 2019 to 2021, 316 patients diagnosed with kerion at 32 tertiary Chinese hospitals were enrolled. We analysed the data of each patient, including clinical characteristics, causative pathogens, treatments and outcomes. RESULTS: Preschool children were predominantly affected and were more likely to have zoophilic infection. The most common pathogen in China was Microsporum canis. Atopic dermatitis (AD), animal contact, endothrix infection and geophilic pathogens were linked with kerion occurrence. In terms of treatment, itraconazole was the most applied antifungal agent and reduced the time to mycological cure. A total of 22.5% of patients received systemic glucocorticoids simultaneously, which reduced the time to complete symptom relief. Furthermore, glucocorticoids combined with itraconazole had better treatment efficacy, with a higher rate and shorter time to achieving mycological cure. CONCLUSIONS: Kerion often affects preschoolers and leads to serious sequelae, with AD, animal contact, and endothrix infection as potential risk factors. Glucocorticoids, especially those combined with itraconazole, had better treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Itraconazol , Microsporum , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Feminino , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Lactente , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 46: 104039, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452908

RESUMO

Kerion, a severe manifestation of tinea capitis caused by dermatophytes, is a fungal skin disease primarily affecting children. This report discusses six cases of pediatric kerion that were successfully treated with a combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and antifungal agents. Additionally, we conducted a literature review, identifying and analyzing six published reports on kerion and tinea capitis. The characteristics and efficacies of these cases are summarized. In summary, early combination therapy and proactive pre-treatment interventions proved effective in maximizing therapeutic outcomes, reducing disease duration and minimizing adverse reactions such as cicatricial alopecia. This approach has emerged as a favorable choice for the treatment of kerion.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Humanos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Escolar , Ácido Aminolevulínico/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Adolescente
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 110(5): 965-967, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531098

RESUMO

Tinea capitis is a common fungal infection caused by dermatophytes in children, but it is rare in infants. Although oral itraconazole has been widely used to treat tinea capitis, its use in infants is limited due to its low prevalence in this age group. A previous study reported the effectiveness of itraconazole continuous therapy in treating infantile tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis. However, this approach has not been extended to tinea capitis caused by other fungi. In this study, we present four cases of infantile tinea capitis treated with continuous itraconazole oral solution therapy (5 mg/kg/day). Two patients were infected with M. canis, one patient with Nannizzia gypsea, and another with Trichophyton tonsurans. This study assesses the efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution continuous therapy, expanding our understanding by demonstrating its effectiveness for infantile tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans and N. gypsea.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Itraconazol , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Itraconazol/administração & dosagem , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Administração Oral , Microsporum/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 41(2): 263-265, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342578

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the current management of tinea capitis in the United States, specifically focusing on patients aged 0-2 months, 2 months to 2 years, and 2 years to 18 years. An online survey, distributed through the Pediatric Dermatology Research Alliance and the Society of Pediatric Dermatology, revealed the following preferences: fluconazole for those under 2 months, griseofulvin for those aged 2 months to 2 years, and terbinafine for those aged 2 years and older. There exists inter-provider variation in tinea capitis treatment regimens within the pediatric dermatology community.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Itraconazol , Dermatologistas , Naftalenos , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Griseofulvina/uso terapêutico
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1508, 2024 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233520

RESUMO

In this study, we have formulated and analyzed the Tinea capitis infection Caputo fractional order model by implementing three time-dependent control measures. In the qualitative analysis part, we investigated the following: by using the well-known Picard-Lindelöf criteria we have proved the model solutions' existence and uniqueness, using the next generation matrix approach we calculated the model basic reproduction number, we computed the model equilibrium points and investigated their stabilities, using the three time-dependent control variables (prevention measure, non-inflammatory infection treatment measure, and inflammatory infection treatment measure) and from the formulated fractional order model we re-formulated the fractional order optimal control problem. The necessary optimality conditions for the Tinea capitis fractional order optimal control problem and the existence of optimal control strategies are derived and presented by using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. Also, the study carried out the sensitivity and numerical analysis to investigate the most sensitive parameters and to verify the qualitative analysis results. Finally, we performed the cost-effective analysis to investigate the most cost-effective measures from the possible proposed control measures, and from the findings we can suggest that implementing prevention measures only is the most cost-effective control measure that stakeholders should consider.


Assuntos
Micoses , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/prevenção & controle , Número Básico de Reprodução , Controle de Custos
11.
Mycopathologia ; 189(1): 14, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265566

RESUMO

The two fungal species Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton violaceum are common pathogens on human, infecting keratinized tissue of the outer body parts. Both species are belonging to the "Trichophyton rubrum complex" and share very high similarity in the genome. Secreted proteinases, key factors for keratin degradation, are nearly identical. Contrary, the ecological niches are differing. Trichophyton rubrum preferably infects skin and nails, whereas T. violaceum preferably infects the scalp. We postulate, that differences in the protease expression contribute to differences in ecological preferences. We analyzed the expression profiles of all 22 endoprotease genes, 12 subtilisins (S8A), 5 deuterolysins (M35) and 5 fungalysins (M36), for both species. To compare the influence of the keratin source, we designed experiments with human nail keratin, sheep wool keratin and keratin free cultivation media. Samples were taken at 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 96 h post incubation in keratin medium. The expression of the proteases is higher in wool-keratin medium compared to human nail medium, with the exception of MEP4 and SUB6. Expression in the keratin-free medium is lowest. The expression profiles of the two species are remarkable different. The expression of MEP1, MEP3, SUB5, SUB11 and SUB12 are higher in T. rubrum compared to T. violaceum. MEP2, NpIIc, NpIIe, SUB1, SUB3, SUB4, SUB7 and SUB8 are higher expressed in T. violaceum compared to T. rubrum. The differences of the protease expression in the two species may expalin the differences in the ecological niches. Further analysis are necessary to verify the hypothesis.Please check and conform the edit made in title.Here I thinke the species of strains shouldnt be capital, and the right expression should be,  "Expression Profiles of Protease in Onychomycosis-Related Pathogenic Trichophyton rubrum and Tinea Capitis-Related Pathogenic Trichophyton violaceum"Author names: Please confirm if the author names are presented accurately and in the correct se-quence (given name, middle name/initial, family name). Author 1 Given name: [Jingjing] Last name [Chen], Author 2 Given name: [Yangmin] Last name [Gao], Author 3 Given name: [Shuzhen] Last name [Xiong], Author 4 Given name: [Ping] Last name [Zhan]. Also, kindly confirm the details in the metadata are correct.YesPlease check and confirm the inserted city and country are correctly identified for affiliation 3.Please change the affiliations, Affiliation 2: ²Jiangxi Provincial Clinical Research Center for Skin Diseases, Dermatology Hospital of Jiangxi Province,The Affiliated Dermatology Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330200, Jiangxi; Affiliation 3: 3Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang Medical College,Nanchang 330001, Jiangxi. Thanks a lot!


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Onicomicose , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Ovinos , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Queratinas
12.
J Pediatr Health Care ; 38(3): 424-431, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165291

RESUMO

Dermatophytoses of the skin and scalp are common disorders in the pediatric population. The resemblance of the clinical presentation to other dermatoses can make fungal infections challenging to diagnose. We present three cases of dermatophytoses in children. The presence of fungi within skin lesions was confirmed in all cases. The diagnoses were "id" reaction in response to Trichophyton tonsurans infection, Kerion celsi because of Microsporum canis infection, and hair loss during microsporosis. Based on our review and clinical experience, we suggest diagnostic paths and treatments for dermatophytoses in children.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/diagnóstico
14.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 41(2): 302-306, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37823546

RESUMO

Tinea capitis is a common disease in children but rare in newborns younger than 1 month of age. Only 29 cases of tinea capitis in newborns have been described in indexed literature from 1990 until now. While antifungal agents can be used topically and systemically, systemic antifungal therapy is generally accepted as the treatment of choice for tinea capitis due to limited penetration of topical agents into the hair follicle. However, there is a lack of data on the use of systemic antifungal agents in newborns, and there are reports of successful treatment of tinea capitis in newborns using only topical therapy. In this paper, we present a case of tinea capitis in a 29-day-old female baby and review the previous 29 reported cases.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Administração Oral , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Microsporum , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia
16.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13675, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37983862

RESUMO

Kerion Celsi is an inflammatory, deep fungal infection of the scalp. It is rare in neonates but gets more common in children about 3 years and older. It represents with swelling, boggy lesions, pain, alopecia and purulent secretions. Secondary bacterial infection is not unusual after maceration. Extracutaneous manifestations include regional lymphadenopathy, fever and very rare fungemia. Id-reactions can occur. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, clinical examination and medical history. Diagnosis should be confirmed by microscopy, fungal culture and molecular procedures. The most common isolated fungal species are anthropophilic Trichophyton (T.) tonsurans and zoophilic Microsporum (M.) canis, while geophilic species and moulds rarely cause Kerion Celsi. Treatment is medical with systemic and topical antifungals supplemented by systemic antibiotics when necessary, while surgery needs to be avoided. Early and sufficient treatment prevents scarring alopecia. The most important differential diagnosis is bacterial skin and soft tissue infections.


Assuntos
Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Criança , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Trichophyton , Microsporum , Pele/patologia , Alopecia/diagnóstico , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Alopecia/etiologia
19.
J Mycol Med ; 34(1): 101453, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38042016

RESUMO

We report a severe case of kerion Celsi of the scalp in a previously healthy 13-year-old girl due to Trichophyton quinckeanum, an emerging dermatophyte species in Europe. The species was definitely identified by DNA sequencing and the patient was successfully treated by oral terbinafine for 6 weeks. Kerion Celsi is a severe inflammatory form of tinea capitis, which is characterised by a purulent discharge and alopecia [1]. It typically occurs in children infected with zoophilic dermatophytes, such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and an increasing number of cases caused by other Trichophyton species has recently been reported [2]. Herein we report a severe case of kerion Celsi of the scalp caused by the emerging species Trichophyton quinckeanum, which was successfully treated by oral antifungal.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Trichophyton/genética , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico
20.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 45: 103954, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38145772

RESUMO

Dermatophytosis is the most common fungal infectious disease in the world, which is commonly caused by Trichophyton rubrum in China. The traditional therapies for treating dermatophytosis include topical and oral antifungal agents like terbinafine, griseofulvin, and azole antifungal drugs. However, 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) as a new alternative therapy avoids the side effects and drug resistance of traditional antifungal agents. We report two cases diagnosed as kerion and tinea faciei secondary to ulcers with CARD 9 deficiency, both of whom were infected by T.rubrum. They were both successfully treated by ALA-PDT combined with antifungal drugs, providing a feasible strategy for therapeutic choice for adult kerion and ulcer treatment.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Fotoquimioterapia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Adulto , Humanos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Aminolevulínico/uso terapêutico , Úlcera , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico
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