Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 898
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12669, 2024 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830918

RESUMO

Dermatophytes show a wide geographic distribution and are the main causative agents of skin fungal infections in many regions of the world. Recently, their resistance to antifungal drugs has led to an obstacle to effective treatment. To address the lack of dermatophytosis data in Iraq, this study was designed to investigate the distribution and prevalence of dermatophytes in the human population and single point mutations in squalene epoxidase gene (SQLE) of terbinafine resistant isolates. The identification of 102 dermatophytes isolated from clinical human dermatophytosis was performed through morphological and microscopic characteristics followed by molecular analysis based on ITS and TEF-1α sequencing. Phylogeny was achieved through RAxML analysis. CLSI M38-A2 protocol was used to assess antifungal susceptibility of the isolates to four major antifungal drugs. Additionally, the presence of point mutations in SQLE gene, which are responsible for terbinafine resistance was investigated. Tinea corporis was the most prevalent clinical manifestation accounting for 37.24% of examined cases of dermatophytosis. Based on ITS, T. indotineae (50.98%), T. mentagrophytes (19.61%), and M. canis (29.41%) was identified as an etiologic species. T. indotineae and T. mentagrophytes strains were identified as T. interdigitale based on TEF-1α. Terbinafine showed the highest efficacy among the tested antifungal drugs. T. indotineae and T. mentagrophytes showed the highest resistance to antifungal drugs with MICs of 2-4 and 4 µg/mL, while M. canis was the most susceptible species. Three of T. indotineae isolates showed mutations in SQLE gene Phe397Leu substitution. A non-previously described point mutation, Phe311Leu was identified in T. indotineae and mutations Lys276Asn, Phe397Leu and Leu419Phe were diagnosed in T. mentagrophytes XVII. The results of mutation analysis showed that Phe397Leu was a destabilizing mutation; protein stability has decreased with variations in pH, and point mutations affected the interatomic interaction, resulting in bond disruption. These results could help to control the progression of disease effectively and make decisions regarding the selection of appropriate drugs for dermatophyte infections.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Arthrodermataceae , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação Puntual , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase , Tinha , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Iraque/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Masculino , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Adulto , Filogenia , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Idoso
2.
Mycopathologia ; 189(4): 52, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864945

RESUMO

Treatment-resistant dermatophytosis caused by the members of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes/Trichophyton interdigitale species group (TMTISG) is increasing worldwide. We aimed to determine the prevalence of TMTISG in patients with dermatophytosis in two centers from north of Iran and detect the possible mutations in the squalene epoxidase (SQLE) gene in relevant terbinafine (TRB) resistant pathogenic isolates. From November 2021 to December 2022, 1960 patients suspected to dermatophytosis and referred to two mycology referral laboratories in the north of Iran were included in the study. Identification of all dermatophyte isolates was confirmed by RFLP of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Antifungal susceptibility testing against five common antifungals using the CLSI-M38-A3 protocol was performed. The TMTISG isolates resistant to TRB, were further analyzed to determine the possible mutations in the SQLE gene. Totally, 647 cases (33%) were positive for dermatophytosis of which 280 cases (43.3%) were identified as members of TMTISG. These were more frequently isolated from tinea corporis 131 (44.56%) and tinea cruris 116 (39.46%). Of 280 TMTISG isolates, 40 (14.3%) were resistant to TRB (MIC ≥ 4 µg/mL), all found to be T. indotineae in ITS sequencing. In SQLE sequencing 34 (85%) of TRB-resistant isolates had coincident mutations of Phe397Leu and Ala448Thr whereas four and two isolates had single mutations of Phe397Leu and Leu393Ser, respectively. Overall, the resistance of Iranian TMTISG isolates to TRB greatly occurred by a mutation of Phe397Leu in the SQLE gene as alone or in combination with Ala448Thr. Nevertheless, for the occurrence of in vitro resistance, only the presence of Phe397Leu mutation seems to be decisive.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Arthrodermataceae , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase , Terbinafina , Tinha , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Estudos Transversais , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Feminino , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Criança
3.
Mycoses ; 67(6): e13754, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tinea faciei is a relatively uncommon dermatophyte infection. The studies, which included clinical forms, and isolated species of dermatophytes, are limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study aims to determine the causative organism, clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with tinea faciei attending the dermatologic clinic, Siriraj Hospital, from 1 January 2017 to 30 September 2021. Demographic data, clinical presentations, isolated dermatophyte species, treatments and outcomes were collected and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 151 tinea faciei cases were observed. Trichophyton rubrum (48.6%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex (22.2%) and Microsporum canis (18.1%) were common causative agents. Tinea faciei was commonly detected in females (64.9%) with a history of pets (54.6%). Clinical presentations often involved plaques and scales on the cheeks. Among patients with lesions on the cheek, mycological cure was observed significantly less often compared to those without cheek lesions. Patients with other concurrent skin or nail infections, a history of topical steroids and a history of previous fungal infection had a slightly longer duration of mycological cure than those without factors. Recurrent infection was found in 33.3%. Male, history of previous fungal infection, and lesions on the cheeks were significantly associated with recurrent infection. CONCLUSIONS: Fungal infection of the face was commonly found in women and patients with pets. The most common pathogen that caused tinea faciei was T. rubrum. Topical antifungal treatments could be used with favourable outcomes. The history of past infection and lesion on the cheeks should be carefully assessed to be vigilant for recurrent infection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Arthrodermataceae , Microsporum , Tinha , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Masculino , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Resultado do Tratamento , Idoso , Dermatoses Faciais/microbiologia , Dermatoses Faciais/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Escolar
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatophytoma, also described as a longitudinal streak/spike, is a form of onychomycosis that presents as yellow/white streaks or patches in the subungual space, with dense fungal masses encased in biofilm. This scoping review of the literature was conducted to address a general lack of information about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of dermatophytomas in onychomycosis. METHODS: A search was performed in the PubMed and Embase databases for the terms "longitudinal spike" or "dermatophytoma." Outcomes of interest were definition, prevalence, methods used for diagnosis, treatments, and treatment efficacy. Inclusion and exclusion of search results required agreement between two independent reviewers. RESULTS: Of a total of 51 records, 37 were included. Two reports provided the first unique definitions/clinical features of dermatophytomas. Overall, many descriptions were found, but one conclusive definition was lacking. Prevalence data were limited and inconsistent. The most frequently mentioned diagnostic techniques were clinical assessment, potassium hydroxide/microscopy, and fungal culture/mycology. Oral terbinafine and topical efinaconazole 10% were the most frequently mentioned treatments, followed by topical luliconazole 5% and other oral treatments (itraconazole, fluconazole, fosravuconazole). In studies with five or more patients without nail excision, cure rates were highest with efinaconazole 10%, which ranged from 41% to 100% depending on the clinical and/or mycologic assessment evaluated. Other drugs with greater than or equal to 50% cure rates were topical luliconazole 5% (50%), oral fosravuconazole (57%), and oral terbinafine (67%). In studies that combined oral terbinafine treatment with nail excision using surgical or chemical (40% urea) methods, cure rates ranged from 50% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: There is little published information regarding dermatophytomas in onychomycosis. More clinical research and physician education are needed. Although dermatophytomas have historically been considered difficult to treat, the efficacy data gathered in this scoping review have demonstrated that newer topical treatments are effective, as are oral antifungals in combination with chemical or surgical methods.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Onicomicose , Humanos , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/terapia , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Dermatoses do Pé/diagnóstico , Dermatoses do Pé/terapia , Dermatoses do Pé/epidemiologia , Dermatoses do Pé/microbiologia , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/terapia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino
5.
Acta Trop ; 255: 107237, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723739

RESUMO

The surge in domestic cat adoption across India, particularly the rising preference for high-pedigree cats, coupled with environmental factors, has resulted in increased incidence of dermatophytosis among feline companions. Despite this growing concern, there is a noticeable scarcity of studies in India delving into the etiological factors contributing to dermatophytosis in cats. This disease is a threat to animal health and carries public health significance, given that cats are recognized reservoir hosts for Microsporum canis, a common dermatophyte affecting humans and animals. This study endeavours to identify the dermatophytes affecting cats and establish a standardized therapeutic regimen while accounting for the local stigma surrounding the regular bathing of cats. The study involved the examination of 82 cats presenting dermatological lesions, when subjected to cultural examination in dermatophyte test medium revealed 36 afflicted with dermatophytes. Isolates were presumptively identified by staining using lactophenol cotton blue, Chicago sky blue 6B, and Calcofluor white stains. Molecular-level identification of the isolates was confirmed through PCR-RFLP, amplifying the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence of 16 s rDNA, followed by restriction digestion using the Mva1 enzyme. Among the thirty-six isolates, 29 were identified as M. canis, while the remaining 7 were M. gypseum. The cases were categorized into five groups and treated with Lime Sulphur dip, 4 % chlorhexidine shampoo, a shampoo containing 2 % miconazole and 4 % chlorhexidine, oral itraconazole alone, and a combination of oral itraconazole with lime-Sulphur dip. Statistical analysis revealed that the response was notably swifter with lime Sulphur dip when considering only topical therapy. Moreover, the mycological cure was most expeditious when combining Lime Sulphur dip with oral itraconazole. These findings underscore the pivotal role of topical biocides in feline dermatophytosis treatment, potentially reducing the reliance on specific antifungals and thereby contributing to the mitigation of antimicrobial resistance emergence.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Doenças do Gato , Microsporum , Tinha , Gatos/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Índia/epidemiologia , Tinha/veterinária , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Microsporum/genética , Masculino , Feminino , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética
7.
Mycoses ; 67(2): e13702, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum), an anthropophilic dermatophyte, is the primary causative agent of skin conditions such as tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea corporis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of E. floccosum-induced dermatophytosis, with particular emphasis on the types of infections and demographic profiles. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patient records from the dermatology outpatient clinic were scrutinized, covering the timeframe from January 2009 to December 2020. Eligibility for the study required a dermatophytosis diagnosis verified by microscopic examination and fungal culture. RESULTS: Of the 4669 confirmed dermatophytosis cases, 82 (1.8%) were attributable to E. floccosum infection. The proportions of male and female patients with E. floccosum infections were 50.0% each. The most common presentation was tinea pedis (39.0%), followed by tinea cruris (37.8%) and tinea corporis (26.8%). The mean age at disease onset for tinea cruris was 38.7 ± 18.7 years, which was lower than that for tinea pedis (50.6 ± 14.2 years) and tinea corporis (53.5 ± 16.4 years). However, these age differences were not statistically significant. A continuous decrease in E. floccosum isolation was observed over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: There was a steady decline in the prevalence of E. floccosum dermatophytosis over the 12-year study period. Despite the decreasing trend, tinea cruris, tinea corporis and tinea pedis remained the predominant clinical manifestations of E. floccosum infection.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses , Tinea Cruris , Tinha , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tinha dos Pés/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Epidermophyton , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia
8.
Mycoses ; 67(4): e13718, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatomycoses count to the most frequent dermatoses in Cambodia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this survey was to investigate the occurrence of dermatophytes in this Southeast Asian country. METHODS: From June 2017 to July 2018, skin scrapings were taken from 67 patients with superficial dermatophytosis for mycological diagnostics. Identification of dermatophytes was confirmed by sequencing of the 'internal transcribed spacer'-(ITS) region of the rDNA, and the gene of the Translation Elongation Factor (TEF)-1α. RESULTS: Patients were suffering from tinea corporis and tinea inguinalis/cruris 42/67 (63%), tinea capitis/faciei 14/67 (21%), tinea corporis/capitis/faciei 6/67 (9%), tinea manuum/pedis 2/67 (3%), tinea pedis 2/67 (3%) and tinea manuum 1/67 (1%). Both, by culture and/or PCR, a dermatophyte was detected in 52 (78%) out of 67 samples. Culture positive were 42 (81%) of 52, PCR positive were 50 (96%). The following dermatophytes were found: Trichophyton (T.) rubrum, 36/52 strains (69%, 29 by culture), T. mentagrophytes/T. interdigitale (TM/TI) 9/52 (17%, six by culture) and Microsporum (M.) canis 5/52 strains (10%, by culture). One strain of Nannizzia (N.) incurvata 1/52 (2%) and N. nana 1/52 (2%) was isolated. Based on sequencing, we demonstrated that two T. mentagrophytes strains out of the nine TM/TI represented the new ITS genotype XXV Cambodia. We found one T. mentagrophytes strain genotype VIII (now, reclassified as T. indotineae). This isolate was terbinafine resistant, and it exhibited the amino acid substitution Phe397Leu in the squalene epoxidase. Three strains of T. interdigitale genotype II* were isolated. CONCLUSION: This is the first survey on epidemiology of dermatophytes in Cambodia. Currently, T. rubrum represents the most frequent species in Cambodia. One Indian strain genotype VIII T. mentagrophytes was found. A highlight was the first description of the new T. mentagrophytes genotype XXV Cambodia.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Dermatomicoses , Dermatoses da Mão , Tinha , Humanos , Camboja/epidemiologia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Trichophyton , Tinha dos Pés/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia
9.
Mycoses ; 67(2): e13707, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis is very common among all age groups throughout the world. The incidence of the same is increasing on a steady basis. AIM: Estimating the clinical prevalence of dermatophytes mycoses among the patients visiting the outpatient unit and assessing its distinct manifestations. METHODOLOGY: A prospective observational study was conducted with the patients attending the Skin and STD outpatient unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Salem. A total of 3068 outpatients attended the department, of which 420 patients were diagnosed with dermatophytic mycoses and were taken for investigating the prevalence. RESULTS: A total of 420 dermatophytosis patients were included giving a percentage prevalence of 13.69%. There were more female patients (n = 213, 50.71%) than males (n = 207, 49.29%). The most common afflicted age group was 31-40 years (n = 99, 50.71%). Most of the patients had an atypical lesion called tinea incognita (n = 265, 63.09%) where there was no typical classic appearance of dermatophytic infections. The most prevalent clinical manifestation was tinea corporis (n = 73, 17.38%) followed by tinea cruris (n = 69, 16.43%). There were more newly diagnosed dermatophytosis cases (n = 326) than the previously diagnosed cases (n = 94). CONCLUSION: This study concludes that dermatophytic mycoses were more prevalent among females than males and among the age groups of 31-40 years. The most common clinical presentation was tinea incognita followed by tinea corporis.


Assuntos
Tinha , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Prevalência , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/diagnóstico , Índia/epidemiologia
10.
Med Mycol ; 62(2)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366631

RESUMO

Complete genome sequences from two Trichophyton indotineae isolates were obtained from a 23-year-old male presenting with tinea cruris after an overseas recreational water exposure and from a 53-year-old female patient with unknown travel history. Analysis of the squalene epoxidase gene and the cyp51 gene family showed an absence of mutations, correlating with phenotypic drug susceptibility. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) distance between both isolates was 92. Within the T. indotineae cluster, SNPs ranged from 7 to 182, suggesting a high genetic relatedness with other South Asian isolates. This study suggests that the prevalence of T. indotineae is under-reported and more widespread than previously thought.


Trichophyton indotineae, is a fungus causing difficult to treat ringworm infections. Two isolates were sequenced and their relationship and to other isolates was characterized. We also studied the genes responsible for first-line antifungal treatment.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Tinha , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Terbinafina , Singapura , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Trichophyton
11.
J Mycol Med ; 34(1): 101457, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A decreasing trend in tinea cruris caused by Epidermophyton floccosum, an anthropophilic dermatophyte, has been observed. METHODS: This retrospective study involved Thai naval cadets aged 18 years or older with suspected groin lesions. Both clinical evaluations and laboratory investigations were conducted. RESULTS: In total, 86 male participants with a median age of 19 years who presented with groin rash were enrolled in the study. Branching septate hyphae from KOH examination were found in 55 patients (64.0 %). Fungal identifications were Epidermophyton floccosum (42 cases; 76.4 %), Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex (3 cases; 5.5 %), and no growth (10 cases; 18.2 %). An E. floccosum outbreak was identified, with a prevalence of 76.4 %. Most lesions exhibited admixed erythema and hyperpigmentation. Approximately two-thirds displayed prominent, easily visible scaling. Scrotal involvement was absent in 95.2 % of lesions, with 87.2 % presenting bilaterally. A gradual symptom onset lasting up to 2 months was observed in 78.9 % of cases. Lesion morphologies included annular (73.8 %), patchy (14.3 %), and polycyclic (9.5 %). Severe itching disrupting daily activities was reported by only 7.1 % of participants. Approximately two-thirds used over-the-counter (OTC) topical medications without consulting a physician. Risk factors related to clothing included sharing clothes (59.5 %), wearing sweaty clothes (100 %), and reusing unwashed clothes (81.0 %). CONCLUSIONS: The E. floccosum tinea cruris outbreak among naval cadets was characterized by a gradual onset and mild symptoms. OTC medication use without physician consultation was prevalent.


Assuntos
Tinea Cruris , Tinha , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epidermophyton , Surtos de Doenças , Trichophyton
12.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13666, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37941162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wrestling, considered the national sport of Iran, has gained immense popularity among Iranians. Wrestlers frequently encounter skin conditions, with dermatophyte fungal infections, particularly tinea gladiatorum (TG), being a common issue. TG, caused by the Trichophyton genus, has emerged as a major health concern for wrestlers and other contact sport athletes worldwide. This study aimed to assess the genotypic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton tonsurans isolates responsible for TG in Iranian wrestlers from Mazandaran province, northern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 clinical T. tonsurans isolates collected from various cities in Mazandaran, were included in the study. The isolates were identified through PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing methods. Genomic DNA was extracted from these isolates, and the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was targeted for genotyping using newly designed primers. Haplotype analysis was performed to explore genetic diversity, and antifungal susceptibility to terbinafine (TRB) and itraconazole (ITC) was assessed. RESULTS: The results revealed five distinct NTS types: NTS-I, NTS-II, NTS-III, NTS-IV and NTS-V, with NTS-IV being the most prevalent. The distribution of NTS types varied across different cities, suggesting potential transmission patterns among wrestlers. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed that all isolates were susceptible to TRB, while one isolate demonstrated resistance to ITC. Genotypic diversity was not correlated with antifungal susceptibility, emphasising the importance of monitoring susceptibility to ensure effective treatment. Haplotype analysis highlighted significant genetic diversity among the T. tonsurans isolates. This diversity may be attributed to factors such as human-to-human transmission, geographic location and lifestyle changes. The study's findings underscore the need for comprehensive genotypic analysis to understand the epidemiology and evolution of T. tonsurans infections in athletes. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study provides valuable insights into the genotypic diversity and antifungal susceptibility of T. tonsurans isolates causing TG in Iranian wrestlers. The presence of multiple NTS types and varying susceptibility patterns highlights the complexity of T. tonsurans infections in this population. Further research is warranted to track the transmission routes and genetic evolution of T. tonsurans strains among wrestlers and develop effective control measures.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , População do Oriente Médio , Tinha , Luta Romana , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/genética , DNA Ribossômico , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Tipagem Molecular , Terbinafina , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/etiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Trichophyton
13.
Am J Vet Res ; 85(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37918123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of wild eastern cottontail rabbits (ECR) (Sylvilagus floridanus) with and without skin lesions. ANIMALS: 2-week-old or older ECR admitted to a Wildlife Medical Clinic (WMC) in central Illinois, Midwest United States, from September 2021 to August 2022. METHODS: ECR were surveyed over a 1-year period to assess the prevalence and seasonality of dermatophytosis. A Wood's lamp exam was performed over the haircoat. Hairs were sampled with a sterile toothbrush and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The plates were photographed twice weekly for 3 weeks, and colonies were identified as contaminants or dermatophytes. RESULTS: 523 ECR were admitted to WMC, 141 ECR met the age inclusion criteria, and 121 samples were plated. ECR presented as a litter were sampled together. None of the sampled ECR presented skin lesions other than acute traumatic wounds. No fluorescence was observed on any ECR during the Wood's lamp examination. Based on culture colony morphology, 115/121 of the samples were identified as contaminants and no growth was observed in 6/121 of plates. Dermatophytes' colonies were not identified on any of the culture plates. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dermatophytes are zoonotic fungi and can potentially be carried by wild animals. The fungal infection poses a health concern to humans and domestic pets through direct interaction. Our current results suggest that dermatophytosis may not be prevalent in asymptomatic wild rabbits in the studied areas of the Midwestern United States.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Tinha , Humanos , Animais , Coelhos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Illinois/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/veterinária
14.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 26(4): 629-634, 2023 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38088306

RESUMO

Dermatophytes from Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton genera are divided into geophilic, zoophilic and anthropophilic species which cause skin infection in humans and wide group of animals, mainly mammals. Main species causing dermatophytosis in dogs and cats are Microsporum and Trichophyton. Conventional mycological diagnostic technique includes Saburaud Dextrose Agar (SAD) and others medium cultures, 10% KOH mount and direct microscopy of hairs and scraping. Molecular diagnostic become more frequent in veterinary practice due to shortening of waiting time. In this study we based on two PCR methods. The nested PCR amplified CHS1 gene for dermatophytes detection, and multiplex PCR coding ITS1 and ITS2 fragments for species identification of detected derpatophytes. Most frequently detected species was Microsporum canis, mainly in young cats. Geophilic Microsporum gypseum and anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum was found primarily in dogs. Molecular methods in dermatophytosis identification are rapid in contrast to routinely, long lasting culture.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Doenças do Gato , Dermatomicoses , Doenças do Cão , Tinha , Humanos , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Polônia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Microsporum/genética , Trichophyton/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/veterinária , Mamíferos/genética
15.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 22(12): e49-e50, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the limited use of nystatin for tinea infections, physicians may continue to use it. METHODS: We assessed the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for all to determine the extent of topical nystatin use in tinea infections. RESULTS: Topical nystatin was used at 4.3% (2.1%, 6.0%) of all tinea infection visits. It was not used at visits with dermatologists and was most common among family medicine physicians (P=.02). DISCUSSION: Physicians are continuing to use nystatin for the treatment of tinea infections. Dermatologists have discontinued this treatment regimen, whereas other specialties have an opportunity to further improve their knowledge in this regard. J Drugs Dermatol. 2023;22(12):e49-e50.     doi:10.36849/JDD.5606e.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Tinha , Humanos , Nistatina/uso terapêutico , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Administração Tópica , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(11)2023 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38003954

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Dermatological disorders are highly prevalent among children in Pakistan. The present cross-sectional study aims to identify the spectrum of dermatological conditions among children and adolescents in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 582 patients (50.9% males; 49.1% females) were included in the study based on their age (5.7 ± 4.1 years), dermatological condition, and epidemiology. The youngest patient was aged ten days, whereas the eldest was seventeen. Age criteria were further stratified into three categories: infants and toddlers (≤5 years), children (≥5 to <12 years), and adolescents (≥12 to <18 years). Amongst them, the majority was from Punjab (81.6%), while the other regions included were Azad Jammu and Kashmir (14.4%), Islamabad (3.3%), and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (0.7%). Results: Scabies was the highest reported skin condition with 281 (45.55%) patients, followed by 114 (19.6%) with eczema, 60 (10.3%) with dermatitis, 33 (5.7%) with tinea capitis, 17 (2.9%) with tinea corporis, 16 (2.7%) with impetigo, and 15 (2.6%) with folliculitis. Other conditions include urticaria, burns, infections, pediculosis, tinea inguinalis, tinea faciei, nappy rashes, alopecia, warts, tinea incognito, tinea cruris, and acne vulgaris. The chi-squared test showed a high prevalence of tinea corporis and acne among adolescents (12-17 years), whereas eczema, dermatitis, and impetigo were more prevalent among infants and toddlers. Conclusions: Pets or livestock and poor hygiene were found to be highly reported risk factors for many dermatological conditions like scabies and fungal infections. Dermatological conditions are common in younger individuals, but unfortunately, many children do not receive the desired medical assistance.


Assuntos
Eczema , Impetigo , Escabiose , Tinha , Masculino , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 61(12): e0090323, 2023 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38014979

RESUMO

Dermatophyte infections (a.k.a. ringworm, tinea) affect an estimated 20%-25% of the world's population. In North America, most dermatophytoses are caused by Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complexes. Severe and antifungal-resistant dermatophytoses are a growing global public health problem. A new species of the T. mentagrophytes species complex, Trichophyton indotineae, has recently emerged and is notable for the severe infections it causes, its propensity for antifungal resistance, and its global spread. In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, C. F. Cañete-Gibas, J. Mele, H. P. Patterson, et al. (J Clin Microbiol 61:e00562-23, 2023, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00562-23) summarize the results of speciation and AFST performed on North American dermatophyte isolates received at a fungal diagnostic reference laboratory. Within their collection, 18.6% of isolates were resistant to terbinafine (a first-line oral antifungal for dermatophytoses), and similar proportions of T. rubrum and T. indotineae demonstrated terbinafine resistance. The authors also found that T. indotineae has been present in North America since at least 2017. These findings highlight the importance of increased surveillance efforts to monitor trends in severe and antifungal-resistant dermatophytoses and the need for antifungal stewardship efforts, the success of which is contingent upon improving laboratory capacity for dermatophyte speciation and AFST.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Tinha , Humanos , Terbinafina , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Trichophyton/classificação , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Med Mycol J ; 64(4): 85-94, 2023.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38030276

RESUMO

This is a report of the results of the epidemiological survey on dermatomycoses conducted in 2021. A total of 9,442 patients with dermatomycosis were reported for one year. They include 8,151 (86.3%) with dermatophytosis, 796 (8.4%) with candidiasis, 484 (5.1%) with Malassezia infection, and 11 (0.1%) with deep cutaneous mycosis. In order, the most common types of dermatophytoses were tinea pedis (4,195 cases, 2,341 males and 1,854 females), tinea unguium (2,711 cases, 1,509 males and 1,202 females), tinea corporis (674 cases, 445 males and 229 females), tinea cruris (399 cases, 305 males and 94 females), tinea manus (125 cases, 78 males and 47 females), and tinea capitis (47 cases, 25 males and 22 females). The number of cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium increased during the summer. A higher percentage of patients were aged 80 or older than in previous surveys. These findings may reflect the increasing percentage of elderly patients seen and the superannuation of the population. As in previous surveys, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale were the two most frequently isolated species of fungi causing dermatophytoses. Microsporum canis and Trichophyton tonsurans were the two species most often causing tinea capitis.Regarding cutaneous candidiasis, while candidal intertrigo was the most common in previous surveys, diaper candidiasis in the elderly was the most common in this survey. A background check revealed that this was because a facility included a semi-prophylactic approach to address diaper candidiasis occurring within the ward.Malassezia infections by Malassezia folliculitis clearly increased with each survey. The tendency of certain facilities with many reports of Malassezia folliculitis suggests that it is greatly affected by the presence of physicians familiar with the disease.


Assuntos
Candidíase Cutânea , Candidíase , Dermatomicoses , Foliculite , Onicomicose , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Tinha , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tinha dos Pés/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Trichophyton
19.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 46: 100476, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37806168

RESUMO

Tinea universalis is a condition when most of the anatomical sites of body are involved due to dermatophyte infection both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Here we present a case of tinea universalis due to Trichophyton indotineae (T. indotineae) from India. This species has emerged recently. Earlier, it has been reported as Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton interdigitale (T. interdigitale). T. indotineae has been associated with outbreaks and epidemics of chronic, recalcitrant, and nonresponsive to terbinafine, in India and several other countries. The patient was prescribed Itraconazole (200 mg/day), Luliconazole cream topically and antihistamine at night, with marked improvement clinically. Easy availability and misuse of corticosteroids cream, as over-the-counter drug, should be discouraged.


Assuntos
Tinha , Trichophyton , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico
20.
Med Mycol J ; 64(3): 49-54, 2023.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37648498

RESUMO

Trichophyton tonsurans infection has been prevalent among individuals involved in contact sports in Japan since about 2000. The present review focuses on its diagnosis, molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility, and infection control. The most commonly observed lesions of T. tonsurans, an anthropogenic dermatophyte, are tinea corporis and tinea capitis. However, the presence of asymptomatic carriers must be considered for infection control. Genotypic epidemiology using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene showed a lack of diversity of genotypes, and only the NTS I genotype is detected at present. In regard to drug susceptibility, terbinafine drug resistance has not been found to be associated with the RFLP genotypes, and it is assumed that there are no terbinafine-resistant strains in Japan. T. tonsurans coexisted with other fungi and bacteria in the scalp of asymptomatic carriers without affecting species diversity. T. tonsurans is an anthropogenic dermatophyte and may be difficult for the human immune system to eliminate. During an infection outbreak, screening of infection and treatment including asymptomatic carriers are essential to eradicate the infection.


Assuntos
Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Tinha , Humanos , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Genótipo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...