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1.
Sci Adv ; 10(15): eadk8157, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598628

RESUMO

Redesigning protein-protein interfaces is an important tool for developing therapeutic strategies. Interfaces can be redesigned by in silico screening, which allows for efficient sampling of a large protein space before experimental validation. However, computational costs limit the number of combinations that can be reasonably sampled. Here, we present combinatorial tyrosine (Y)/serine (S) selection (combYSelect), a computational approach combining in silico determination of the change in binding free energy (ΔΔG) of an interface with a highly restricted library composed of just two amino acids, tyrosine and serine. We used combYSelect to design two immunoglobulin G (IgG) heterodimers-combYSelect1 (L368S/D399Y-K409S/T411Y) and combYSelect2 (D399Y/K447S-K409S/T411Y)-that exhibit near-optimal heterodimerization, without affecting IgG stability or function. We solved the crystal structures of these heterodimers and found that dynamic π-stacking interactions and polar contacts drive preferential heterodimeric interactions. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of our combYSelect heterodimers by engineering both a bispecific antibody and a cytokine trap for two unique therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos , Imunoglobulina G , Dimerização , Tirosina/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1264525, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585651

RESUMO

Introduction: Dengue is an arboviral disease causing severe illness in over 500,000 people each year. Currently, there is no way to constrain dengue in the clinic. Host kinase regulators of dengue virus (DENV) infection have the potential to be disrupted by existing therapeutics to prevent infection and/or disease progression. Methods: To evaluate kinase regulation of DENV infection, we performed kinase regression (KiR), a machine learning approach that predicts kinase regulators of infection using existing drug-target information and a small drug screen. We infected hepatocytes with DENV in vitro in the presence of a panel of 38 kinase inhibitors then quantified the effect of each inhibitor on infection rate. We employed elastic net regularization on these data to obtain predictions of which of 291 kinases are regulating DENV infection. Results: Thirty-six kinases were predicted to have a functional role. Intriguingly, seven of the predicted kinases - EPH receptor A4 (EPHA4), EPH receptor B3 (EPHB3), EPH receptor B4 (EPHB4), erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2), fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), Insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), and ret proto-oncogene (RET) - belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, which are already therapeutic targets in the clinic. We demonstrate that predicted RTKs are expressed at higher levels in DENV infected cells. Knockdown of EPHB4, ERBB2, FGFR2, or IGF1R reduces DENV infection in hepatocytes. Finally, we observe differential temporal induction of ERBB2 and IGF1R following DENV infection, highlighting their unique roles in regulating DENV. Discussion: Collectively, our findings underscore the significance of multiple RTKs in DENV infection and advocate further exploration of RTK-oriented interventions against dengue.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Humanos , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Receptor EphA1 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Tirosina , Replicação Viral
3.
FASEB J ; 38(7): e23609, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593345

RESUMO

PTPRD, a well-established tumor suppressor gene, encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase-type D. This protein consists of three immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains, four to eight fibronectin type 3 (FN) domains, a single transmembrane segment, and two cytoplasmic tandem tyrosine phosphatase domains. PTPRD is known to harbor various cancer-associated point mutations. While it is assumed that PTPRD regulates cellular functions as a tumor suppressor through the tyrosine phosphatase activity in the intracellular region, the function of its extracellular domain (ECD) in cancer is not well understood. In this study, we systematically examined the impact of 92 cancer-associated point mutations within the ECD. We found that 69.6% (64 out of 92) of these mutations suppressed total protein expression and/or plasma membrane localization. Notably, almost all mutations (20 out of 21) within the region between the last FN domain and transmembrane segment affected protein expression and/or localization, highlighting the importance of this region for protein stability. We further found that some mutations within the Ig domains adjacent to the glycosaminoglycan-binding pocket enhanced PTPRD's binding ability to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). This interaction is proposed to suppress phosphatase activity. Our findings therefore suggest that HSPG-mediated attenuation of phosphatase activity may be involved in tumorigenic processes through PTPRD dysregulation.


Assuntos
Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato , Neoplasias , Humanos , Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato/metabolismo , Mutação Puntual , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Imunoglobulinas , Estabilidade Proteica , Tirosina/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Heparitina Sulfato , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612864

RESUMO

Flavonoids exhibit various bioactivities including anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral properties. Methylated flavonoids are particularly significant due to their enhanced oral bioavailability, improved intestinal absorption, and greater stability. The heterologous production of plant flavonoids in bacterial factories involves the need for enough biosynthetic precursors to allow for high production levels. These biosynthetic precursors are malonyl-CoA and l-tyrosine. In this work, to enhance flavonoid biosynthesis in Streptomyces albidoflavus, we conducted a transcriptomics study for the identification of candidate genes involved in l-tyrosine catabolism. The hypothesis was that the bacterial metabolic machinery would detect an excess of this amino acid if supplemented with the conventional culture medium and would activate the genes involved in its catabolism towards energy production. Then, by inactivating those overexpressed genes (under an excess of l-tyrosine), it would be possible to increase the intracellular pools of this precursor amino acid and eventually the final flavonoid titers in this bacterial factory. The RNAseq data analysis in the S. albidoflavus wild-type strain highlighted the hppD gene encoding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase as a promising target for knock-out, exhibiting a 23.2-fold change (FC) in expression upon l-tyrosine supplementation in comparison to control cultivation conditions. The subsequent knock-out of the hppD gene in S. albidoflavus resulted in a 1.66-fold increase in the naringenin titer, indicating enhanced flavonoid biosynthesis. Leveraging the improved strain of S. albidoflavus, we successfully synthesized the methylated flavanones hesperetin, homoeriodictyol, and homohesperetin, achieving titers of 2.52 mg/L, 1.34 mg/L, and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the dimethoxy flavanone homohesperetin was produced as a byproduct of the endogenous metabolism of S. albidoflavus. To our knowledge, this is the first time that hppD deletion was utilized as a strategy to augment the biosynthesis of flavonoids. Furthermore, this is the first report where hesperetin and homoeriodictyol have been synthesized from l-tyrosine as a precursor. Therefore, transcriptomics is, in this case, a successful approach for the identification of catabolism reactions affecting key precursors during flavonoid biosynthesis, allowing the generation of enhanced production strains.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais , Flavonas , Flavonoides , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hesperidina , Streptomyces , Aminoácidos , Tirosina
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 276, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stephania kwangsiensis Lo (Menispermaceae) is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine, and its bulbous stems are used medicinally. The storage stem of S. kwangsiensis originated from the hypocotyls. To date, there are no reports on the growth and development of S. kwangsiensis storage stems. RESULTS: The bulbous stem of S. kwangsiensis, the starch diameter was larger at the stable expanding stage (S3T) than at the unexpanded stage (S1T) or the rapidly expanding stage (S2T) at the three different time points. We used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and Illumina sequencing to identify key genes involved in bulbous stem development. A large number of differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Based on the differential expression profiles of the metabolites, alkaloids, lipids, and phenolic acids were the top three differentially expressed classes. Compared with S2T, significant changes in plant signal transduction and isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis pathways occurred at both the transcriptional and metabolic levels in S1T. In S2T compared with S3T, several metabolites involved in tyrosine metabolism were decreased. Temporal analysis of S1T to S3T indicated the downregulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, including lignin biosynthesis. The annotation of key pathways showed an up-down trend for genes and metabolites involved in isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was not completely consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway may be the result of carbon flow into alkaloid synthesis and storage of lipids and starch during the development of S. kwangsiensis bulbous stems. A decrease in the number of metabolites involved in tyrosine metabolism may also lead to a decrease in the upstream substrates of phenylpropane biosynthesis. Downregulation of lignin synthesis during phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may loosen restrictions on bulbous stem expansion. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome profiles of S. kwangsiensis bulbous stems. These data provide guidance for the cultivation, breeding, and harvesting of S. kwangsiensis.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Plantas Medicinais , Stephania , Stephania/química , Stephania/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Lignina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Melhoramento Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transcriptoma , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
6.
Scand J Immunol ; 99(5): e13358, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605535

RESUMO

Adapter proteins are flexible and dynamic modulators of cellular signalling that are important for immune cell function. One of these, the T-cell-specific adapter protein (TSAd), interacts with the non-receptor tyrosine kinases Src and Lck of the Src family kinases (SFKs) and Itk of the Tec family kinases (TFKs). Three tyrosine residues in the TSAd C-terminus are phosphorylated by Lck and serve as docking sites for the Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of Src and Lck. The TSAd proline-rich region (PRR) binds to the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains found in Lck, Src and Itk. Despite known interactors, the role TSAd plays in cellular signalling remains largely unknown. TSAd's ability to bind both SFKs and TFKs may point to its function as a general scaffold for both kinase families. Using GST-pulldown as well as peptide array experiments, we found that both the SH2 and SH3 domains of the SFKs Fyn and Hck, as well as the TFKs Tec and Txk, interact with TSAd. This contrasts with Itk, which interacts with TSAd only through its SH3 domain. Although our analysis showed that TSAd is both co-expressed and may interact with Fyn, we were unable to co-precipitate Fyn with TSAd from Jurkat cells, as detected by Western blotting and affinity purification mass spectrometry. This may suggest that TSAd-Fyn interaction in intact cells may be limited by other factors, such as the subcellular localization of the two molecules or the co-expression of competing binding partners.


Assuntos
Proteína Tirosina Quinase p56(lck) Linfócito-Específica , Domínios de Homologia de src , Humanos , Proteína Tirosina Quinase p56(lck) Linfócito-Específica/metabolismo , Células Jurkat , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(10): 5269-5282, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439706

RESUMO

Dityrosine (Dityr) has been detected in commercial food as a product of protein oxidation and has been shown to pose a threat to human health. This study aims to investigate whether Dityr causes a decrease in lactic acid metabolism in the gastrocnemius muscle during endurance exercise. C57BL/6 mice were administered Dityr or saline by gavage for 13 weeks and underwent an endurance exercise test on a treadmill. Dityr caused a severe reduction in motion displacement and endurance time, along with a significant increase in lactic acid accumulation in the blood and gastrocnemius muscle in mice after exercise. Dityr induced significant mitochondrial defects in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice. Additionally, Dityr induced serious oxidative stress in the gastrocnemius muscle, accompanied by inflammation, which might be one of the causes of mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, significant apoptosis in the gastrocnemius muscle increased after exposure to Dityr. This study confirmed that Dityr induced oxidative stress in the gastrocnemius muscle, which further caused significant mitochondrial damage in the gastrocnemius muscle cell, resulting in decreased capacity of lactic acid metabolism and finally affected performance in endurance exercise. This may be one of the possible mechanisms by which highly oxidized foods cause a decreased muscle energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias , Músculo Esquelético , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
8.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299999, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451992

RESUMO

Rice blast, caused by rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae), is a global threat to food security, with up to 50% yield losses. Panicle blast is a severe form of rice blast, and disease responses vary between cultivars with different genotypes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling reactions and the phenylpropanoid pathway are important defense mechanisms involved in recognizing and resisting against fungal infection. To understand rice-M. oryzae interactions in resistant and susceptible cultivars, we determined dynamic changes in the activities of five defense-related enzymes in resistant cultivar jingsui 18 and susceptible cultivar jinyuan 899 infected with M. oryzae from 4 to 25 days after infection. We then performed untargeted metabolomics analyses to profile the metabolomes of the cultivars under infected and non-infected conditions. Dynamic changes in the activities of five defense-related enzymes were closely related to panicle blast resistance in rice. Metabolome data analysis identified 634 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) between resistant and susceptible cultivars following infection, potentially explaining differences in disease response between varieties. The most enriched DAMs were associated with lipids and lipid-like molecules, phenylpropanoids and polyketides, organoheterocyclic compounds, organic acids and derivatives, and lignans, neolignans, and related compounds. Multiple metabolic pathways are involved in resistance to panicle blast in rice, including biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, tyrosine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, lysine biosynthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Magnaporthe , Oryza , Resistência à Doença/genética , Oryza/genética , Magnaporthe/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
9.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(1): 35-46, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426691

RESUMO

Innate nucleic acid sensing is a ubiquitous and highly conserved immunological process, which is pivotal for monitoring and responding to pathogenic invasion and cellular damage, and central to host defense, autoimmunity, cell fate determination and tumorigenesis. Tyrosine phosphorylation, a major type of post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in innate immune sensing pathway. Core members of nucleic acid sensing signaling pathway, such as cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS), stimulator of interferon genes (STING), and TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), are all subject to activity regulation triggered by tyrosine phosphorylation, thereby affecting the host antiviral defense and anti-tumor immunity under physiological or pathological conditions. This review summarizes the recent advances in research on tyrosine kinases and tyrosine phosphorylation in regulation of nucleic acid sensing. The function and potential applications of targeting tyrosine phosphorylation in anti-tumor immunity is disussed to provide insights for understanding and expanding new anti-tumor strategies.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Imunidade Inata , Transdução de Sinais , Tirosina
10.
Theriogenology ; 219: 167-179, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437767

RESUMO

Porcine seminal plasma (SP) is loaded with a heterogeneous population of extracellular vesicles (sEVs) that modulate several reproductive-related processes. This study investigated the effect of two sEV subsets, small (S-sEVs) and large (L-sEVs), on porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF). The sEVs were isolated from nine SP pools (five ejaculates/pool) using a size-exclusion chromatography-based procedure and characterized for quantity (total protein), morphology (cryogenic electron microscopy), size distribution (dynamic light scattering), purity and EV-protein markers (flow cytometry; albumin, CD81, HSP90ß). The characterization confirmed the existence of two subsets of high purity (low albumin content) sEVs that differed in size (S- and L-sEVs). In vitro fertilization was performed with in vitro matured oocytes and frozen-thawed spermatozoa and the IVF medium was supplemented during gamete coincubation (1 h at 38.5 °C, 5 % CO2 in a humidified atmosphere) with three different concentrations of each sEV subset: 0 (control, without sEVs), 0.1, and 0.2 mg/mL. The first experiment showed that sEVs, regardless of subset and concentration, decreased penetration rates and total IVF efficiency (P < 0.0001). In a subsequent experiment, it was shown that sEVs, regardless of subset and concentration, impaired the ability of spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida of oocytes (P < 0.0001). The following experiment showed that sEVs, regardless of the subset, bound to frozen-thawed sperm but not to in vitro matured oocytes, indicating that sEVs would affect sperm functionality but not oocyte functionality. The lack of effect on oocytes was confirmed by incubating sEVs with oocytes prior to IVF, achieving sperm-zona pellucida binding results similar to those of control. In the last experiment, conducted under IVF conditions, sperm functionality was analyzed in terms of tyrosine phosphorylation, acrosome integrity and metabolism. The sEVs, regardless of the subset, did not affect sperm tyrosine phosphorylation or acrosome integrity, but did influence sperm metabolism by decreasing sperm ATP production under capacitating conditions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the presence of sEVs on IVF medium impairs IVF outcomes, most likely by altering sperm metabolism.


Assuntos
Sêmen , Interações Espermatozoide-Óvulo , Masculino , Suínos , Animais , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Oócitos , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2202, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485927

RESUMO

Viral fusion proteins facilitate cellular infection by fusing viral and cellular membranes, which involves dramatic transitions from their pre- to postfusion conformations. These proteins are among the most protective viral immunogens, but they are metastable which often makes them intractable as subunit vaccine targets. Adapting a natural enzymatic reaction, we harness the structural rigidity that targeted dityrosine crosslinks impart to covalently stabilize fusion proteins in their native conformations. We show that the prefusion conformation of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein can be stabilized with two engineered dityrosine crosslinks (DT-preF), markedly improving its stability and shelf-life. Furthermore, it has 11X greater potency as compared with the DS-Cav1 stabilized prefusion F protein in immunogenicity studies and overcomes immunosenescence in mice with simply a high-dose formulation on alum.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vacinas contra Vírus Sincicial Respiratório , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Camundongos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Tirosina/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais de Fusão , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/prevenção & controle
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5766-5776, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447044

RESUMO

The aromatic amino acids tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine are targets for oxidation during food processing. We investigated whether S. cerevisiae can use nonproteinogenic aromatic amino acids as substrates for degradation via the Ehrlich pathway. The metabolic fate of seven amino acids (p-, o-, m-tyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), 3-nitrotyrosine, 3-chlorotyrosine, and dityrosine) in the presence of S. cerevisiae was assessed. All investigated amino acids except dityrosine were metabolized by yeast. The amino acids 3-nitrotyrosine and o-tyrosine were removed from the medium as fast as p-tyrosine, and m-tyrosine, 3-chlorotyrosine, and DOPA more slowly. In summary, 11 metabolites were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). DOPA, 3-nitrotyrosine, and p-tyrosine were metabolized predominantly to the Ehrlich alcohols, whereas o-tyrosine and m-tyrosine were metabolized predominantly to α-hydroxy acids. Our results indicate that nonproteinogenic aromatic amino acids can be taken up and transaminated by S. cerevisiae quite effectively but that decarboxylation and reduction to Ehrlich alcohols as the final metabolites is hampered by hydroxyl groups in the o- or m-positions of the phenyl ring. The data on amino acid metabolism were substantiated by the analysis of five commercial beer samples, which revealed the presence of hydroxytyrosol (ca. 0.01-0.1 mg/L) in beer for the first time.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Aromáticos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tirosina/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina/metabolismo , Álcoois/metabolismo
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6464, 2024 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499633

RESUMO

The amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine have been extensively used for different label-free protein studies, based on the intensity, lifetime, wavelength and/or polarization of their emitted fluorescence. Similar to most fluorescent organic molecules, these amino acids can undergo transitions into dark meta-stable states, such as triplet and photo-radical states. On the one hand, these transitions limit the fluorescence signal, but they are also highly environment-sensitive and can offer an additional set of parameters, reflecting interactions, folding states, and immediate environments around the proteins. In this work, by analyzing the average intensity of tyrosine emission under different excitation modulations with the transient state monitoring (TRAST) technique, we explored the photo physics of tyrosine as a basis for such environment-sensitive readouts. From how the dark state transitions of tyrosine varied with excitation intensity and solvent conditions we first established a photophysical model for tyrosine. Next, we studied Calmodulin (containing two tyrosines), and how its conformation is changed upon calcium binding. From these TRAST experiments, performed with 280 nm time-modulated excitation, we show that tyrosine dark state transitions clearly change with the calmodulin conformation, and may thus represent a useful source of information for (label-free) analyses of protein conformations and interactions.


Assuntos
Calmodulina , Tirosina , Tirosina/química , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Conformação Proteica , Triptofano/química , Corantes
14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(12): 8120-8130, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477486

RESUMO

Highly potent heterocyclic drugs are frequently poorly water soluble, leading to limited or abandoned further drug development. Nanoparticle technology offers a powerful delivery approach by enhancing the solubility and bioavailability of hydrophobic therapeutics. However, the common usage of organic solvents causes unwanted toxicity and process complexity, therefore limiting the scale-up of nanomedicine technology for clinical translation. Here, we show that an organic-solvent-free methodology for hydrophobic drug encapsulation can be obtained using polymers based on glucose and tyrosine. An aqueous solution based on a tyrosine-containing glycopolymer is able to dissolve solid dasatinib directly without adding an organic solvent, resulting in the formation of very small nanoparticles of around 10 nm loaded with up to 16 wt % of drug. This polymer is observed to function as both a drug solubilizer and a nanocarrier at the same time, offering a simple route for the delivery of insoluble drugs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Tirosina , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Glucose , Água/química , Solventes/química , Polímeros/química , Nanopartículas/química , Solubilidade
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(12): 8071-8085, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492239

RESUMO

The FET protein family, comprising FUS, EWS, and TAF15, plays crucial roles in mRNA maturation, transcriptional regulation, and DNA damage response. Clinically, they are linked to Ewing family tumors and neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The fusion protein EWS::FLI1, the causative mutation of Ewing sarcoma, arises from a genomic translocation that fuses a portion of the low-complexity domain (LCD) of EWS (EWSLCD) with the DNA binding domain of the ETS transcription factor FLI1. This fusion protein modifies transcriptional programs and disrupts native EWS functions, such as splicing. The exact role of the intrinsically disordered EWSLCD remains a topic of active investigation, but its ability to phase separate and form biomolecular condensates is believed to be central to EWS::FLI1's oncogenic properties. Here, we used paramagnetic relaxation enhancement NMR, microscopy, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to better understand the self-association and phase separation tendencies of the EWSLCD. Our NMR data and mutational analysis suggest that a higher density and proximity of tyrosine residues amplify the likelihood of condensate formation. MD simulations revealed that the tyrosine-rich termini exhibit compact conformations with unique contact networks and provided critical input on the relationship between contacts formed within a single molecule (intramolecular) and inside the condensed phase (intermolecular). These findings enhance our understanding of FET proteins' condensate-forming capabilities and underline differences between EWS, FUS, and TAF15.


Assuntos
Sarcoma de Ewing , Fatores Associados à Proteína de Ligação a TATA , Humanos , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/patologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Tirosina , Fatores Associados à Proteína de Ligação a TATA/genética , Fatores Associados à Proteína de Ligação a TATA/metabolismo
16.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 176: 110423, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442476

RESUMO

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of phenylalanine. PAL from Zea mays (ZmPAL2) exhibits a bi-function of direct deamination of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) or L-tyrosine(-L-Tyr) to form trans-cinnamic acid or p-coumaric acid. trans-Cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid are mainly used in flavors and fragrances, food additives, pharmaceutical and other fields. Here, the Activity of ZmPAL2 toward L-Phe or L-Tyr was improved by using semi-rational and rational designs. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of mutant PT10 (V258I/I459V/Q484N) against L-Phe was 30.8 µM-1 s-1, a 4.5-fold increase compared to the parent, and the catalytic efficiency of mutant PA1 (F135H/I459L) to L-tyrosine exhibited 8.6 µM-1 s-1, which was 1.6-fold of the parent. The yield of trans-cinnamic acid in PT10 reached 30.75 g/L with a conversion rate of 98%. Meanwhile, PA1 converted L-Tyr to yield 3.12 g/L of p-coumaric acid with a conversion rate of 95%. Suggesting these two engineered ZmPAL2 to be valuable biocatalysts for the synthesis of trans-cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid. In addition, MD simulations revealed that the underlying mechanisms of the increased catalytic efficiency of both mutant PT10 and PA1 are attributed to the substrate remaining stable within the pocket and closer to the catalytically active site. This also provides a new perspective on engineered PAL.


Assuntos
Cinamatos , Ácidos Cumáricos , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase , Zea mays , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/química , Fenilalanina , Tirosina
17.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540680

RESUMO

Growth-factor-receptor-binding protein 2 (GRB2) is a non-enzymatic adaptor protein that plays a pivotal role in precisely regulated signaling cascades from cell surface receptors to cellular responses, including signaling transduction and gene expression. GRB2 binds to numerous target molecules, thereby modulating a complex cell signaling network with diverse functions. The structural characteristics of GRB2 are essential for its functionality, as its multiple domains and interaction mechanisms underpin its role in cellular biology. The typical signaling pathway involving GRB2 is initiated by the ligand stimulation to its receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The activation of RTKs leads to the recruitment of GRB2 through its SH2 domain to the phosphorylated tyrosine residues on the receptor. GRB2, in turn, binds to the Son of Sevenless (SOS) protein through its SH3 domain. This binding facilitates the activation of Ras, a small GTPase, which triggers a cascade of downstream signaling events, ultimately leading to cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Further research and exploration into the structure and function of GRB2 hold great potential for providing novel insights and strategies to enhance medical approaches for related diseases. In this review, we provide an outline of the proteins that engage with domains of GRB2, along with the function of different GRB2 domains in governing cellular signaling pathways. This furnishes essential points of current studies for the forthcoming advancement of therapeutic medications aimed at GRB2.


Assuntos
Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Adaptadora GRB2/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Son Of Sevenless , Ligação Proteica , Fosforilação
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542343

RESUMO

The TAMs are a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) comprised of three members, Tyro3, Axl and Mer. Evidence in support of the existence of this subfamily emerged from a screen for novel RTKs performed in the laboratory of Dr. Greg Lemke in 1991. A PCR-based approach to selectively amplify tyrosine kinase-specific genes yielded 27 different tyrosine kinase genes, of which 13 were novel (the "Tyros"). Of these, Tyro3, 7 and 12 were more closely related to each other than to any other kinases and it was proposed that they constituted a novel subfamily of RTKs. Additional support for this hypothesis required determining the complete sequences for these receptor tyrosine kinases. By the end of 1991, full-length sequences for Tyro7 (Axl) revealed a unique extracellular domain organization that included two immunoglobulin-like domains and two fibronectin type III repeats. In 1994, the complete sequences for Tyro12 (Mer) and Tyro3 were shown to have an extracellular region domain structure similar to that of Axl. In 1995, Gas6 and Pros1 were reported as ligands for Tyro3 and Axl, setting the stage for functional studies. The Lemke lab and its many trainees have since played leading roles in elucidating the physiological relevance of the TAMs.


Assuntos
Receptor Tirosina Quinase Axl , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , c-Mer Tirosina Quinase/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/química , Tamoxifeno , Tirosina
19.
J Biomed Sci ; 31(1): 33, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and T cell activation are tightly regulated by gatekeepers to maintain immune tolerance and avoid autoimmunity. The TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) is a TNF-family death receptor that transduces apoptotic signals to induce cell death. Recent studies have indicated that TRAIL-R regulates T cell-mediated immune responses by directly inhibiting T cell activation without inducing apoptosis; however, the distinct signaling pathway that regulates T cell activation remains unclear. In this study, we screened for intracellular TRAIL-R-binding proteins within T cells to explore the novel signaling pathway transduced by TRAIL-R that directly inhibits T cell activation. METHODS: Whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing was used to identify gene expression signatures associated with TRAIL-R signaling during T cell activation. High-throughput screening with mass spectrometry was used to identify the novel TRAIL-R binding proteins within T cells. Co-immunoprecipitation, lipid raft isolation, and confocal microscopic analyses were conducted to verify the association between TRAIL-R and the identified binding proteins within T cells. RESULTS: TRAIL engagement downregulated gene signatures in TCR signaling pathways and profoundly suppressed phosphorylation of TCR proximal tyrosine kinases without inducing cell death. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 was identified as the major TRAIL-R binding protein within T cells, using high throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis. Furthermore, Lck was co-immunoprecipitated with the TRAIL-R/SHP-1 complex in the activated T cells. TRAIL engagement profoundly inhibited phosphorylation of Lck (Y394) and suppressed the recruitment of Lck into lipid rafts in the activated T cells, leading to the interruption of proximal TCR signaling and subsequent T cell activation. CONCLUSIONS: TRAIL-R associates with phosphatase SHP-1 and transduces a unique and distinct immune gatekeeper signal to repress TCR signaling and T cell activation via inactivating Lck. Thus, our results define TRAIL-R as a new class of immune checkpoint receptors for restraining T cell activation, and TRAIL-R/SHP-1 axis can serve as a potential therapeutic target for immune-mediated diseases.


Assuntos
Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF , Humanos , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células Jurkat , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Ativação Linfocitária , Tirosina/metabolismo
20.
Redox Biol ; 71: 103102, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430684

RESUMO

Peroxidasin (PXDN) is a secreted heme peroxidase that catalyzes the oxidative crosslinking of collagen IV within the extracellular matrix (ECM) via intermediate hypobromous acid (HOBr) synthesis from hydrogen peroxide and bromide, but recent findings have also suggested alternative ECM protein modifications by PXDN, including incorporation of bromide into tyrosine residues. In this work, we sought to identify the major target proteins for tyrosine bromination by HOBr or by PXDN-mediated oxidation in ECM from mouse teratocarcinoma PFHR9 cells. We detected 61 bromotyrosine (BrY)-containing peptides representing 23 proteins in HOBr-modified ECM from PFHR9 cells, among which laminins displayed the most prominent bromotyrosine incorporation. Moreover, we also found that laminin α1, laminin ß1, and tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen-like (TINAGL1) contained BrY in untreated PFHR9 cells, which depended on PXDN. We extended these analyses to lung tissues from both healthy mice and mice with experimental lung fibrosis, and in lung tissues obtained from human subjects. Analysis of ECM-enriched mouse lung tissue extracts showed that 83 ECM proteins were elevated in bleomycin-induced fibrosis, which included various collagens and laminins, and PXDN. Similarly, mRNA and protein expression of PXDN and laminin α/ß1 were enhanced in fibrotic mouse lung tissues, and also in mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages or human fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor ß1, a profibrotic growth factor. We identified 11 BrY-containing ECM proteins, including collagen IV α2, collagen VI α1, TINAGL1, and various laminins, in both healthy and mouse fibrotic lung tissues, although the relative extent of tyrosine bromination of laminins was not significantly increased during fibrosis. Finally, we also identified 7 BrY-containing ECM proteins in human lung tissues, again including collagen IV α2, collagen VI α1, and TINAGL1. Altogether, this work demonstrates the presence of several bromotyrosine-modified ECM proteins, likely involving PXDN, even in normal lung tissues, suggesting a potential biological function for these modifications.


Assuntos
Bromatos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Fibrose Pulmonar , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Brometos/efeitos adversos , Brometos/metabolismo , Laminina/genética , Laminina/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo IV/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo
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