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1.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304253, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous organs, including the thyroid gland, depend on vitamin D to function normally. Insufficient levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are seen as a potential factor contributing to the emergence of several thyroid disorders, however, the causal relationship remains unclear. Here we use a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to investigate the causal effect of serum 25(OH)D concentration on the indicators of thyroid function. METHODS: We conducted a two-sample MR analysis utilizing summary data from the most extensive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of serum 25(OH)D concentration (n = 443,734 and 417,580), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, n = 271,040), free thyroxine (fT4, n = 119,120), free triiodothyronine (fT3, n = 59,061), total triiodothyronine (TT3, n = 15,829), as well as thyroid peroxidase antibody levels and positivity (TPOAb, n = 12,353 and n = 18,297), low TSH (n = 153,241), high TSH (n = 141,549), autoimmune hypothyroidism (n = 287,247) and autoimmune hyperthyroidism (n = 257,552). The primary analysis was conducted using the multiplicative random-effects inverse variance weighted (IVW) method. The weighted mode, weighted median, MR-Egger, MR-PRESSO, and Causal Analysis Using Summary Effect estimates (CAUSE) were used in the sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: The IVW, as well as MR Egger and CAUSE analysis, showed a suggestive causal effect of 25(OH)D concentration on high TSH. Each 1 SD increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a 12% decrease in the risk of high TSH (p = 0.02). Additionally, in the MR Egger and CAUSE analysis, we found a suggestive causal effect of 25(OH)D concentration on autoimmune hypothyroidism. Specifically, each 1 SD increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a 16.34% decrease in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a suggestive causal effect which was negative in direction across all methods used, meaning that higher genetically predicted vitamin D concentration possibly lowers the odds of having high TSH or autoimmune hypothyroidism. Other thyroid parameters were not causally influenced by vitamin D serum concentration.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Glândula Tireoide , Tireotropina , Vitamina D , Humanos , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Tireotropina/sangue , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Hipotireoidismo/genética , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Hipertireoidismo/genética , Hipertireoidismo/sangue
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1362774, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38904035

RESUMO

Introduction: To characterize the influence of female-specific hormones on women's thyroid function, the study investigated the influence of extra progestin from oral contraceptives on inducing thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Sixty female Wistar rats were divided into six groups based on levonorgestrel or desogestrel administration as the main active agents: control, low (0.0039 mg*20-fold), medium (0.0039 mg*100-fold), high (0.0318 mg*100-fold) levonorgestrel (pure product); and low (0.0083 mg*20-fold) and high (0.0083 mg*100-fold) desogestrel (pure product). Progestin was administered by gavage every 4 days for 1 month. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Following levonorgestrel gavage, serum free T4 and thyroidstimulating hormone levels were significantly lower in the experimental group than that in the control group (p=0.013 and 0.043). After desogestrel gavage, the serum free T4 and free T3 levels were lower in the experimental group than that in the control group (p=0.019 and 0.030). Thyroid hormone antibody concentrations were lower in rats administered levonorgestrel and desogestrel than that in control rats. Moreover, exposure to progestin upregulated the expression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor and sodium iodide symporter in thyroid. Discussion: Progestin stimulation enhanced the proliferation of follicular epithelial cells in rat thyroid tissues. Progestin exposure could cause thyroid dysfunction by upregulating the transcription of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor and sodium iodide symporter in thyroid, thus inducing pathomorphological changes in rats' thyroid.


Assuntos
Desogestrel , Levanogestrel , Progestinas , Ratos Wistar , Glândula Tireoide , Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Progestinas/farmacologia , Progestinas/efeitos adversos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Levanogestrel/farmacologia , Desogestrel/administração & dosagem , Desogestrel/farmacologia , Tiroxina/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Testes de Função Tireóidea
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(11)2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892060

RESUMO

The main goal of this research was to determine whether there is a correlation between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (assessed by the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS)) and parameters indicating thyroid gland activity, such as concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4)), thyroglobulin (Tg), antibodies to thyroid proteins (thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb)), and calcitonin (CT) in plasma and serum samples. An additional objective was to investigate whether there are differences in the values of the MDSS among clinical groups (euthyroid individuals, euthyroid individuals with positive TgAb and/or TPOAb, and hypothyroid and hyperthyroid participants). This cross-sectional study included 4620 participants over 18 years of age from the islands of Korcula and Vis, and the mainland city of Split. The MDSS was assessed from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). MDSS values were significantly higher in females compared to males and showed a positive association with the age of the participants. There was no significant difference in the MDSS values among the examined clinical groups. In the group of subjects with euthyroidism, a significant positive association was found between fT3 and the MDSS, while in the group of subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism, a significant positive association was observed between the MDSS and both fT3 and fT4. CT levels were also positively associated with the MDSS. Considering the significant positive association of the MDSS and both fT3 and fT4 levels in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, the results of this study could be used to create guidelines for selecting an appropriate, potentially protective diet for these patients.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Tireoglobulina , Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tireoglobulina/sangue , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Idoso , Tireotropina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
4.
J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc ; 39(1): 120-124, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863905

RESUMO

Infants of mothers with Graves' disease (GD) may develop central hypothyroidism (CH) due to exposure of the foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis to higher-than-normal thyroid hormone concentrations, primary hypothyroidism (PH) due to transplacental passage of maternal thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb), antithyroid drugs (ATD) or thyroid dysgenesis secondary to maternal uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. We describe two infants with PH and four infants with CH born to mothers with poorly controlled Graves' disease. All infants required levothyroxine and had normal developmental milestones. While national guideline consensus for high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on neonatal screening is well-established, thyroid function tests (TFTs) should be serially monitored in infants with low TSH on screening, as not all mothers with Graves' disease are diagnosed antenatally.


Assuntos
Doença de Graves , Hipotireoidismo , Complicações na Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Doença de Graves/diagnóstico , Doença de Graves/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Graves/complicações , Doença de Graves/imunologia , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Adulto , Lactente , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Tiroxina/sangue , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tireotropina/sangue
5.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 34(2): 020707, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38882581

RESUMO

Introduction: We compared the quality control efficiency of artificial intelligence-patient-based real-time quality control (AI-PBRTQC) and traditional PBRTQC in laboratories to create favorable conditions for the broader application of PBRTQC in clinical laboratories. Materials and methods: In the present study, the data of patients with total thyroxine (TT4), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), urea, and albumin (ALB) over five months were categorized into two groups: AI-PBRTQC group and traditional PBRTQC group. The Box-Cox transformation method estimated truncation ranges in the conventional PBRTQC group. In contrast, in the AI-PBRTQC group, the PBRTQC software platform intelligently selected the truncation ranges. We developed various validation models by incorporating different weighting factors, denoted as λ. Error detection, false positive rate, false negative rate, average number of the patient sample until error detection, and area under the curve were employed to evaluate the optimal PBRTQC model in this study. This study provides evidence of the effectiveness of AI-PBRTQC in identifying quality risks by analyzing quality risk cases. Results: The optimal parameter setting scheme for PBRTQC is TT4 (78-186), λ = 0.03; AMH (0.02-2.96), λ = 0.02; ALT (10-25), λ = 0.02; TC (2.84-5.87), λ = 0.02; urea (3.5-6.6), λ = 0.02; ALB (43-52), λ = 0.05. Conclusions: The AI-PBRTQC group was more efficient in identifying quality risks than the conventional PBRTQC. AI-PBRTQC can also effectively identify quality risks in a small number of samples. AI-PBRTQC can be used to determine quality risks in both biochemistry and immunology analytes. AI-PBRTQC identifies quality risks such as reagent calibration, onboard time, and brand changes.


Assuntos
Controle de Qualidade , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Tiroxina/sangue , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Ureia/sangue , Laboratórios Clínicos
6.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 80, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840128

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thyroid disorders have been reported in hypercortisolism patients. Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) potentially complicates its metabolic sequelae. We investigated thyroid function in CS patients to determine this relationship. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we screened CS patients from 2016 to 2019 at our hospital. Patient demographic, medical history, and laboratory data were collected. Additionally, we performed a meta-analysis to demonstrate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with CS. RESULTS: Among 129 CS patients, 48.6% had triiodothyronine (TT3), 27.9% had thyroxine (TT4), 24.6% had free T3 (FT3), 27.7% had free T4 (FT4), and 6.2% had thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels below the reference values. Those with clinical CS showed more pronounced thyroid suppression than did those with subclinical CS. Cortisol levels were markedly greater in patients with pituitary hypothyroidism (P < 0.001). Serum cortisol levels throughout the day and post low-dose dexamethasone-suppression test (LDDST) results correlated with thyroid hormone levels, particularly in ACTH-independent CS. Correlations varied by thyroid status; FT3 and TSH were linked to cortisol in euthyroid individuals but not in those with low T3 or central hypothyroidism. TSH levels notably halved from the lowest to highest cortisol tertile post-LDDST. Finally, meta-analysis showed 22.7% (95% CI 12.6%-32.9%) central hypothyroidism in 528 CS patients of nine studies. CONCLUSION: Thyroid hormone levels are significantly correlated with cortisol levels and are impaired in patients with CS. However, the physiological adaptation and pathological conditions need further study.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Humanos , Síndrome de Cushing/sangue , Síndrome de Cushing/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Tireotropina/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Prognóstico
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1388473, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868742

RESUMO

Objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and thyroid disorders have both been linked to adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Even small variations in thyroid function within the normal range may influence fetal growth. Our aim was to investigate whether maternal thyroid function is associated with newborn anthropometrics in PCOS and explore the potential modifying effect of metformin. Methods: Post-hoc analyses of two RCTs in which pregnant women with PCOS were randomized to metformin or placebo, from first trimester to delivery. Maternal serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured at gestational weeks (gw) 5-12, 19, 32 and 36 in 309 singleton pregnancies. The mean z-scores of birthweight, birth length, and head circumference were estimated in the offspring. Associations of maternal thyroid parameters with offspring anthropometrics and the outcomes large for gestational age (LGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) were studied using linear and logistic regression models, with adjustment for body mass index (BMI) when relevant. Results: Maternal fT4 at baseline was negatively associated with birth length (b= -0.09, p=0.048). Furthermore, ΔfT4 during pregnancy correlated positively to z-score of both birth weight and length (b=0.10, p=0.017 and b=0.10, p=0.047 respectively), independently of treatment group. TSH at baseline and gw19 was inversely associated with LGA (OR 0.47, p=0.012 and OR 0.58, p=0.042), while ΔTSH was positively associated with LGA (OR 1.99, p=0.023). There were inverse associations between TSH at baseline and SGA (OR 0.32, p=0.005) and between ΔfT4 and SGA (OR 0.59, p=0.005) in the metformin group only. There were no associations between maternal thyroid function and head circumference of the newborns. Conclusion: In women with PCOS, a higher maternal fT4 in early pregnancy and a greater decrease in fT4 during pregnancy was associated with a lower offspring birthweight and shorter birth length. Higher TSH by mid-gestation and smaller increase in TSH during pregnancy was associated with less risk of LGA. Subclinical variations in maternal thyroid function might play a role for birth anthropometrics of PCOS offspring.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Metformina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Tireotropina , Humanos , Feminino , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Gravidez , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Tireotropina/sangue , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Resultado da Gravidez , Antropometria , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino
8.
Eur Thyroid J ; 13(3)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805593

RESUMO

Introduction: Thyroid hormones have systemic effects on the human body and play a key role in the development and function of virtually all tissues. They are regulated via the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and have a heritable component. Using genetic information, we applied tissue-specific transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) and plasma proteome-wide association studies (PWAS) to elucidate gene products related to thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels. Results: TWAS identified 297 and 113 transcripts associated with TSH and FT4 levels, respectively (25 shared), including transcripts not identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of these traits, demonstrating the increased power of this approach. Testing for genetic colocalization revealed a shared genetic basis of 158 transcripts with TSH and 45 transcripts with FT4, including independent, FT4-associated genetic signals within the CAPZB locus that were differentially associated with CAPZB expression in different tissues. PWAS identified 18 and ten proteins associated with TSH and FT4, respectively (HEXIM1 and QSOX2 with both). Among these, the cognate genes of five TSH- and 7 FT4-associated proteins mapped outside significant GWAS loci. Colocalization was observed for five plasma proteins each with TSH and FT4. There were ten TSH and one FT4-related gene(s) significant in both TWAS and PWAS. Of these, ANXA5 expression and plasma annexin A5 levels were inversely associated with TSH (PWAS: P = 1.18 × 10-13, TWAS: P = 7.61 × 10-12 (whole blood), P = 6.40 × 10-13 (hypothalamus), P = 1.57 × 10-15 (pituitary), P = 4.27 × 10-15 (thyroid)), supported by colocalizations. Conclusion: Our analyses revealed new thyroid function-associated genes and prioritized candidates in known GWAS loci, contributing to a better understanding of transcriptional regulation and protein levels relevant to thyroid function.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Proteoma , Glândula Tireoide , Tireotropina , Tiroxina , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Tireotropina/sangue , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Tiroxina/sangue , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
9.
Eur Thyroid J ; 13(3)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805588

RESUMO

Background: Current guidelines recommend different postpartum approaches for patients started on levothyroxine (LT4) during pregnancy. Objective: We studied the postpartum management of these patients and determined factors associated with long-term hypothyroidism. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary center between 2014 and 2020, with LT4 initiation according to 2014 ETA recommendations. We performed multivariate logistic regression (MVR) and a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine variables associated with long-term hypothyroidism and their optimal cutoffs. Results: LT4 was initiated in 177 pregnant women, and 106/177 (60%) were followed at long-term (at least 6 months post partum) (28.5 (9.0-81.9) months). LT4 could have been stopped in 45% of patients who continued it immediately after delivery. Thirty-six out of 106 (34%) patients were long-term hypothyroid. In them, LT4 was initiated earlier during pregnancy than in euthyroid women (11.7 ± 4.7 vs 13.7 ± 6.5 weeks, P = 0.077), at a higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (4.1 (2.2-10.1) vs 3.5 (0.9-6.9) mU/L, P = 0.005), and reached a higher dose during pregnancy (62.8 ± 22.2 vs 50.7 ± 13.9 µg/day, P = 0.005). In the MVR, only the maximal LT4 dose during pregnancy was associated with long-term hypothyroidism (odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05, P = 0.003). The optimal cutoffs for predicting long-term hypothyroidism were an LT4 dose of 68.75 µg/day (87% specificity, 42% sensitivity; P = 0.013) and a TSH level ≥ 3.8 mU/L (68.5% specificity, 77% sensitivity; P = 0.019). Conclusion: One-third of the patients who started on LT4 during pregnancy had long-term hypothyroidism. The TSH level at treatment initiation and the LT4 dose during pregnancy could guide the decision for continuing long-term LT4.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo , Complicações na Gravidez , Tiroxina , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Tiroxina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Período Pós-Parto
10.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 101(1): 78-84, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid testing strategies vary across laboratories. First-line combined thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and freeT4 (FT4) have historically been preferred by many laboratories as this detects individuals with undiagnosed central hypothyroidism who can be missed with a first-line TSH-only strategy. However, an up-to-date evaluation of the utility of this approach is lacking. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the clinical utility of first-line TSH and FT4 in the detection of central hypothyroidism in current day practice. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: The All-Wales laboratory information system was queried to identify thyroid function tests in patients aged ≥16 years with decreased FT4 and inappropriate TSH (low-FT4). The 1-year incidence of low-FT4 was determined using mid-year population data. Clinical information of patients with low-FT4 was reviewed to determine causes of low-FT4 and the incidence of central hypothyroidism. RESULTS: The incidence of low-FT4 varied according to FT4 assay method (range: 98-301 cases/100,000 population/year). Fifteen new cases of central hypothyroidism were detected in two health boards, equivalent to 2 cases/100,000 population/year. Positive predictive value of low-FT4 for central hypothyroidism was 2%-4%. In a cross-section of primary care patients, low-FT4 was detected in 0.5% of all thyroid tests with assay-related differences in detection rates. CONCLUSIONS: Although low-FT4 is a common laboratory finding, the incidence of central hypothyroidism remains rare. With the currently increased rates of thyroid testing and increased use of medications that decrease FT4, low-FT4 has a much lower predictive value for central hypothyroidism than previously reported. Thyroid screening strategies will need to balance the yield from first line TSH and FT4 testing with the cost of investigating individuals with non-pathological laboratory abnormalities.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tireotropina , Tiroxina , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Tiroxina/sangue , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Incidência
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 60(5)2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38792984

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Pregnancy introduces various interfering factors that, alongside individual variations, impact the assessment of thyroid function tests. This underscores the necessity of defining trimester-specific reference intervals for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Differences in population characteristics, including ethnicity, socio-economic factors, iodine prophylaxis, and obesity, emphasize the need to establish trimester-specific TSH ranges for women of reproductive age in the respective region or center. The aim of the present study was to establish first- and second-trimester-specific reference intervals for TSH and free thyroxine (FT4) in a relevant pregnant population. Materials and Methods: A retrospective monocenter analysis utilized the electronic database of Ob/Gyn Hospital "Dr. Shterev", Sofia, Bulgaria. The analysis involved data from 497 pregnant and 250 non-pregnant women, all without evidence of thyroid dysfunction or a family history thereof, no indication of taking medication interfering with thyroid function, no evidence of levothyroxine treatment, and no history of sterility treatment. To establish the limits of the TSH reference range, the percentile method was applied using a bootstrapping procedure following the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Results: Trimester-specific reference intervals for TSH and FT4 in our center were established as follows: first trimester-0.38-2.91 mU/L, FT4-12.18-19.48 pmol/L; second trimester-0.72-4.22 mIU/L and 9.64-17.39 pmol/L, respectively. We also established the normal reference range for the non-pregnant control group, which is similar to that applicable in our laboratory. Conclusions: Our results differ from the fixed limits recommended by the American Thyroid Association, European Thyroid Association, and Endocrine Society Guidelines. Following the relevant established intervals would significantly impact timely diagnosis and therapy requirements for a substantial proportion of pregnant women.


Assuntos
Hormônios Tireóideos , Tireotropina , Tiroxina , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Bulgária , Valores de Referência , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Testes de Função Tireóidea/normas , Testes de Função Tireóidea/métodos , Trimestres da Gravidez/sangue , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue
12.
J Diabetes Res ; 2024: 8462987, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712310

RESUMO

Background and Aims: This study is aimed at investigating the potential correlation of thyroid hormone sensitivity with visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and body mass index (BMI) among euthyroid type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects. Methods: Thyroid hormone sensitivity indices were calculated by thyroid feedback quantile-based index (TFQI), TSH index (TSHI), thyrotropin thyroxine resistance index (TT4RI), and free thyroxine (fT4)/free triiodothyronine (fT3) ratio. These indices were then categorized into quartiles for analysis. The outcomes were the change rates in VFA, SFA, and BMI among the participants. Result: The present study included 921 patients, with a median follow-up of 2.2 years. In multivariate linear regression, when compared to the first quartile, SFA demonstrated a notable decline in the fourth quartile of TFQI, TSHI, and TT4RI (ß coefficient = -5.78, -7.83, and - 6.84 cm2 per year), while it significantly increased in the fourth quartile of fT4/fT3 ratio (ß coefficient = 6.13 cm2 per year). Similarly, in the fourth quartile of TFQI, TSHI, and TT4RI, VFA decreased significantly, evidenced by ß coefficients of -5.14, -4.80, and -4.08 cm2 per year. Yet, among the quartiles of the fT4/fT3 ratio, no discernible trend in VFA was observed. There was no significant association between indices of thyroid hormone sensitivity and change in BMI. Conclusion: Impaired central sensitivity to thyroid hormones was significantly associated with the reduction of VFA and SFA, while impaired peripheral sensitivity was associated with an increase of SFA in euthyroid individuals with T2DM.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hormônios Tireóideos , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Idoso , Tiroxina/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Tireotropina/sangue , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Adulto , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Testes de Função Tireóidea
13.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 121(4): e20230544, 2024.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ablation Index (AI) software has allowed better atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation results, but recurrence rates remain significant. Specific serum biomarkers have been associated with this recurrence. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether certain biomarkers could be used (either individually or combined) to predict arrhythmia recurrence after AI-guided AF ablation. METHODS: Prospective multicenter observational study of consecutive patients referred for AF ablation from January 2018 to March 2021. Hemoglobin, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-reactive protein, high sensitivity cardiac troponin I, creatinine clearance, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) were assessed for their ability to predict arrhythmia recurrence during follow-up. Statistical significance was accepted for p values of<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 593 patients were included - 412 patients with paroxysmal AF and 181 with persistent AF. After a mean follow-up of 24±6 months, overall single-procedure freedom from atrial arrhythmia was 76.4%. Individually, all biomarkers had no or only modest predictive power for recurrence. However, a TSH value >1.8 µUI/mL (HR=1.82 [95% CI, 1.89-2.80], p=0.006) was an independent predictor of arrhythmia recurrence. When assessing TSH, FT4 and BNP values in combination, each additional "abnormal" biomarker value was associated with a lower freedom from arrhythmia recurrence (87.1 % for no biomarker vs. 83.5% for one vs. 75.1% for two vs. 43.3% for three biomarkers, p<0.001). Patients with three "abnormal" biomarkers had a threefold higher risk of AF recurrence compared with no "abnormal" biomarker (HR=2.88 [95% CI, 1.39-5.17], p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: When used in combination, abnormal TSH, FT4 and BNP values can be a useful tool for predicting arrhythmia recurrence after AI-guided AF ablation.


FUNDAMENTO: O software ablation index (AI) permitiu melhorar os resultados da ablação de fibrilação atrial (FA), mas as taxas de recorrência permanecem significativas. Biomarcadores séricos específicos têm sido associados a essa recorrência. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar se certos biomarcadores podem ser utilizados (individualmente ou combinados) para predizer a recorrência de FA pós ablação guiada pelo AI. MÉTODOS: Estudo multicêntrico, observacional, prospectivo de pacientes consecutivos, encaminhados para ablação de FA de janeiro de 2018 a março de 2021. Hemoglobina, peptídeo natriurético cerebral (BNP), proteína C reativa, troponina I ultrassensível, clearance de creatinina, Hormônio Tireoestimulante (TSH), e Tiroxina livre (T4) foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de prever a recorrência de arritmias durante o acompanhamento. Valores de p <0,05 foram aceitos como estatisticamente significativos. RESULTADOS: Um total de 593 pacientes foram incluídos ­ 412 com FA paroxística e 181 com FA persistente. Durante o seguimento médio de 24±6 meses, 76,4% não apresentaram recidiva após ablação. Individualmente, os biomarcadores demonstraram um valor preditivo baixo ou nulo para recorrência. No entanto, TSH >1,8 µUI/mL [HR=1,82 (IC95%, 1,89-2,80), p=0,006] foi um preditor independente de recorrência. Avaliando-se a combinação de TSH, FT4 e BNP, a adição de cada valor "anormal" foi associada a uma menor sobrevida livre de recorrência (87,1% se nenhum vs. 83,5% se um vs. 75,1% se dois vs. 43,3% se três biomarcadores, p<0,001). Doentes com três biomarcadores "anormais" apresentaram três vezes maior probabilidade de recorrência de FA, comparativamente aos que não apresentaram nenhum biomarcador "anormal" (HR=2,88 [IC95%, 1,39-5,17], p=0,003). CONCLUSÕES: Quando combinados, valores anormais de TSH, FT4 e BNP podem ser uma ferramenta útil para prever a recorrência de FA pós ablação guiada pelo AI.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Biomarcadores , Ablação por Cateter , Recidiva , Tireotropina , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Idoso , Tireotropina/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Resultado do Tratamento , Tiroxina/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Troponina I/sangue
14.
Turk J Med Sci ; 54(1): 330-337, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812645

RESUMO

Background/aim: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory, pruritic, noncontagious, chronic relapsing skin disease. Skin barrier abnormalities, excessive T helper 2 activity, and immune dysregulation are held responsible. Androgens have a negative effect on the integrity of the epidermal skin barrier, while estrogen has a positive effect. We aimed to investigate whether hormones make a difference between healthy children and children with AD during minipuberty. Materials and methods: A total of 96 infants (postnatal 4-13 weeks), 48 diagnosed with AD and 48 controls, were included. Each group consisted of 23 girls (47.9%) and 25 boys (52.1%). Anthropometric examinations and hormone measurements were compared. Results: The two groups, having similar age, sex, body mass index, and weight-for-length standard deviation scores, were compared. Serum free thyroxine (FT4) levels were found to be lower and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) levels were found to be higher in children with AD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.038, respectively). In girls with AD, estradiol, FT4, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels were found to be lower, but thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were found to be higher (p = 0.023, p < 0.001, p = 0.038, and p = 0.034, respectively). In boys with AD, the FT4 level was found to be lower (p = 0.023). Serum FT4 and TSH levels were within normal reference ranges in all comparisons. Conclusion: Especially in girls with AD, decreased estradiol and IGF-1 levels were observed compared to the controls during minipuberty. In the logistic regression model, decreased levels of serum estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, FT4, and IGF-1, and increased levels of IGFBP3 were associated with an increased likelihood of exhibiting atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Humanos , Dermatite Atópica/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Masculino , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Lactente , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Puberdade/fisiologia , Puberdade/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue
15.
Am J Vet Res ; 85(6)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to follow long-term changes in the concentration of thyroid hormones in dogs with subclinical thyroiditis. SAMPLES: Samples were obtained from 125 dogs with subclinical thyroiditis. The study population included 70 female and 55 male dogs. The mean testing interval was 3.9 years from initial testing (SD, 2.3 years; range, 1 to 9 years). METHODS: Dogs with subclinical thyroiditis were identified retrospectively using results from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals Canine Thyroid Profile performed by the Endocrinology Section of the Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Lab. Owners were invited to submit follow-up serum samples with their veterinarian along with a medical history form, including subsequent treatments. RESULTS: At the time of retesting, 30% of the dogs had progressed to hypothyroidism and/or were treated with thyroxine. Fifty percent maintained positive or equivocal thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAA) results while remaining euthyroid. Fourteen percent of the dogs became TgAA negative and remained euthyroid. In 6% of the cases tested, proper medical histories were not available, and a final classification could not be determined. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These results indicate that most dogs with elevated thyroglobulin autoantibodies either exhibit persistent autoimmune thyroiditis with continued risk of hypothyroidism or progress to hypothyroidism when monitored for more than 1 year. Thyroid function in dogs with subclinical thyroiditis should be monitored every 12 months or if there is change in the clinical presentation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Tireoidite Autoimune , Animais , Cães , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/veterinária , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/veterinária , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Tireoglobulina/sangue , Tireoglobulina/imunologia
16.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 24(1): 76, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There has been some confusion in earlier research on the connection between thyroid function and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This research is aimed to probe into the correlation between thyroid condition and the risk of PCOS from a new standpoint of thyroid hormone sensitivity. METHODS: This research comprised 415 females with PCOS from Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated with the Medical School of Nanjing University, and 137 non-PCOS individuals were selected as the normal control. Based on free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), we calculated the thyroid hormone sensitivity indices, which consist of Thyroid Feedback Quantile-based Index (TFQI), Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Index (TSHI), Thyrotroph Thyroxine Resistance Index (TT4RI) and Free Triiodothyronine /Free thyroxine (FT3/FT4). The binary logistic regression model was adopted to investigate the correlation between thyroid hormone sensitivity indices with the risk of PCOS. Pearson or Spearman correlation analysis was employed to explore the association among thyroid-related measures with metabolic parameters in PCOS. RESULTS: Results of this research showed that females with PCOS had rising TFQI, TSHI, TT4RI, and FT3/FT4 levels compared with the control group. After adjustment for the impact of various covariates, there was no significant correlation between FT3/FT4 and the risk of PCOS; However, the odds ratio of the third and fourth vs. the first quartile of TFQI were 3.57(95% confidence interval [CI]:1.08,11.87) and 4.90(95% CI:1.38,17.38) respectively; The odds ratio of the fourth vs. the first quartile of TSHI was 5.35(95% CI:1.48,19.37); The odds ratio of the second vs. the first quartile of TT4RI was 0.27(95%CI 0.09,0.82). In addition, no significant correlation was observed between thyroid-related measures and metabolic measures in females with PCOS. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in the sensitivity of central thyroid hormone is closely correlated with a higher risk of PCOS. Further research is necessary to corroborate our findings and the supporting mechanisms.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Hormônios Tireóideos , Humanos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Feminino , Adulto , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Tireotropina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Prognóstico
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1381180, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752179

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has significantly risen in the past three decades, prompting researchers to explore the potential contributions of environmental factors during pregnancy to ASD development. One such factor of interest is gestational hypothyroxinemia (HTX), a frequent condition in pregnancy associated with cognitive impairments in the offspring. While retrospective human studies have linked gestational HTX to autistic traits, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of ASD-like phenotypes remain poorly understood. This study used a mouse model of gestational HTX to evaluate ASD-like phenotypes in the offspring. Methods: To induce gestational HTX, pregnant mice were treated with 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI), a thyroid hormones synthesis inhibitor, in the tap-drinking water from embryonic days (E) 10 to E14. A separate group received MMI along with a daily subcutaneous injection of T4, while the control group received regular tap water during the entire pregnancy. Female and male offspring underwent assessments for repetitive, anxious, and social behaviors from postnatal day (P) 55 to P64. On P65, mice were euthanized for the evaluation of ASD-related inflammatory markers in blood, spleen, and specific brain regions. Additionally, the expression of glutamatergic proteins (NLGN3 and HOMER1) was analyzed in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Results: The HTX-offspring exhibited anxious-like behavior, a subordinate state, and impaired social interactions. Subsequently, both female and male HTX-offspring displayed elevated proinflammatory cytokines in blood, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α, while only males showed reduced levels of IL-10. The spleen of HTX-offspring of both sexes showed increased Th17/Treg ratio and M1-like macrophages. In the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of male HTX-offspring, elevated levels of IL-17A and reduced IL-10 were observed, accompanied by increased expression of hippocampal NLGN3 and HOMER1. All these observations were compared to those observed in the Control-offspring. Notably, the supplementation with T4 during the MMI treatment prevents the development of the observed phenotypes. Correlation analysis revealed an association between maternal T4 levels and specific ASD-like outcomes. Discussion: This study validates human observations, demonstrating for the first time that gestational HTX induces ASD-like phenotypes in the offspring, highlighting the need of monitoring thyroid function during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Camundongos , Masculino , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Comportamento Animal , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Tiroxina/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/metabolismo , Comportamento Social
18.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 629, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783224

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Observational studies and clinical validation have suggested a link between thyroid dysfunction and an elevated ovarian cancer (OC) risk. However, whether this association indicates a cause-and-effect relationship remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the plausible causal impact of thyroid dysfunction on OC through a Mendelian randomization (MR) study. METHODS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data for thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism were obtained as exposures and those for OC (N = 199,741) were selected as outcomes. Inverse variance-weighted method was used as the main estimation method. A series of sensitivity analyses, including Cochran's Q test, MR-Egger intercept analysis, forest plot scatter plot, and leave-one-out test, was conducted to assess the robustness of the estimates. RESULTS: Genetic prediction of hyperthyroidism was associated with a potential increase in OC risk (odds ratio = 1.094, 95% confidence interval: 1.029-1.164, p = 0.004). However, no evidence of causal effects of hypothyroidism, TSH, and FT4 on OC or reverse causality was detected. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated consistent and reliable results, with no significant estimates of heterogeneity or pleiotropy. CONCLUSIONS: This study employed MR to establish a correlation between hyperthyroidism and OC risk. By genetically predicting OC risk in patients with hyperthyroidism, our research suggests new insights for early prevention and intervention of OC.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipertireoidismo , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Hipertireoidismo/genética , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Tireotropina/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tiroxina/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Predisposição Genética para Doença
19.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303169, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although small studies have shown that flavonoids can affect thyroid disease, few epidemiological studies have explored the relationship between dietary total flavonoids (TFs) intake and serum thyroid function. The aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between TFs and serum thyroid function. METHODS: Our study included 4,949 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Multivariable linear regression, subgroup analyses, and interaction terms were used to explore the relationships between TFs and thyroid function. And we also used restricted cubic splines (RCS) to investigate possible nonlinear relationships. RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates, we found that log10-transformated dietary total flavonoids intake (LgTFs) was negatively associated with total thyroxine (TT4) (ß = -0.153, 95% CI = -0.222 to -0.084, P<0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed a stronger and statistically supported association in subjects with high annual family income (ß = -0.367, P<0.001, P for interaction = 0.026) and subjects with high poverty to income ratio (PIR) (ß = -0.622, P<0.001, P for interaction = 0.042). And we found a U-shaped curve association between LgTFs and free triiodothyronine (FT3) (inflection point for LgTFs: 2.063). CONCLUSION: The results of our study demonstrated that a higher intake of total flavonoids in the diet was negatively associated with a lower TT4. Furthermore, the associations were more pronounced in high annual family income and high PIR adults. And we found a U-shaped relationship between LgTFs and FT3. These findings provided guidance for future thyroid dysfunction diet guidelines.


Assuntos
Dieta , Flavonoides , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Estados Unidos , Tiroxina/sangue , Testes de Função Tireóidea
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0298871, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a biochemical thyroid disorder characterised by elevated levels of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) together with normal levels of thyroid hormones. Evidence on the benefits of treatment is limited, resulting in persistent controversies relating to its clinical management. AIM: This study describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients identified as having subclinical hypothyroidism in Wales between 2000 and 2021, the annual cumulative incidence during this period and the testing and treatment patterns associated with this disorder. METHODS: We used linked electronic health records from SAIL Databank. Eligible patients were identified using a combination of diagnostic codes and Thyroid Function Test results. Descriptive analyses were then performed. RESULTS: 199,520 individuals (63.8% female) were identified as having SCH, 23.6% (n = 47,104) of whom received levothyroxine for treatment over the study period. The median study follow-up time was 5.75 person-years (IQR 2.65-9.65). Annual cumulative incidence was highest in 2012 at 502 cases per 100,000 people. 92.5% (n = 184,484) of the study population had TSH levels between the upper limit of normal and 10mIU/L on their first test. 61.9% (n = 5,071) of patients identified using Read v2 codes were in the treated group. 41.9% (n = 19,716) of treated patients had a history of a single abnormal test result before their first prescription. CONCLUSION: In Wales, the number of incident cases of SCH has risen unevenly between 2000 and 2021. Most of the study population had mild SCH on their index test, but more than a third of the identified patients received levothyroxine after a single abnormal test result. Patients with clinically recorded diagnoses were more likely to be treated. Given the expectation of steadily increasing patient numbers, more evidence is required to support the clinical management of subclinical hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Hipotireoidismo , Tiroxina , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Tiroxina/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Incidência , Estudos de Coortes , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Testes de Função Tireóidea
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