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1.
Urol Pract ; 11(2): 402-408, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305190

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to evaluate the Male Stress Incontinence Grading Scale to stratify male patients with stress urinary incontinence for either artificial urinary sphincter or sling using a standing cough test and determine if an emptier bladder at the time of assessment carries increased risk of treatment failure. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of male patients undergoing sling and artificial urinary sphincter placement. The standing cough test score and bladder scan results were documented at initial evaluation. RESULTS: Forty patients underwent sling and 43 underwent naïve artificial sphincter placement. Median follow-up was 7.11 months. Thirty-six/forty slings had complete incontinence resolution or reduction to a safety pad vs 40/43 after sphincter (90% vs 93%, P = .62). Four sling patients (10%) had persistence or recurrence of incontinence. Cough test scores were similar between sling failure (67% grade 0, 33% grade 1) and success groups (83% grade 0, 3% grade 1, 14% grade 2). Bladder scan mean was 18.5 cc in the sling failure (SD 21.1) and 38.0 cc in the success groups (38.3), with 32% of success patients having bladder scans of 0 cc, and 63% of < 50 cc. Mean for sphincter patients was 45 cc (56.9). Ten patients with scan = 0 and 7 patients with scans < 30 cc demonstrated grade 4 incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: Cough test is a noninvasive, reliable tool to assess stress urinary incontinence severity. Our data suggest it is reliable even when bladders are nearly empty and can effectively stratify patients for sling vs artificial urinary sphincter with a high rate of success.


Assuntos
Slings Suburetrais , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse , Incontinência Urinária , Humanos , Masculino , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/diagnóstico , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Slings Suburetrais/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Urinária/complicações , Tosse/diagnóstico
2.
Cancer Med ; 13(2): e6993, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cough is one of the most common symptoms after lung cancer surgery, which seriously affects the quality of life. Little research has been conducted on patient's experiences of cough following lung surgery. This study aimed to elucidate the experience of coughing after lung cancer surgery from the patient's perspective regarding symptoms and their impacts on daily life, as well as triggers and dealing strategies. METHODS: Between June 2023 and July 2023, we conducted semi-structured interviews with patients from outpatient clinics of two hospitals who were pathologically diagnosed with lung cancer and experienced cough after surgery through convenience sampling. The interview recordings were transcribed and analyzed by two researchers. The traditional content analysis and thematic analysis were used to identify the common codes, subthemes, and themes. RESULTS: A total of 28 participants were interviewed. The mean age of the participants was 55.21 years (range: 36-75 years), and 21 participants were female. Most patients (75%) were interviewed within 6 months of surgery. We identified five themes (accompanying symptoms, incentives, effects, solution, and information sources) and 12 subthemes (local symptoms, systemic symptoms, personal factors, external factors, emotion, relationship with others, reduced quality of life, medical measures, nonmedical measures, no measures, relatives and friends, and the Internet). Patients with lung cancer may experience various cough symptoms after surgery, which a variety of internal and external factors can trigger. The coughing imposes a double burden on the physical and psychological due to the negative emotions it provokes. CONCLUSION: We generated a concept framework of cough after lung cancer surgery, providing a basis for further development of measurement tools from the patients' perspective. The lack of knowledge related to coughing highlights the need for adequate and timely health education and professional medical care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tosse/etiologia
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(2)2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38367990

RESUMO

We present an unusual case of achalasia presenting with dyspnoea and persistent cough. These symptoms persisted for months, leading to the patient undergoing a chest X-ray by her general practitioner which showed right basal consolidation and a density extending along the right mediastinum. CT scan was done which revealed megaoesophagus with a diameter of 7 cm causing tracheal compression, as well as right basal consolidation, consistent with aspiration. Further history revealed 6-month history of progressive swallowing difficulty, retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breath which worsened when eating solid foods. After thorough workup, a diagnosis of idiopathic achalasia (type II) was made. She was treated with laparoscopic Heller cardiomyotomy and Dor fundoplication with significant improvement at follow-up. Dyspnoea and respiratory symptoms are unusual presenting symptoms, suggesting a need to consider achalasia in a wider range of presentations. Successful treatment of achalasia depends on timely diagnosis and intervention prior to oesophageal failure.


Assuntos
Acalasia Esofágica , Laparoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Acalasia Esofágica/diagnóstico , Acalasia Esofágica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fundoplicatura , Dispneia/cirurgia , Tosse/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(7): e37149, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363889

RESUMO

Omicron BA.5 subvariant has been proven to be more transmissible than other Omicron subvariants. But the studies on the spread of the Omicron BA.5 subvariant in children are still limited. This study aimed to analyze the clinical features of children infected with Omicron BA.5.2 variant in the mobile cabin hospital and the influence factors of the infections. Children with mild and asymptomatic Omicron infections under 14 years old who were admitted to the mobile cabin hospital from October 30 to December 7, 2022 were retrospectively collected. A total of 741 children, 424 boys (57.2%) and 317 girls (42.8%) were enrolled, including 145 asymptomatic cases (22.7%) and 493 (77.3%) mild cases. Upper respiratory tract infection was the dominant manifestation. Fever was the most common presenting symptom (80.7%), followed by cough (52.5%). The average time to symptom disappearance was 3.76 days, and the average negative conversion time of nucleic acid was 12.3 days. Univariate analysis showed that the negative conversion time of nucleic acid differed significantly across the age groups. The multivariate analysis showed that the older the age, the longer the negative conversion time of nucleic acid. Among those with the negative conversion time of nucleic acid longer than 12 days, age was positively correlated to the negative conversion time of nucleic acid, while the number of vaccine doses received was negatively correlated to the negative conversion time of nucleic acid. Omicron infection occurred in children of any age group, with good prospect for recovery. Age and number of vaccine doses received were risk factors influencing the negative conversion time of nucleic acid.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos , Vacinas , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom during and after COVID-19 infection; however, few studies have described the cough profiles of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of severe and persistent cough in individuals with COVID-19 during the latest wave of the Omicron variant in China. METHODS: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we collected information of the characteristics of cough from individuals with infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant using an online questionnaire sent between December 31, 2022, and January 11, 2023. RESULTS: There were 11,718 (n=7978, 68.1% female) nonhospitalized responders, with a median age of 37 (IQR 30-47) years who responded at a median of 16 (IQR 12-20) days from infection onset to the time of the survey. Cough was the most common symptom, occurring in 91.7% of participants, followed by fever, fatigue, and nasal congestion (68.8%-87.4%). The median cough visual analog scale (VAS) score was 70 (IQR 50-80) mm. Being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43), having a COVID-19 vaccination history (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.12), current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.58), chronic cough (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.69-2.45), coronary heart disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.52), asthma (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45) were independent factors for severe cough (VAS>70, 37.4%). Among all respondents, 35.0% indicated having a productive cough, which was associated with risk factors of being female (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.57), having asthma (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.22), chronic cough (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.74), and GERD (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Persistent cough (>3 weeks) occurred in 13.0% of individuals, which was associated with the risk factors of having diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.30-3.85), asthma (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62), and chronic cough (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Cough is the most common symptom in nonhospitalized individuals with Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. Being female, having asthma, chronic cough, GERD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and a COVID-19 vaccination history emerged as independent factors associated with severe cough, productive cough, and persistent cough.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia
6.
HNO ; 72(3): 210-220, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319354

RESUMO

Approximately 10% of the population suffer from a cough lasting longer than 8 weeks. Compared to acute cough, which usually occurs in the context of banal respiratory tract infections, the differential diagnoses of chronic cough require an increased use of diagnostic tests and thus a structured, evidence-based approach according to current international guidelines. A targeted history (smoking status, medication, previous diseases) and ENT status are always followed by chest x­ray and pulmonary function tests before extended diagnostics. In the case of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use and unremarkable physical examination, a drug discontinuation test can be carried out first. In case of inconspicuous findings, a disease entity that can be treated empirically such as upper airway cough syndrome is most likely. If the cough remains unexplained, cough suppression techniques, physiotherapy or speech therapy should be sought before off-label-use of medication.


Assuntos
Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório , Infecções Respiratórias , Adulto , Humanos , Doença Crônica , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/terapia
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e51640, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 has necessitated the rapid and accurate detection of COVID-19 to manage patients effectively and implement public health measures. Artificial intelligence (AI) models analyzing cough sounds have emerged as promising tools for large-scale screening and early identification of potential cases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of using cough sounds as a diagnostic tool for COVID-19, considering the unique acoustic features that differentiate positive and negative cases. We investigated whether an AI model trained on cough sound recordings from specific periods, especially the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, were applicable to the ongoing situation with persistent variants. METHODS: We used cough sound recordings from 3 data sets (Cambridge, Coswara, and Virufy) representing different stages of the pandemic and variants. Our AI model was trained using the Cambridge data set with subsequent evaluation against all data sets. The performance was analyzed based on the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) across different data measurement periods and COVID-19 variants. RESULTS: The AI model demonstrated a high AUC when tested with the Cambridge data set, indicative of its initial effectiveness. However, the performance varied significantly with other data sets, particularly in detecting later variants such as Delta and Omicron, with a marked decline in AUC observed for the latter. These results highlight the challenges in maintaining the efficacy of AI models against the backdrop of an evolving virus. CONCLUSIONS: While AI models analyzing cough sounds offer a promising noninvasive and rapid screening method for COVID-19, their effectiveness is challenged by the emergence of new virus variants. Ongoing research and adaptations in AI methodologies are crucial to address these limitations. The adaptability of AI models to evolve with the virus underscores their potential as a foundational technology for not only the current pandemic but also future outbreaks, contributing to a more agile and resilient global health infrastructure.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Inteligência Artificial , Teste para COVID-19 , Pandemias , Tosse/diagnóstico
8.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 28(2): 25-31, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38303040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is the key symptom of pulmonary TB (PTB) and is associated with transmission. No tool for measuring the subjective impact of cough in PTB has been previously validated. We sought to measure patientreported cough in PTB and investigate any relationship to objectively quantified daily cough frequency.METHODS: The validity of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) was assessed in sequential patients newly diagnosed with PTB at a UK hospital. Resulting LCQ scores were compared to non-cough clinical variables, and to 24-h, ambulatory, objective cough frequency measured using the Leicester Cough Monitor.RESULTS: The LCQ in 30 patients with PTB was acceptable to users and had high internal reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.93), concurrent validity (correlation with visual analogue scale for cough severity, Spearman's ρ = ???0.69) and responsiveness (substantial median increase score after 2 weeks of TB treatment: 5.1 points, IQR 1.8???9.7; P = 0.003). There was only moderate correlation between patient-reported cough and objectively-measured 24-h cough frequency in PTB (ρ = ???0.48, P = 0.008).CONCLUSION: The LCQ is valid for use in PTB, with applications that include monitoring treatment of the disease. However, there was a mismatch between objective and subjective assessment of cough, which has important implications for delayed diagnosis and transmissibility.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Tuberculose , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 52, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheal collapse (TC), a common disease in dogs, is characterized by cough; however, little is known about the serum biomarkers that can objectively evaluate the severity of cough in canine TC. Furthermore, studies elucidating the relationship of fluoroscopic characteristics with the severity of cough are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between cough severity and clinical characteristics, fluoroscopic images, and new serum biomarkers in canine TC. RESULTS: Fifty-one client-owned dogs diagnosed with TC based on fluoroscopic and clinical signs were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups according to the severity of cough (grade of cough: 0, 1, and 2). Signalments, comorbidities, and fluoroscopic characteristics were compared among the groups retrospectively. The serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), interleukin-6 (IL-6), surfactant protein-A (SP-A), and syndecan-1 (SDC-1) levels were measured in all groups. No significant differences in age, breed, sex, or clinical history were observed among the groups. Concomitant pharyngeal collapse increased significantly with the severity of cough (p = .031). Based on the fluoroscopic characteristics, the TC grade of the carinal region increased significantly and consistently with the grade of cough (p = .03). The serum MMP-9 level was significantly higher in the grade 2 group than that in the grade 0 group (p = .014). The serum IL-6 level was significantly lower in the grade 1 group than that in the grade 0 group (p = .020). The serum SP-A and SDC-1 levels did not differ significantly among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of cough with the progression of TC can be predicted with the fluoroscopic TC grade at the carinal region. MMP-9 may be used as an objective serum biomarker that represents cough severity to understand the pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Interleucina-6 , Tosse/veterinária , Biomarcadores , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/etiologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 193, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omicron has become the dominant variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) since first reported in November 2021. From the initially detected Wuhan lineage, sublineages BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BQ, XAG, and XBB have emerged over time and are dominant in many countries. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate which variants are circulating and the clinical characteristics of inpatients infected with the Omicron variant. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study selected hospitalized patients admitted with respiratory symptoms to a hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between June and July 2022. SARS-CoV-2 results were analyzed together with clinical outcomes and vaccination status. A viral genome library was prepared and forwarded to the Illumina MiSeq Platform for sequencing. RESULTS: In total, 37 genomes were sequenced. Concerning the Omicron sublineages, our study detected: BA.1 (21 K), BA.2 (21 L), BA.4 (22A), BA.5 (22B), BA.2.12.1 (22C), BQ.1 (22E), XBB (22F), and XAG recombinant. Omicron BA.5 (30%), BA.2 (19%), and BQ.1 (19%) were the most frequent sublineages, respectively. In total, 38% of patients present hypertension, and the most common symptoms were coughing (62%). Analyzing the COVID-19 vaccination, 30% of patients were fully vaccinated, 49% had a partial vaccination status, and 21% were unvaccinated (no dose). CONCLUSIONS: BA.5 was the most prevalent sublineage in our study and surpassed the predominance of BA.2, as reported by the national genomic surveillance program. BQ.1 was diagnosed earlier in this study than it was officially reported in the state. Current data have demonstrated that the Omicron variant causes less severe infections, with the high rate of transmissibility and mutational landscape causing the rapid emergence of new sublineages.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tosse
11.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 18: 17534666231225562, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38343122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough hypersensitivity is an important part of the neurophysiology of cough, which presents with increased cough response to a lower level of stimuli or triggers. Classification of stimuli might bring about additional insight into the underlying mechanisms and management. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the profile of cough triggers in chronic cough patients and their relationship with capsaicin cough sensitivity. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: We enrolled patients with different causes of chronic cough from 2006 to 2021. Cough triggers were defined as cough response to chemical triggers, mechanical triggers, meal triggers, or thermal trigger. Cough sensitivity to capsaicin was evaluated by the capsaicin challenge test, which was expressed as the lowest concentration of capsaicin inducing 5 or more coughing (C5). RESULTS: Among 1211 patients with chronic cough, 1107 (91.4%) patients reported at least one cough trigger. Chemical triggers (66.9%) were the most common cough triggers, followed by thermal exposure (50.6%), mechanical triggers (48.2%), and meal triggers (21.2%). There was no difference in the proportion of chemical triggers among different etiologies. Patients with refractory chronic cough reported the highest prevalence of cough triggers (97.1%). A higher number of meal triggers (34.9%) was associated with gastroesophageal reflux-related cough, and meal triggers and mechanical triggers were more common in refractory chronic cough. Among 254 patients who completed capsaicin challenge test, both the number of total triggers and the number of chemical triggers had a significant but mild correlation with capsaicin cough sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Cough hypersensitivity as reflected by a variety of cough triggers is a common feature in chronic cough patients, but different etiologies present specific profiles of cough triggers, which could not be evaluated comprehensively by capsaicin cough sensitivity.


Assuntos
Capsaicina , Humanos , Capsaicina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Doença Crônica , Tosse/etiologia
12.
Chest ; 165(2): e49-e56, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336444

RESUMO

CASE PRESENTATION: A 48-year-old woman presented to the ED with a nonproductive cough, shortness of breath, and stridor. She was otherwise healthy and had never used tobacco. The patient was mildly tachycardic but otherwise hemodynamically stable, afebrile, and saturating well on room air. She did not display any signs of increased work of breathing at rest. Although auscultation of her thorax indicated good air entry bilaterally without any adventitious sounds, stridor was elicited with forced expiration.


Assuntos
Dispneia , Sons Respiratórios , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297655, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300934

RESUMO

Accurate identification of porcine cough plays a vital role in comprehensive respiratory health monitoring and diagnosis of pigs. It serves as a fundamental prerequisite for stress-free animal health management, reducing pig mortality rates, and improving the economic efficiency of the farming industry. Creating a representative multi-source signal signature for porcine cough is a crucial step toward automating its identification. To this end, a feature fusion method that combines the biological features extracted from the acoustic source segment with the deep physiological features derived from thermal source images is proposed in the paper. First, acoustic features from various domains are extracted from the sound source signals. To determine the most effective combination of sound source features, an SVM-based recursive feature elimination cross-validation algorithm (SVM-RFECV) is employed. Second, a shallow convolutional neural network (named ThermographicNet) is constructed to extract deep physiological features from the thermal source images. Finally, the two heterogeneous features are integrated at an early stage and input into a support vector machine (SVM) for porcine cough recognition. Through rigorous experimentation, the performance of the proposed fusion approach is evaluated, achieving an impressive accuracy of 98.79% in recognizing porcine cough. These results further underscore the effectiveness of combining acoustic source features with heterogeneous deep thermal source features, thereby establishing a robust feature representation for porcine cough recognition.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Suínos , Animais , Tosse/diagnóstico , Biometria , Som
14.
J Med Virol ; 96(2): e29447, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305064

RESUMO

With the emergence of the Omicron variant, the number of pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases requiring hospitalization and developing severe or critical illness has significantly increased. Machine learning and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to predict risk factors and develop prognostic models for severe COVID-19 in hospitalized children with the Omicron variant in this study. Of the 544 hospitalized children including 243 and 301 in the mild and severe groups, respectively. Fever (92.3%) was the most common symptom, followed by cough (79.4%), convulsions (36.8%), and vomiting (23.2%). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (1-3 years old, odds ratio (OR): 3.193, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.778-5.733], comorbidity (OR: 1.993, 95% CI:1.154-3.443), cough (OR: 0.409, 95% CI:0.236-0.709), and baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (OR: 1.108, 95% CI: 1.023-1.200), lactate dehydrogenase (OR: 1.993, 95% CI: 1.154-3.443), blood urea nitrogen (OR: 1.002, 95% CI: 1.000-1.003) and total bilirubin (OR: 1.178, 95% CI: 1.005-3.381) were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19. The area under the curve (AUC) of the prediction models constructed by multivariate logistic regression analysis and machine learning (RandomForest + TomekLinks) were 0.7770 and 0.8590, respectively. The top 10 most important variables of random forest variables were selected to build a prediction model, with an AUC of 0.8210. Compared with multivariate logistic regression, machine learning models could more accurately predict severe COVID-19 in children with Omicron variant infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança Hospitalizada , Humanos , Criança , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Modelos Logísticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tosse , Aprendizado de Máquina , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
CMAJ ; 196(5): E157, 2024 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346782
16.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296898, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When patients continue to experience cough despite conventional treatment, East Asian traditional medicine (EATM) including herbal medicine and/or acupuncture has been frequently used. Previous systematic reviews of EATM treatment for chronic cough have been conducted mainly on herbal medicine, targeting patients with conditions that cause cough. In clinical practice, EATM interventions are not limited to herbal medicine, and considering that chronic cough is often caused by two or more conditions or unspecific causes, a comprehensive investigation is clinically relevant. We examined the current research status of EATM for chronic cough. METHODS: Based on Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review methodological framework, a total of six English, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese electronic databases were searched on August 2022. Any clinical studies on EATM targeting chronic cough patients (regardless of their cause) were included. RESULTS: Among 474 included studies, the study designs were mainly randomized controlled trials (72.4%), and the population was evenly distributed between children and adults. The cause of cough was not reported in most studies (56.1%). The common cause of cough was upper airway cough syndrome and post-respiratory infection (9.5%, each), followed by mixed cause (7.6%), nonspecific cause (5.9%), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (4.0%). EATM was conducted for a mean of 19.1 days, and herbal medicine was the most common (80.6%). Conventional medication was frequently used as a control (81.2%). For outcomes, the total effective rate was the most frequently utilized (94.3%), followed by cough severity (53.8%). EATM treatment showed positive outcomes in most studies. CONCLUSIONS: In future EATM studies, it is necessary to either specify the cause of chronic cough or to report that the study was targeting nonspecific chronic cough. In addition, high-quality studies assessing the efficacy of EATM with placebo control treatment should be conducted, using validated evaluation tools.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Plantas Medicinais , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Tosse/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 259(Pt 1): 129047, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171434

RESUMO

Platycodon grandiflorum, a globally recognized medicinal and edible plant, possesses significant nutritional value and pharmacological value. In traditional Chinese medicine, it has the effects of tonifying the spleen and replenishing the Qi, moistening the lung and relieving the cough, clearing the heat and detoxifying, and relieving the pain. Accumulating evidence has revealed that the polysaccharides from P. grandiflorum (PGPs) are one of the major and representative biologically active macromolecules and have diverse biological activities, such as immunomodulatory activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-tumor activity, regulation of the gut microbiota, anti-oxidant activity, anti-apoptosis activity, anti-angiogenesis activity, hypoglycemic activity, anti-microbial activity, and so on. Although the polysaccharides extracted from P. grandiflorum have been extensively studied for the extraction and purification methods, structural characteristics, and pharmacological activities, the knowledge of their structures and bioactivity relationship, toxicologic effects, and pharmacokinetic profile is limited. The main purpose of the present review is to provide comprehensively and systematically reorganized information on extraction and purification, structure characterizations, and biological functions as well as toxicities of PGPs to support their therapeutic potentials and sanitarian functions. New valuable insights for future research regarding PGPs were also proposed in the fields of therapeutic agents and functional foods.


Assuntos
Platycodon , Humanos , Platycodon/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Baço , Tosse
18.
19.
EBioMedicine ; 100: 104976, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough is a prevalent and difficult to treat condition often accompanied by cough hypersensitivity, characterised by cough triggered from exposure to low level sensory stimuli. The mechanisms underlying cough hypersensitivity may involve alterations in airway sensory nerve responsivity to tussive stimuli which would be accompanied by alterations in stimulus-induced brainstem activation, measurable with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: We investigated brainstem responses during inhalation of capsaicin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in 29 participants with chronic cough and 29 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychophysical testing was performed to evaluate individual sensitivities to inhaled stimuli and fMRI was used to compare neural activation in participants with cough and control participants while inhaling stimulus concentrations that evoked equivalent levels of urge-to-cough sensation. FINDINGS: Participants with chronic cough were significantly more sensitive to inhaled capsaicin and ATP and showed a change in relationship between urge-to-cough perception and cough induction. When urge-to-cough levels were matched, participants with chronic cough displayed significantly less neural activation in medullary regions known to integrate airway sensory inputs. By contrast, neural activations did not differ significantly between the two groups in cortical brain regions known to encode cough sensations whereas activation in a midbrain region of participants with chronic cough was significantly increased compared to controls. INTERPRETATION: Cough hypersensitivity in some patients may occur in brain circuits above the level of the medulla, perhaps involving midbrain regions that amplify ascending sensory signals or change the efficacy of central inhibitory control systems that ordinarily serve to filter sensory inputs. FUNDING: Supported in part by a research grant from Investigator-Initiated Studies Program of Merck Sharp & Dohme Pty Ltd. The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of Merck Sharp & Dohme (Australia) Pty Ltd.


Assuntos
Capsaicina , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Capsaicina/efeitos adversos , Tosse , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Trifosfato de Adenosina
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 324: 117741, 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224794

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zhisou Powder (ZSP), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription, has been widely used in the clinic for the treatment of post-infectious cough (PIC). However, the exact mechanism is not clear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of ZSP on PIC in mice. The possible mechanisms of action were screened based on network pharmacology, and the potential mechanisms were explored through molecular docking and in vivo experimental validation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (80µg/50 µL) was used to induce PIC in mice, followed by daily exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30 min for 30 d to establish PIC model. The effects of ZSP on PIC mice were observed by detecting the number of coughs and cough latency, peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) inflammatory cell counts, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and histological analysis. The core targets and key pathways of ZSP on PIC were analyzed using network pharmacology, and TRPA1 and TRPV1 were validated using RT-qPCR and western blotting assays. RESULTS: ZSP effectively reduced the number of coughs and prolonged the cough latency in PIC mice. Airway inflammation was alleviated by reducing the expression levels of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α and IL-1ß. ZSP modulated the expression of Substance P, Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and nerve growth factor (NGF) in BALF. Based on the results of network pharmacology, the mechanism of action of ZSP may exert anti-neurogenic airway-derived inflammation by regulating the expression of TRPA1 and TRPV1 through the natural active ingredients α-spinastero, shionone and didehydrotuberostemonine. CONCLUSION: ZSP exerts anti-airway inflammatory effects through inhibition of TRPA1/TRPV1 channels regulating neuropeptides to alleviate cough hypersensitivity and has a favorable therapeutic effect on PIC model mice. It provides theoretical evidence for the clinical application of ZSP.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Canais de Cátion TRPV , Camundongos , Animais , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Pós/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos
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