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1.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(4): 442-450, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709941

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infection in humans. Serological and molecular methods are used for diagnosis. Molecular methods are becoming increasingly preferred, since they lead to shortening of diagnostic time. In our study, it was aimed to determine Toxoplasma gondii by a cost-effective, quantitative, fast and reliable method without using a commercial kit, and apply method verification. T.gondii strain which was continued by mouse inoculation in our laboratory was used for method verification study. For this purpose DNA extraction was performed using a commercial kit. The limit of detection and, high and low positivity rates were determined by serial dilutions of DNA sample. Accuracy and certainty studies were performed using with TG-F, TG-R primers and TaqMan TG probe for method verification of the test. In the study with serial dilutions of DNA sample, detection limit was determined as 10-3 dilutions (0.028 copies/reaction). Furthermore 10-1 dilution (2.8 copies/reaction) was considered as high positive, 10-2 dilution (0.28 copies/reaction) was considered as low positive and method verification studies were performed. The accuracy of test was determined as 0.62 for high positive samples and 0.14 for low positive samples. CV value of intra-assay certainty was 0.62 for high positive samples and 0.14 for low positive samples, whereas, CV value of inter-assay certainty was calculated as 1.03 for high positive samples and 2.34 for low positive samples. Correlation coefficient was determined as 0.99. The coefficient of variation of inhouse realtime PCR method used in our study was found to be below 15%, and it was decided to be suitable for routine laboratory studies.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Primers do DNA , DNA de Protozoário , Humanos , Camundongos , Parasitologia/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico
2.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(3): 235-241, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724556

RESUMO

The protozoans Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. (Sarcocystidae: Apicomplexa) affect a wide variety of vertebrates. Both have been reported to infect pinnipeds, with impacts on health ranging from inapparent to fulminant disease and death. However, little is known regarding their infections and associated pathology in South American pinnipeds. We used histological techniques to survey for the presence of T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in 51 stranded pinnipeds from Brazil. Immunohistochemical and molecular assays were employed in those cases consistent with Sarcocystidae infection. T. gondii cysts were detected in the central nervous system and heart of a South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis, associated with meningoencephalitis, myocarditis and endocarditis, and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, this animal presented Sarcocystis sp. cysts in brain and heart tissues. Four additional specimens-2 Subantarctic fur seals A. tropicalis, an Antarctic fur seal A. gazella and another South American fur seal-presented intrasarcoplasmic cysts compatible with Sarcocystis spp. in muscle samples. There was no inflammation associated with the Sarcocystis spp. tissue cysts and all cysts were negative for S. neurona immunohistochemistry. The B1 gene of T. gondii was amplified in the 5 pinnipeds infected by Sarcocystidae protozoans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in wild South American pinnipeds and of Sarcocystis spp. in South American fur seals. Detection of terrestrial parasites in aquatic mammals could be an indicator of their presence in the marine environment.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Sarcocystis , Sarcocistose , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Brasil , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal
3.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1858-1865, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656468

RESUMO

Background: A significant proportion of newborns in the developing countries are born with congenital anomalies. Objective: This study investigated congenital infections due to Rubella virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Treponema pallidum among presumed normal neonates from full term pregnant women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: Sera from mothers were tested for Treponema pallidum and Toxoplasma gondii infection while newborns from mothers with acute infections were tested for T. pallidum and T. gondii, and all newborns were tested for Rubella IgM antibodies. Results: A total of 13/300 (4.3 %) mothers had T. pallidum antibodies with 3 of them having acute infection. Two (0.7 %) of the newborns from mothers with acute infection were confirmed to have congenital syphilis. Regarding toxoplasmosis, 92/300 (30.7 %) mothers were IgG seropositive and 7 had borderline positivity, with only 1/99 (1%) being IgM seropositive who delivered IgM seronegative neonate. Only 1/300 (0.3 %) newborn had rubella IgM antibodies indicating congenital rubella infection. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is estimated that in Mwanza city in every 100,000 live births about 300 and 600 newborns have congenital rubella and syphilis infections, respectively. Rubella virus and T. pallidum are likely to be among common causes of congenital infections in developing countries.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/congênito , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , População Urbana
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 400-403, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Toxoplasma gondii excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) on CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ T (Treg) cells in mice carrying Lewis lung carcinoma, and examine the inhibitory effect of T. gondii ESA on tumor growth. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into the PBS group (n = 14) and the Lewis group (n = 34). Mice in the Lewis group were subcutaneously injected with 2 × 105 Lewis lung carcinoma cells in the right axilla, while animals in the PBS group were injected with the same volume of sterile PBS. On day 7 post-injection (D7), mice in the PBS group were further divided into the PBS2 group and the PBS2 + ESA group, of 7 mice in each group, and mice in the Lewis group were further divided into the Lewis2 group and the Lewis2 + ESA group, of 17 mice in each group. Then, mice in the PBS2 + ESA group and the Lewis2 + ESA group were intraperitoneally injected with 100 µL of ESA. The mouse spleen coefficient was calculated in each group 7 days post-injection with ESA, and the changes of Treg cell counts and the long-term tumor growth were measured in tumor-bearing mice. RESULTS: The spleen coefficient was significantly greater in the PBS2 + ESA group and the Lewis2 + ESA group than in the PBS2 (0.66% ± 0.09% vs. 0.30% ± 0.02%, P < 0.05) and Lewis2 groups (0.69% ± 0.07% vs. 0.33% ± 0.03%, P < 0.05) 7 days post-treatment with ESA, respectively, and the percentage of splenic Treg cells in splenocytes was significantly lower in the PBS2 + ESA group and the Lewis2 + ESA group than in the PBS2 (1.28% ± 0.14% vs. 2.06% ± 0.07%, P < 0.05) and Lewis2 groups (1.58% ± 0.14% vs. 2.44% ± 0.23%, P < 0.05), respectively. T. gondii ESA treatment caused a delay in tumor growth, and the tumor size was significantly smaller in the Lewis2 + ESA group than in the Lewis2 group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: T. gondii ESA may reduce the proportion of splenic Treg cells in splenocytes and inhibit tumor growth in mice carrying Lewis lung carcinoma.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis , Toxoplasma , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/farmacologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Aleatória , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Toxoplasma/química , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 427-430, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of the serum anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody among patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract in Hainan Province. METHODS: A total of 1 932 patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract were enrolled in Hainan Province from 2016 to 2019, including 376 esophageal cancer patients, 475 gastric cancer patients, 401 colorectal cancer patients, 427 hepatic cancer patients and 253 pancreatic cancer patients, and 400 healthy people served as controls. The serum IgG and IgM antibodies specific to T. gondii were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the seroprevalence was compared. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody was significantly greater in patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract than in healthy controls (19.82% vs. 3.75%; χ2 = 60.49, P < 0.01), and no significant difference was seen in the overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody between patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract and healthy controls (1.09% vs. 0.50%; χ2 = 1.17, P > 0.05). The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody was 15.16%, 19.58%, 21.70%, 23.65% and 17.79% in patients with esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatic cancer and pancreatic cancer, which was all significantly greater than in healthy controls ( χ2 = 29.97, 50.29, 58.03, 67.85 and 36.59; all P < 0.01); however, the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in patients with esophageal cancer (1.06%), gastric cancer (1.47%), colorectal cancer (0.75%), hepatic cancer (1.17%) and pancreatic cancer (0.79%) did not differ from that in healthy controls ( χ2 = 0.80, 2.02, 0.20, 1.11 and 0.21; all P > 0.05). There was a significant difference in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody among various types of malignant tumors of the digestive tract ( χ2 = 10.65, P < 0.05); however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody ( χ2 = 1.33, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody among patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract in Hainan Province, and there is a significant difference in the seroprevalence in terms of the cancer type. It is suggested that the screening for T. gondii infections should be intensified in patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract to effective prevent and control the damages to patients with malignant tumors of the digestive tract caused by T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Neoplasias , Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Neoplasias/complicações , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107756, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494217

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite, which affects worm-blooded animals including human. The commonest chemotherapeutics used for treatment of symptomatic toxoplasmosis have numerous adverse effects. Thus there is an eminent need to develop new therapeutic agents. Here we described the therapeutic efficacy of 4-(2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)-6-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (PPQ-8); a quinoline-related compound in a mouse model of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. In acute infection, PPQ-8 decreased the parasite load in liver and spleen with amelioration of the hepatic and splenic pathology. In addition, recovered tachyzoites showed distorted shapes, reduced sizes, irregularities, surface protrusions, erosions and peeling besides apical region distortion when seen by scanning electron microscopy. In chronic toxoplasmosis, PPQ-8 produced degeneration and reduction of the brain cysts without stimulating a damaging inflammatory response within the brain. In both models acute and chronic, PPQ-8 prolonged the survival time of mice. These findings hold promise for the development of a novel anti-toxoplasmosis drug using PPQ-8, but further in vivo studies should be carried out to elucidate PPQ-8 mechanism of action and to report its efficacy in combination with other anti-toxoplasmosis agents.


Assuntos
Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Análise de Variância , Animais , Líquido Ascítico/parasitologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Distribuição Normal , Quinolinas/síntese química , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasma/ultraestrutura , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 518-521, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482939

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis at a research institution in Londrina, Paraná, from December 2015 to February 2016. Blood samples from 26 symptomatic individuals were collected and the microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay was performed to detect IgM, IgG and specific IgG avidity test in the official laboratory. A total of 20 people with symptoms and serology compatible with acute toxoplasmosis (IgM positive and IgG with low avidity) were selected as cases, while 45 asymptomatic employees working in the same teams and during the same shifts were selected as controls. All the participants of the investigation answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Three samples of water and one sludge from the institution's supply cisterns, 10 soil samples, 11 plant samples, three cat fecal samples and one domestic feline cadaver were collected for analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. gondii. After analyzing the epidemiological data, the consumption of vegetables in the restaurant of the institution was the only variable associated with the occurrence of the disease. In laboratory results, all the samples showed negative results to PCR. The rapid recognition of the outbreak, early notification and investigation could have broken the chain of transmission early, thus preventing the emergence of new cases. In addition, the adoption of good food handling practices could have prevented the occurrence of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
8.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e48, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531626

RESUMO

School-age children are a social group in which blood collection for laboratory testing can be perceived as an invasive procedure, with low acceptance and tolerance of stakeholders. This problem could be circumvented by replacing serum samples with saliva. For this purpose, and to make the collection of saliva samples playful and instructive for children, educational activities on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention were performed using toys and audiovisual tools. The target audience consisted of 7-10 year-old children from low-income families who attended public schools in the city of São Paulo. Saliva samples were used in a previously described in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) to detect anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies and establish the immunological status of each of the participants. One year later, children's memory and fixation of concepts regarding hygiene habits, as well as transmission and prevention of toxoplasmosis were tested in the same schools, by means of a questionnaire application, using students who did not participate in the first intervention as controls. The prevalence of positive anti- T. gondii IgG among students was 50% (82/164). One year later, 45 children had more knowledge on toxoplasmosis (28/45 vs 29/147) and they drew the cat's involvement in the transmission of toxoplasmosis more often than controls (28/45 vs 29/147). Sorted according to the presence of specific IgG in saliva, recovered positive students presented worse memory of the above cited knowledge as did saliva-negative IgG students, but both groups had isolated higher frequency of fixed knowledge than non-intervened students. Our data show that there is a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in school-children from low-income areas; saliva is an alternative to blood for anti- T. gondii IgG detection; and a one-day educational intervention in school-children was effective in promoting knowledge fixation on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention after one year.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Saliva/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 826, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and thyroid disease has been poorly studied. Therefore, we sought to determine the association between T. gondii seropositivity and thyroid dysfunction. METHODS: We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 176 patients suffering from hypothyroidism (n = 161) or hyperthyroidism (n = 15) and 528 control subjects without these diseases in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were determined in sera from cases and controls using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. RESULTS: Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 11 (6.3%) of 176 patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction and in 48 (9.1%) of 528 control subjects (OR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.33-1.31; P = 0.23). Stratification by two groups of age (50 years and younger, and 51 year and older) showed that the youngest group of patients with thyroid dysfunction had a significantly lower seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than its age- and gender-matched control group (1/83: 1.2% vs 23/257: 8.6%; OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01-0.93; P = 0.01). This stratification also showed that the youngest group of patients with hypothyroidism had a significantly lower seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than its age- and gender matched control group (0/75: 0% vs 21/233: 9.0%; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that thyroid dysfunction is not associated with seropositivity to T. gondii in general; however, in young (50 years or less) patients, a negative association between infection and thyroid dysfunction and hypothyroidism was found. Further research to confirm this negative association is needed.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
10.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 8(4): 280-284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369405

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to provide a retrospective analysis of the presentation, demographics, and treatment regimens for ocular toxoplasmosis at a large tertiary referral uveitis center. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 48 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis who presented to Sydney Eye Hospital participated in this study. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patient files who presented to Sydney Eye Hospital between 2007 and 2016 with clinical features consistent with ocular toxoplasmosis. Baseline risk factors and treatment details were recorded and analyzed. Main outcome measures were visual acuity and relapse rate compared with other studies in ocular toxoplasmosis. RESULTS: The median age was 35.5 (interquartile range 21-50) with 30 (60%) patients having no previous symptomatic episodes or evidence of chorioretinal scarring. Visual acuity at presentation was 0.51 or 6/19 (SE 0.096) and at follow-up 0.31 or 6/12 (SE 0.094). Nine patients experienced a recurrence during the period of observation with median time to recurrence 2.2 years (SE 0.45) and the relapse rate was 0.09/person-years. Location of lesion was predominantly within the vascular arcades (n = 44) with macular involvement in 9 patients. Most patients received clindamycin therapy (n = 34) with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine was used for those with macula involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ocular toxoplasmosis had fewer recurrences compared with other published series and had better visual recovery. The majority of patients received clindamycin and oral prednisolone which were well tolerated with pyrimethazine and sulfadiazine reserved for those with macula-involving disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Toxoplasmose Ocular/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Austrália/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose Ocular/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9630-9642, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365255

RESUMO

Six series of (+)-usnic acid derivatives were synthesized. The IC50 values of these compounds were determined in T. gondii infected HeLa cells (µM) and in HeLa cells (µM), and their selectivity indexes (SI) were calculated. In vitro, most of the derivatives tested in this study exhibited more anti activity than that of the parent compound (+)-usnic acid and the positive control drugs. Among these derivatives, methyl (E)-(1-(6-acetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-1,3-dioxo-3,9b-dihydrodibenzo[b,d]furan-2(1H)-ylidene)ethyl)phenylalaninate (D3) showed the most effective anti-T. gondii activity (selectivity >2.77). In comparison with the clinically used positive control drugs sulfadiazine (selectivity 1.15), pyrimethamine (selectivity 0.89), spiramycin (selectivity 0.72), and the lead compound (+)-usnic acid (selectivity 0.96), D3 showed better results in vitro. Furthermore, D3 and (E)-6-acetyl-7,9-dihydroxy-8,9b-dimethyl-2-(1-(quinolin-6-ylamino)ethylidene)dibenzo[b,d]furan-1,3(2H,9bH)-dione (F3) had greater inhibitory effects on T. gondii (inhibition rates 76.0% and 64.6%) in vivo in comparison to spiramycin (inhibition rate 55.2%); in the peritoneal cavity of mice, the number of tachyzoites was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in vivo. Additionally, some biochemical parameters were measured and spleen indexes were comprehensively evaluated, and the results indicated that mice treated with both compound D3 and compound F3 showed reduced hepatotoxicity and significantly enhanced antioxidative effects in comparison to the normal group. Granuloma and cyst formation were effected by the inhibition of compound D3 and compound F3 in liver sections. Overall, these results indicated that D3 and F3 for use as anti-T. gondii agents are promising lead compounds.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Benzofuranos/administração & dosagem , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiprotozoários/síntese química , Antiprotozoários/química , Benzofuranos/síntese química , Benzofuranos/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408623

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan of major medical and veterinary importance. Its treatment is difficult since the available drugs have severe side effects and reactivation may occur anytime. Vaccination with irradiated parasites exhibits ideal characteristics for vaccine development. In our experimental mice model, the protection against challenge with the virulent RH strain was assessed, using 255Gy irradiated tachyzoites. Eighty mice were allocated into 3 groups: naive control group, challenged with virulent RH tachyzoites group and a third group which is challenged with 1 × 106 irradiated tachyzoites, administered as two biweekly doses intraperitoneally. Protection was tested by challenging vaccinated mice with the virulent type RH tachyzoites 30 days after the 2nd vaccination dose. The assessment was built on qualitative clinical, quantitative parasitological, histopathological parameters and measurement of serum Nitric Oxide (NO). The results showed prolonged survival rate, absence of tachyzoites in the peritoneal aspirate by counting, absence of tachyzoites in all examined organs by impression smears, amelioration of histopathological changes in the liver, spleen, brain and lung specimens and increase of the serum NO level in the vaccinated group. Therefore, we propose that irradiated Toxoplasma tachyzoites confer protection for challenged mice and could be an alternative immunization schedule for vaccine development especially for who are at risk of severe immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/efeitos da radiação , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Vacinação/métodos , Animais , Líquido Ascítico/parasitologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Colorimetria , Feminino , Raios gama , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/mortalidade
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 383-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390432

RESUMO

This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 403-409, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390435

RESUMO

To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 395-402, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411314

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. In cetaceans, T. gondii infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite the worldwide range and broad cetacean host record of T. gondii infection, there is limited information on toxoplasmosis in cetaceans from the Southern hemisphere. We investigated the occurrence of T. gondii by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in tissue samples of 185 animals comprising 20 different cetacean species from Brazil. Three out of 185 (1.6%) animals presented T. gondii-associated lesions: a captive killer whale Orcinus orca, a free-ranging common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and a free-ranging Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis. The main lesions observed in these animals were necrotizing hepatitis, adrenalitis and lymphadenitis associated with protozoal cysts or extracellular tachyzoites presenting immunolabeling with anti-T. gondii antibodies. This study widens the spectrum of species and the geographic range of this agent in Brazil, and provides the first reports of T. gondii infection in a captive killer whale and in a free-ranging common bottlenose dolphin in South America.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Cetáceos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cetáceos/classificação , Imuno-Histoquímica , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
16.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126293, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421715

RESUMO

T. gondii is a major opportunistic pathogen chronically infecting nearly one third of the world's population. Due to the high infection and mortality rates in immunocompromised patients and newborns, the extent or magnitude of T. gondii pathogenesis is determined mainly by host-pathogen interactions. T. gondii utilizes specialized secretory proteins to modify host cellular factors and facilitate invasion and replication. This review provides update on the recent progress in this field of research with particular emphasis on the T. gondii secretory proteins and their role in invasion and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
17.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 40(5): 495-501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317821

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by T. gondii, is an important zoonosis worldwide. In Ghana, information on the disease in humans abounds but scanty in animals. This study was therefore conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection sheep and goats sampled from the Kumasi Abattoir in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A total of 347 serum samples collected from 170 sheep and 177 goats were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Results of this study estimated the seroprevalence of 23.7% in goats an, 35.9% in sheep. In sheep, 24 (35.82%) out of a total of 67 male samples were positive and 37 (35.92%) out of a total of 104 female samples were positive while in goats, 6 (8.2%) bucks out of a total of 73 were positive while 36 (34.6%) does out of a total of 104 were positive. There was a significant difference in the rate of seropositivity of female goats (p-value 0.01). This study confirms the existence of T. gondii infection in small ruminants in Ghana and it showed that sheep and dogs are more at risk to T. gondii infection hence meat from such animals could be a potential risk to public health if consumed raw or undercooked.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Ovinos/imunologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 305: 108241, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295679

RESUMO

Decreasing the health burden caused by foodborne pathogens is challenging and it depends on the identification of the most significant hazards and food sources causing illnesses, so adequate mitigation strategies can be implemented. In this regard, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has developed the Establishment-based Risk Assessment (ERA) model, so that a more effective and efficient allocation of resources can be assigned to the highest food safety risk areas. To assess risk, the model considers the type of food sub-products being manufactured by establishments and its scope is limited to the 17 most important foodborne pathogens representing the highest level of food safety risk. However, the information on source attribution at the sub-product level based on a structured approach is limited. To overcome this challenge, an expert elicitation was conducted in 2016 to estimate the relative contribution and associated certainty of each sub-product for 31 pathogen-commodity combinations to the total Canadian health burden associated with foodborne illnesses (expressed in DALYs). These DALYs represent 78% of the total Canadian health burden associated with federally-regulated food commodities considered within the model. A total of 49 Canadian experts recruited using a "snow ball" sampling strategy participated in the study by completing an electronic survey. Results of the elicitation displayed variable levels of health burden allocation between the pathogens and the different commodity sub-products. Assessment of the certainty levels showed some combinations being evaluated with more confidence (e.g., Campylobacter and eggs/poultry sub-products) than others, where a bimodal distribution of certainty was observed (e.g., Toxoplasma in pork sub-products). Furthermore, no participant raised concerns on the food classification scheme, suggesting their agreement with the proposed sub-products categorization of the elicitation. Relative contribution estimates will be included in the CFIA ERA model and used to enhance its applicability for risk prioritization and effective resource allocation during food establishment inspections. While substantial uncertainty around the central tendency estimates was found, these estimates provide a good basis for regulatory oversight and public health policy.


Assuntos
Inspeção de Alimentos/normas , Carne/microbiologia , Carne/parasitologia , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Canadá , Galinhas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
19.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 303-308, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284355

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause toxoplasmosis in a wide range of warm-blooded animals including humans. In this study, we analyzed seroprevalence of T. gondii among 467 school children living in the rural areas of Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Myanmar. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii among school children was 23.5%; 22.5% of children were positive for T. gondii IgG, 0.4% of children were positive for T. gondii IgM, and 0.6% of children were positive for both T. gondii IgG and IgM. Geographical factors did not significantly affect the seroprevalence frequency between Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Myanmar. No significant difference was found between males (22.2%) and females (25.0%). The overall seroprevalence among school children differed by ages (10 years old [13.6%], 11-12 years old [19.8%], 13-14 years old [24.6%], and 15-16 years old [28.0%]), however, the result was not significant. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for T. gondii B1 gene for IgG-positive and IgM-positive blood samples were negative, indicating no direct evidence of active infection. These results collectively suggest that T. gondii infection among school children in Myanmar was relatively high. Integrated and improved strategies including reinforced education on toxoplasmosis should be implemented to prevent and control T. gondii infection among school children in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
20.
Vet Ital ; 55(2): 157-162, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274177

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to detect the antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in Royal Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris), Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica), leopards (Panthera pardus), and elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) residing in the Mahendra Chaudhury Zoological Park, in Chhatbir, Punjab (India) during winter and monsoon seasons. Using  indirect ELISA, 20 serum samples were analysed during the winter season. Results indicated that 1 lion (5%) tested seropositive, and 3 tigers and 1 lion (20%) were considered suspect. During the monsoon, 4 individuals (2 tigers and 2 lions, 20%) were seropositive, whereas only 1 tiger (5%) gave suspected results. Significantly higher globulin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus, and creatine kinase values were recorded in seropositive and suspected groups. Levels of albumin, glucose, calcium, sodium, and iron decreased significantly in the seronegative group. Results from sero-testing 40 rodents trapped in and around the park depicted the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in 1 individual. This study reveals the haemato-biochemical alterations in both seropositive and suspected wild felids for toxoplasmosis. Moreover, it provides the first serological evidence of T. gondii exposure in wild felids, notably Royal Bengal tigers and Asiatic lions, in India.


Assuntos
Leões , Tigres , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Índia , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia
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