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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e020321, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544881

RESUMO

The presence of antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum have been described in dogs from virtually all Brazilian states, however in the state of Amazonas, there are few studies on these coccidia. In this study the occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum and risk factors were determined in domiciliated dogs of Manaus, AM. Blood samples were collected from 154 dogs and, during the harvest, a questionnaire was applied with questions related to the animals. The samples were analyzed, for the presence of anti-T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies, by indirect fluorescence antibody test, with cutoff of 16 and 50, respectively. Associations between the variables studied and the presence of antibodies were made by chi-square test, fisher's exact test or G test (p<0.05). Of the 154 samples, 19 (12.3% 95% CI = 7.1% - 17.5%) were reagents to T. gondii, and association (p <0.05) was observed between the presence of antibodies and contact with other dogs. The occurrence of dogs reactive to N. caninum was 1.9% (95% CI = 0.4% - 5.6%) with 3 of the 154 dogs positives, and no association (p>0.05) was observed between the presence of N. caninum antibodies, and the variables studied.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Doenças do Cão , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 22(1): 122, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular zoonotic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which could be lethal in immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to synthesize Neem oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (NeO-SLNs) and to evaluate the anti-Toxoplasma activity of this component. METHODS: The NeO-SLNs were constructed using double emulsification method, and their shape and size distribution were evaluated using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. An MTT assay was employed to evaluate the cell toxicity of the component. The anti-Toxoplasma activity of NeO-SLNs was investigated using vital (trypan-blue) staining. Anti-intracellular Toxoplasma activity of NeO-SLNs was evaluated in T. gondii-infected Vero cells. RESULTS: The TEM analysis represented round shape NeO-SLNs with clear and stable margins. DLS analysis showed a mean particle size 337.6 nm for SLNs, and most of nanoparticles were in range 30 to 120 nm. The cell toxicity of NeO-SLNs was directly correlated with the concentration of the component (P-value = 0.0013). The concentration of NeO-SLNs, which was toxic for at least 50% of alive T. gondii (cytotoxic concentration (CC50)), was > 10 mg/mL. The ability of NeO-SLNs to kill Toxoplasma was concentration-dependent (P-value < 0.0001), and all concentrations killed at least 70% of alive tachyzoites. Furthermore, the viability of T. gondii- infected Vero cells was inversely correlated with NeO-SLNs concentrations (P-value = 0.0317), and in the concentration 100 µg/mL at least 75% of T. gondii- infected Vero cells remained alive. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings demonstrated that the NeO-SLNs was able to kill T. gondii tachyzoites in concentration 100 µg/mL with a cell toxicity lower than 20%. Such results suggest that employing SLNs as carrier for NeO can effectively kill T. gondii tachyzoites with acceptable cell toxicity. Our findings also showed that SLNs capsulation of the NeO can lead to prolonged release of the extract, suggesting that NeO-SLNs could be also employed to clear cyst stages, which should be further investigated in animal models.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Toxoplasma , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Glicerídeos , Humanos , Lipossomos , Terpenos , Células Vero
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 149-157, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the proportion, quantity, differentiation and function of mouse and human uterine natural killer cells (uNK cells), so as to explore the role of uNK cells in abortion of early pregnancy caused by T. gondii infection. METHODS: Pregnant mice were injected intraperitoneally with T. gondii tachyzoites on day 6.5 of pregnancy, and the abortion mouse model caused by T. gondii infections was constructed. Mouse uterine lymphocytes were isolated on day 9.5 of pregnancy. Human uterine lymphocytes were isolated from fresh human decidual specimens after abortion in normal early pregnancy and co-cultured with tachyzoites of the T. gondii RH strain for 48 h at T. gondii/uterine lymphocytes ratios of 0.5:1, 1:1 and 2:1. The phenotypes of mouse uNK cells (CD122, NK1.1, DX5) and human uNK cells (CD3, CD56, CD11b, CD27) and the expression of intracellular cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by flow cytometry. Mouse and human uNK cells were sorted by magnetic beads, and the cytotoxicity of uNK cells was tested using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay at effector/target cell ratios of 1:1, 5:1, 10:1 and 20:1 with mouse or human uNK cells as effector cells and mouse YAC-1 cells or human K562 cells as target cells. RESULTS: On day 9.5 of pregnancy, the mouse abortion rate was significantly higher in the infected group than that in the control group (83.02% vs. 3.51%; χ2 = 71.359, P < 0.001). Significantly lower absolute number of uNK cells [(4 547 ± 1 610) cells/mouse vs. (8 978 ± 3 339) cells/mouse; U = 2.000, P < 0.05], lower NK1.1 expression on uNK cell surface [(74.53 ± 8.37)% vs. (93.00 ± 1.11)%; U = 0.000, P < 0.05], higher proportion of NK1.1-DX5-cells [(20.10 ± 8.03)% vs. (5.04 ± 0.68)%; U = 0.000, P < 0.05], lower proportion of NK1.1+ DX5+ cells [(21.70 ± 12.48)% vs. (45.75 ± 2.26)%; U = 0.000, P < 0.05] and higher IFN-γ expression [(16.74 ± 1.36)% vs. (8.13 ± 1.90)%; U = 0.000, P < 0.05] were detected in the infected group than in the control group, while no significant difference was seen in TNF-α expression between the two groups [(67.98 ± 9.20)% vs. (52.93 ± 10.42)%; U = 2.000, P > 0.05]. The mouse uNK cells showed a strong cytotoxicity in the infected group, and the cytotoxicity gradually increased with the effector/target cell ratio. The cytotoxicity of uNK cells against YAC-1 cells was 2.30%, 4.32%, 8.12% and 12.65% in the infected group and 1.21%, 1.63%, 2.51% and 3.22% in the control group at effector/target cell ratios of 1:1, 5:1, 10:1 and 20:1, respectively. Following co-culture of human uterine lymphocytes and tachyzoites of the T. gondii RH strain for 48 h, the proportion [TOX 2:1 group vs. control group: (6.61 ± 1.75)% vs. (17.48 ± 4.81)%; F = 7.307, P < 0.01], and absolute number of human uNK cells in uterine lymphocytes of human uNK cells in uterine lymphocytes [TOX 2:1 group vs. control group: (12 104 ± 5 726) cells/well vs. (65 285 ± 21 810) cells/well; H = 11.540, P < 0.01] were significantly lower in the infected group than in the control group. A lower proportion of CD56brightCD16- NK cells [TOX 2:1 group vs. control group: (25.25 ± 5.90)% vs. (36.03 ± 4.51)%; F = 3.213, P > 0.05] and higher proportion of CD56dimCD16+ NK cells [TOX 2:1 group vs. control group: (11.15 ± 2.15)% vs. (7.09 ± 2.24)%; F = 2.992, P > 0.05] were detected in uNK cells in the infected group than in the control group, and the ratio of CD56brightCD16- cells/CD56dimCD16+ cells was significantly lower in the infected group than in the control group [TOX2:1 group vs. control group: (2.37 ± 0.92) vs. (5.58 ± 2.39); H = 8.228, P < 0.05]. In addition, the proportion of CD11b+CD27- cells in human uNK cells was significantly higher in the infected group than in the control group [TOX 2:1 group vs. control group: (30.28 ± 6.91)% vs. (17.48 ± 4.67)%; H = 6.556, P < 0.05], while no significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of IFN-γ [TOX 2:1 group vs. control group: (14.13 ± 1.28)% vs. (15.19 ± 1.64)%; F = 1.639, P > 0.05] or TNF-α expression [TOX 2:1 group vs. control group: (54.76 ± 10.02)% vs. (50.33 ± 3.67)%; F = 0.415, P > 0.05]. Human uNK cells presented a strong cytotoxicity in the infected group, and the cytotoxicity gradually increased with the effector/target cell ratio. The cytotoxicity of human uNK cells against K562 cells was 11.90%, 28.11%, 49.91% and 73.35% in the infected group and 12.21%, 21.63%, 33.51% and 48.22% in the control group at effector/target cell ratios of 1:1, 5:1, 10:1 and 20:1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: T. gondii infection presents diverse effects on the differentiation and secretion ability of mouse and human uNK cells. However, T. gondii infection causes a reduction in the absolute number and enhances the cytotoxicity of both mouse and human uNK cells.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Gravidez , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 63, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For infants exposed in utero to Toxoplasma gondii, current guidelines recommend monitoring the specific antibody titer until 12 months of age. In this study, we investigated the antibody titer decay in the mother-infant dyad. METHODS: This is a single center, population-based cohort study of neonates referred for prenatal exposure to Toxoplasma gondii from January 2014 to December 2020. All infants underwent clinical, laboratory, and instrumental investigation for at least 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 670 eligible neonates were referred to the Perinatal Infection Unit of the University Federico II of Naples. 636 (95%) completed the serological follow up until 12 months. Specific IgG antibodies negativization occurred in 628 (98.7%) within 5 months. At 9 and 12 months, all patients had negative IgG. An initial neonatal IgG antibody titer ≥ 200 IU/ml was associated with a longer time to negativization (184 [177.5;256] days when above threshold vs. 139.5 [101;179] days when below it; p < 0.001). Maternal IgG antibody titer ≥ 200 IU/ml at childbirth was also associated to delayed time to negativization in the infant (179 [163;184] days above the threshold vs 125 [96.8;178] days below it; p < 0.001). Specific antibody negativization was irreversible in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lower anti-Toxoplasma antibody titers detected at birth in the mother-infant-dyad lead to an earlier and irreversible negativization. This information allows for customisation of the infant follow up program and avoids invasive and expensive tests.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Parto , Gravidez
5.
Parasite ; 29: 21, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35420541

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease resulting from Toxoplasma gondii infection, remains prevalent worldwide, and causes great harm to immunodepressed patients, pregnant women and newborns. Although various molecular approaches to detect T. gondii infection are available, they are either costly or technically complex. This study aimed at developing a rapid visual detection assay using recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) and lateral flow dipstick (LFD) coupled with CRISPR-Cas13a fluorescence (RAA-Cas13a-LFD) to detect T. gondii. The RAA-Cas13a-LFD assay was performed in an incubator block at 37 °C within 2 h, and the amplification results were visualized and determined through LFD by the naked eye. The detection limit was 1 × 10-6 ng/µL by our developed RAA-Cas13a-LFD protocol, 100-fold higher than that by qPCR assay (1 × 10-8 ng/µL). No cross-reaction occurred either with the DNA of human blood or Ascaris lumbricoides, Digramma interrupta, Entamoeba coli, Fasciola gigantica, Plasmodium vivax, Schistosoma japonicum, Taenia solium, and Trichinella spiralis, and the positive rate by RAA-Cas13a-LFD assay was identical to that by qPCR assay (1.50% vs. 1.50%) in detecting T. gondii infection in the unknown blood samples obtained from clinical settings. Our findings demonstrate that this RAA-Cas13a-LFD assay is not only rapid, sensitive, and specific and allows direct visualization by the naked eye, but also eliminates sophisticated and costly equipment. More importantly, this technique can be applied to on-site surveillance of T. gondii.


Title: Un nouveau test de détection visuelle rapide pour Toxoplasma gondii combinant une amplification assistée par polymérase recombinase et une bandelette réactive à flux latéral couplée à la fluorescence CRISPR-Cas13a (RAA-Cas13a-LFD). Abstract: La toxoplasmose, une maladie parasitaire résultant d'une infection à Toxoplasma gondii, reste répandue dans le monde et cause de graves dommages aux patients immunodéprimés, aux femmes enceintes et aux nouveau-nés. Bien que diverses approches moléculaires pour détecter l'infection à T. gondii soient disponibles, elles sont coûteuses ou techniquement complexes. Cette étude visait à développer un test de détection visuelle rapide utilisant une amplification assistée par recombinase et une bandelette réactive à flux latéral couplée à la fluorescence CRISPR-Cas13a (RAA-Cas13a-LFD) pour détecter T. gondii. Le test RAA-Cas13a-LFD a été effectué dans un bloc incubateur à 37 °C en 2 h, et les résultats d'amplification ont été visualisés et déterminés par LFD à l'œil nu. La limite de détection était de 1 × 10−6 ng/µL par notre protocole développé RAA-Cas13a-LFD, 100 fois plus élevée que celle du test qPCR (1 × 10−8 ng/µL). Aucune réaction croisée ne s'est produite ni avec l'ADN du sang humain ni avec Ascaris lumbricoides, Digramma interrupta, Entamoeba coli, Fasciola gigantica, Plasmodium vivax, Schistosoma japonicum, Taenia solium et Trichinella spiralis, et le taux de positivité par le test RAA-Cas13a-LFD était identique à celui par test qPCR (1,50 % contre 1,50 %) pour détecter l'infection à T. gondii dans les échantillons de sang inconnus obtenus en milieu clinique. Nos résultats démontrent que ce test RAA-Cas13a-LFD est non seulement rapide, sensible, spécifique et permet une visualisation directe à l'œil nu, mais élimine également les équipements sophistiqués et coûteux. Plus important encore, cette technique peut être appliquée à la surveillance sur place de T. gondii.


Assuntos
Recombinases , Toxoplasma , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Gravidez , Recombinases/genética , Recombinases/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasma/genética
6.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 30: 100710, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431068

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Pigs can become infected by consuming water or food contaminated with sporulated oocysts, or by carnivorism (like the consumption of infected rodents). In pigs most infections are asymptomatic. In certain countries, pig meat containing tissue cysts is a major source of infection for human beings. The aims of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and to identify which factors were related with the increase of the risk of infection in Argentina. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was determined in 240 pigs from 27 farms in the central-western area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Serum samples were analyzed using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Prevalence determined was 53.33% and 32.08% by IFAT and ELISA, respectively. Results showed that 81.5% (22/27) of the farms were seropositive to T. gondii. Seropositivity for T. gondii was related with the following risk factors (p value ≤0.05): presence of felids and rodents in the farms, feeding with waste of human food and storage of food outdoors with free access to felids and to the reservoirs when applying both serological techniques. Our results strongly suggest that the risk of infection with T. gondii in pigs is related to the outdoor/extensive type of production system with low infrastructure conditions, which allows both felids and rodents to have free access to pigs and stored food. Also, the high seroprevalence detected in the present study could indicate a potential role of pork in human infections in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Argentina/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457059

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a highly prevalent parasite that has no gold standard treatment due to the poor action or the numerous side effects. Focused sulfonamide-1,2,3-triazole hybrids 3a-c were wisely designed and synthesized via copper catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition approach between prop-2-yn-1-alcohol 1 and sulfa drug azides 2a-c. The newly synthesized click products were fully characterized using different spectroscopic experiments and were loaded onto chitosan nanoparticles to form novel nanoformulations for further anti-Toxoplasma investigation. The current study proved the anti-Toxoplasma effectiveness of all examined compounds in experimentally infected mice. Relative to sulfadiazine, the synthesized sulfonamide-1,2,3-triazole (3c) nanoformulae demonstrated the most promising result for toxoplasmosis treatment as it resulted in 100% survival, 100% parasite reduction along with the remarkable histopathological improvement in all the studied organs.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Camundongos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Triazóis/química
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 842595, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35402301

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a major zoonotic agent which may cause harmful effects mainly in pregnant and immunocompromised hosts. Despite many efforts on its genetic characterization, an entirely clear picture of the population structure in Europe has not been achieved yet. The present study aimed to summarize the available genotyping information and to map the distribution of circulating strains. There is consensus on type II T. gondii genotypes prevailing in Europe, but the absence of harmonization in the use of typing methods limits detailed knowledge. Standardized, high-end typing tools and integrative strategies are needed to fill the gaps and complete an accurate image of the T. gondii genetic population in Europe.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Gravidez , Toxoplasma/genética
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 151, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than one-third of the total world population is infected by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). T. gondii has been linked to various diseases, such as cancer, mental disorders, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), etc. However, the effects of T. gondii infection on the risk of osteoporosis are unclear. Our study aimed to uncover evidence to determine whether patients exposed to T. gondii have an increased or decreased risk of osteoporosis in people with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) by using case-control study. METHODS: A total of 729 patients, including 316 osteopenia and 413 osteoporosis patients of Han Chinese ancestry were selected in the study. Their blood samples were collected and the levels of specific IgG antibodies against T. gondii were measured using ELISA assay. We obtained some information about the patients from the medical record that included demographic indexes and clinical data. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of T. gondii infection on femur osteoporosis, lumbar osteoporosis and compound osteoporosis. Potential interaction was analyzed using multifactor dimensionality reduction software 1.0.0 (MDR 1.0.0). RESULTS: 113 positive patients with T. gondii infections have been detected, including 80 cases of osteoporosis and 33 cases of osteopenia, the infection rates of T. gondii were 19.37% (80/413) and 10.44% (33/316), respectively. The patients with T.gondii infections were at a 2.60 times higher risk of suffering from compound osteoporosis than those without T. gondii infections (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.54-4.39, P < 0.001), but not associated with femur osteoporosis (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.43-2.34, P = 0.989) and lumbar osteoporosis (OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.34-2.07, P = 0.705) after adjusting for the covariates. Moreover, a significantly higher risk of compound osteoporosis in the individuals with all two factors (T. gondii infection, Female) was observed compared with reference group (without T. gondii infection, male) under the interaction model (OR = 11.44, 95%CI = 5.44-24.05, P < 0.001). And the individuals with all two factors (T. gondii infection, over 70 years) exhibited a 8.14-fold higher possibility of developing compound osteoporosis compared with reference group (without T. gondii infection, under 70 years) (OR = 8.14, 95% CI 3.91-16.93, P < 0.001). We further stratified by age and sex, and found that women with T. gondii infection was more likely to develop compound osteoporosis than those without infection(OR = 3.12, 95% CI 1.67-5.81, P < 0.001), but we not found the association between T. gondii infection and compound osteoporosis in males (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 0.37-4.94, P = 0.645). CONCLUSIONS: T. gondii infection is a risk factor for osteoporosis, especially compound osteoporosis. Meanwhile, it is very necessary for patients with osteoporosis to further diagnose and treat T. gondii infection, especially women.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Osteoporose , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409203

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), as an opportunistic pathogen, has special pathogenic effects on pregnant animals and humans. Progesterone (P4) is a critical hormone that supports pregnancy, and its levels fluctuate naturally during early pregnancy. However, little is known about the association of host P4 levels with the infectivity and pathogenicity of T. gondii. Our study showed that P4 significantly inhibited the invasion and proliferation of tachyzoites, resulting in abnormal cytoskeletal daughter budding and subsequent autophagy in vitro. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we identified a Toxoplasma gondii progesterone membrane receptor protein (TgPGRMC) that was localized to the mitochondrion and closely related to the effect of P4 on tachyzoites. The knockout of the pgrmc gene conferred resistance to P4 inhibitory effects. Our results prove the direct relationship between P4 single factors and T. gondii in vitro and demonstrate that TgPGRMC is an important link between T. gondii and P4, providing a new direction for research on T. gondii infection during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Progesterona/metabolismo , Progesterona/farmacologia , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/metabolismo
11.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 692022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481542

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is one of the world's most prevalent zoonoses. The causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is a facultative heteroxenic, polyxenic apicomplexan protist. There are several potential pathways of transmission within and between host species. Most infections with T. gondii result from close contact with pets/cats, ingestion of tissue cysts in undercooked meat of infected animals, and oocysts from food or water contaminated by feline faeces. Recently, epidemiological studies have shown that T. gondii infection plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders. This report reviews the association between T. gondii infection and patients with psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, depressive disorders and bipolar disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Gatos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Oocistos , Toxoplasmose Animal/complicações , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 812152, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35372100

RESUMO

Ocular infection with Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis in mice. However, following ocular infection with tachyzoites, the cause of the accompanying progressive changes in hippocampal-dependent tasks, and their relationship with the morphology and number of microglia, is less well understood. Here, in 6-month-old, female BALB/c mice, 5 µl of a suspension containing 48.5 × 106 tachyzoites/ml was introduced into the conjunctival sac; control received an equal volume of saline. Before and after instillation, all mice were subject to an olfactory discrimination (OD) test, using predator (cat) feces, and to an open-field (OF) task. After the behavioral tests, the animals were culled at either 22 or 44 days post-instillation (dpi), and the brains and retinas were dissected and processed for immunohistochemistry. The total number of Iba-1-immunolabeled microglia in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was estimated, and three-dimensional reconstructions of the cells were evaluated. Immobility was increased in the infected group at 12, 22, and 43 dpi, but the greatest immobility was observed at 22 dpi and was associated with reduced line crossing in the OF and distance traveled. In the OD test, infected animals spent more time in the compartment with feline fecal material at 14 and at 43 dpi. No OD changes were observed in the control group. The number of microglia was increased at 22 dpi but returned to control levels by 44 dpi. These changes were associated with the differentiation of T. gondii tachyzoites into bradyzoite-enclosed cysts within the brain and retina. Thus, infection of mice with T. gondii alters exploratory behavior, gives rise to a loss in predator's odor avoidance from 2 weeks after infection, increased microglia number, and altered their morphology in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Gatos , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neuropatologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 848693, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35372115

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoites establish chronic infections within their host cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that several parasite effector proteins are translocated to host cells during the bradyzoite stage of chronic infection. To understand the interaction between host cells and bradyzoites at the transcriptomic landscape level, we utilized single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-Seq) to characterize the bradyzoite-induced host cell response. Distinct gene expression profiles were observed in infected host, cells with low parasite mapped reads, and mock (non-exposed) control cells. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that c-Myc and NF-κB signaling and energy metabolic pathways were upregulated by infection. Type I and II interferon response pathways were upregulated in cells with low parasite mapped reads compared to the non-exposed host control cells, and this upregulation effect was reversed in infected cells. Differences were observed in the host cells depending on the differentiation status of the parasites, as determined by BAG1 and SAG1 expression. NF-κB, inflammatory response pathways, and IFN-γ response pathways were downregulated in host cells containing T. gondii BAG1+/SAG1-, whereas this downregulation effect was reversed in case of T. gondii BAG1-/SAG1+. We also identified two distinct host cell subsets that contained T. gondii BAG1+/SAG1-, one of which displayed distinct transcriptomes with upregulated c-Myc expression. Overall, these data clearly demonstrate that host cell transcriptional alteration by bradyzoite infection is different from that of tachyzoite infection, indicating fine-tuning of the host immune response.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Diferenciação Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Toxoplasma/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 115, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In changing northern ecosystems, understanding the mechanisms of transmission of zoonotic pathogens, including the coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is essential to protect the health of vulnerable animals and humans. As high-level predators and scavengers, foxes represent a potentially sensitive indicator of the circulation of T. gondii in environments where humans co-exist. The objectives of our research were to compare serological and molecular assays to detect T. gondii, generate baseline data on T. gondii antibody and tissue prevalence in foxes in northern Canada, and compare regional seroprevalence in foxes with that in people from recently published surveys across northern Canada. METHODS: Fox carcasses (Vulpes vulpes/Vulpes lagopus, n = 749) were collected by local trappers from the eastern (Labrador and Québec) and western Canadian Arctic (northern Manitoba, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories) during the winters of 2015-2019. Antibodies in heart fluid were detected using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in hearts and brains using a magnetic capture DNA extraction and real-time PCR assay. RESULTS: Antibodies against T. gondii and DNA were detected in 36% and 27% of foxes, respectively. Detection of antibodies was higher in older (64%) compared to younger foxes (22%). More males (36%) than females (31%) were positive for antibodies to T. gondii. Tissue prevalence in foxes from western Nunavik (51%) was higher than in eastern Nunavik (19%). At the Canadian scale, T. gondii exposure was lower in western Inuit regions (13%) compared to eastern Inuit regions (39%), possibly because of regional differences in fox diet and/or environment. Exposure to T. gondii decreased at higher latitude and in foxes having moderate to little fat. Higher mean infection intensity was observed in Arctic foxes compared to red foxes. Fox and human seroprevalence showed similar trends across Inuit regions of Canada, but were less correlated in the eastern sub-Arctic, which may reflect regional differences in human dietary preferences. CONCLUSIONS: Our study sheds new light on the current status of T. gondii in foxes in northern Canada and shows that foxes serve as a good sentinel species for environmental circulation and, in some regions, human exposure to this parasite in the Arctic.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Canadá/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Raposas , Humanos , Masculino , Espécies Sentinelas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 304: 109701, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395619

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis caused by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite is known to infect almost all warm blooded animals, and meat containing tissue cysts is one of the main sources of infection for omnivorous an carnivorous animals. Over recent years, increasing numbers of omnivorous and carnivorous animals have been drawn to urban or suburban areas by easy access to food or safe shelter, and the presence of wild animals has became more natural to urban residents. However, infected animals can act as intermediate hosts to T. gondii and contribute to the transmission of disease to humans and domestic animals, as well as other wild animal species. This extensive spread of the parasite in the natural environment can be attributed to geographic location, landform or local climate. The present paper summarizes the data available on the prevalence of T. gondii infection among wildlife from Poland, Germany, Slovakia, Czechia, Austria and Hungary. The findings highlight the importance of conducting studies on the presence of the parasite in wildlife, where the data is limited or outdated.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Carnívoros/parasitologia , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 23(4): 315-327, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403386

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide parasite that can infect almost all kinds of mammals and cause fatal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Apoptosis is one of the principal strategies of host cells to clear pathogens and maintain organismal homeostasis, but the mechanism of cell apoptosis induced by T. gondii remains obscure. To explore the apoptosis influenced by T. gondii, Vero cells infected or uninfected with the parasite were subjected to apoptosis detection and subsequent dual RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we found that pro-apoptosis genes such as DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible α (GADD45A), caspase-3 (CASP3), and high-temperature requirement protease A2 (HtrA2) were upregulated, and anti-apoptosis genes such as poly(adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase family member 3 (PARP3), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) were downregulated. Besides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1), TRAF2, TNF receptor superfamily member 10b (TNFRSF10b), disabled homolog 2 (DAB2)|-interacting protein (DAB2IP), and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3 (ITPR3) were enriched in the upstream of TNF, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, and TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) was regarded as an important membrane receptor influenced by T. gondii that had not been previously considered. In conclusion, the T. gondii RH strain could promote and mediate apoptosis through multiple pathways mentioned above in Vero cells. Our findings improve the understanding of the T. gondii infection process through providing new insights into the related cellular apoptosis mechanisms.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Apoptose , Chlorocebus aethiops , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mamíferos/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/genética , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/patologia , Células Vero , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética
17.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408644

RESUMO

Nitrogen-containing atoms in their core structures have been exclusive building blocks in drug discovery and development. One of the most significant and well-known heterocycles is the 1,3,4-thidiazole nucleus, which is found in a wide range of natural products and therapeutic agents. In the present work, certain tris-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives (6, 7) were synthesized through a multi-step synthesis approach. All synthesized compounds were characterized using different spectroscopic tools. Previously, thiadiazole compounds as anti-Toxoplasma gondii agents have been conducted and reported in vitro. However, this is the first study to test the anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity of manufactured molecular hybrids thiadiazole in an infected mouse model with the acute RH strain of T. gondii. All the observed results demonstrated compound (7)'s powerful activity, with a considerable reduction in the parasite count reaching 82.6% in brain tissues, followed by liver and spleen tissues (65.35 and 64.81%, respectively). Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines assessments proved that Compound 7 possesses potent antiparasitic effect. Furthermore, docking tests against TgCDPK1 and ROP18 kinase (two major enzymes involved in parasite invasion and egression) demonstrated compound 7's higher potency compared to compound 6 and megazol. According to the mentioned results, tris-1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives under test can be employed as potent antiparasitic agents against the acute RH strain of T. gondii.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Tiadiazóis , Toxoplasma , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Camundongos , Baço , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
18.
Ann Parasitol ; 68(1): 47-54, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439407

RESUMO

During infection, T. gondii disseminates by the circulatory system and establishes chronic infection in several organs. Almost third of humans, immunosuppressed individuals such as HIV/AIDS patients, cancer patients, and organ transplant recipients are exposed to toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the possibility that Toxoplasma infection could be a risk factor for COVID-19 patients and its possible correlation with C-reactive protein and ferritin. Overall 220 patients referred to the Al Furat General Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq were enrolled from 2020-2021. All serum samples were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) antibodies, C-reactive protein and ferritin levels. In patients with COVID-19, the results revealed a high positivity percentage for anti-Toxoplasma IgG. In COVID-19 patients infected with T. gondii, the C-reactive protein and ferritin levels were higher than the controls. The ferritin level was high in COVID-19 patients infected with toxoplasmosis compare with COVID-19 patient without toxoplasmosis in different gender and age while the level of CRP had no significant differences in COVID-19 patient with or without toxoplasmosis. These finding suggest that the incidental rate of toxoplasmosis could be considered as an indication to the high risk of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Proteína C-Reativa , Ferritinas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
Ann Parasitol ; 68(1): 9-16, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436396

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is intracellular parasite; it is considered one of the most important causes of miscarriage and can inhibit the development of the fetus, especially at the beginning of pregnancy. Host lipids have an important role in the pathogenesis of T. gondii infection. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a liver secreted protein that has the unusual ability to interfere and block the natural recycling of lipid receptors, resulting in impaired lipid clearance from the plasma. This study designed to investigate the role of PCSK9 in recycling blood lipid levels in women with acute toxoplasmosis and to evaluate the relationship between them. Forty serum blood samples were collected from aborted women, who were having acute toxoplasmosis (IgM and IgA positive result) for the period October 2020 to March 2021. In addition, 25 samples were collected from apparently-healthy women (negative control group) and 25 samples collected from other aborted women (positive control group). Both groups gave negative result for the presence of IgM, IgA and IgG-Toxoplasma antibodies. Finally, PCSK9 and blood lipids levels were measured for all groups. Positive relations were found between lipid profile values and T. gondii infected women. There were an increased in triglycerides (149.65 mg/dl), HDL (38.5 mg/dl), VLDL (140.53 mg/dl) values, while there was a decreased in LDL values (41.7 mg/dl). The PCSK9 was a highly significant increase in PCSK9 in T. gondii infected women (3.23) compared with aborted and healthy control groups (1.57, 1.15 respectively). The measurement of PCSK9 can be used as a biomarker and may be useful in screening for acute toxoplasmosis. In spite of a highly significant increase in PCSK9 and blood lipids in acute toxoplasmosis, there was a decrease in BMI. This may be due to toxoplasmosis infection.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Lipídeos , Gravidez , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 304: 109703, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367904

RESUMO

Felids are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii, being the only hosts that can spread the infection through oocyst shedding in their feces. The elevated presence of this parasite in the domestic cat (Felis catus), and its close contact with humans, make it necessary to obtain reliable diagnostic methods to detect positive animals as a public health measure. For this reason, in this study, the diagnostic performance of five different recombinant antigen-based techniques was assessed to diagnose T. gondii infection in cat blood plasma samples. Specifically, four T. gondii recombinant antigens (GRA7, truncated GRA7, SAG2, and truncated SAG2) and a chimeric antigen (SAG1-GRA8) were used. A time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed for each antigen, and the results of each of these techniques were compared with those obtained by a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and a modified agglutination test (MAT) as reference techniques. The TRFIA based on SAG1-GRA8 antigen showed better discrimination between seropositive and seronegative cats (p < 0.001), as well as a better area under the curve (0.95), sensitivity (93.6%), and specificity (89.5%) values for the optimal cut-off, versus the other TRFIAs. In addition, SAG1-GRA8 TRFIA showed substantial agreement (kappa value = 0.78) and a moderate significant correlation (Spearman's correlation: r = 0.62, p < 0.001) compared with the reference techniques. On the other hand, since plasma samples were obtained from 101 cats in Bangkok city and four of them were Neospora caninum seropositive by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT), this is the first time that anti-N. caninum antibodies are detected in cats in Thailand. In conclusion, our study highlights that the TRFIA with TgSAG1-GRA8 antigen is an accurate and recommended diagnostic technique for detecting anti-T. gondii antibodies in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Antígenos de Protozoários , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Tailândia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
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