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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(2): e020321, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544881

RESUMO

The presence of antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum have been described in dogs from virtually all Brazilian states, however in the state of Amazonas, there are few studies on these coccidia. In this study the occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii and N. caninum and risk factors were determined in domiciliated dogs of Manaus, AM. Blood samples were collected from 154 dogs and, during the harvest, a questionnaire was applied with questions related to the animals. The samples were analyzed, for the presence of anti-T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies, by indirect fluorescence antibody test, with cutoff of 16 and 50, respectively. Associations between the variables studied and the presence of antibodies were made by chi-square test, fisher's exact test or G test (p<0.05). Of the 154 samples, 19 (12.3% 95% CI = 7.1% - 17.5%) were reagents to T. gondii, and association (p <0.05) was observed between the presence of antibodies and contact with other dogs. The occurrence of dogs reactive to N. caninum was 1.9% (95% CI = 0.4% - 5.6%) with 3 of the 154 dogs positives, and no association (p>0.05) was observed between the presence of N. caninum antibodies, and the variables studied.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Doenças do Cão , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
2.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 30: 100710, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431068

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Pigs can become infected by consuming water or food contaminated with sporulated oocysts, or by carnivorism (like the consumption of infected rodents). In pigs most infections are asymptomatic. In certain countries, pig meat containing tissue cysts is a major source of infection for human beings. The aims of this study were to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and to identify which factors were related with the increase of the risk of infection in Argentina. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was determined in 240 pigs from 27 farms in the central-western area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Serum samples were analyzed using indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Prevalence determined was 53.33% and 32.08% by IFAT and ELISA, respectively. Results showed that 81.5% (22/27) of the farms were seropositive to T. gondii. Seropositivity for T. gondii was related with the following risk factors (p value ≤0.05): presence of felids and rodents in the farms, feeding with waste of human food and storage of food outdoors with free access to felids and to the reservoirs when applying both serological techniques. Our results strongly suggest that the risk of infection with T. gondii in pigs is related to the outdoor/extensive type of production system with low infrastructure conditions, which allows both felids and rodents to have free access to pigs and stored food. Also, the high seroprevalence detected in the present study could indicate a potential role of pork in human infections in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Argentina/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
3.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 692022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481542

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is one of the world's most prevalent zoonoses. The causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is a facultative heteroxenic, polyxenic apicomplexan protist. There are several potential pathways of transmission within and between host species. Most infections with T. gondii result from close contact with pets/cats, ingestion of tissue cysts in undercooked meat of infected animals, and oocysts from food or water contaminated by feline faeces. Recently, epidemiological studies have shown that T. gondii infection plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders. This report reviews the association between T. gondii infection and patients with psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, depressive disorders and bipolar disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Gatos , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Oocistos , Toxoplasmose Animal/complicações , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 842595, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35402301

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a major zoonotic agent which may cause harmful effects mainly in pregnant and immunocompromised hosts. Despite many efforts on its genetic characterization, an entirely clear picture of the population structure in Europe has not been achieved yet. The present study aimed to summarize the available genotyping information and to map the distribution of circulating strains. There is consensus on type II T. gondii genotypes prevailing in Europe, but the absence of harmonization in the use of typing methods limits detailed knowledge. Standardized, high-end typing tools and integrative strategies are needed to fill the gaps and complete an accurate image of the T. gondii genetic population in Europe.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Gravidez , Toxoplasma/genética
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 115, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In changing northern ecosystems, understanding the mechanisms of transmission of zoonotic pathogens, including the coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is essential to protect the health of vulnerable animals and humans. As high-level predators and scavengers, foxes represent a potentially sensitive indicator of the circulation of T. gondii in environments where humans co-exist. The objectives of our research were to compare serological and molecular assays to detect T. gondii, generate baseline data on T. gondii antibody and tissue prevalence in foxes in northern Canada, and compare regional seroprevalence in foxes with that in people from recently published surveys across northern Canada. METHODS: Fox carcasses (Vulpes vulpes/Vulpes lagopus, n = 749) were collected by local trappers from the eastern (Labrador and Québec) and western Canadian Arctic (northern Manitoba, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories) during the winters of 2015-2019. Antibodies in heart fluid were detected using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in hearts and brains using a magnetic capture DNA extraction and real-time PCR assay. RESULTS: Antibodies against T. gondii and DNA were detected in 36% and 27% of foxes, respectively. Detection of antibodies was higher in older (64%) compared to younger foxes (22%). More males (36%) than females (31%) were positive for antibodies to T. gondii. Tissue prevalence in foxes from western Nunavik (51%) was higher than in eastern Nunavik (19%). At the Canadian scale, T. gondii exposure was lower in western Inuit regions (13%) compared to eastern Inuit regions (39%), possibly because of regional differences in fox diet and/or environment. Exposure to T. gondii decreased at higher latitude and in foxes having moderate to little fat. Higher mean infection intensity was observed in Arctic foxes compared to red foxes. Fox and human seroprevalence showed similar trends across Inuit regions of Canada, but were less correlated in the eastern sub-Arctic, which may reflect regional differences in human dietary preferences. CONCLUSIONS: Our study sheds new light on the current status of T. gondii in foxes in northern Canada and shows that foxes serve as a good sentinel species for environmental circulation and, in some regions, human exposure to this parasite in the Arctic.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Canadá/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Raposas , Humanos , Masculino , Espécies Sentinelas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 304: 109703, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367904

RESUMO

Felids are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii, being the only hosts that can spread the infection through oocyst shedding in their feces. The elevated presence of this parasite in the domestic cat (Felis catus), and its close contact with humans, make it necessary to obtain reliable diagnostic methods to detect positive animals as a public health measure. For this reason, in this study, the diagnostic performance of five different recombinant antigen-based techniques was assessed to diagnose T. gondii infection in cat blood plasma samples. Specifically, four T. gondii recombinant antigens (GRA7, truncated GRA7, SAG2, and truncated SAG2) and a chimeric antigen (SAG1-GRA8) were used. A time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed for each antigen, and the results of each of these techniques were compared with those obtained by a commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and a modified agglutination test (MAT) as reference techniques. The TRFIA based on SAG1-GRA8 antigen showed better discrimination between seropositive and seronegative cats (p < 0.001), as well as a better area under the curve (0.95), sensitivity (93.6%), and specificity (89.5%) values for the optimal cut-off, versus the other TRFIAs. In addition, SAG1-GRA8 TRFIA showed substantial agreement (kappa value = 0.78) and a moderate significant correlation (Spearman's correlation: r = 0.62, p < 0.001) compared with the reference techniques. On the other hand, since plasma samples were obtained from 101 cats in Bangkok city and four of them were Neospora caninum seropositive by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT), this is the first time that anti-N. caninum antibodies are detected in cats in Thailand. In conclusion, our study highlights that the TRFIA with TgSAG1-GRA8 antigen is an accurate and recommended diagnostic technique for detecting anti-T. gondii antibodies in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Antígenos de Protozoários , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Tailândia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 812152, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35372100

RESUMO

Ocular infection with Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis in mice. However, following ocular infection with tachyzoites, the cause of the accompanying progressive changes in hippocampal-dependent tasks, and their relationship with the morphology and number of microglia, is less well understood. Here, in 6-month-old, female BALB/c mice, 5 µl of a suspension containing 48.5 × 106 tachyzoites/ml was introduced into the conjunctival sac; control received an equal volume of saline. Before and after instillation, all mice were subject to an olfactory discrimination (OD) test, using predator (cat) feces, and to an open-field (OF) task. After the behavioral tests, the animals were culled at either 22 or 44 days post-instillation (dpi), and the brains and retinas were dissected and processed for immunohistochemistry. The total number of Iba-1-immunolabeled microglia in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was estimated, and three-dimensional reconstructions of the cells were evaluated. Immobility was increased in the infected group at 12, 22, and 43 dpi, but the greatest immobility was observed at 22 dpi and was associated with reduced line crossing in the OF and distance traveled. In the OD test, infected animals spent more time in the compartment with feline fecal material at 14 and at 43 dpi. No OD changes were observed in the control group. The number of microglia was increased at 22 dpi but returned to control levels by 44 dpi. These changes were associated with the differentiation of T. gondii tachyzoites into bradyzoite-enclosed cysts within the brain and retina. Thus, infection of mice with T. gondii alters exploratory behavior, gives rise to a loss in predator's odor avoidance from 2 weeks after infection, increased microglia number, and altered their morphology in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Gatos , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neuropatologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 304: 109701, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395619

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis caused by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite is known to infect almost all warm blooded animals, and meat containing tissue cysts is one of the main sources of infection for omnivorous an carnivorous animals. Over recent years, increasing numbers of omnivorous and carnivorous animals have been drawn to urban or suburban areas by easy access to food or safe shelter, and the presence of wild animals has became more natural to urban residents. However, infected animals can act as intermediate hosts to T. gondii and contribute to the transmission of disease to humans and domestic animals, as well as other wild animal species. This extensive spread of the parasite in the natural environment can be attributed to geographic location, landform or local climate. The present paper summarizes the data available on the prevalence of T. gondii infection among wildlife from Poland, Germany, Slovakia, Czechia, Austria and Hungary. The findings highlight the importance of conducting studies on the presence of the parasite in wildlife, where the data is limited or outdated.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Carnívoros/parasitologia , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
9.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(4): 238-243, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404131

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii can infect all mammals, including humans, and can cause serious public health problems and economic losses. Pork is considered an important source of infection for humans, and seroepidemiological surveys are used to assess the level of infection in pig herds. To understand the current seroprevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii in pigs in Chongqing, a total of 1221 serum samples collected from seven slaughterhouses in five districts from 2015 to 2019 were analyzed for antibodies against the protozoan by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overall seropositive rate for T. gondii antibodies in Chongqing was 11.1%. The rate varied among the different districts (9.8-15.2%), slaughterhouses (8.0-18.4%), seasons (8.1-14.6%), and years (6.3-14.7%). These results suggest that the season and year were potential risk factors for T. gondii infection in pigs of Chongqing. The study provides prevalence and risk factor data that may help manage livestock and human infections in downstream areas. The Clinical Trial Registration number was SV-20150605-01.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , China/epidemiologia , Mamíferos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
10.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(2): 144-153, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234003

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Toxoplasmosis is an infective zoonotic disease caused by protozoan <i>Toxoplasma gondii </i>(<i>T. gondii</i>).<i> </i>Molecular identification of <i>T. gondii</i> followed by studying the hereditary variety range of <i>T. gondii </i>isolates in Egypt was investigated. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Blood samples were acquired from 138 live ewes and 212 she-goats from 5 governorates of Egypt, also the blood and its related tissue samples (uterus, diaphragm, heart and thigh muscles from each animal) were collected from slaughtered 180 ewes and 206 she-goats from Cairo and Giza abattoirs. <b>Results:</b> Using ELISA, the total seropositivity of live ewes and she-goats was 26.8 and 21.2%, respectively, while it was 16.6 and 33% in slaughtered ewes and she-goats, respectively. <i>T. gondii</i> tissue cysts with the associated characteristic histopathological changes were detected in different organs. Twenty-eight <i>T. gondii</i> isolates were confirmed using PCR, while among 24 milk samples from seropositive live ewes and she-goats, only 12.5 and 6.25%, were positive using PCR, respectively. Genotyping using multiple nested PCR (n-PCR) combined with restriction enzyme analysis (RFLP) of the surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene confirmed 26 isolates (92.8%) as type II and 2 (7.1%) as type III. <b>Conclusion:</b> Type II and III are the most common <i>T. gondii</i> genotypes in Egyptian small ruminants with additional importance for public health in Egypt. Further studies are needed on the role of milk in the transmission of toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Egito , Feminino , Genótipo , Ruminantes , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
11.
Acta Trop ; 230: 106411, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304123

RESUMO

The aim of this study was evaluate to seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in goats worldwide and the main risk factors associated from 2000 to 2020, through meta-analysis with 55,317 goats from 75 reports published in seven electronic databases of major global importance. A global seroprevalence detected was 27.49% (95% CI 24.15-30.95; I2 = 99%), with the lowest percentage in Asia (20.74%; 95% CI 16.45-25.39) and highest in Central America (62.15%; 95% CI 57.28-66.90) and Europe (31.53%; 95% CI 21.71-42.26). The seropositivity in Africa and South America were (29.41%; 95% CI 19.11-40.89) and (29.76%; 95% CI 25.84-33.83), respectively. The seroprevalence was associated with presence of cats (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.30-3.82), goats older than one year (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1, 37-2.29), females (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.23-1.65), rearing system (extensive vs. intensive) (OR 4.82; 95% CI 1.96-11, 84) and rearing system (semi-intensive vs. intensive) (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.48-6.13). The heterogeneity was evidenced in most world regions and the risk factors may play roles in varying the seroprevalence.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Feminino , Cabras , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 29: 100688, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256116

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infects warm-blooded animals, including humans, and the ingestion of undercooked meat of infected animals is an important source of infection. We investigated the presence of T. gondii by PCR and histopathology in tissues of 25 seropositive sheep slaughtered for human consumption in Rio de Janeiro and assessed the suitability of different tissues for molecular detection of the parasite. The animals were first screened for T. gondii antibodies by MAT (Modified Agglutination Test), and tissues of seropositive sheep (brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver and diaphragm) were subjected to molecular and histological examination. A nested-PCR targeting the P43 gene of T. gondii was performed, and kappa Coefficient was used to assess PCR results among tissues. DNA of the parasite was detected in 60 % (9 of 15) of the animals. and tissue pairs of lungs/heart, lungs/diaphragm or heart/diaphragm had substantial agreement with the global status of the animals. The combination between these three tissues leads to an almost perfect agreement with global status results. Sheep slaughtered for human consumption in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are infected with T. gondii, and pairs of fragments of lungs and heart, lungs and diaphragm or heart and diaphragm could be used for molecular identification of T. gondii in sheep with substantial agreement with the global status of the animals.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ovinos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 121(5): 1467-1473, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35230549

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Infection in humans has usually been related to the consumption of raw, undercooked or cured meat. The aim of this study was to develop a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR)-based assay for the detection and quantification of T. gondii in meat samples. To optimize the ddPCR, T.gondii reference DNA aliquots at five known concentrations: 8000 cg/µl, 800 cg/µl, 80 cg/µl, 8 cg/µl were used. Moreover, results obtained by ddPCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were compared using 80 known samples (40 positive and 40 negative), as well as 171 unknown diaphragm tissue samples collected at slaughterhouses. The ddPCR showed a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 100%, with a detection limit of 8 genomic copy/µl of T. gondii. A nearly perfect agreement (κ = 0.85) was found between results obtained by ddPCR and qPCR for both positive and negative known samples analysed. On the 171 diaphragm tissue samples from field, 7.6% resulted positive by ddPCR and only 1.2% by qPCR. Therefore, this innovative method could be very useful for the detection of T. gondii in meat samples, aiming to prevent human infections.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Toxoplasmose , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Humanos , Carne/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
14.
J Med Primatol ; 51(3): 149-154, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in primates are potentially fatal and directly impact the conservation of these animals and public health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 38 blood/clot samples collected from free-living and captive neotropical primates undergoing clinical care or found dead by environmental authorities in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were analyzed by PCR for DNA detection of T. gondii and N. caninum. Furthermore, eight animals were submitted to immunohistochemistry for the detection of T. gondii. RESULTS: DNA of T. gondii and N. caninum was amplified in 11 (28.95%) 10 (26.32%) of samples analyzed, respectively. Coinfection was observed in three individuals. One animal returned a positive result in the immunohistochemistry for the detection of T. gondii. CONCLUSION: These findings reflect a concern for the conservation of these animals, as the pathogen-host interaction is unpredictable and infections by these protozoa can lead to animal mortality, which has a substantial impact on endangered species.


Assuntos
Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Neospora/genética , Primatas , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
15.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 84: 101782, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259631

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a facultative heterogeneous parasite that belongs to Apicomplexa and can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including ruminants, birds and humans. To date, no information is available about the molecular investigation of T. gondii in large ruminants from Pakistan. In the present study, prevalence, risk factors and genetic diversity of this parasite were evaluated by using PCR based on ITS-1 gene followed by sequencing of three selected positive PCR products. A total of 310 blood samples from cattle (N = 190) and buffaloes (N = 120) were collected from randomly selected farms located in Rajanpur district in Punjab (Pakistan). The overall infection rates of T. gondii were 12.2% (23/190) and 0% (0/120), respectively, in cattle and buffaloes. All studied epidemiological factors were not found associated with T. gondii infection in cattle. Sequence analysis of our T. gondii isolates infecting cattle revealed only one sequence considered as the most represented genetic variant (GV1) among T. gondii isolates around the world. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ITS-1 partial sequences of our isolates clustered with those from T. gondii isolates infecting goats and birds from Pakistan and other isolates found in several animal species from different worldwide countries like China, Thailand, Poland, Canada, USA and Brazil. Our report indicates a natural infection with T. gondii of cattle for the first time in Pakistan by using molecular method. This study is important to the design of control strategy against this parasite in order to improve the output of livestock sector which is the main income source of the population in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças das Cabras , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Búfalos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 121(5): 1499-1505, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320837

RESUMO

Rock pigeons are synanthropic birds and live in close association within human settlements. Synanthropic birds are considered potential carriers of diseases and pose a subsequent risk of their transmission to humans. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular protozoans infecting a wide range of hosts, as well as birds. Data related to the incidence of these protozoans in rock pigeons in Pakistan are scant. The aims of the study were to detect T. gondii and N. caninum DNA in tissue samples from rock pigeons (Columba livia) and to identify possible risk factors associated with infection. To accomplish this, pectoral muscle and brain samples were carefully collected from rock pigeons (n = 120) belonging to three zones located in ten districts of Punjab during a 4-month sampling span (July 2018 to October 2018). Data related to sex, age, sampling site, districts, seasonality, and ecological zones were recorded. DNA from brain and pectoral muscle samples was screened for both T. gondii and N. caninum by PCR assays. Chi-square analysis was used to check the association between positive samples and risk factors. The level of significance was p ≤ 0.05. T. gondii was detected in 46 (38.3%) brain samples, while 24 pectoral muscle samples (20%) were positive for N. caninum. Agroecological zones were statistically associated with the detection of N. caninum DNA. The outcomes of this study provide an understanding of the epidemiological pattern of N. caninum and T. gondii infection in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Neospora/genética , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
17.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(3): 199-204, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244455

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide distributed zoonotic pathogen that threatens public health. However, there have been limited data for T. gondii infection in wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) in China. In the present study, a total of 227 wild rats were captured from three mink farms to investigate T. gondii infection in Shandong Province, eastern China. The DNA was extracted from 25 mg rats' brain tissues and subjected to a PCR amplification by targeting to the T. gondii B1. In 227 wild rat samples, 18 samples (7.93%) were positive for T. gondii. Then, the positive samples were further genotyped based on eight genetic markers, including eight nuclear loci (SAG1, 5'-SAG2, and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, GRA6, c29-2, and L358) and an apicoplast locus (Apico) by using the multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technology. Of these samples, eight were genotyped at nine nuclear loci, and two were genotyped at eight nuclear loci, forming three known genotypes (ToxoDB no. 43, ToxoDB no. 91, and ToxoDB no. 189) and two new genotypes. The closest ToxoDB genotypes were observed in wild rats, suggesting the differences in the population structure of the T. gondii between breed farm animals and wild rats. These data revealed the genetic variability of T. gondii in wild rats on mink farms in Shandong Province, with possible implication for public health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fazendas , Genótipo , Vison , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 109, 2022 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35305646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii causes reproductive losses in sheep worldwide, including Australia. The reproductive performance of primiparous ewes is typically lower than for mature, multiparous ewes, and younger ewes are more likely to be immunologically naïve and therefore more susceptible to reproductive disease if T. gondii infection occurs during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of infection with T. gondii on the reproductive performance of primiparous ewes in southern Australia using a prospective cohort study. This will inform the need for targeted control strategies for T. gondii in Australian sheep. RESULTS: Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity using indirect ELISA was detected at 16/28 farms located across southern Australia. Apparent seropositivity to T. gondii was lower in primiparous ewes (1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6, 1.8) compared to mature, multiparous ewes (8.1, 95% CI 6.0, 10.5; P < 0.001). Toxoplasma gondii seroconversion during the gestation and lambing period was confirmed for 11/1097 (1.0, 95% CI 0.5, 1.7) of pregnant primiparous ewes that failed to raise a lamb, and 1/161 (0.6, 95% CI 0.1, 2.9) primiparous ewes with confirmed mid-pregnancy abortion. CONCLUSIONS: Low frequency of detection of T. gondii seroconversion during gestation and low frequency of seropositivity to T. gondii suggests that toxoplasmosis was not an important contributor to reproductive losses in primiparous ewes on farms located over a wide geographical area in southern Australia.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 201: 105606, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286870

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs is commonly diagnosed using serological tests that detect IgG antibodies targeted against the parasite. Such tests include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), modified agglutination test (MAT), and western blot (WB), which are commercially available as rapid test kits. In this study, we evaluated the manufacturer recommended cut-off of ELISA-PrioCHECK test kit and determined a new optimal cut-off for identifying T. gondii infections in pigs. Assessment of the commercial ELISA kit was done by including data from two additional serological tests, MAT, and WB, applied to seven pig population categories with varying prevalences. A total of 233 plasma samples that were previously used in other studies for investigating T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs in Denmark were randomly selected for inclusion, including 95 samples that had previously been analysed with all three tests and an additional 138 samples that were analysed using the three serological tests for this study. In the absence of a gold standard test, a latent class model was fit to the data to obtain estimates of sensitivity and specificity for each of the tests along with prevalence in each of the populations. A cut-off that maximized the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was then selected. The optimal cut-off value for percent of positive control (PP) in ELISA-PrioCHECK was estimated to be 27.7 PP, which is higher than the cut-off value of 20 PP that is recommended by the manufacturer. At this cut-off, the estimated sensitivities of ELISA, MAT and WB were 99.2% (96.3-100.0%), 96.3% (88.0-100.0%), and 89.8% (80.0-98.0%), respectively. The estimated specificities of ELISA, MAT and WB were 95.2% (92.5-97.6%), 99.6% (97.5-100.0%), and 98.2% (95.9-100.0%), respectively. Our findings have broad relevance to the use of the ELISA-PrioCHECK test kit for detecting Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Teorema de Bayes , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
20.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(2): 373-379, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290458

RESUMO

Parasites have developed many strategies to ensure their development, multiplication, and dissemination, including the use of reservoir hosts that are often nondomesticated species. Despite drastic reductions in their populations, wild birds remain widespread worldwide and could constitute some of these reservoirs. We focused on the identification of wild bird species harboring parasite stages in their muscles. Breast muscles of 327 birds of 27 different species were collected at three different sites in France. After artificial digestion, isolated nematode larvae were identified by PCR sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Toxocara cati was identified mainly in birds of prey. The presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was investigated by modified agglutination test on muscle fluids. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in 65 out of 166 samples from various bird species. Avifauna, particularly birds of prey, could help on the surveillance of parasite circulation and play a role as sentinel species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Aves Predatórias , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Toxocara , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
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