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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 52: 101038, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880563

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, and transmitted to humans by eating raw or undercooked meat, mainly. Poultry, beef, and pork are the main meats consumed in Peru; despite this, guinea pig meat is also widely consumed. For this reason, the objective of this study was to molecularly detect T. gondii in domestic and wild guinea pigs from the Marangani district in Cuzco, Peru, and identify some risk factors associated with this pathogen. DNA was extracted from the brain tissue samples of guinea pigs (30 domestic and 30 wild), and PCR protocols were used to amplify the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region and a 529 bp fragment from the T. gondii genome. T. gondii DNA was detected in 14 (23.3%) guinea pigs. T. gondii frequency was 33.3% in domestic guinea pigs and 13.3% in wild guinea pigs. Our results demonstrated that guinea pigs represent an important source for T. gondii infection in human populations in this locality.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Cobaias , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Peru/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Encéfalo/parasitologia
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 252, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that is widely distributed in humans and warm-blooded animals. T. gondii chronic infections can cause toxoplasmic encephalopathy, adverse pregnancy, and male reproductive disorders. In male reproduction, the main function of the testis is to provide a stable place for spermatogenesis and immunological protection. The disorders affecting testis tissue encompass abnormalities in the germ cell cycle, spermatogenic retardation, or complete cessation of sperm development. However, the mechanisms of interaction between T. gondii and the reproductive system is unclear. The aims were to study the expression levels of genes related to spermatogenesis, following T. gondii infection, in mouse testicular tissue. METHODS: RNA-seq sequencing was carried out on mouse testicular tissues from mice infected or uninfected with the T. gondii type II Prugniaud (PRU) strain and validated in combination with real-time quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The results showed that there were 250 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (P < 0.05, |log2fold change| â‰§ 1). Bioinformatics analysis showed that 101 DEGs were annotated to the 1696 gene ontology (GO) term. While there was a higher number of DEGs in the biological process classification as a whole, the GO enrichment revealed a significant presence of DEGs in the cellular component classification. The Arhgap18 and Syne1 genes undergo regulatory changes following T. gondii infection, and both were involved in shaping the cytoskeleton of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The number of DEGs enriched in the MAPK signaling pathway, the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and the JNK signaling pathway were significant. The PTGDS gene is located in the Arachidonic acid metabolism pathway, which plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of BTB in the testis. The expression of PTGDS is downregulated subsequent to T. gondii infection, potentially exerting deleterious effects on the integrity of the BTB and the spermatogenic microenvironment within the testes. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our research provides in-depth insights into how chronic T. gondii infection might affect testicular tissue and potentially impact male fertility. These findings offer a new perspective on the impact of T. gondii infection on the male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Testículo , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Transcriptoma , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Testículo/parasitologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Espermatogênese/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Doença Crônica , Biologia Computacional
3.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 110: 102201, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810337

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide and is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. It is implicated in reproductive disorders in small ruminants. This study aims to determine, for the first time in Algeria, the seroprevalence and associated factors of T. gondii infection in goats. The study was conducted in four regions, Ghardaia, Laghouat and Djelfa, southern Algeria, and Jijel region, northern Algeria. A total of 92 blood samples were collected including 74 females and 18 males. All sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the T. gondii antibodies. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was detected in 35 out of 92 goats (38.04%) (95% CI: 31.64%-44.44%) and in all flocks (100%). Risk factors that have a significant influence on the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection are breed, regions, production system, presence of cats, clinics and abortion history. However, variables such as age and gender were note significantly associated with toxoplasma infection in goats. The highest seroprevalences of infection was observed in saanen (52.94%) (p<0.001) and cross-breed race (44%) (p<0.01) in comparison with other breeds. Regarding regions, Jijel and Laghouat were most infected with seroprevalences of 50% (p<0.001) and 40.91% (p<0.01), respectively. Animals in intensive production systems were most infected, showing a seroprevalence of 51.85%, in comparison with extensive (28.13%) and semi-intensive systems (36.36%) (p<0.001). The presence of cats in farms was significantly associated with high seroprevalence (44.64%) (p<0.001). The infection was more prevalent in previously aborted females (50%) than females that had never aborted (3.35%) (p<0.001)and animals that have diarrhoea or poor health (41.67%) were significantly more infected than healthy animals (37.50%) (p<0.01). Seroprevalence in males (38.89%) was very close to those in females (37.84%) (p>0.05). Age-related seroprevalence did not vary significantly (ranged from 36.37% to 40%) between the three age classes. These results indicate that goat toxoplasmosis is widespread in Algeria, and goats may represent a high risk of contamination for humans. This requires more attention during consumption of goat meat.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Cabras/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Argélia/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Feminino , Masculino , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Gatos
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304179, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820542

RESUMO

This study investigates the molecular prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of two prominent blood-borne pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and Plasmodium spp., in common quails (Coturnix coturnix) sampled from both wild (N = 236) and farmed (N = 197) populations across four districts (Layyah, Dera Ghazi Khan, Lahore, and Multan) in Punjab, Pakistan, during the hunting seasons from 2021 to 2023. Additionally, the impact of these pathogens on the complete blood count (CBC) of the hosts is examined. Out of 433 quails tested, 25 (5.8%) exhibited amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) gene for T. gondii, while 15 (3.5%) showed amplification of the Cytochrome b gene for Plasmodium spp. A risk factor analysis indicated that the prevalence of both pathogens was not confined to specific sampling sites or bird sexes (P > 0.05). District-wise analysis highlighted that hens were more susceptible to both T. gondii and Plasmodium spp. infections than cocks. Wild quails exhibited a higher susceptibility to T. gondii compared to farmed birds. Significant CBC variations were recorded in infected birds as compared to uninfected ones. BLAST analysis of generated sequences has confirmed the identity of recovered PCR amplicons as T. gondii and Plasmodium relictum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Pakistani isolates clustered with those reported from various countries globally. This study provides the first documentation of T. gondii and Plasmodium sp. infections in Pakistani quails, underscoring the need for detailed investigations across different regions to enhance our understanding of infection rates and the zoonotic potential of these parasites.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Plasmodium , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium/classificação , Prevalência , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Coturnix/parasitologia , Feminino , Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Malária Aviária/parasitologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 935: 173290, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782291

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis of key importance in veterinary and public health. This article summarizes the available data (from 2000 to 2023) of exposition to Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife species in Spain based on a systematic bibliographic search, as well as further analysis of its potential relationship with environmental variables, biodiversity, anthropogenic impact on the habitat, and the reported human cases of toxoplasmosis. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in carnivorous mammals, birds, ungulate and lagomorph species in Spain was estimated at 69.3 %, 36.4 %, 18.4 %, and 16.2 %, respectively. Among the studies considered, great heterogeneity was observed both between and within taxonomic groups [Cohen's d > 0.8; X2 = 1039.10, df = 4 (p < 0.01) I2 = 97 %, r2 = 1.88, (p < 0.001)] and between and within bioregions [Cohen's d > 0.5; X2 = 368.59, df = 4 (p < 0.01)]. The results of a generalized linear model explaining T. gondii seroprevalence in wild animals suggest the influence of abiotic variables [wetland (p < 0.001), unvegetated (p < 0.001), isothermality (p < 0.001), and mean temperature during wettest quarter (p < 0.05)] and number of intermediate host species as positively associated with increased exposure of wildlife to T. gondii (p < 0.01). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in both wild birds and wild mammals (range: 0.0-51.2 %) mainly from north-centre, northeast, and central-west of Spain. Regarding hospitalisation rates due to toxoplasmosis in humans, some abiotic variables [permanent crops (p < 0.05) and mean temperature during wettest quarter (p < 0.05)] showed a positive association. Despite certain limitations, this research evidences a substantial gap of knowledge on the implication of wildlife in the life cycle of T. gondii in Spain. This lack of knowledge is particularly evident in areas where the human-livestock-wildlife interface overlaps, preventing us from accurately determining its true distribution in different habitats, as well as its potential direct or indirect implications on public and veterinary health.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais Domésticos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1384393, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720960

RESUMO

The clinical consequences of toxoplasmosis are greatly dependent on the Toxoplasma gondii strain causing the infection. To better understand its epidemiology and design appropriate control strategies, it is important to determine the strain present in infected animals. Serotyping methods are based on the detection of antibodies that react against segments of antigenic proteins presenting strain-specific polymorphic variations, offering a cost-effective, sensitive, and non-invasive alternative to genotyping techniques. Herein, we evaluated the applicability of a panel of peptides previously characterized in mice and humans to serotype sheep and pigs. To this end, we used 51 serum samples from experimentally infected ewes (32 type II and 19 type III), 20 sheep samples from naturally infected sheep where the causative strain was genotyped (18 type II and 2 type III), and 40 serum samples from experimentally infected pigs (22 type II and 18 type III). Our ELISA test results showed that a combination of GRA peptide homologous pairs can discriminate infections caused by type II and III strains of T. gondii in sheep and pigs. Namely, the GRA3-I/III-43 vs. GRA3-II-43, GRA6-I/III-213 vs. GRA6-II-214 and GRA6-III-44 vs. GRA6-II-44 ratios showed a statistically significant predominance of the respective strain-type peptide in sheep, while in pigs, in addition to these three peptide pairs, GRA7-II-224 vs. GRA7-III-224 also showed promising results. Notably, the GRA6-44 pair, which was previously deemed inefficient in mice and humans, showed a high prediction capacity, especially in sheep. By contrast, GRA5-38 peptides failed to correctly predict the strain type in most sheep and pig samples, underpinning the notion that individual standardization is needed for each animal species. Finally, we recommend analyzing for each animal at least 2 samples taken at different time points to confirm the obtained results.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários , Sorotipagem , Doenças dos Ovinos , Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Genótipo , Peptídeos/imunologia , Sorotipagem/métodos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
7.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 259: 111630, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795969

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects all nucleated cells except the red blood cells. Currently, nucleic acid vaccines are being widely investigated in Toxoplasma gondii control, and several nucleic acid vaccine candidate antigens have shown good protection in various studies. The aim of this study was to construct a nucleic acid vaccine with Toxoplasma gondii SRS29C as the target gene. We explored the nucleic acid vaccine with Toxoplasma surface protein SRS29C and the combined gene of SRS29C and SAG1 and evaluated its immunoprotective effect against Toxoplasma gondii. To amplify the gene fragment and clone it to the expression vector, the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-SRS29C was constructed by PCR. Eukaryotic cells were transfected with the plasmid, and the expression of the target protein was assessed using the Western blot method. The level of serum IgG was determined via ELISA, and the splenic lymphocyte proliferation ability was detected using the CCK-8 method. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were measured by flow cytometry. Mice were immunised three times with single-gene nucleic acid vaccine and combination vaccine. Splenic lymphocytokine expression was determined using ELISA kits. The mice's survival time was monitored and recorded during an in vivo insect assault experiment, and the vaccine's protective power was assessed. The outcomes showed that PCR-amplification of an SRS29C gene fragment was successful. The 4,733-bp vector fragment and the 1,119-bp target segment were both recognised by double digestion. Additionally, after transfection of the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-SRS29C, Western blot examination of the extracted protein revealed the presence of a target protein strip at 66 kDa. The test results demonstrated that the IgG content in the serum of the pEGFP-SRS29C group and the co-immunization group was significantly higher than that of the PBS group and the empty vector group. The IgG potency induced by the co-immunization group was higher than that of the pEGFP-SRS29C group and the pEGFP-SAG1 group, the number of splenic lymphocyte proliferation number was higher than that of the PBS group and the empty vector group. The CD4+/CD8+ T ratio was higher than that of the PBS group and the empty vector group. The expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α in the splenocytes of the pEGFP-SRS29C group and the combined immunisation group was significantly higher following antigen stimulation. In the worm attack experiments, mice in the PBS and empty vector groups perished within 9 days of the worm attack, whereas mice in the pEGFP-SRS29C group survived for 18 days, mice in the pEGFP-SAG1 group survived for 21 days, and mice in the co-immunization group survived for 24 days. This demonstrates that the constructed Toxoplasma gondii nucleic acid vaccine pEGFP-SRS29C and the combined gene vaccine can induce mice to develop certain humoral and cellular immune responses, and enhance their ability to resist Toxoplasma gondii infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Antígenos de Protozoários , Imunoglobulina G , Proteínas de Protozoários , Vacinas Protozoárias , Toxoplasma , Vacinas de DNA , Animais , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/genética , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/genética , Camundongos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Feminino , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/parasitologia , Proliferação de Células , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo
8.
Acta Parasitol ; 69(2): 1253-1266, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743178

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Searching for a novel early diagnostic biomarker for toxoplasmosis, real-time-PCR was currently used to measure the serum mmu-miR-511-5p level in male Swiss-albino mice infected with either; ME49 or RH Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) strains. METHODS: Three mice groups were used; (GI) constituted the non-infected control group, while (GII) and (GIII) were experimentally infected with ME49 or RH strains, respectively. GII mice were orally infected using 10 or 20 ME49 cysts (ME-10 and ME-20), both were subdivided into; non-treated (ME-10-NT and ME-20-NT) and were further subdivided into; immunocompetent (ME-10-IC and ME-20-IC) [euthanized 3-days, 1, 2, 6 or 8-weeks post-infection (PI)], and immunosuppressed using two Endoxan® injections (ME-10-IS and ME-20-IS) [euthanized 6- or 8-weeks PI], and spiramycin-treated (ME-10-SP and ME-20-SP) that received daily spiramycin, for one-week before euthanasia. GIII mice individually received 2500 intraperitoneal RH strain tachyzoites, then, were subdivided into; non-treated (RH-NT) [euthanized 3 or 5-days PI], and spiramycin-treated (RH-SP) that were euthanized 5 or 10-days PI (refer to the graphical abstract). RESULTS: Revealed significant upregulation of mmu-miR-511-5p in GII, one-week PI, with gradually increased expression, reaching its maximum 8-weeks PI, especially in ME-20-NT group that received the higher infective dose. Immunosuppression increased the upregulation. Contrarily, treatment caused significant downregulation. GIII recorded significant upregulation 3-days PI, yet, treatment significantly decreased this expression. CONCLUSION: Serum mmu-miR-511-5p is a sensitive biomarker for early diagnosis of ME49 and RH infection (as early as one-week and 3-days, respectively), and its expression varies according to T. gondii infective dose, duration of infection, spiramycin-treatment and host immune status.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , MicroRNAs , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Camundongos , Masculino , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Espiramicina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Parasitol Res ; 123(5): 222, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801539

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis that affects warm-blooded animals, including humans. Wild animals can act as intermediate hosts of this pathogen; thus, this study aims to detect Toxoplasma gondii infection in invasive European brown hares in Brazil. For this, 72 wild European brown hares were captured from July 2020 to June 2022 in three Brazilian states: São Paulo, Paraná, and Rio Grande do Sul. The diagnostic of Toxoplasma gondii infection was performed by bioassay in mouse, histopathology in Hematoxylin-Eosin-stained tissue sections (brain, liver, lungs, kidneys, and small intestine), serology by IFAT, and molecular techniques by conventional PCR and qPCR. The combined prevalence of the different diagnostic methods was 51.4% (37/72, CI= 40.1 - 62.6 %), and there was no statistical difference between sexes, age range, or geographical region of the hosts. Mouse bioassay was the technique that detected more positive hares. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmation of Toxoplasma gondii infection in invasive European brown hares in Brazil. These animals act as reservoirs and potential infection source for carnivores and other wild and domestic animals, including humans, thus contributing to perpetuate the disease cycle in São Paulo, Paraná, and Rio Grande do Sul States. Research such as the present study is necessary to raise awareness about the role of animals in the disease cycle.


Assuntos
Lebres , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Lebres/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Bioensaio
10.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 109: 102184, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that infects one-third of the population of the world, including humans, animals, birds, and other vertebrates. The present investigation is the first molecular attempt in the Malakand Division of Pakistan to determine the epidemiology and phylogenetic study of Toxoplasma gondii infecting small ruminants. METHODOLOGY: A total of (N = 450) blood samples of sheep were randomly collected during the study period (December 2020 to November 2021), and DNA detection was done using PCR by amplifying ITS-1 genes. SPSS.20 and MEGA-11 software were used for statistical significance and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection among sheep was 14.44 % (65/450). A high infection rate was found in more than five-year-olds at 18.33 % (11/60). Sequencing and BLAST analysis of PCR-positive samples confirmed the presence of T. gondii. Randomly, three isolates were sequenced and submitted to GenBank under accession numbers (PP028089-PP028091), respectively. The BLAST analysis of the obtained sequences based on the ITS-1 gene showed 99 % similarities with reported genotypes found in goats of Malakand, Pakistan (PP028089) and dogs of Brazil (MF766454). The study concludes that T. gondii is notably prevalent among the sheep population in the region, emphasizing the significant role of risk factors in disease transmission across animals and potentially to humans. Further research, zoonotic potential analysis, and targeted control measures are warranted to address and manage this parasitic infection effectively.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário , Filogenia , Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/classificação , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Prevalência , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
11.
J Parasitol ; 110(3): 206-209, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802105

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects most warm-blooded animals, including birds. Scavenging birds are epidemiologically important hosts because they can serve as indicators of environmental T. gondii levels. A rapid point-of-care (POC) test that detects antibodies to T. gondii in humans is commercially available. In this research, we assessed the ability of the human POC test to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies in 106 black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and 23 ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) from Pennsylvania, USA. Serum samples were tested with the POC test and compared to the modified agglutination test (MAT) in a blinded study. Overall, anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected in 2.8% (3/106) of black vultures and 60.9% (14/23) of ring-billed gulls by the POC test. One false-positive POC test occurred in a black vulture that was negative by MAT. False-negative results were obtained in 2 black vultures and 4 ring-billed gulls that had MAT titers of 1:25 or 1:50. The sensitivity and specificity of the POC for both black vultures and ring-billed gulls combined were 95.7% and 95.5%, respectively. This is the first study using human POC tests to detect antibodies to T. gondii in birds. Further study of the rapid test as a screening tool for serological surveillance of T. gondii in birds is warranted.


Assuntos
Testes de Aglutinação , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Aves , Charadriiformes , Falconiformes , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Charadriiformes/parasitologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Falconiformes/parasitologia , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Imediatos
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101032, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772648

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is described as a potential cause of abortion in goats and as a threat to public health. To estimate the prevalence of goats infected by T. gondii, in different cities in the Espírito Santo State, and to identify possible risk factors for infection a serological study was conducted. A total of 146 goat serum samples from the cities of Cariacica, Serra and Vila Velha were analyzed. The presence of IgG Class Immunoglobulins was serologically evaluated by Immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii was 46.6% (68/146) in both techniques and the same samples got the same results in both techniques. Among the analyzed sera, 70.6% (48/68) exhibited high-avidity IgG antibodies, and 29.4% (20/68) exhibited low-avidity IgG antibodies, suggesting that the infection was chronic in the infected animals. Female sex, age group over two years old, water from the public supply system, storage of food and supplies in an open and unprotected place, and the presence of a domestic cat on the property were identified as risk factors for T. gondii infection in goats. The state of Espirito Santo has a high frequency of infected goats, and this is the first research on caprine toxoplasmosis seroepidemiology in that region.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Imunoglobulina G , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Cabras/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Prevalência
13.
Parasite ; 31: 25, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759155

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis, an emerging and often neglected zoonosis in South America, particularly Brazil. Felines, the only definitive hosts, excrete oocysts in their feces, potentially infecting all homeotherms. Domestic cats are primarily responsible for contaminating human environments with these oocysts. Monitoring their populations is therefore essential to ensure proper toxoplasmosis prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of T. gondii and exposure factors in a population of owner cats in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. A total of 267 blood samples were collected from domestic cats aged between 1 and 15 years and tested with an immunofluorescence antibody test. The seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii was only 17.22% (46/267 individuals). This result therefore suggests a low contribution of domestic cats to T. gondii contamination of the urban environment. The cats' age and living environment were identified as risk factors for cat exposure to T. gondii.


Title: Géoépidémiologie, séroprévalence et facteurs associés à l'infection à Toxoplasma gondii chez les chats domiciliés à Paraíba (Brésil). Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii est le parasite responsable de la toxoplasmose, une zoonose émergente et souvent négligée en Amérique du Sud, notamment au Brésil. Les félins, seuls hôtes définitifs, excrètent des oocystes dans leurs selles, infectant potentiellement tous les homéothermes. Les chats domestiques sont les premiers responsables de la contamination des environnements humains avec ces oocystes. La surveillance de leurs populations est donc essentielle pour garantir une prophylaxie adéquate contre la toxoplasmose. Le but de cette étude était d'estimer la prévalence de T. gondii et les facteurs d'exposition dans une population de chats domestiques de la ville de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brésil. Au total, 267 échantillons de sang ont été prélevés sur des chats domestiques âgés de 1 à 15 ans et testés avec un test d'immunofluorescence des anticorps. La séroprévalence des anticorps contre T. gondii n'était que de 17,22 % (46/267 individus). Ce résultat suggère donc une faible contribution des chats domestiques à la contamination du milieu urbain par T. gondii. L'âge et le milieu de vie des chats ont été identifiés comme facteurs de risque d'exposition du chat à T. gondii.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças do Gato , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Gatos , Animais , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Feminino , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Humanos , Fatores Etários
14.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 91(1): e1-e8, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708768

RESUMO

Interface areas shared by humans, domestic and wild animals may serve as high transmission contexts for Toxoplasma gondii. However, knowledge about the epidemiology of T. gondii in such areas is currently limited. The present study assessed the seroprevalence of T. gondii in different hosts from Mpumalanga, South Africa. Furthermore, we investigated the local knowledge and related practices about T. gondii by conducting a questionnaire study in the community. Blood samples were obtained and analysed for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial multispecies latex agglutination kit. The seroprevalence detected in humans (n = 160; patients showing signs of acute febrile illness), cats (n = 9), chickens (n = 336) and goats (n = 358) was 8.8%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 11.2%, respectively. Seroprevalence in impalas (n = 97), kudus (n = 55), wild dogs (n = 54), wildebeests (n = 43), warthogs (n = 97) and zebras (n = 68) was calculated at 5.2%, 7.3%, 100.0%, 20.9%, 13.4% and 9.1%, respectively. The questionnaire revealed that 63.0% of household owners were subsistence farmers, and 35.9% were pet owners. A high level of female participation was found (75.3%) when compared to male participation (24.7%). The results show a low circulation of T. gondii in the domestic cycle and suggest the presence of possible bridges between the wildlife cycle and the surrounding domestic cycle.Contribution: The study contributes to identifying transmission patterns and risk factors of T. gondii within human and animal populations. This topic fits within the scope of the journal presenting original research in veterinary science, with the focus on wild and domestic populations on the African continent on a topic of universal importance.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Gatos , Gado/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Zoonoses , Cabras , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 261: 108754, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636935

RESUMO

The apicomplexa Toxoplasma gondii is capable of actively proliferating in numerous types of nucleated cells, and therefore has a high potential for dissemination and resistance. Thus, the present work aimed to correlate the inoculum concentrations and amount of post-infection parasites with porcine hematological parameters (including biochemistry) through in vitro culture. Porcine blood was incubated with different concentrations of parasites (1.2 × 107, 6/3/1.5 × 106 cells/mL), then the concentrations of red blood cells (RBC) and their morphology, total and differential leukocytes, and free peptides were evaluated. In addition, eight different blood samples analyzed before inoculation, where subsequent multivariate analysis was applied to correlate different variables with trophozoite concentration. The results showed no significant variation (p < 0.05) in the relative levels of free peptides, or the relative percentage of RBC at all the parasite concentrations tested. However, the normalized percentages of leukocytes and neutrophils showed a significant reduction, while those of lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes showed the opposite behavior. Semi-automatic processing of images exhibited significant microcytosis and hypochromia. The multivariate analysis revealed a positive correlation between the amount number of protozoa (AP) and the variables: "Red cells" and "Neutrophils", an indifference between the AP and the content of free peptides, and the concentration of monocytes in the samples; and a negative correlation for AP and the percentages of lymphocytes and eosinophils. Our results suggest that specific changes in hematological parameters may be associated with different degrees of parasitemia, demanding a thorough diagnostic process and adequate treatment.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos , Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Suínos , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/sangue , Análise Multivariada , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos/parasitologia , Contagem de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Neutrófilos , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Parasitemia/sangue
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1381537, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633748

RESUMO

Background: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a significant protozoan pathogen among food animals. Despite the threat to public health by T. gondii infections, there's limited understanding of its seroprevalence and trends in food animals across mainland China. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infections among swine, sheep, goats, chickens, and cattle in mainland China from 2010 to 2023. Methods: We searched cross-sectional studies published between 2010 and 2023 that reported the prevalence of T. gondii in food animals from databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine Disc (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, and the China Science and Technology Journal Database (CQVIP). We performed subgroup analyses to explore the impact of different factors on the seroprevalence of T. gondii. Pooled estimates of T. gondii seroprevalence were calculated with a random-effects model. Results: An analysis of 184 studies involving 211985 animals revealed a T. gondii overall seroprevalence of 15.3% (95% CI: 13.1-17.8). Although the seroprevalence of food animals across mainland China was relatively stable from 2010 to 2023, notable variations were observed across different animal types and regions (P < 0.01), along with changes in geographical distribution. Sample type, detection method, animal age, and history of abortion were identified as key risk factors for T. gondii seroprevalence. Conclusion: The study conducted a meta-analysis on the seroprevalence of T. gondii in mainland China's Food Animals from 2010 to 2023, and identified key risk factors. These findings advance our understanding of T. gondii infection dynamics, offering critical insights for developing control strategies and guiding public health policies.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Suínos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Galinhas , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Cabras , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 195, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites that are considered important causes of abortion in livestock, causing huge economic losses. Hunan Province ranks 12th in the production of beef and mutton in China. However, limited data are available on the seroprevalence, risk factors and molecular characterization of T. gondii and N. caninum in beef cattle and goats in Hunan province, China. METHODS: Sera of 985 beef cattle and 1147 goats were examined for the presence of specific antibodies against T. gondii using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) and anti-N. caninum IgG using competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay assay (cELISA). Statistical analysis of possible risk factors was performed using PASW Statistics. Muscle samples of 160 beef cattle and 160 goats were examined for the presence of T. gondii DNA (B1 gene) and N. caninum DNA (Nc-5 gene) by nested PCR. The B1 gene-positive samples were genotyped at 10 genetic markers using the multilocus nested PCR-RFLP (Mn-PCR-RFLP). RESULTS: Specific IgG against T. gondii were detected in 8.3% (82/985) and 13.3% (153/1147) and against N. caninum in 2.1% (21/985) and 2.0% (23/1147) of the beef cattle and goats, respectively. Based on statistical analysis, the presence of cats, semi-intensive management mode and gender were identified as significant risk factors for T. gondii infection in beef cattle. Age was a significant risk factor for T. gondii infection in goats (P < 0.05), and age > 3 years was a significant risk factor for N. caninum infection in beef cattle (P < 0.05). PCR positivity for T. gondii was observed in three beef samples (1.9%; 3/160) and seven chevon samples (4.4%; 7/160). Genotyping of PCR positive samples identified one to be ToxoDB#10. The N. caninum DNA was observed in one beef sample (0.6%; 1/160) but was negative in all chevon samples. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale serological and molecular investigation of T. gondii and N. caninum and assessment of related risk factors in beef cattle and goats in Hunan Province, China. The findings provide baseline data for executing prevention and control of these two important parasites in beef cattle and goats in China.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Cabras/parasitologia , Neospora/genética , Neospora/imunologia , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Feminino , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673969

RESUMO

This study presents an evaluation of seventeen newly produced recombinant trivalent chimeric proteins (containing the same immunodominant fragment of SAG1 and SAG2 of Toxoplasma gondii antigens, and an additional immunodominant fragment of one of the parasite antigens, such as AMA1, GRA1, GRA2, GRA5, GRA6, GRA7, GRA9, LDH2, MAG1, MIC1, MIC3, P35, and ROP1) as a potential alternative to the whole-cell tachyzoite lysate (TLA) used in the detection of infection in small ruminants. These recombinant proteins, obtained by genetic engineering and molecular biology methods, were tested for their reactivity with specific anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies contained in serum samples of small ruminants (192 samples of sheep serum and 95 samples of goat serum) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The reactivity of six recombinant trivalent chimeric proteins (SAG1-SAG2-GRA5, SAG1-SAG2-GRA9, SAG1-SAG2-MIC1, SAG1-SAG2-MIC3, SAG1-SAG2-P35, and SAG1-SAG2-ROP1) with IgG antibodies generated during T. gondii invasion was comparable to the sensitivity of TLA-based IgG ELISA (100%). The obtained results show a strong correlation with the results obtained for TLA. This suggests that these protein preparations may be a potential alternative to TLA used in commercial tests and could be used to develop a cheaper test for the detection of parasite infection in small ruminants.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Antígenos de Protozoários , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Cabras , Imunoglobulina G , Toxoplasma , Animais , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Ovinos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 172: 105256, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613921

RESUMO

Infection and clinical cases of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in cats have been increasingly reported in several countries, including Brazil. In this study, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunochromatographic test (ICT) based on a recombinant antigen (rKDDR-plus) to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies in cats from an animal shelter in northeastern Brazil. We compared the results with an ELISA using L. infantum crude antigen (ELISA-CA). We also investigated the presence of Leishmania DNA in blood or ocular conjunctival samples as well as the association between Leishmania PCR positivity and serological positivity to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Concerning serological assays, a higher positivity was detected using the ICT-rKDDR-plus (7.5%; 7/93) as compared to ELISA-rKDDR-plus (5.4%; 5/93) and ELISA-CA (4.3%; 4/93). Upon PCR testing, 52.7% (49/93) of the ocular conjunctival swabs and 48.3% (44/91) of the blood samples were positive. Together, PCR and serological testing revealed overall positivities of 73.1% (68/93) and 12.9% (12/93), respectively. Among PCR-positive samples, 45.5% (31/68) showed co-infection with FIV, 17.6% (12/68) with FeLV, and 82.3% (56/68) with T. gondii. More than half of the PCR-positive cats showed at least one clinical sign suggestive of leishmaniasis (58.8%; 40/68) and dermatological signs were the most frequent ones (45.5%; 31/68). Both tests employing the recombinant antigen rKDDR-plus (i.e., ICT-rKDDR-plus and ELISA-rKDDR-plus) detected more positive cats than the ELISA-CA but presented low overall accuracy. PCR testing using either blood or ocular conjunctival samples detected much more positive cats than serological tests.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Coinfecção , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Leishmania infantum , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Proteínas Recombinantes , Gatos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Masculino , Feminino , Toxoplasma , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue
20.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 50: 101018, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644047

RESUMO

Layyah District in South Punjab Province of Pakistan offers the most intensive caprine economy in the country; its Indus riverine and desert environment makes the area peculiar and worthy of specific investigations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) IgG-antibody in goats in serum samples and the potential risk factors. The prevalence of T. gondii infection was estimated using a two-stage sample design. All caprine farms in the study area were stratified by size, and from these 110 were randomly selected. Twelve goats (>1-year-old) were selected from each farm and a total of 1320 serum samples were collected and tested by ELISA. A questionnaire on the conditions and management practices of each farm was administered to 110 farmers. Four hundred and sixteen out of 1320 sera samples (31.5%) were found positive and 89% of the flock had at least one seropositive goat. The proportion of seropositive goats tested within each flock ranged from 8.3% to 83.3%. with several factors contributing to this heterogeneity. Goat age played a significant role in the presence of cats. Significant interactions were related to goat farms having floor of dirt and kitten presence. Moreover, age class, abortion history and water source supply were modulated by owner education levels. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in goats sera in Layyah district and the largest carried out so far in Pakistan. The remarkable presence of T. gondii among goats in areas where goat farming plays a significant economic role may pose a production threat to the small-stock industry, as well as to public health and food safety. Therefore, investigations to identify high-risk goat populations are highly recommended in order to facilitate the implementation of local control strategies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Prevalência , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Gatos
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