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1.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 91(1): e1-e8, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708768

RESUMO

Interface areas shared by humans, domestic and wild animals may serve as high transmission contexts for Toxoplasma gondii. However, knowledge about the epidemiology of T. gondii in such areas is currently limited. The present study assessed the seroprevalence of T. gondii in different hosts from Mpumalanga, South Africa. Furthermore, we investigated the local knowledge and related practices about T. gondii by conducting a questionnaire study in the community. Blood samples were obtained and analysed for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial multispecies latex agglutination kit. The seroprevalence detected in humans (n = 160; patients showing signs of acute febrile illness), cats (n = 9), chickens (n = 336) and goats (n = 358) was 8.8%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 11.2%, respectively. Seroprevalence in impalas (n = 97), kudus (n = 55), wild dogs (n = 54), wildebeests (n = 43), warthogs (n = 97) and zebras (n = 68) was calculated at 5.2%, 7.3%, 100.0%, 20.9%, 13.4% and 9.1%, respectively. The questionnaire revealed that 63.0% of household owners were subsistence farmers, and 35.9% were pet owners. A high level of female participation was found (75.3%) when compared to male participation (24.7%). The results show a low circulation of T. gondii in the domestic cycle and suggest the presence of possible bridges between the wildlife cycle and the surrounding domestic cycle.Contribution: The study contributes to identifying transmission patterns and risk factors of T. gondii within human and animal populations. This topic fits within the scope of the journal presenting original research in veterinary science, with the focus on wild and domestic populations on the African continent on a topic of universal importance.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Gatos , Gado/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Zoonoses , Cabras , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101032, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772648

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is described as a potential cause of abortion in goats and as a threat to public health. To estimate the prevalence of goats infected by T. gondii, in different cities in the Espírito Santo State, and to identify possible risk factors for infection a serological study was conducted. A total of 146 goat serum samples from the cities of Cariacica, Serra and Vila Velha were analyzed. The presence of IgG Class Immunoglobulins was serologically evaluated by Immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii was 46.6% (68/146) in both techniques and the same samples got the same results in both techniques. Among the analyzed sera, 70.6% (48/68) exhibited high-avidity IgG antibodies, and 29.4% (20/68) exhibited low-avidity IgG antibodies, suggesting that the infection was chronic in the infected animals. Female sex, age group over two years old, water from the public supply system, storage of food and supplies in an open and unprotected place, and the presence of a domestic cat on the property were identified as risk factors for T. gondii infection in goats. The state of Espirito Santo has a high frequency of infected goats, and this is the first research on caprine toxoplasmosis seroepidemiology in that region.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Imunoglobulina G , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Cabras/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Prevalência
3.
Parasite ; 31: 25, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759155

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis, an emerging and often neglected zoonosis in South America, particularly Brazil. Felines, the only definitive hosts, excrete oocysts in their feces, potentially infecting all homeotherms. Domestic cats are primarily responsible for contaminating human environments with these oocysts. Monitoring their populations is therefore essential to ensure proper toxoplasmosis prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of T. gondii and exposure factors in a population of owner cats in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. A total of 267 blood samples were collected from domestic cats aged between 1 and 15 years and tested with an immunofluorescence antibody test. The seroprevalence of antibodies against T. gondii was only 17.22% (46/267 individuals). This result therefore suggests a low contribution of domestic cats to T. gondii contamination of the urban environment. The cats' age and living environment were identified as risk factors for cat exposure to T. gondii.


Title: Géoépidémiologie, séroprévalence et facteurs associés à l'infection à Toxoplasma gondii chez les chats domiciliés à Paraíba (Brésil). Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii est le parasite responsable de la toxoplasmose, une zoonose émergente et souvent négligée en Amérique du Sud, notamment au Brésil. Les félins, seuls hôtes définitifs, excrètent des oocystes dans leurs selles, infectant potentiellement tous les homéothermes. Les chats domestiques sont les premiers responsables de la contamination des environnements humains avec ces oocystes. La surveillance de leurs populations est donc essentielle pour garantir une prophylaxie adéquate contre la toxoplasmose. Le but de cette étude était d'estimer la prévalence de T. gondii et les facteurs d'exposition dans une population de chats domestiques de la ville de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brésil. Au total, 267 échantillons de sang ont été prélevés sur des chats domestiques âgés de 1 à 15 ans et testés avec un test d'immunofluorescence des anticorps. La séroprévalence des anticorps contre T. gondii n'était que de 17,22 % (46/267 individus). Ce résultat suggère donc une faible contribution des chats domestiques à la contamination du milieu urbain par T. gondii. L'âge et le milieu de vie des chats ont été identifiés comme facteurs de risque d'exposition du chat à T. gondii.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças do Gato , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Gatos , Animais , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Feminino , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Humanos , Fatores Etários
4.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 109: 102184, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that infects one-third of the population of the world, including humans, animals, birds, and other vertebrates. The present investigation is the first molecular attempt in the Malakand Division of Pakistan to determine the epidemiology and phylogenetic study of Toxoplasma gondii infecting small ruminants. METHODOLOGY: A total of (N = 450) blood samples of sheep were randomly collected during the study period (December 2020 to November 2021), and DNA detection was done using PCR by amplifying ITS-1 genes. SPSS.20 and MEGA-11 software were used for statistical significance and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection among sheep was 14.44 % (65/450). A high infection rate was found in more than five-year-olds at 18.33 % (11/60). Sequencing and BLAST analysis of PCR-positive samples confirmed the presence of T. gondii. Randomly, three isolates were sequenced and submitted to GenBank under accession numbers (PP028089-PP028091), respectively. The BLAST analysis of the obtained sequences based on the ITS-1 gene showed 99 % similarities with reported genotypes found in goats of Malakand, Pakistan (PP028089) and dogs of Brazil (MF766454). The study concludes that T. gondii is notably prevalent among the sheep population in the region, emphasizing the significant role of risk factors in disease transmission across animals and potentially to humans. Further research, zoonotic potential analysis, and targeted control measures are warranted to address and manage this parasitic infection effectively.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário , Filogenia , Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/classificação , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Prevalência , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
5.
J Parasitol ; 110(3): 206-209, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802105

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects most warm-blooded animals, including birds. Scavenging birds are epidemiologically important hosts because they can serve as indicators of environmental T. gondii levels. A rapid point-of-care (POC) test that detects antibodies to T. gondii in humans is commercially available. In this research, we assessed the ability of the human POC test to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies in 106 black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and 23 ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) from Pennsylvania, USA. Serum samples were tested with the POC test and compared to the modified agglutination test (MAT) in a blinded study. Overall, anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected in 2.8% (3/106) of black vultures and 60.9% (14/23) of ring-billed gulls by the POC test. One false-positive POC test occurred in a black vulture that was negative by MAT. False-negative results were obtained in 2 black vultures and 4 ring-billed gulls that had MAT titers of 1:25 or 1:50. The sensitivity and specificity of the POC for both black vultures and ring-billed gulls combined were 95.7% and 95.5%, respectively. This is the first study using human POC tests to detect antibodies to T. gondii in birds. Further study of the rapid test as a screening tool for serological surveillance of T. gondii in birds is warranted.


Assuntos
Testes de Aglutinação , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Aves , Charadriiformes , Falconiformes , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Charadriiformes/parasitologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Falconiformes/parasitologia , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Imediatos
6.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304179, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820542

RESUMO

This study investigates the molecular prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of two prominent blood-borne pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and Plasmodium spp., in common quails (Coturnix coturnix) sampled from both wild (N = 236) and farmed (N = 197) populations across four districts (Layyah, Dera Ghazi Khan, Lahore, and Multan) in Punjab, Pakistan, during the hunting seasons from 2021 to 2023. Additionally, the impact of these pathogens on the complete blood count (CBC) of the hosts is examined. Out of 433 quails tested, 25 (5.8%) exhibited amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) gene for T. gondii, while 15 (3.5%) showed amplification of the Cytochrome b gene for Plasmodium spp. A risk factor analysis indicated that the prevalence of both pathogens was not confined to specific sampling sites or bird sexes (P > 0.05). District-wise analysis highlighted that hens were more susceptible to both T. gondii and Plasmodium spp. infections than cocks. Wild quails exhibited a higher susceptibility to T. gondii compared to farmed birds. Significant CBC variations were recorded in infected birds as compared to uninfected ones. BLAST analysis of generated sequences has confirmed the identity of recovered PCR amplicons as T. gondii and Plasmodium relictum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Pakistani isolates clustered with those reported from various countries globally. This study provides the first documentation of T. gondii and Plasmodium sp. infections in Pakistani quails, underscoring the need for detailed investigations across different regions to enhance our understanding of infection rates and the zoonotic potential of these parasites.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Plasmodium , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium/classificação , Prevalência , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Coturnix/parasitologia , Feminino , Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Malária Aviária/parasitologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
7.
Parasitol Res ; 123(5): 222, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801539

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis that affects warm-blooded animals, including humans. Wild animals can act as intermediate hosts of this pathogen; thus, this study aims to detect Toxoplasma gondii infection in invasive European brown hares in Brazil. For this, 72 wild European brown hares were captured from July 2020 to June 2022 in three Brazilian states: São Paulo, Paraná, and Rio Grande do Sul. The diagnostic of Toxoplasma gondii infection was performed by bioassay in mouse, histopathology in Hematoxylin-Eosin-stained tissue sections (brain, liver, lungs, kidneys, and small intestine), serology by IFAT, and molecular techniques by conventional PCR and qPCR. The combined prevalence of the different diagnostic methods was 51.4% (37/72, CI= 40.1 - 62.6 %), and there was no statistical difference between sexes, age range, or geographical region of the hosts. Mouse bioassay was the technique that detected more positive hares. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmation of Toxoplasma gondii infection in invasive European brown hares in Brazil. These animals act as reservoirs and potential infection source for carnivores and other wild and domestic animals, including humans, thus contributing to perpetuate the disease cycle in São Paulo, Paraná, and Rio Grande do Sul States. Research such as the present study is necessary to raise awareness about the role of animals in the disease cycle.


Assuntos
Lebres , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Lebres/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Bioensaio
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 935: 173290, 2024 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782291

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis of key importance in veterinary and public health. This article summarizes the available data (from 2000 to 2023) of exposition to Toxoplasma gondii in wildlife species in Spain based on a systematic bibliographic search, as well as further analysis of its potential relationship with environmental variables, biodiversity, anthropogenic impact on the habitat, and the reported human cases of toxoplasmosis. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in carnivorous mammals, birds, ungulate and lagomorph species in Spain was estimated at 69.3 %, 36.4 %, 18.4 %, and 16.2 %, respectively. Among the studies considered, great heterogeneity was observed both between and within taxonomic groups [Cohen's d > 0.8; X2 = 1039.10, df = 4 (p < 0.01) I2 = 97 %, r2 = 1.88, (p < 0.001)] and between and within bioregions [Cohen's d > 0.5; X2 = 368.59, df = 4 (p < 0.01)]. The results of a generalized linear model explaining T. gondii seroprevalence in wild animals suggest the influence of abiotic variables [wetland (p < 0.001), unvegetated (p < 0.001), isothermality (p < 0.001), and mean temperature during wettest quarter (p < 0.05)] and number of intermediate host species as positively associated with increased exposure of wildlife to T. gondii (p < 0.01). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in both wild birds and wild mammals (range: 0.0-51.2 %) mainly from north-centre, northeast, and central-west of Spain. Regarding hospitalisation rates due to toxoplasmosis in humans, some abiotic variables [permanent crops (p < 0.05) and mean temperature during wettest quarter (p < 0.05)] showed a positive association. Despite certain limitations, this research evidences a substantial gap of knowledge on the implication of wildlife in the life cycle of T. gondii in Spain. This lack of knowledge is particularly evident in areas where the human-livestock-wildlife interface overlaps, preventing us from accurately determining its true distribution in different habitats, as well as its potential direct or indirect implications on public and veterinary health.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais Domésticos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
9.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 110: 102201, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810337

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases worldwide and is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. It is implicated in reproductive disorders in small ruminants. This study aims to determine, for the first time in Algeria, the seroprevalence and associated factors of T. gondii infection in goats. The study was conducted in four regions, Ghardaia, Laghouat and Djelfa, southern Algeria, and Jijel region, northern Algeria. A total of 92 blood samples were collected including 74 females and 18 males. All sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the T. gondii antibodies. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was detected in 35 out of 92 goats (38.04%) (95% CI: 31.64%-44.44%) and in all flocks (100%). Risk factors that have a significant influence on the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection are breed, regions, production system, presence of cats, clinics and abortion history. However, variables such as age and gender were note significantly associated with toxoplasma infection in goats. The highest seroprevalences of infection was observed in saanen (52.94%) (p<0.001) and cross-breed race (44%) (p<0.01) in comparison with other breeds. Regarding regions, Jijel and Laghouat were most infected with seroprevalences of 50% (p<0.001) and 40.91% (p<0.01), respectively. Animals in intensive production systems were most infected, showing a seroprevalence of 51.85%, in comparison with extensive (28.13%) and semi-intensive systems (36.36%) (p<0.001). The presence of cats in farms was significantly associated with high seroprevalence (44.64%) (p<0.001). The infection was more prevalent in previously aborted females (50%) than females that had never aborted (3.35%) (p<0.001)and animals that have diarrhoea or poor health (41.67%) were significantly more infected than healthy animals (37.50%) (p<0.01). Seroprevalence in males (38.89%) was very close to those in females (37.84%) (p>0.05). Age-related seroprevalence did not vary significantly (ranged from 36.37% to 40%) between the three age classes. These results indicate that goat toxoplasmosis is widespread in Algeria, and goats may represent a high risk of contamination for humans. This requires more attention during consumption of goat meat.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Cabras/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Argélia/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Feminino , Masculino , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Gatos
10.
Res Vet Sci ; 172: 105256, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613921

RESUMO

Infection and clinical cases of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in cats have been increasingly reported in several countries, including Brazil. In this study, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunochromatographic test (ICT) based on a recombinant antigen (rKDDR-plus) to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies in cats from an animal shelter in northeastern Brazil. We compared the results with an ELISA using L. infantum crude antigen (ELISA-CA). We also investigated the presence of Leishmania DNA in blood or ocular conjunctival samples as well as the association between Leishmania PCR positivity and serological positivity to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Concerning serological assays, a higher positivity was detected using the ICT-rKDDR-plus (7.5%; 7/93) as compared to ELISA-rKDDR-plus (5.4%; 5/93) and ELISA-CA (4.3%; 4/93). Upon PCR testing, 52.7% (49/93) of the ocular conjunctival swabs and 48.3% (44/91) of the blood samples were positive. Together, PCR and serological testing revealed overall positivities of 73.1% (68/93) and 12.9% (12/93), respectively. Among PCR-positive samples, 45.5% (31/68) showed co-infection with FIV, 17.6% (12/68) with FeLV, and 82.3% (56/68) with T. gondii. More than half of the PCR-positive cats showed at least one clinical sign suggestive of leishmaniasis (58.8%; 40/68) and dermatological signs were the most frequent ones (45.5%; 31/68). Both tests employing the recombinant antigen rKDDR-plus (i.e., ICT-rKDDR-plus and ELISA-rKDDR-plus) detected more positive cats than the ELISA-CA but presented low overall accuracy. PCR testing using either blood or ocular conjunctival samples detected much more positive cats than serological tests.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Coinfecção , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina , Leishmania infantum , Vírus da Leucemia Felina , Proteínas Recombinantes , Gatos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Masculino , Feminino , Toxoplasma , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 33(2): e003624, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38656050

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are two closely related protozoans that infect a wide range of animals, including birds. However, the occurrence of N. caninum and T. gondii in seabirds is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the presence of T. gondii and N. caninum DNA in tissue samples of seabirds. Tissue samples of the pectoral muscles, heart, and brain were collected from 47 birds along the coastline of Santa Catarina State, SC, Brazil. The DNA was extracted from the tissues and screened using nested-PCR (nPCR) targeting internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1). T. gondii DNA was detected in tissues from seven seabirds (7/47, 14.8%), kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) (5/21), and Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) (2/8). N. caninum DNA was detected in tissues of nine seabirds (9/47, 19.1%), the kelp gull (L. dominicanus) (4/21), Manx shearwater (P. puffinus) (2/8), neotropic cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) (1/4), brown booby (Sula leucogaster) (1/5), and white-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis) (1/1); however, no co-infection was observed. In conclusion, this study showed the circulation of N. caninum and T. gondii in seabirds along the coastline of Santa Catarina State. Further studies are required to clarify the role of these birds in the epidemiology of neosporosis and toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Coccidiose , DNA de Protozoário , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Neospora/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Aves/parasitologia , Charadriiformes/parasitologia
12.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 50: 101018, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38644047

RESUMO

Layyah District in South Punjab Province of Pakistan offers the most intensive caprine economy in the country; its Indus riverine and desert environment makes the area peculiar and worthy of specific investigations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) IgG-antibody in goats in serum samples and the potential risk factors. The prevalence of T. gondii infection was estimated using a two-stage sample design. All caprine farms in the study area were stratified by size, and from these 110 were randomly selected. Twelve goats (>1-year-old) were selected from each farm and a total of 1320 serum samples were collected and tested by ELISA. A questionnaire on the conditions and management practices of each farm was administered to 110 farmers. Four hundred and sixteen out of 1320 sera samples (31.5%) were found positive and 89% of the flock had at least one seropositive goat. The proportion of seropositive goats tested within each flock ranged from 8.3% to 83.3%. with several factors contributing to this heterogeneity. Goat age played a significant role in the presence of cats. Significant interactions were related to goat farms having floor of dirt and kitten presence. Moreover, age class, abortion history and water source supply were modulated by owner education levels. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in goats sera in Layyah district and the largest carried out so far in Pakistan. The remarkable presence of T. gondii among goats in areas where goat farming plays a significant economic role may pose a production threat to the small-stock industry, as well as to public health and food safety. Therefore, investigations to identify high-risk goat populations are highly recommended in order to facilitate the implementation of local control strategies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Prevalência , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Gatos
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 195, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites that are considered important causes of abortion in livestock, causing huge economic losses. Hunan Province ranks 12th in the production of beef and mutton in China. However, limited data are available on the seroprevalence, risk factors and molecular characterization of T. gondii and N. caninum in beef cattle and goats in Hunan province, China. METHODS: Sera of 985 beef cattle and 1147 goats were examined for the presence of specific antibodies against T. gondii using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) and anti-N. caninum IgG using competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay assay (cELISA). Statistical analysis of possible risk factors was performed using PASW Statistics. Muscle samples of 160 beef cattle and 160 goats were examined for the presence of T. gondii DNA (B1 gene) and N. caninum DNA (Nc-5 gene) by nested PCR. The B1 gene-positive samples were genotyped at 10 genetic markers using the multilocus nested PCR-RFLP (Mn-PCR-RFLP). RESULTS: Specific IgG against T. gondii were detected in 8.3% (82/985) and 13.3% (153/1147) and against N. caninum in 2.1% (21/985) and 2.0% (23/1147) of the beef cattle and goats, respectively. Based on statistical analysis, the presence of cats, semi-intensive management mode and gender were identified as significant risk factors for T. gondii infection in beef cattle. Age was a significant risk factor for T. gondii infection in goats (P < 0.05), and age > 3 years was a significant risk factor for N. caninum infection in beef cattle (P < 0.05). PCR positivity for T. gondii was observed in three beef samples (1.9%; 3/160) and seven chevon samples (4.4%; 7/160). Genotyping of PCR positive samples identified one to be ToxoDB#10. The N. caninum DNA was observed in one beef sample (0.6%; 1/160) but was negative in all chevon samples. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale serological and molecular investigation of T. gondii and N. caninum and assessment of related risk factors in beef cattle and goats in Hunan Province, China. The findings provide baseline data for executing prevention and control of these two important parasites in beef cattle and goats in China.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Doenças das Cabras , Cabras , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Cabras/parasitologia , Neospora/genética , Neospora/imunologia , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Feminino , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 171: 105236, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531238

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis are two of the most common parasitic zoonoses. Leishmaniasis is endemic to 98 countries around the world, whereas toxoplasmosis is widely distributed throughout the world, causing significant health expenditure. Horses can play a relevant role in the transmission of the disease, being a silent reservoir, as clinical signs are not common. Serum samples from 166 horses living in eastern Spain (Mediterranean basin) were analysed to determine the presence of antibodies against Leishmania spp. and T. gondii by ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.) The risk factors evaluated were the geographical area and the relative humidity and average temperature, and epidemiological factors such as sex, reproductive status, age, breed, morphotype, living with other domestic animals, use and access to the outdoors. Seroprevalence of Leishmania spp. and T. gondii infection was found 28.92%, and 16.27% respectively, whereas co-infection of the two parasites was found only in two males. Leishmania seroprevalence was high in castrated males and several mesodolichomorphic equine breeds used for teaching, as well as in outdoor animals. The most elevated seroprevalence was found in winter with higher levels of rainfall, whereas high seroprevalence of T. gondii was found in crossbreeding animals and those used for breeding. High seroprevalence of Leishmania spp. and T. gondii was found in horses of the Mediterranean basin. These data suggest that horses can act as a silent reservoir and that this species has high potential for transmission to humans, outdoor animals and in geographical areas with high average rainfall.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Humanos , Masculino , Cavalos , Animais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais Domésticos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia
15.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 49: 100992, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462298

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections are important causes of abortion in ruminants. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and frequency of T. gondii and N. caninum titers in goats raised by family farmers in the Luracatao Valley of Salta province, Argentina. A total of 259 serum samples were collected from adult goats in 42 family farms in nine communities and tested for indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, cut-off 1:100). Seroprevalences were 34.36% (89/259) for T. gondii and 64.09% (166/259) for N. caninum. Co-infection was found in 25.86% (67/259) of the goats tested. The most frequent IFAT titer of T. gondii found was 100 (23.93%; 62/259), and only 2% (5/259) of the goats presented titer 800. For N. caninum, the most frequent titers were 100 (25.86%; 67/259), and titers 200 (20.46%; 53/259) and 400 (14.61%, 38/259). The titers found for T. gondii could suggest a chronic infection in goats, being of importance for the region due to meat consumption and cheese production. The elevated seroprevalence of N. caninum identified in this study may be attributed to the community-specific dog population and the close interaction between dogs and goats, despite the absence of a statistically significant association. Subsequent research is warranted to assess the productive implications of T. gondii and N. caninum.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Doenças das Cabras , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Cães , Cabras , Fazendas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Agricultura , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia
16.
Prev Vet Med ; 226: 106187, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554654

RESUMO

A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to identify the global prevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds. Six bibliographic databases (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Chinese Journal Database, Wanfang Data, PubMed, Web of science and ScienceDirect) were searched from inception to February 2023. The search yielded 1220 records of which 659 articles underwent full-text evaluation, which identified 49 eligible articles and 16,030 wild bird samples that were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated pooled global prevalence of T. gondii infection in wild birds was 16.6%. Out of the variables tested, publication year after 2020 and climate type were significantly associated with T. gondii infection (P<0.01). Our data indicate that the prevalence of T. gondii in wild birds can be influenced by epidemiological variables. Further research is needed to identify the biological, environmental, anthropogenic, and geographical risk factors which impact the ecology and prevalence of T. gondii in wild birds.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Prevalência , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens , Fatores de Risco , Aves , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Acta Vet Scand ; 66(1): 14, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dogs, as well as a wide variety of other warm-blooded animals, act as intermediate host of Toxoplasma gondii. In dogs, most cases of toxoplasmosis are subclinical, although clinical disease has been sporadically reported. Beyond its role in diagnostic pathways, seropositivity also functions as a reflection of the parasite's spread within the dog's living environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible risk factor associated with seropositivity to T. gondii in dogs in Central-Northern Italy, analysing 120 dogs sera for the presence of IgG antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). RESULTS: The population examined was composed of 54.2% hunting dogs, 24.2% companion dogs, 14.2% truffle dogs and 7.5% watchdogs. Thirty-four (29.2%) dogs tested positive for T. gondii IgG, with titres ranging from 1:40 to 1:1280. Seroprevalence and antibodies titres were not related to dog gender, age or function. The logistic regression and ordered logistic regression results indicated that seroprevalence, and antibody titres were significantly higher in dogs cohabiting with cats, exhibiting coprophagy habits, and living constantly outdoors. Notably, the lifestyle factor showed the highest odds-ratios in the study: dogs living constantly outdoors were found to be at approximately 5 times greater risk of testing positive and having higher antibody titres compared to dogs living both indoors and outdoors. CONCLUSION: Both logistic and ordered logistic regression results support the key role of living with cats, engaging in coprophagy behaviours, and maintaining an outdoor lifestyle in increasing the risk of T. gondii infection in dogs. These identified risk factors collectively suggest that both ingesting oocysts, as observed through cat cohabitation and coprophagy, and engaging in predatory behaviours, as possible for outdoor living dogs, are indicating likely sources of T. gondii infection in this host species.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Cães , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Fatores de Risco , Animais de Estimação , Imunoglobulina G , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2812, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307906

RESUMO

Predators in food webs are valuable sentinel species for zoonotic and multi-host pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii. This protozoan parasite is ubiquitous in warm-blooded vertebrates, and can have serious adverse effects in immunocompromised hosts and foetuses. In northern ecosystems, T. gondii is disproportionately prevalent in Inuit people and wildlife, in part due to multiple routes of transmission. We combined data on T. gondii infection in foxes from Nunavik (northern Québec, Canada) with stable isotope data tracking trophic relationships between foxes and several of their main prey species. Red (Vulpes vulpes) and Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) carcasses were collected by local trappers from 2015 to 2019. We used magnetic capture PCR to detect DNA of T. gondii in heart and brain tissues, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies in blood. By linking infection status with diet composition, we showed that infected foxes had a higher probability of consuming aquatic prey and migratory geese, suggesting that these may be important sources of T. gondii transmission in the Arctic. This use of stable isotopes to reveal parasite transmission pathways can be applied more broadly to other foodborne pathogens, and provides evidence to assess and mitigate potential human and animal health risks associated with T. gondii in northern ecosystems.


Assuntos
Raposas , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Ecossistema , Raposas/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Dieta/veterinária
19.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298357, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377066

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. are critical tissue-dwelling foodborne zoonotic parasites associated with pork consumption and pig rearing. Despite being a major pig-rearing region in the country, Northeastern India has not undergone any investigation regarding the presence of T. gondii and Trichinella spp. in pigs. Therefore, this study aims to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and Trichinella spp. and identify associated risk factors in pigs reared by tribal communities and small-holder livestock farmers in the northeastern region of India. In a cross-sectional serological survey, 400 pigs from 400 households across five northeastern states of India underwent testing for the seroprevalence of porcine toxoplasmosis and trichinellosis. Serum samples (80 from each state) were analyzed using commercially available ELISA assays. Data on backyard farm characteristics and various management aspects were collected, and risk factors linked with prevalence were analyzed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The findings revealed that the apparent and true prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies were 45% (40.12-49.88, 95% CI) and 45.7% (40.7-50.69, 95% CI), respectively. As for anti- Trichinella antibodies, both the apparent and true prevalence were 0.75% (-0.1-1.6, 95% CI). The univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that age above 24 months (OR 7.20, 95% CI 2.45-23.71), exposure to cats (OR = 5.87, 95% CI 2.55-14.05), and farms operating for breeding purposes (OR = 5.60, 95% CI 3.01-11.04) were significant risk factors associated with the seroprevalence of T. gondii. This study marks the initial documentation of the seroprevalence of T. gondii and Trichinella spp. in pigs reared by tribal communities in Northeastern India. The results emphasize the significance of these parasites as foodborne zoonotic threats in the region, potentially posing substantial public health risks, especially within tribal and rural communities. The insights derived from this research could be valuable in formulating targeted preventive and control strategies against T. gondii and Trichinella spp. in pigs, not only in this region but also in areas with similar rearing practices.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Trichinella , Suínos , Animais , Humanos , Gado , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fazendeiros , Estudos Transversais , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1274577, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38352059

RESUMO

Introduction: There have only been a few molecular studies conducted on the detection of T. gondii in tissues of carnivores in South Africa, with no data on the genetic diversity of this parasite. That is why the aim of this study was to detect and genotype T. gondii DNA in tissues of selected wild and domestic carnivores in South Africa. Methods: Samples were collected from 80 animals of 20 species (mainly road-killed) in the four provinces of Limpopo (n=57), Mpumalanga (n=21), Gauteng (n=1) and Free State (n=1) during the period 2014-2018. Samples of brain (n=31), heart (n=4), liver (n=40), spleen (n=2) and lung (n=3) were used to detect T. gondii by real-time PCR targeting a 529 bp repeating fragment of T. gondii DNA. Samples that were positive in real-time PCR were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers. Results: T. gondii DNA was detected in 4 (5 %) samples: in the brain from a Black-backed Jackal (Canis mesomelas), in the liver from a African Wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and in the liver and heart of two Rusty-spotted Genets (Genetta maculata) respectively. The DNA sample from Black-backed Jackal was genotyped and characterized as belonging to the type Africa 4 lineage (equivalent to RFLP genotype ToxoDB#20), that is a widespread lineage in Africa. Discussion: This is the first genetic characterization of T. gondii isolated from a wild carnivore on the African continent and the first report of T. gondii in Black-backed Jackal. The Africa 4 lineage was also confirmed in the region of Southern Africa for the first time.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Toxoplasma/genética , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Chacais/genética , Genótipo , DNA Bacteriano
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