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1.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12278, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This systematic review aims to explore the work-related factors among people with diabetes in developing CVD. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched on 1 February 2021 using a comprehensive search strategy without any time restriction. Two independent researchers screened the articles and extracted data. The risk of bias was assessed independently using the risk of bias assessment tool for non-randomized studies (RoBANS). A narrative synthesis was conducted considering the heterogeneity of the included articles. RESULTS: A total of five articles incorporating 4 409 810 participants from three geographic regions were included that highlights the research gap. As per the included studies, Occupational drivers with diabetes were at a higher risk of CVD in comparison to the nondrivers, workers with diabetes having a long working hour were at a higher risk of CVD mortality, workers with a lower occupational status were at a higher risk of 10-years stroke risk, and occupational physical activity and occupational commuting lowered the risk of CVD deaths. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review summarized the available evidence on work-related factors influencing the risk of CVD in people with diabetes. The findings should be interpreted cautiously pondering the limited evidence and imprecision. We identified only five articles related to the topic, and there were no studies from Japan. The scarcity of studies on work-related factors on the prognosis of diabetic patients implies the need for more research in this field. We recommend further exploration of the topic designing primary studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Ocupações , Trabalho , Humanos
2.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Oct. 2021. 19 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1343679

RESUMO

En la presente publicación se detallan las metas actualizadas de la OPS para productos alimenticios procesados y ultraprocesados en la Región de las Américas. Se describen los métodos usados para establecer estas metas y se incluye un cuadro con las metas para el 2022 y el 2025 correspondientes a las distintas categorías y subcategorías de alimentos. Este trabajo se basa en las metas establecidas en el 2015 y proporciona una herramienta importante para ayudar a los países a fijar las metas nacionales en materia de reducción del sodio


Assuntos
Sódio , Trabalho , Equipamentos e Provisões , Alimentos
3.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12271, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the variables associated with work ability, work-family conflict and the relationship between these variables. METHODS: An observational prospective study was conducted and involved 436 employees of a Teaching Hospital in Rome. Data collection was performed using the following tools: the Work Ability Index (WAI) and the Work-to-family conflict and Family-to-work conflict Scale (WFC-FWC Scale). Data were analyzed through univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate linear regression, using the SPSS software version 25. RESULTS: A direct relationship of the WFC score with two variables (female gender and physicians) and an inverse relationship with other two variables (age and administrative staff) were found. There is a direct relationship between the FWC score and the variable "having sons". The WFC and FWC scores showed a direct relationship between them. The Work Ability presented an almost significant association only with the profession variable, in which administrative staff, followed by physicians, presented a higher WAI score with respect to other professional categories, such as nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Wellbeing intervention for health workers should be directed mainly to women, older workers and those with sons. In addition, more attention should be given to nurses, who showed lower work ability scores.


Assuntos
Conflito Familiar , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257062, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492071

RESUMO

The importance of workers' well-being has been recognized in recent years. The assessment of well-being has been subjective, and few studies have sought potential biomarkers of well-being to date. This study examined the relationship between well-being and the LF/HF ratio, an index of heart rate variability that reflects sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity. Pulse waves were measured using photoplethysmography through a web camera attached to the computer used by each participant. The participants were asked to measure their pulse waves while working for 4 weeks, and well-being was assessed using self-reported measures such as the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Flourishing Scale (FS). Each of the well-being scores were split into two groups according to the median value, and the LF/HF ratio during work, as well as the number of times an LF/HF ratio threshold was either exceeded or subceeded, were compared between the high and low SWLS, positive emotion, negative emotion, and FS groups. Furthermore, to examine the effects of the LF/HF ratio and demographic characteristics on well-being, a multiple regression analysis was conducted. Data were obtained from 169 participants. The results showed that the low FS group had a higher mean LF/HF ratio during work than the high FS group. No significant differences were seen between the high and low SWLS groups, the high and low positive emotion groups, or the high and low negative emotion groups. The multiple regression analysis showed that the mean LF/HF ratio during work affected the FS and SWLS scores, and the number of times the mean LF/HF ratio exceeded +3 SD had an effect on the positive emotion. No effect of the LF/HF ratio on negative emotions was shown. The LF/HF ratio might be applicable as an objective measure of well-being.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Trabalho , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal
5.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(10): e752-e759, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High emotional demands at work can affect employees' health and there is a need to understand whether such an association might be modified by other working conditions. We aimed to examine emotional demands at work as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence and analyse whether influence, possibilities for development, role conflicts, and physical demands at work might modify this risk. METHODS: We did a nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study in Denmark and included employed individuals who were residing in Denmark in 2000, aged 30-59 years, who had complete data on age, sex, and migration background, with information on emotional demands and possible effect modifiers from job exposure matrices, and covariates and outcome (sickness absence) from population registers. Individuals with long-term sickness absence (≥6 weeks of consecutive sickness absence) between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2000, and self-employed individuals were excluded. We assessed long-term sickness absence during a 10-year period from Jan 1, 2001, to Dec 31, 2010. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs and tested interaction as departure from additivity, estimating relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Multivariable adjusted models included sex, age, cohabitation, migration background, and income. FINDINGS: 1 521 352 employed individuals were included and contributed data between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2010. During 11 919 021 person-years (mean follow-up 7·8 years), we identified 480 685 new cases of long-term sickness absence. High emotional demands were associated with increased risk of long-term sickness absence compared with low emotional demands, after adjusting for age, sex, cohabitation, migration background, income, and the four possible effect modifiers (adjusted HR 1·55 [95% CI 1·53-1·56]). The association between high emotional demands and risk of long-term sickness absence was stronger in a synergistic way when individuals were also exposed to low possibilities for development (RERI 0·35 [95% CI 0·22-0·47]; 28·9 additional cases per 1000 person-years) and high role conflicts (0·13 [0·11-0·15]; 22·0 additional cases per 1000 person-years). No synergy was observed for influence and physical demands at work. INTERPRETATION: People in occupations with high emotional demands were at increased risk of long-term sickness absence. Our findings on synergistic interactions suggest that, in emotionally demanding occupations, increasing possibilities for development and reducing work-related role conflicts might reduce long-term sickness absence. Further interventional studies are needed to confirm or refute this hypothesis. FUNDING: Danish Work Environment Research Fund, NordForsk.


Assuntos
Emoções , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Lima; Perú. Autoridad Nacional del Servicio Civil; 1; 20210800. 52 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1292231

RESUMO

La Autoridad Nacional del Servicio Civil - SERVIR presenta esta investigación sobre las características generales de implementación del trabajo remoto en situación de emergencia con la finalidad de generar información relevante y objetiva para la readecuación de las políticas relativas al trabajo en el ámbito público, el mismo que cuenta con regulaciones específicas dadas por la institución.


Assuntos
Trabalho , Organizações , Setor Público , Identificação da Emergência , Estado , Políticas
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444948

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to estimate total energy expenditure (TEE) of fire-fighters using tri axial-accelerometers in conjunction with an activity log survey on a large number of subjects undergoing training mimicking a large-scale disaster. Subjects were 240 fire-fighters participating in a two-day fire-fighting training dedicated to large-scale natural disasters. Data was analyzed by job type of activity group and the job rank, and by comparing the average. The average TEE of the total survey training period is about 3619 (±499) kcal, which is the same value of expenditure for professional athletes during the soccer game season. From the activity group, the rescue and other teams consumed significantly more energy than the fire and Emergency Medical Team (EMS) teams. From the job rank, Fire Captain (conducting position) consumed significantly lower energy than the Fire Lieutenant and Fire Sergeant. Furthermore, it was found that a middle position rank consumed the most energy. This research supports a need to reconsider the current rescue food (and protocols) to supplement the energy expenditure of fire-fighters. In addition, since there was a significant difference between the job type and the job rank, it is necessary to examine the energy amount and shape suitable for each.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Metabolismo Energético , Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Resgate , Trabalho/fisiologia , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Adulto , Desastres , Bombeiros/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Treinamento por Simulação , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 9976048, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34306104

RESUMO

The present study used soils collected from a small-scale gold mine area to determine the health risks due to trace elements to the at-risk population in the study area. The work involved 74 soil samples from four sampling categories: 29 samples were from the mining pits (MD), 18 samples from the first washing area (WA), 17 samples from the second washing area (WB), and 10 samples from the control area (C). All samples were analyzed for Cr, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, and Hg using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Florescence (ED-XRF) method. Trace element levels were found to vary across the four sampling categories. The concentrations of trace elements recorded from different sampling categories varied in an increasing order of MD > WA > WB > C. Mercury was detected in the highest levels (max. 3.72 ± 0.15) at WB while it was not detected in the samples from C. Samples from MD indicated that Cu (max. 737.66 ± 1.3 mg/kg) was found in the highest levels whereas Hg (mean = 0.007 mg/kg) was the lowest. At WA, Cu (max. = 178.97 ± 2.46 mg/kg) registered the highest average concentration while Hg (mean = 0.05 mg/kg) had the lowest concentration. For WB, Cu (max. = 230.66 ± 3.99 mg/kg) was found in the highest concentration. The hazard index value for all exposure routes was found to be 1.77, making noncarcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the hazard index value was 9.11, showing a severe noncarcinogenic effect on children living in the study area. For the noncancer effects through the inhalation pathway, the risk posed by Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb was negligible for both adults and children, while Co posed the highest noncancer risk for children. Cobalt also indicated the highest noncancer risk for children through the dermal pathway, while As indicated the highest noncancer risk to children through ingestion. For the cancer risk, the adults were more at risk compared to children, except for As and Co through the dermal pathway posing the highest threat. Trace element concentrations, hazard quotient, and hazard index values indicated that the area was polluted and that noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects on residents and miners were significant. Therefore, there is a need to put in place mining regulations aimed at protecting the at-risk human population in the study area.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , Adulto , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/efeitos adversos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Oligoelementos/efeitos adversos , Oligoelementos/análise , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 100, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it is generally accepted that physical activity reduces the risk for chronic non-communicable disease and mortality, accumulating evidence suggests that occupational physical activity (OPA) may not confer the same health benefits as leisure time physical activity (LTPA). It is also unclear if workers in high OPA jobs benefit from LTPA the same way as those in sedentary jobs. Our objective was to determine whether LTPA and leisure time sedentary behaviour (LTSB) confer the same health effects across occupations with different levels of OPA. METHODS: Searches were run in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, ProQuest Public Health and Scopus from inception to June 9, 2020. Prospective or experimental studies which examined the effects of LTPA or LTSB on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal pain, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, arrhythmias and depression among adult workers grouped by OPA (low OPA/sitters, standers, moderate OPA/intermittent movers, high OPA/heavy labourers) were eligible. Results were synthesized using narrative syntheses and harvest plots, and certainty of evidence assessed with GRADE. RESULTS: The review includes 38 papers. Across all outcomes, except cardiovascular mortality, metabolic syndrome and atrial fibrillation, greater LTPA was consistently protective among low OPA, but conferred less protection among moderate and high OPA. For cardiovascular mortality and metabolic syndrome, higher levels of LTPA were generally associated with similar risk reductions among all OPA groups. Few studies examined effects in standers and none examined effects of LTSB across OPA groups. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that LTPA is beneficial for all workers, but with larger risk reductions among those with low compared to high OPA jobs. This suggests that, in our attempts to improve the health of workers through LTPA, tailored interventions for different occupational groups may be required. More high-quality studies are needed to establish recommended levels of LTPA/LTSB for different OPA groups. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO # CRD42020191708 .


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Emprego , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Estudos Prospectivos , Estresse Psicológico , Trabalho/fisiologia , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(26): 947-952, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197362

RESUMO

Increases in mental health conditions have been documented among the general population and health care workers since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (1-3). Public health workers might be at similar risk for negative mental health consequences because of the prolonged demand for responding to the pandemic and for implementing an unprecedented vaccination campaign. The extent of mental health conditions among public health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, however, is uncertain. A 2014 survey estimated that there were nearly 250,000 state and local public health workers in the United States (4). To evaluate mental health conditions among these workers, a nonprobability-based online survey was conducted during March 29-April 16, 2021, to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation among public health workers in state, tribal, local, and territorial public health departments. Among 26,174 respondents, 53.0% reported symptoms of at least one mental health condition in the preceding 2 weeks, including depression (32.0%), anxiety (30.3%), PTSD (36.8%), or suicidal ideation (8.4%). The highest prevalence of symptoms of a mental health condition was among respondents aged ≤29 years (range = 13.6%-47.4%) and transgender or nonbinary persons (i.e., those who identified as neither male nor female) of all ages (range = 30.4%-65.5%). Public health workers who reported being unable to take time off from work were more likely to report adverse mental health symptoms. Severity of symptoms increased with increasing weekly work hours and percentage of work time dedicated to COVID-19 response activities. Implementing prevention and control practices that eliminate, reduce, and manage factors that cause or contribute to public health workers' poor mental health might improve mental health outcomes during emergencies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Pública , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12244, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the interactive impacts between occupational physical burdens and psychological job demand or control on musculoskeletal pain (MSP) using nationally representative data for Korean workers. METHODS: Using 5th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS), we explored the interaction between occupational physical burdens and levels of psychological job demand or control on risk of MSP in 49 572 eligible participants. For quantitative evaluation of the interaction, relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was calculated. RESULTS: In a group with low job control and at least one occupational physical burden, odds ratio (OR) for neck and upper extremity pain was 2.44 (95% CI, 2.24-2.66) compared with a group with high job control and no physical burden (a reference group: lowest risk), which was the highest value among the four groups, and the RERI was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.19-0.51). Similarly, OR for lower extremity pain was 2.15 (95% CI, 1.95-2.37) and RERI was 0.26 (95% CI, 0.07-0.45). However, the RERI was not significant in the case of psychological job demand. CONCLUSION: This study revealed significant interactions between occupational physical burdens and low job control on MSP.


Assuntos
Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/complicações , Carga de Trabalho , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trabalho/fisiologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12246, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) on weekdays and weekends has been mainly assessed in white-collar workers, while data in blue-collar workers are sparse. Therefore, this study presented the difference in accelerometer-measured SB levels between weekdays and weekends, stratified by white- and blue-collar occupations. METHODS: This study was a sub-analysis of accelerometer data from 73 workers (31 blue-collar and 42 white-collar) at a Japanese manufacturing plant. SB was defined as ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents estimated using an accelerometer, and compared between weekdays and weekends by using mixed models adjusted for confounders. The proportion of workers who sat for ≤8 h/day on weekdays and weekends were compared using McNemar's test. RESULTS: In white-collar workers, SB time on weekdays was significantly longer than that on weekends (598 vs 479 min/day, P < .001). In blue-collar workers, there was no significant difference in SB time between weekdays and weekends (462 vs 485 min/day, P = .43). The proportion of workers who achieved the recommended SB levels (≤8 h) was only 4.8% for white-collar workers on weekdays and 54.8% on weekends (P = .04), while that of blue-collar workers was 45.2% and 58.1% respectively (P > .99). CONCLUSIONS: White-collar workers were exposed to significantly longer SB time on weekdays than on weekends, which was not the case in blue-collar workers. It may be rather challenging for white-collar workers to limit their SB time to the level recommended by the latest guidelines for better health, especially on weekdays.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores de Tempo , Trabalho/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 26(3): 155-174, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096761

RESUMO

Job demands may affect employee resilience in future stress events. However, not all job demands are equal. Drawing on the challenge-hindrance framework, we argue that challenge and hindrance demands differentially relate to psychological and physiological resilience. Further, based on the concept of habituation, we propose that it is essential to factor in temporal issues, that is job demands' variance. By including job demands' type, level, and variance we add to a more holistic understanding of the job demands-resilience relationship. To test our assumptions, we combined field and experimental data. Specifically, over the course of 1 month 63 employees repeatedly provided information on their experience of job challenge and hindrance demands. Following, using the paradigm of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) we exposed participants to an acute stress situation within a laboratory setting. Piecewise growth curve modeling revealed that moderate levels of challenge demands may enhance employees' ability to demonstrate psychological resilience. Further, moderate levels of challenge demands related to a stronger cortisol reactivity and marginally enhanced cortisol recovery. Hindrance demands as well as demands' variance did not affect employee resilience. Overall, our results suggest that moderate levels of challenge demands may train employees' resilience, particularly psychological resilience, in future stress events. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Apoio Social , Trabalho/psicologia
15.
J Occup Health Psychol ; 26(3): 224-242, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096763

RESUMO

Psychological detachment from work during off-job time is crucial to sustaining employee health and well-being. However, this can be difficult to achieve, particularly when job stress is high and recovery is most needed. Boosting detachment from work is therefore of interest to many employees and organizations, and over the last decade numerous interventions have been developed and evaluated. The aim of this meta-analysis was to review and statistically synthesize the state of research on interventions designed to improve detachment both at work and outside of it. After a systematic search (covering the period 1998-2020) of the published and unpublished literature, 30 studies with 34 interventions (N = 3,725) were included. Data were analyzed using a random-effects model. Interventions showed a significant positive effect on detachment from work (d = 0.36) on average. Moderator analyses revealed that it did not matter how the different studies conceptualized detachment but that the context in which detachment was measured (outside or at work) significantly influenced intervention effectiveness. Furthermore, using the stressor-detachment model as the organizing framework, we found that while interventions addressing job stressors or altering primary and secondary appraisal were all effective, only the interventions that addressed primary appraisal were more effective than those that did not. Additionally, while the delivery format did not moderate intervention effectiveness, interventions with longer durations and higher dosages were more effective than shorter and lower dosage interventions. Finally, interventions were more effective among older participants and participants with initial health or recovery-related impairments. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Trabalho/psicologia
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(6): e1009058, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133427

RESUMO

As part of a concerted pandemic response to protect public health, businesses can enact non-pharmaceutical controls to minimise exposure to pathogens in workplaces and premises open to the public. Amendments to working practices can lead to the amount, duration and/or proximity of interactions being changed, ultimately altering the dynamics of disease spread. These modifications could be specific to the type of business being operated. We use a data-driven approach to parameterise an individual-based network model for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 amongst the working population, stratified into work sectors. The network is comprised of layered contacts to consider the risk of spread in multiple encounter settings (workplaces, households, social and other). We analyse several interventions targeted towards working practices: mandating a fraction of the population to work from home; using temporally asynchronous work patterns; and introducing measures to create 'COVID-secure' workplaces. We also assess the general role of adherence to (or effectiveness of) isolation and test and trace measures and demonstrate the impact of all these interventions across a variety of relevant metrics. The progress of the epidemic can be significantly hindered by instructing a significant proportion of the workforce to work from home. Furthermore, if required to be present at the workplace, asynchronous work patterns can help to reduce infections when compared with scenarios where all workers work on the same days, particularly for longer working weeks. When assessing COVID-secure workplace measures, we found that smaller work teams and a greater reduction in transmission risk reduced the probability of large, prolonged outbreaks. Finally, following isolation guidance and engaging with contact tracing without other measures is an effective tool to curb transmission, but is highly sensitive to adherence levels. In the absence of sufficient adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions, our results indicate a high likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 spreading widely throughout a worker population. Given the heterogeneity of demographic attributes across worker roles, in addition to the individual nature of controls such as contact tracing, we demonstrate the utility of a network model approach to investigate workplace-targeted intervention strategies and the role of test, trace and isolation in tackling disease spread.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Modelos Biológicos , Local de Trabalho , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Med Lav ; 112(3): 229-240, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remote working (more appropriately, mandatory work from home) during the Covid-19 healthcare emergency has increased significantly. Amidst many critical issues, work-family conflict (WFC) remains a central topic, due to the hardships in separating different life domains, the pervasiveness of technology, and decreased opportunities for recovery, all considering new, emerging job demands. Although many studies have involved healthcare workers, less attention has been paid to technical-administrative staff (TA); moreover, previous studies about the impact of remote working on WFC have provided mixed results. OBJECTIVES: The study aims at examining the relationships between WFC and cognitive demands, off-work hours technology assisted job demands (off-TAJD) and recovery, in the TA of a hospital in northwest Italy. METHODS: A sample of 211 individuals (response rate of 58%), in line with the population, filled in an online self-report questionnaire in the second half of April 2020. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis showed a positive relationship between WFC and perceived ICT stress, off-TAJD and cognitive demands, and a negative relationship with recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the role of cognitive demands, technology overload and invasiveness, as potential predictors of WFC. The results also indicate the mitigating role of recovery, even in the face of a prolonged and forced experience of remote work. The study emphasises the need for transparent policies, based on trust, autonomy and right to disconnect, and the centrality of training, especially for supervisors, on topics such as evaluation of results, proper recovery management and correct use of technology.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Trabalho , Atenção à Saúde , Conflito Familiar , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teletrabalho , Carga de Trabalho
18.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed disease in nurses that, from recent years, has been linked to shift work and night work. Also, different components of work stress have such an impact on the nurses' health and work, family and social conciliation. The objective of this research was to analyze the family and working characteristics of Spanish nurses who perform shift work (including night shifts) in search of possible associations with manifestations of psychosomatic stress and the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted through a virtual questionnaire in a sample of 966 Registered Nurses in Spain between December 2019 and November 2020. A descriptive analysis of sociodemographic and occupational variables was performed, and statistically significant differences and associations were contrasted by estimating risks and confidence intervals. RESULTS: The number of night shifts throughout life and the number of years worked were statistically significant for the association with breast cancer. In addition, other psychosomatic manifestations such as insomnia, palpitations or extreme tiredness were highlighted. Among the most appreciated aspects to generate job satisfaction, co-worker's relationship was underlined. CONCLUSIONS: Rotating shift work can cause multiple clinical alterations that could lead to problems related to family conciliation, self-care or employment wellness. It is important to control the physical, psychological and emotional overload of nurses.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Família/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 160-174, ene.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1155521

RESUMO

Há crescente interesse sobre o comportamento abusivo sofrido por trabalhadores nas cozinhas de restaurantes comerciais, uma vez que agressões físicas e verbais parecem ser comuns neste contexto laboral. Este estudo objetivou identificar a prevalência do assédio moral e descrever as características das situações em que ele ocorre entre trabalhadores da gastronomia. Participaram do estudo 160 indivíduos com graduação em gastronomia, sendo que 95 eram do sexo feminino (59,4%), com idade média de 30,81 anos (DP = 8,34). Os mesmos responderam ao Questionário Biossociodemográfico e Laboral e ao Questionário de Atos Negativos, cujos dados foram analisados descritivamente. Os resultados indicaram elevados índices de prevalência de assédio moral (63,1%) e de violência psicológica (33,8%), que alertam sobre a importância de divulgar informações sobre o assédio moral e seus prejuízos, visando a uma maneira mais saudável de gerenciar e trabalhar na cozinha.


Great interest in abusive behavior suffered by workers in commercial restaurant kitchens was observed. In this work context, verbal and physical aggression seems to be common. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of moral harassment and describe the characteristics of the situations in which it occurs among gastronomy workers. Participants were 160 individuals undergraduate in gastronomy and 95 were female (59.4%), that have an average age of 30.81 years (SD = 8.34). The participants answered the Biosociodemographic and Labor Questionnaire and the Negative Acts Questionnaire, whose data were analyzed descriptively. The results indicated high prevalence rates of moral harassment (63.1%) and psychological violence (33.8%), which warn the importance of disclosing information about bullying and its harms, aiming at a healthier way to manage and work in the kitchen.


Una creciente preocupación por el comportamiento abusivo que sufren los trabajadores en las cocinas de restaurantes comerciales ha sido observada. Esta agresión puede ser verbal o física y parece ser común en este contexto laboral. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar la prevalencia del bullying y describir las características de las situaciones en las que ocurre entre los trabajadores de la gastronomía. Los participantes fueron 160 individuos con un título en gastronomía, de los cuales 95 eran mujeres (59.4%), con una edad promedio de 30.81 años (DE = 8.34). Los participantes respondieron el Cuestionario Biosociodemográfico y Laboral y el Cuestionario de Actos Negativos, cuyos datos fueron analizados descriptivamente. Los resultados indicaron altas tasas de prevalencia de acoso moral (63.1%) y violencia psicológica (33.8%), que advierten sobre la importancia de divulgar información sobre el acoso y sus daños, con el objetivo de una forma más saludable de manejar y trabajar en la cocina.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Restaurantes , Trabalho , Inquéritos e Questionários , Culinária , Agressão , Bullying , Violência no Trabalho , Categorias de Trabalhadores
20.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 129-144, ene.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1155519

RESUMO

Este estudo tem por objetivo discutir a atuação clínica da Psicologia em um serviço de apoio ao estudante universitário dentro de uma Instituição de Ensino Superior pública, por meio de um relato de experiência. Apresenta-se uma breve descrição do serviço, a implementação de um processo de triagem, a relação terapeuta e paciente, a psicoterapia breve, algumas queixas mais recorrentes no serviço, bem como limitações e potencialidades da atuação. Assim, entende-se que o trabalho psicoterapêutico de caráter breve, ainda que seja atravessado por desafios institucionais de ordem burocrática e administrativa, consegue ser efetivo e é valorizado pela comunidade acadêmica. Evidencia-se que a atuação clínica no contexto da educação superior é um campo profissional que pode ser mais explorado pela Psicologia.


In this article, we aim to discuss the clinical performance of Psychology in support service for university students within a Public Higher Education Institution, through an experience report. We present a brief description of the service, the implementation of a screening process, the relationship between therapist and patient, brief psychotherapy, more recurring complaints in the service, as well as limitations and potentialities of performance. Thus, we understand that psychotherapeutic work of a brief nature, even though it is traversed by institutional bureaucratic and administrative challenges, manages to be effective and is valued by the academic community. It is evident then that clinical practice in the context of College Education is a professional field that can be further explored by Psychology.


En este artículo, nuestro objetivo es discutir el desempeño clínico de la Psicología en un servicio de apoyo para estudiantes universitarios dentro de una institución pública de educación superior, a través de un informe de experiencia. Presentamos una breve descripción del servicio, la implementación de un proceso de detección, la relación entre terapeuta y paciente, psicoterapia breve, quejas más frecuentes en el servicio, así como limitaciones y potencialidades de desempeño. Así, entendemos que el trabajo psicoterapéutico breve, aunque esté atravesado por desafíos institucionales burocráticos y administrativos, logra ser efectivo y es valorado por la comunidad académica. Es evidente entonces que la práctica clínica en el contexto de la Educación Superior es un campo profesional que la Psicología puede seguir explorando.


Assuntos
Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicoterapia Breve , Serviços de Saúde para Estudantes , Estudantes , Universidades , Trabalho , Educação Superior
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