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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4627, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009389

RESUMO

Animals have evolved responses to low oxygen conditions to ensure their survival. Here, we have identified the C. elegans zinc finger transcription factor PQM-1 as a regulator of the hypoxic stress response. PQM-1 is required for the longevity of insulin signaling mutants, but surprisingly, loss of PQM-1 increases survival under hypoxic conditions. PQM-1 functions as a metabolic regulator by controlling oxygen consumption rates, suppressing hypoxic glycogen levels, and inhibiting the expression of the sorbitol dehydrogenase-1 SODH-1, a crucial sugar metabolism enzyme. PQM-1 promotes hypoxic fat metabolism by maintaining the expression of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase FAT-7, an oxygen consuming, rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis. PQM-1 activity positively regulates fat transport to developing oocytes through vitellogenins under hypoxic conditions, thereby increasing survival rates of arrested progeny during hypoxia. Thus, while pqm-1 mutants increase survival of mothers, ultimately this loss is detrimental to progeny survival. Our data support a model in which PQM-1 controls a trade-off between lipid metabolic activity in the mother and her progeny to promote the survival of the species under hypoxic conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Transativadores/metabolismo , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/embriologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Consumo de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Análise de Sobrevida , Transativadores/genética , Transcrição Genética , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4906, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999292

RESUMO

The CRISPR-Cas12a RNA-guided complexes have tremendous potential for nucleic acid detection but are limited to the picomolar detection limit without an amplification step. Here, we develop a platform with engineered crRNAs and optimized conditions that enabled us to detect various clinically relevant nucleic acid targets with higher sensitivity, achieving a limit of detection in the femtomolar range without any target pre-amplification step. By extending the 3'- or 5'-ends of the crRNA with different lengths of ssDNA, ssRNA, and phosphorothioate ssDNA, we discover a self-catalytic behavior and an augmented rate of LbCas12a-mediated collateral cleavage activity as high as 3.5-fold compared to the wild-type crRNA and with significant improvement in specificity for target recognition. Particularly, the 7-mer DNA extension to crRNA is determined to be universal and spacer-independent for enhancing the sensitivity and specificity of LbCas12a-mediated nucleic acid detection. We perform a detailed characterization of our engineered ENHANCE system with various crRNA modifications, target types, reporters, and divalent cations. With isothermal amplification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using RT-LAMP, the modified crRNAs are incorporated in a paper-based lateral flow assay that can detect the target with up to 23-fold higher sensitivity within 40-60 min.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/metabolismo , Endodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Transativadores/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , DNA de Cadeia Simples , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Viral/genética
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6221-6228, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft-tissue tumor, and its diagnosis is usually made histopathologically. The effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy has not been established. We elucidated prognostic factors, diagnostic markers, and therapeutic targets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases of MPNST were studied using next-generation sequencing. A total of 24 tumor samples, 11 from von Recklinghausen's disease-associated MPNST (vRH-MPNST), 11 from sporadic non-vRH MPNST, and two neurofibroma (NF) cases were retrieved, on which next-generation sequencing and survival analysis were performed. RESULTS: We identified NF1 gene mutations, including three mutations in two NFs, and 10 mutations in eight MPNSTs (five vRH-MPNSTs and three sporadic MPNSTs). Meningioma 1 (MN1) gene alteration was detected in six cases of vRH-MPNST. It is considered that MN1 gene alteration is related to the tumorigenesis of vRH-MPNST. CONCLUSION: MN1 gene mutation was detected in more than half of our cases, it may have potential for use as a therapeutic target in vRH-MPNST.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/genética , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/patologia , Transativadores/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Apoptose/genética , Genes da Neurofibromatose 1 , Humanos , Neurofibroma/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5455, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116140

RESUMO

The expansion of the white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity goes along with increased mechanical, metabolic and inflammatory stress. How adipocytes resist this stress is still poorly understood. Both in human and mouse adipocytes, the transcriptional co-activators YAP/TAZ and YAP/TAZ target genes become activated during obesity. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), mice lacking YAP/TAZ in white adipocytes develop severe lipodystrophy with adipocyte cell death. The pro-apoptotic factor BIM, which is downregulated in adipocytes of obese mice and humans, is strongly upregulated in YAP/TAZ-deficient adipocytes under HFD, and suppression of BIM expression reduces adipocyte apoptosis. In differentiated adipocytes, TNFα and IL-1ß promote YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation via activation of RhoA-mediated actomyosin contractility and increase YAP/TAZ-mediated transcriptional regulation by activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and AP-1. Our data indicate that the YAP/TAZ signaling pathway may be a target to control adipocyte cell death and compensatory adipogenesis during obesity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Animais , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/deficiência , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/genética , Transativadores/deficiência , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(19): 11016-11029, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035310

RESUMO

Studies of bacterial chromosomes and plasmids indicate that their replication initiator proteins bind to origins of replication at many double-stranded sites and also at AT-rich regions where single-stranded DNA is exposed during origin opening. Single-strand binding apparently promotes origin opening by stabilizing an open structure, but how the initiator participates in this process and the contributions of the several binding sites remain unclear. Here, we show that the initiator protein of Vibrio cholerae specific to chromosome 2 (Chr2) also has single-strand binding activity in the AT-rich region of its origin. Binding is strand specific, depends on repeats of the sequence 5'ATCA and is greatly stabilized in vitro by specific double-stranded sites of the origin. The stability derives from the formation of ternary complexes of the initiator with the single- and double-stranded sites. An IHF site lies between these two kinds of sites in the Chr2 origin and an IHF-induced looping out of the intervening DNA mediates their interaction. Simultaneous binding to two kinds of sites in the origin appears to be a common mechanism by which bacterial replication initiators stabilize an open origin.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cromossomos Bacterianos/metabolismo , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Ligação Proteica , Origem de Replicação
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5079, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033234

RESUMO

Tumor heterogeneity and lack of knowledge about resistant cell states remain a barrier to targeted cancer therapies. Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) depend on Hedgehog (Hh)/Gli signaling, but can develop mechanisms of Smoothened (SMO) inhibitor resistance. We previously identified a nuclear myocardin-related transcription factor (nMRTF) resistance pathway that amplifies noncanonical Gli1 activity, but characteristics and drivers of the nMRTF cell state remain unknown. Here, we use single cell RNA-sequencing of patient tumors to identify three prognostic surface markers (LYPD3, TACSTD2, and LY6D) which correlate with nMRTF and resistance to SMO inhibitors. The nMRTF cell state resembles transit-amplifying cells of the hair follicle matrix, with AP-1 and TGFß cooperativity driving nMRTF activation. JNK/AP-1 signaling commissions chromatin accessibility and Smad3 DNA binding leading to a transcriptional program of RhoGEFs that facilitate nMRTF activity. Importantly, small molecule AP-1 inhibitors selectively target LYPD3+/TACSTD2+/LY6D+ nMRTF human BCCs ex vivo, opening an avenue for improving combinatorial therapies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Ontologia Genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células NIH 3T3 , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
7.
Science ; 370(6514)2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060329

RESUMO

Biological systems tailor their properties and behavior to their size throughout development and in numerous aspects of physiology. However, such size scaling remains poorly understood as it applies to cell mechanics and mechanosensing. By examining how the Drosophila pupal dorsal thorax epithelium responds to morphogenetic forces, we found that the number of apical stress fibers (aSFs) anchored to adherens junctions scales with cell apical area to limit larger cell elongation under mechanical stress. aSFs cluster Hippo pathway components, thereby scaling Hippo signaling and proliferation with area. This scaling is promoted by tricellular junctions mediating an increase in aSF nucleation rate and lifetime in larger cells. Development, homeostasis, and repair entail epithelial cell size changes driven by mechanical forces; our work highlights how, in turn, mechanosensitivity scales with cell size.


Assuntos
Epitélio/fisiologia , Mecanotransdução Celular , Fibras de Estresse/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico , Animais , Caderinas/metabolismo , Tamanho Celular , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Miosina Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5156, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056990

RESUMO

The most frequent genetic alterations across multiple human cancers are mutations in TP53 and the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, two events crucial for cancer progression. Mutations in TP53 lead to the inhibition of the tumour and metastasis suppressor TAp63, a p53 family member. By performing a mouse-human cross species analysis between the TAp63 metastatic mammary adenocarcinoma mouse model and models of human breast cancer progression, we identified two TAp63-regulated oncogenic lncRNAs, TROLL-2 and TROLL-3. Further, using a pan-cancer analysis of human cancers and multiple mouse models of tumour progression, we revealed that these two lncRNAs induce the activation of AKT to promote cancer progression by regulating the nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of their effector, WDR26, via the shuttling protein NOLC1. Our data provide preclinical rationale for the implementation of these lncRNAs and WDR26 as therapeutic targets for the treatment of human tumours dependent upon mutant TP53 and/or the PI3K/AKT pathway.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Transativadores/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5210, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060578

RESUMO

Human insulinomas are rare, benign, slowly proliferating, insulin-producing beta cell tumors that provide a molecular "recipe" or "roadmap" for pathways that control human beta cell regeneration. An earlier study revealed abnormal methylation in the imprinted p15.5-p15.4 region of chromosome 11, known to be abnormally methylated in another disorder of expanded beta cell mass and function: the focal variant of congenital hyperinsulinism. Here, we compare deep DNA methylome sequencing on 19 human insulinomas, and five sets of normal beta cells. We find a remarkably consistent, abnormal methylation pattern in insulinomas. The findings suggest that abnormal insulin (INS) promoter methylation and altered transcription factor expression create alternative drivers of INS expression, replacing canonical PDX1-driven beta cell specification with a pathological, looping, distal enhancer-based form of transcriptional regulation. Finally, NFaT transcription factors, rather than the canonical PDX1 enhancer complex, are predicted to drive INS transactivation.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Insulinoma/genética , Insulinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Sítios de Ligação , Biologia Computacional , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008767, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903273

RESUMO

Many viruses target signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 to antagonise antiviral interferon signalling, but targeting of STAT3, a pleiotropic molecule that mediates signalling by diverse cytokines, is poorly understood. Here, using lyssavirus infection, quantitative live cell imaging, innate immune signalling and protein interaction assays, and complementation/depletion of STAT expression, we show that STAT3 antagonism is conserved among P-proteins of diverse pathogenic lyssaviruses and correlates with pathogenesis. Importantly, P-protein targeting of STAT3 involves a highly selective mechanism whereby P-protein antagonises cytokine-activated STAT3-STAT1 heterodimers, but not STAT3 homodimers. RT-qPCR and reporter gene assays indicate that this results in specific modulation of interleukin-6-dependent pathways, effecting differential antagonism of target genes. These data provide novel insights into mechanisms by which viruses can modulate cellular function to support infection through discriminatory targeting of immune signalling complexes. The findings also highlight the potential application of selective interferon-antagonists as tools to delineate signalling by particular STAT complexes, significant not only to pathogen-host interactions but also cell physiology, development and cancer.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lyssavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/virologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transativadores , Proteínas Virais/genética
11.
ACS Nano ; 14(10): 13964-13974, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930583

RESUMO

RNA quantification methods are broadly used in life science research and in clinical diagnostics. Currently, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most common analytical tool for RNA quantification. However, in cases of rare transcripts or inhibiting contaminants in the sample, an extensive amplification could bias the copy number estimation, leading to quantification errors and false diagnosis. Single-molecule techniques may bypass amplification but commonly rely on fluorescence detection and probe hybridization, which introduces noise and limits multiplexing. Here, we introduce reverse transcription quantitative nanopore sensing (RT-qNP), an RNA quantification method that involves synthesis and single-molecule detection of gene-specific cDNAs without the need for purification or amplification. RT-qNP allows us to accurately quantify the relative expression of metastasis-associated genes MACC1 and S100A4 in nonmetastasizing and metastasizing human cell lines, even at levels for which RT-qPCR quantification produces uncertain results. We further demonstrate the versatility of the method by adapting it to quantify severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA against a human reference gene. This internal reference circumvents the need for producing a calibration curve for each measurement, an imminent requirement in RT-qPCR experiments. In summary, we describe a general method to process complicated biological samples with minimal losses, adequate for direct nanopore sensing. Thus, harnessing the sensitivity of label-free single-molecule counting, RT-qNP can potentially detect minute expression levels of RNA biomarkers or viral infection in the early stages of disease and provide accurate amplification-free quantification.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Nanoporos , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas Biossensoriais/normas , Células HCT116 , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/genética , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula/normas , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1008979, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877410

RESUMO

The ascomycete Trichoderma reesei is a highly prolific cellulase producer. While XYR1 (Xylanase regulator 1) has been firmly established to be the master activator of cellulase gene expression in T. reesei, its precise transcriptional activation mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, TrGAL11, a component of the Mediator tail module, was identified as a putative interacting partner of XYR1. Deletion of Trgal11 markedly impaired the induced expression of most (hemi)cellulase genes, but not that of the major ß-glucosidase encoding genes. This differential involvement of TrGAL11 in the full induction of cellulase genes was reflected by the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment on their core promoters, indicating that TrGAL11 was required for the efficient transcriptional initiation of the majority of cellulase genes. In addition, we found that TrGAL11 recruitment to cellulase gene promoters largely occurred in an XYR1-dependent manner. Although xyr1 expression was significantly tuned down without TrGAL11, the binding of XYR1 to cellulase gene promoters did not entail TrGAL11. These results indicate that TrGAL11 represents a direct in vivo target of XYR1 and may play a critical role in contributing to Mediator and the following RNA Pol II recruitment to ensure the induced cellulase gene expression.


Assuntos
Celulase/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Trichoderma/genética , Celulase/biossíntese , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Complexo Mediador/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica/genética , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Transativadores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4653, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938923

RESUMO

Cancer cells demand excess nutrients to support their proliferation, but how tumours exploit extracellular amino acids during systemic metabolic perturbations remain incompletely understood. Here, we use a Drosophila model of high-sugar diet (HSD)-enhanced tumourigenesis to uncover a systemic host-tumour metabolic circuit that supports tumour growth. We demonstrate coordinate induction of systemic muscle wasting with tumour-autonomous Yorkie-mediated SLC36-family amino acid transporter expression as a proline-scavenging programme to drive tumourigenesis. We identify Indole-3-propionic acid as an optimal amino acid derivative to rationally target the proline-dependency of tumour growth. Insights from this whole-animal Drosophila model provide a powerful approach towards the identification and therapeutic exploitation of the amino acid vulnerabilities of tumourigenesis in the context of a perturbed systemic metabolic network.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/fisiopatologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Carcinogênese , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Larva , Debilidade Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Debilidade Muscular/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/etiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Proteínas ras/genética
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008613, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898134

RESUMO

Although enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) has been implicated as a common cause of diarrhea in multiple settings, neither its essential genomic nature nor its role as an enteric pathogen are fully understood. The current definition of this pathotype requires demonstration of cellular adherence; a working molecular definition encompasses E. coli which do not harbor the heat-stable or heat-labile toxins of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and harbor the genes aaiC, aggR, and/or aatA. In an effort to improve the definition of this pathotype, we report the most definitive characterization of the pan-genome of EAEC to date, applying comparative genomics and functional characterization on a collection of 97 EAEC strains isolated in the course of a multicenter case-control diarrhea study (Global Enteric Multi-Center Study, GEMS). Genomic analysis revealed that the EAEC strains mapped to all phylogenomic groups of E. coli. Circa 70% of strains harbored one of the five described AAF variants; there were no additional AAF variants identified, and strains that lacked an identifiable AAF generally did not have an otherwise complete AggR regulon. An exception was strains that harbored an ETEC colonization factor (CF) CS22, like AAF a member of the chaperone-usher family of adhesins, but not phylogenetically related to the AAF family. Of all genes scored, sepA yielded the strongest association with diarrhea (P = 0.002) followed by the increased serum survival gene, iss (p = 0.026), and the outer membrane protease gene ompT (p = 0.046). Notably, the EAEC genomes harbored several genes characteristically associated with other E. coli pathotypes. Our data suggest that a molecular definition of EAEC could comprise E. coli strains harboring AggR and a complete AAF(I-V) or CS22 gene cluster. Further, it is possible that strains meeting this definition could be both enteric bacteria and urinary/systemic pathogens.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transativadores/genética , Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Ann Hematol ; 99(11): 2611-2617, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980888

RESUMO

EP300-ZNF384 fusion is a rare recurrent cytogenetic abnormality associated with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which was rarely studied in Chinese patient cohort. Here, we used a customized RNA fusion gene panel to investigate gene fusions in 56 selected acute leukemia patients without conventional genetic abnormalities. Two EP300-ZNF384 fusion forms were detected in ten cases, which were in-frame fusions of EP300 exon 6 fused with exon 3 or 2 of ZNF384. The fusions led to the lack of most functional domains of EP300. We firstly reported EP300-ZNF384 fusion in a mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) patient whose CD33 and CD13 were negative. The rest nine B-ALL patients with EP300-ZNF384 fusion expressed CD33 and/or CD13. Fifty-six percent of B-ALL patients (5/9) with EP300-ZNF384 fusion were positive with CD10. After the diagnosis of EP300-ZNF384 fusion, 70% of the patients achieved remission after chemotherapy. Our observations indicated that EP300-ZNF384 fusion consists of a distinct subgroup of B-ALL with a characteristic immunophenotype. These patients are sensitive to current chemotherapy regimen and have an excellent outcome.


Assuntos
Proteína p300 Associada a E1A , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , RNA Neoplásico , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transativadores , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/genética , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4455, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901005

RESUMO

Dysregulated alternative splicing (AS) driving carcinogenetic mitosis remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that cancer metastasis-associated antigen 1 (MTA1), a well-known oncogenic chromatin modifier, broadly interacts and co-expresses with RBPs across cancers, contributing to cancerous mitosis-related AS. Using developed fCLIP-seq technology, we show that MTA1 binds abundant transcripts, preferentially at splicing-responsible motifs, influencing the abundance and AS pattern of target transcripts. MTA1 regulates the mRNA level and guides the AS of a series of mitosis regulators. MTA1 deletion abrogated the dynamic AS switches of variants for ATRX and MYBL2 at mitotic stage, which are relevant to mitosis-related tumorigenesis. MTA1 dysfunction causes defective mitotic arrest, leads to aberrant chromosome segregation, and results in chromosomal instability (CIN), eventually contributing to tumorigenesis. Currently, little is known about the RNA splicing during mitosis; here, we uncover that MTA1 binds transcripts and orchestrates dynamic splicing of mitosis regulators in tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Mitose/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Mitose/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/genética , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transativadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Transativadores/genética
17.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008886, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931525

RESUMO

Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating diseases in citrus. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) has shown a durable resistance against Xcc. Here, we aimed to characterize the mechanisms responsible for such a durable resistance by characterizing the transcriptional and physiological responses of Meiwa kumquat to Xcc. Inoculation of Meiwa kumquat with Xcc promoted immune responses such as upregulation of PR genes, accumulation of salicylic acid, hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death and early leaf abscission. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia symptoms, which are known to be caused by Xcc-induction of the canker susceptibility gene LOB1 through the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) PthA4, always appear prior to the development of cell death. Mutation of pthA4 in Xcc abolished the induction of LOB1, canker symptoms, cell death, and leaf abscission and reduced the expression of PR genes in inoculated kumquat leaves without reducing Xcc titers in planta. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that PthA4 promotes plant biotic and abiotic stress responses and the biosynthesis of abscisic acid. Transcriptional induction of LOB1 homologs in Meiwa kumquat by Xcc pthA4 mutant strains carrying a repertoire of designer TALEs promoted the elicitation of HR-like phenotype and leaf abscission, suggesting that kumquat response to Xcc is associated with upregulation of LOB1. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of plant resistance to Xanthomonas via elicitation of immune responses by upregulation of a host susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Citrus , Genes de Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas , Transativadores , Xanthomonas/imunologia , Citrus/genética , Citrus/imunologia , Citrus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/imunologia
18.
Infect Immun ; 88(11)2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817331

RESUMO

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen and major cause of disease worldwide. The molecular pathogenesis of GAS, like many pathogens, is dependent on the coordinated expression of genes encoding different virulence factors. The control of virulence regulator/sensor (CovRS) two-component system is a major virulence regulator of GAS that has been extensively studied. More recent investigations have also involved regulator of Cov (RocA), a regulatory accessory protein to CovRS. RocA interacts, in some manner, with CovRS; however, the precise molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that RocA is a membrane protein containing seven transmembrane helices with an extracytoplasmically located N terminus and cytoplasmically located C terminus. For the first time, we demonstrate that RocA directly interacts with itself (RocA) and CovS, but not CovR, in intact cells. Single amino acid replacements along the entire length of RocA disrupt RocA-RocA and RocA-CovS interactions to significantly alter the GAS virulence phenotype as defined by secreted virulence factor activity in vitro and tissue destruction and mortality in vivo In summary, we show that single amino acid replacements in a regulatory accessory protein can affect protein-protein interactions to significantly alter the virulence of a major human pathogen.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Fasciite Necrosante/microbiologia , Histidina Quinase/genética , Miosite/microbiologia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Transativadores/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fasciite Necrosante/metabolismo , Fasciite Necrosante/mortalidade , Fasciite Necrosante/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Histidina Quinase/química , Histidina Quinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Miosite/metabolismo , Miosite/mortalidade , Miosite/patologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/mortalidade , Infecções Estreptocócicas/patologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus pyogenes/metabolismo , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Transativadores/química , Transativadores/metabolismo , Virulência
19.
Life Sci ; 259: 118241, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791147

RESUMO

AIMS: Compelling evidences demonstrate that informative RNAs play essential role in therapy of atherosclerosis. Here, we attempted to study the role of hsa_circ_0000345 (circRSF1) in endothelial cell damage through competing endogenous RNA pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of circRSF1, miRNA-758-3p (miR-758) and cyclin D2 (CCND2) was detected using RT-qPCR and western blotting, and the cross-talk among them was identified using dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell growth was measured by MTS assay, flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay kit. Migration and tube formation were determined by scratch migration assay and tube formation assay, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: CircRSF1 and CCND2 were downregulated, whereas miR-758 was upregulated in serum of patients with atherosclerosis and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Moreover, levels of circRSF1, miR-758 and CCND2 were correlated with circulating LDL-C level. Restoring circRSF1 and silencing miR-758 could improve cell viability, tube formation and migration of HAECs under ox-LDL treatment, as well as attenuated apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity. However, miR-758 upregulation counteracted the promotion of circRSF1 on cell growth, migration and tube formation in ox-LDL-induced HAECs; so did CCND2 deletion on effect of miR-758 silence. Notably, circRSF1 and CCND2 could competitively bound to miR-758, and circRSF1 positively regulated CCND2 expression via miR-758. SIGNIFICANCE: CircRSF1 could protect against ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell injury in vitro via miR-758/CCND2 axis, suggesting circRSF1 as a potential target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Ciclina D2/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/sangue , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , RNA Circular/sangue , Transativadores/genética , Adulto , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D2/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Circular/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Science ; 370(6513): 241-247, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855215

RESUMO

Recent outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have exposed our limited therapeutic options for such diseases and our poor understanding of the cellular mechanisms that block viral infections. Using a transposon-mediated gene-activation screen in human cells, we identify that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator (CIITA) has antiviral activity against EBOV. CIITA induces resistance by activating expression of the p41 isoform of invariant chain CD74, which inhibits viral entry by blocking cathepsin-mediated processing of the Ebola glycoprotein. We further show that CD74 p41 can block the endosomal entry pathway of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2. These data therefore implicate CIITA and CD74 in host defense against a range of viruses, and they identify an additional function of these proteins beyond their canonical roles in antigen presentation.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Transativadores/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Endossomos/virologia , Testes Genéticos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transativadores/genética , Transcrição Genética
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