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3.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 48, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the association between cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4*22 and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR)*28 variations and the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus. METHODS: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science (SCI), MEDLINE, and Embase were systematically searched from inception to August 2022. The outcomes were weight-adjusted daily dose and dose-adjusted trough concentration (C0/Dose). RESULTS: The study included 2931 renal transplant recipients from 18 publications. Weight-adjusted daily dose of CYP3A4*1/*1 carriers was 0.04 (WMD = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.06), 0.03 (WMD = 0.03, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.05), 0.02 (WMD = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.03), or 0.02 mg/kg/day (WMD = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.04) higher than CYP3A4*22 carriers in Caucasians at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, or 12 months post-transplantation. Conversely, C0/Dose was lower for CYP3A4*1/*1 carriers at 3 days (SMD = -0.35, 95% CI: -0.65 to -0.06), 1 month (SMD = -0.67, 95% CI: -1.16 to -0.18), 3 months (SMD = -0.60, 95% CI: -0.89 to -0.31), 6 months (SMD = -0.76, 95% CI: -1.49 to -0.04), or 12 months post-transplantation (SMD = -0.69, 95% CI: -1.37 to 0.00). Furthermore, C0/Dose of POR*1/*1 carriers was 22.64 (WMD = 22.64, 95% CI: 2.54 to 42.74) or 19.41 (ng/ml)/(mg/kg/day) (WMD = 19.41, 95% CI: 9.58 to 29.24) higher than POR*28 carriers in CYP3A5 expressers at 3 days or 7 days post-transplantation, and higher in Asians at 6 months post-transplantation (SMD = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.50 to 1.43). CONCLUSIONS: CYP3A4*22 variant in Caucasians restrains the metabolism of tacrolimus, while POR*28 variant in CYP3A5 expressers enhances the metabolism of tacrolimus for renal transplant recipients. However, further well-designed prospective studies are necessary to substantiate these conclusions given some limitations.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Tacrolimo , Humanos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Imunossupressores , Estudos Prospectivos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transplantados , Genótipo
4.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 24(2): 4, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360955

RESUMO

CYP3A5 genetic variants are associated with tacrolimus metabolism. Controversy remains on whether CYP3A4 increased [*1B (rs2740574), *1 G (rs2242480)] and decreased function [*22 (rs35599367)] genetic variants provide additional information. This retrospective cohort study aims to address whether tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentrations differ between combined CYP3A (CYP3A5 and CYP3A4) phenotype groups. Heart transplanted patients (n = 177, between 2008 and 2020) were included and median age was 54 years old. Significant differences between CYP3A phenotype groups in tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentrations were found in the early postoperative period and continued to 6 months post-transplant. In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, carriers of CYP3A4*1B or *1 G variants (Group 3) compared to CYP3A4*1/*1 (Group 2) patients were found to have lower tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentrations at 2 months. In addition, significant differences were found among CYP3A phenotype groups in the dose at discharge and time to therapeutic range while time in therapeutic range was not significantly different. A combined CYP3A phenotype interpretation may provide more nuanced genotype-guided TAC dosing in heart transplant recipients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Tacrolimo , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fenótipo , Genótipo , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplantados
5.
Transpl Int ; 37: 12019, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323070

RESUMO

Solid organ transplant recipients are at an increased risk of developing skin cancers due to chronic immunosuppression, particularly with calcineurin inhibitors. Tacrolimus is the most prescribed calcineurin inhibitor in this patient cohort, and understanding tacrolimus concentrations in the skin will facilitate the development of anti-cancer preventive and therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that in mice, tacrolimus blood levels peaked rapidly ∼1 h post last oral dose while skin levels rose more slowly and remained high for at least 6 h. Subsequently, tacrolimus skin and blood concentrations were assessed in 15 kidney transplant recipients. The mean age was 61 years, the average time post-transplant was 7 years (range 0-21 years) and 87% were male. The average skin sampling time post tacrolimus dosing was 6 h 32 min. Skin tacrolimus concentrations ranged from 7.1 ng/g to 71.2 ng/g and correlated with blood concentrations (r = 0.6). Mouse and human mean skin concentrations were in a similar range. Our data suggests that tacrolimus measurements in the blood may be used to approximate tacrolimus concentrations in the skin of kidney transplant recipients, and further exploited for the delivery of anti-cancer therapies designed to antagonize the immunosuppressive effects of tacrolimus in the skin.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Tacrolimo , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Inibidores de Calcineurina , Transplantados
6.
Transpl Int ; 37: 12192, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328616

RESUMO

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) remains life-threatening in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Our study investigated risk factors one-year before PcP. We conducted a monocentric, case-control study including all KTR at the Dijon University Hospital (France) with a diagnosis of PcP between 2005 and 2022 (cases), and matched control KTR with no history of PcP (3 controls/case). Among all 1,135 KTR, 57 cases (5%) and 169 matched-controls were included. PcP was associated with 18% mortality. Compared to controls, cases were older, with a higher immunological risk, and CMV infection was more frequent in the year preceding the occurrence of PcP (23% vs. 4%; p < 0.001). As early as 1 year before PcP, lymphocyte counts were lower and serum creatinine levels were higher in cases, but immunosuppressive regimens were not significantly different. Multivariable analysis identified lymphocyte count, serum creatinine level, being treated by immunosuppressive therapy other than anti-rejection drugs, and CMV infection in the year preceding the time PcP as independently associated with the occurrence of PcP. PcP was associated with an increased risk of subsequent chronic rejection (27% vs. 3%; p = 0.001) and return to dialysis (20% vs. 3%; p = 0.002). The occurrence of CMV infection and a low lymphocyte count could redefine the indications for continuation or reinitiation of anti-Pneumocystis prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Rim , Linfopenia , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Trombocitopenia , Humanos , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Creatinina , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Linfopenia/complicações , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Transplantados , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Transpl Int ; 37: 12061, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328617

RESUMO

Lung transplant (LTx) recipients are at high risk for COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality. Data regarding pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tixagevimab-cilgavimab in this population are scarce. We therefore evaluated COVID-19 breakthrough infections and COVID-19 related complications after PrEP in a retrospective single-center study, including 264 LTx recipients who received PrEP between June 2022 and December 2022, when Omicron BA.5 was the dominant circulating SARS-CoV-2 variant. PrEP was indicated for fully vaccinated patients with poor seroconversion (anti-S <260 BAU/mL). COVID-19 breakthrough infection after PrEP occurred in 11.0% within the first 3 months, increasing to 17.4% within 6 months. Hospitalization rate rose from 27.6% to 52.9% (p = 0.046), while ICU admissions and COVID-19 mortality remained low, respectively occurring in 6.5% and 4.3% of patients with breakthrough infection within 6 months. COVID-19 breakthrough infection and associated hospitalization remained an important problem during the Omicron BA.5 surge in fully vaccinated LTx recipients with deficient seroconversion, despite PrEP with tixagevimab-cilgavimab. However, ICU admissions and COVID-19 mortality were low. Waning of neutralizing effects of PrEP and changing circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants may explain increases in COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations over time after PrEP, highlighting the need for novel, long-term effective PrEP strategies in these high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Infecções Irruptivas , COVID-19 , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplantados , Pulmão
8.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(1): e14671, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent solid organ transplant recipients (aSOTRs) who received three doses of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine experience high seroconversion rates and antibody persistence for up to 3 months. Long-term antibody durability beyond this timeframe following three doses of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine remains unknown. We describe antibody responses 6 months following the third vaccine dose (D3) of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination among aSOTRs. METHODS: Participants in a multi-center, observational cohort who received the third dose of the vaccine were analyzed for antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2-S positive: ≥0.8, maximum: >2500 U/mL). Samples were collected at 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-D3. Participants were surveyed at each timepoint and at 12-months post-D3. RESULTS: All 34 participants had positive anti-RBD antibody titers 6 months post-D3. Variations in titers occurred between 3 and 6 months post-D3, with 8/28 (29%) having decreased antibody levels at 6 months compared to 3 months and 2/28 (7%) reporting increased titers at 6 months. The remaining 18/28 (64%) had unchanged antibody titers compared to 3-month post-D3 levels. A total of 4/34 (12%) reported breakthrough infection within 6 months and 3/32 (9%) reported infection after 6-12 months following the third dose of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that antibody durability persists up to 6 months following three doses of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in aSOTRs. Demography and transplant characteristics did not differ for those who experienced antibody weaning. Breakthrough infections did occur, reflecting immune-evasive nature of novel variants such as Omicron.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transplante de Órgãos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Adolescente , Humanos , Anticorpos , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Vacinas de mRNA , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplantados , Vacinação , Estudos de Coortes
10.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(1): e14665, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) complications in lung transplant recipients can occur any time during the post-operative period, leading to prolonged morbidity and mortality. Despite the negative association between GI complications and patient outcomes, little is known about their incidence and risk factors for their development in pediatric lung transplant recipients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review at one pediatric tertiary center to describe the frequency of GI complications in lung transplant recipients. We identified potential risk factors for the diagnosis of gastroparesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and aspiration in the post-transplant period. Lastly, we investigated the association of these complications with mortality and graft survival. RESULTS: 84.3% of lung transplant recipients experienced at least one GI complication in the post-transplant period. Gastroparesis (52.9%), GERD (41.2%), and oropharyngeal dysphagia/laryngeal penetration (33.3%) were the most common complications diagnosed. Post-operative opioid exposure was a risk factor for gastroparesis, with the odds increasing 3.0% each day a patient was prescribed opioids (p = .021). The risk of death or retransplant in individuals who experienced gastroparesis was 2.7 times higher than those not diagnosed with gastroparesis (p = .027). CONCLUSION: Exposure to opioids in the post-operative period is a risk factor for gastroparesis and a prolonged hospitalization placed patients at risk for aspiration. Gastroparesis was associated with increased patient mortality and graft failure, while aspiration and GERD had no effect on long term outcomes. Future prospective studies investigating the relationship between opioid use and the development of a gastroparesis are necessary to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Gastroenteropatias , Gastroparesia , Transplante de Pulmão , Humanos , Criança , Gastroparesia/etiologia , Gastroparesia/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Analgésicos Opioides , Transplantados , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Pulmão
11.
12.
Clin Exp Med ; 24(1): 3, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immunosuppression after kidney transplantation (KTx) exposes recipients to Human Polyomaviruses (HPyVs) infections, whose natural history is still misunderstood. METHODS: Allograft biopsies, and urine from 58 donor-recipient pairs were collected before KTx (T0) and 1 (T1), 15 (T2), 30 (T3), 60 (T4), 90 (T5), 180 (T6), 270 (T7), 360 (T8), and 540 (T9) days after transplant. Specimens were tested for JC (JCPyV) and BK (BKPyV), by quantitative Real-Time PCR. The course of post-KTx HPyVs viruria, and the association between JCPyV viruria in recipients and donors, were evaluated. RESULTS: HPyVs were detected in 3/58 (5.2%) allograft biopsies. HPyVs viruria was present in 29/58 (50%) donors and 41/58 (70.7%) recipients. JCPyV DNA was detected in 26/58 (44.8%) donors and 25/58 recipients (43.1%), 19 of whom received kidney from JCPyV positive donor, whereas BKPyV genome was detected in 3 (5.2%) donors and 22 (37.9%) recipients. The median time of JCPyV, and BKPyV first episode of replication was 1, and 171 days post KTx, respectively. At T0, JCPyV viruria of donors was associated with increased risk of JCPyV replication post-KTx; recipients with JCPyV positive donors showed lower risk of BKPyV replication post-KTx. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that JCPyV may be transmitted by allograft, and that its replication post KTx might prevent BKPyV reactivation. Future investigation regarding correlation between chronic exposure to immunosuppressive agents and HPyVs urinary replication are warranted.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Polyomavirus , Humanos , Polyomavirus/genética , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Estudos Longitudinais , Rim , Transplantados
13.
Clin Nephrol ; 101(3): 152-154, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214175

RESUMO

Opportunistic infections are common in transplant recipients, but gastrointestinal bleed is rarely reported to be due to opportunistic fungal infections, and hence could present as a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a kidney transplant recipient whose initial presentation was acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding with no other symptoms. The colonoscopy showed scattered punchout circular colonic ulcers with biopsy revealing budding yeasts consistent with a diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The patient was successfully treated with a prolonged course of intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral itraconazole.


Assuntos
Histoplasmose , Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplantados , Itraconazol , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Histoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Histoplasmose/patologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Cardiol Young ; 34(2): 233-237, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258454

RESUMO

In the 1980s, heart transplantation was the first successful treatment for infants born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Infants who have required heart transplantation benefit from immunologic "advantages," including long-term survival free from cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Currently ∼ 90% of children undergoing a heart transplant are reaching their first-year anniversary and the clinical practices of paediatric heart transplantation have dramatically improved. These successes are largely attributed to research sponsored by the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study Group, the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation and, more recently, the Non-profits Enduring Hearts and Additional Ventures. Despite these successes, the field is challenged to increase progress to achieve long-term survival into adulthood. The wait-list mortality, especially among infants, is unacceptably high often leading to palliative measures that can increase post-transplant mortality. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy remains a major cause for progressive graft loss of function and sudden death. The relative tolerance seen in immature recipients has not been translated to modifying older recipients' post-transplant outcomes. The modifiable cause(s) for the increased risks of transplantation in children of different ethnicities and races require definition. Addressing these challenges faces the reality that for-profit research favours funding adult recipients, with ∼ 10-fold greater numbers, and their more modest longevity goals. Advocacy for funding "incentives" such as the Orphan Drug rules in the United States and upholding principles of equity and inclusion are critical to addressing the challenges of paediatric heart transplant recipients worldwide.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Transplante de Coração , Síndrome do Coração Esquerdo Hipoplásico , Lactente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Transplantados , Taxa de Sobrevida , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 26(1): e14233, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are a common complication after kidney transplantation (KTx) and negatively affecting patient outcome. Valganciclovir (VGC) prophylaxis is often limited by drug-induced side effects and dose reduction due to decline in kidney function. METHOD: In the present study, episodes of CMV viremia in the first year after KTx in a cohort of 316 recipients were analyzed retrospectively to identify risk factors linked to persistent infections. RESULTS: In the studied cohort, 18.7% of patients showed a high-risk (HR) constellation (D+/R-) for CMV infections. CMV viremia affected 22% of our cohort, with HR patients being the most affected cohort (44.1%). Within this group, most viremic events (65.3%) occurred while patients were still on prophylactic therapy, showing significantly higher viral loads and a longer duration compared to seropositive recipients. CONCLUSION: The analysis at hand revealed that detection of viremia under ongoing antiviral prophylaxis bears an increased risk for sustained viral replication and antiviral drug resistance in HR patients. We identified low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and lower dose VGC prophylaxis post-KTx as a risk factor for breakthrough infections in HR patients in our single center cohort. These patients might benefit from a closer CMV monitoring or novel prophylactic agents as letermovir.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Valganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Transplantados , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Ganciclovir/farmacologia
18.
Med Mycol ; 62(2)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228404

RESUMO

Deep cutaneous mycoses (DCMs) are rare infections that extend throughout the dermis and subcutis, often occurring after inoculation with pathogenic fungi. Trends toward a growing incidence have been observed that may be partially related to an increasing population of solid organ transplant patients. The aim of this study is to describe the diagnostics and the outcomes of DCM among kidney transplant recipients so as to optimize their management. We performed a retrospective review of cases of DCM occurring among kidney transplant recipients in our institution over 12 years. Twenty cases were included. Lesions were only located on the limbs and presented mainly as single (10/20, 50%) nodular lesions (15/20, 75%), with a mean size of 3 cm. Direct mycological examination was positive for 17 patients (17/20, 85%) and the cultures were consistently positive. Thirteen different fungal species were observed, including phaehyphomycetes (n = 8), hyalohyphomycetes (n = 3), dermatophytes (n = 1), and mucorale (n = 1). The (1-3) beta-D-glucan antigen (BDG) was also consistently detected in the serum (20/20, 100%). Systematic imaging did not reveal any distant infectious lesions, but locoregional extension was present in 11 patients (11/14, 79%). Nineteen patients received antifungal treatment (19/20, 95%) for a median duration of 3 months, with surgery for 10 (10/20, 50%). There is a great diversity of fungal species responsible for DCMs in kidney transplant recipients. The mycological documentation is necessary to adapt the antifungal treatment according to the sensitivity of the species. Serum BDG positivity is a potentially reliable and useful tool for diagnosis and follow-up.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses , Transplante de Rim , Transplante de Órgãos , Humanos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim/veterinária , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Transplante de Órgãos/veterinária , Pele/microbiologia , Transplantados
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38256221

RESUMO

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in kidney-transplant recipients are frequent, with an increasing incidence linked to long immunosuppression durations and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. p53 is at the cornerstone of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage, but the role of p53 post-translational modifications in this context is not yet deciphered. Here, we investigated the phosphorylation status of p53 at Serine 392 in 25 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in kidney-transplant recipients, compared with 22 non-transplanted patients. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in transplanted patients occurred after a median period of 19 years of immunosuppression, with a median number of 15 cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and more aggressive histological and clinical characteristics. There was no significant difference between Ki67, p53, and pSer392p53 expression in the two groups. Using principal component analysis, we identified a cluster of exclusively transplanted patients with a median of 23 years of immunosuppression duration, significantly more aggressive biological characteristics, and higher pSer392p53 expression. pSer392p53 was expressed in the whole tumor, suggesting an early carcinogenic event in the course of prolonged immunosuppression. This high, diffuse pSer392p53 expression, corresponding to a high level of DNA damage, might be useful to identify aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in kidney-transplant recipients to treat them more aggressively.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Transplantados , Humanos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Raios Ultravioleta , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Rim
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e074717, 2024 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199632

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frailty is one of the most common comorbidities in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Physical, psychological and social frailty could be improved by exercise intervention. Baduanjin, also known as Eight-section Brocades, is a type of traditional Chinese medicine exercise characterised by the interplay between physical postures and movements, breathing and mind. It can help frail patients strengthen their upper and lower body muscles, improve their mood, quality of life and frailty. However, the effectiveness of Baduanjin on frail KTRs remains unknown. Therefore, we will conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of Baduanjin on frail KTRs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol describes an assessor and analyst blinded, parallel RCT for frail KTRs comparing Baduanjin group (n=72) with care-as-usual group (n=72). The primary outcomes are frailty assessed by Frailty Phenotype scale and Tilburg Frailty Indicator scale, and muscle strength assessed by a grip strength metre. The secondary outcomes are quality of life assessed by Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS SF-36) and depression assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. All these data will be collected at the baseline, after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Two-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used to test the effectiveness of Baduanjin exercise. Qualitative interviews with participants in the intervention group will also be performed after 6 months. Themes will be extracted from interview transcripts using NVivo software. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Ethics Committees of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (2022BZYLL1018) and China-Japan Friendship Hospital (2022-KY-250) had approved the study. The organ donors were all from China-Japan Friendship Hospital. They provided informed consent and they were not executed prisoners. We have provided BMJ Open with documentation from the hospital that indicates that the organs will be harvested ethically. The findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, international conferences, media reports and briefings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2100041730.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso Fragilizado , Transplantados , Terapia por Exercício , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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