Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 40.875
Filtrar
1.
J Psychiatr Res ; 173: 309-316, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psychomotor retardation is a core clinical component of Major Depressive Disorder responsible for disability and is known as a treatment response marker of biological treatments for depression. Our objective was to describe cognitive and motoric measures changes during a treatment by repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) within the THETAD-DEP trial for treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and compare those performances at the end of treatment and one month after between responders (>50% improvement on MADRS score), partial responders (25-50%) and non-reponders (no clinically relevant improvement). Our secondary aim was to investigate baseline psychomotor performances associated with non-response and response even partial. METHODS: Fifty-four patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression and treated by either high frequency 10 Hz rTMS or iTBS for 4 weeks (20 sessions) underwent assessment including French Retardation Rating Scale for Depression (ERD), Verbal Fluency test, and Trail Making Test A. before, just after treatment and one month later. RESULTS: 20 patients were responders (R, 21 partial responders (PR) and 13 non-responders (NR). rTMS treatment improved psychomotor performances in the R and PR groups unlike NR patients whose psychomotor performance was not enhanced by treatment. At baseline, participants, later identified as partial responders, showed significantly higher performances than non-responders. CONCLUSION: Higher cognitivo-motor performances at baseline may be associated with clinical improvement after rTMS treatment. This work highlights the value of objective psychomotor testing for the identification of rTMS responders and partial responders, and thus may be useful for patient selection and protocol individualization such as treatment continuation for early partial responders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/complicações , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Resultado do Tratamento , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 285, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation has become a critical pathological mechanism of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). NLRP3 is a critical inflammatory pathway to maintain the immune balance. Recently, preclinical evidence showed that Resolvin D1 might potentially offer a new option for antidepressant treatment due to its protective effects through the inhibition of neuroinflammation. However, whether they have clinical value in the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of adolescent depression was unclear. METHODS: Forty-eight untreated first-episode adolescent patients with moderate to severe major depressive disorder, as well as 30 healthy adolescents (HCs, age and gender-matched), were enrolled for this study. Their ages ranged from 13 to 18 (15.75 ± 1.36) years. The patients were treated with fluoxetine for 6-8 weeks. HDRS-17 was used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline for the two groups and at the time-point of post-antidepressant treatment for the patients. Serum concentrations of RvD1, NLRP3, IL-1ß, IL-18, and IL-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) pre- and post-fluoxetine treatment. RESULTS: Serum levels of RvD1 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 were significantly elevated in adolescents with MDD compared to healthy adolescents, but no significant difference in NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18 between the two groups. Meanwhile, RvD1 (positively) and IL-4 (negatively) were correlated with the severity of symptoms (HDRS-17 scores) after adjusting age, gender, and BMI. Interestingly, fluoxetine treatment significantly reduced the serum levels of RvD1, NLRP3, IL-1ß, and IL-18 in MDD adolescents but increased the levels of IL-4 relative to baseline. Furthermore, we observed that serum levels of RvD1 might be an excellent distinguishing indicator for depression and healthy adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to compare RvD1 and NLRP3 between adolescent MDD and HCs. Our findings of reactive increase of RvD1 in adolescent MDD comprised a novel and critical contribution. Our results showed the presence of inflammation resolution unbalanced in adolescents with MDD and indicated that RvD1 might be an ideal biomarker for diagnosing and treating adolescent MDD.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-18 , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-4/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 344, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a growing problem with increasing burden in global aging. Older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) have higher risk of dementia. Neurofilament light chain (NfL) has been proven as a potential biomarker in neurodegenerative disease, including dementia. We aimed to investigate the association between cognitive deficits and NfL levels in older adults with MDD. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 39 MDD patients and 15 individuals with mild neurocognitive disorder or major neurocognitive disorder, Alzheimer's type, as controls, from a tertiary psychiatric hospital. Both groups were over age 65 and with matched Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Demographic data, clinical variables, and plasma NfL levels were obtained. We used cluster analysis according to their cognitive profile and estimated the correlation between plasma NfL levels and each cognitive domain. RESULTS: In the MDD group, participants had higher rate of family psychiatry history and current alcohol use habit compared with controls. Control group of neurocognitive disorders showed significantly lower score in total MMSE and higher plasma NfL levels. Part of the MDD patients presented cognitive deficits clustered with that of neurocognitive disorders (cluster A). In cluster A, the total MMSE score (r=-0.58277, p=0.0287) and the comprehension domain (r=-0.71717, p=0.0039) were negatively correlated to NfL levels after adjusting for age, while the associations had not been observed in the other cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We noted the negative correlation between NfL levels and cognition in MDD patients clustered with neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's type. NfL could be a promising candidate as a biomarker to predict subtype of patients in MDD to develop cognitive decline. Further longitudinal studies and within MDD cluster analysis are required to validate our findings for clinical implications.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Filamentos Intermediários , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/diagnóstico , Cognição , Biomarcadores
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 282, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627754

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the commonest mental disorders affecting more than 250 million people globally. Patients with chronic illnesses had higher risks for developing MDD than the general population. Neurolathyrism is a chronic illness characterized by lifelong incurable spastic paralysis of lower extremities; causing permanent disability. It is highly prevalent in Dawunt district, Ethiopia; with a point prevalence of 2.4%. Despite this, there were no previous studies assessing the prevalence of MDD among patients with neurolathyrism in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of MDD and to identify its associated factors among patients with neurolathyrism in Dawunt district, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 260 samples in Dawunt district from February 01 to March 30/ 2021. Multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. The patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression screening tool was used to diagnose MDD. PHQ-9 is a standardized depression screening tool and a PHQ-9 score of ≥ 10 has a sensitivity and specificity of 88.0% [95% CI (83.0-92.0%)] and 85.0% [95% CI (82.0-88.0%)] for screening MDD. Data were collected by interview; entered to EpiData version 4.2.0; exported to SPSS version 25.0 for analysis; descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model were used; AOR with 95% CI was used to interpret the associations; and finally results were presented by texts, charts, graphs, and tables. RESULTS: A total of 256 adult patients with neurolathyrism were participated; and the prevalence of MDD was found to be 38.7%. Being female [AOR = 3.00; 95% CI (1.15, 7.84)], living alone [AOR = 2.77; 95% CI (1.02-7.53)], being on neurolathyrism stage-3 [AOR = 3.22; 95% CI (1.09, 9.54)] or stage-4 [AOR = 4.00; 95% CI (1.28, 12.48)], stigma [AOR = 2.69; 95% CI (1.34, 5.39)], and lack of social/ family support [AOR = 3.61; 95% CI (1.80, 7.24)] were found to have statistically significant association with an increased odds of MDD; while regular exercise and ever formal counselling were found to have statistically significant association with a decreased odds of MDD. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of MDD among neurolathyrism patients in Dawunt district was high. Lack of social support, stigma, not getting formal counselling, and not involving in regular exercise were modifiable risk factors. Therefore, social support, reducing stigma, formal counselling, and encouraging regular exercise might help to reduce the burden of MDD among neurolathyrism patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Latirismo , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia
5.
JMIR Ment Health ; 11: e58631, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557724

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) impacts over 40 million people around the world, often manifesting in early adulthood and substantially impacting the quality of life and functioning of individuals. Although early interventions are associated with a better prognosis, the early detection of BD is challenging given the high degree of similarity with other psychiatric conditions, including major depressive disorder, which corroborates the high rates of misdiagnosis. Further, BD has a chronic, relapsing course, and the majority of patients will go on to experience mood relapses despite pharmacological treatment. Digital technologies present promising results to augment early detection of symptoms and enhance BD treatment. In this editorial, we will discuss current findings on the use of digital technologies in the field of BD, while debating the challenges associated with their implementation in clinical practice and the future directions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Afeto
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8712, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622243

RESUMO

What humans look at strongly determines what they see. We show that individual differences in the tendency to look at positive stimuli are stable across time and across contents, establishing gaze positivity preference as a perceptual trait that determines the amount of positively valence stimuli individuals select for visual processing. Furthermore, we show that patients with major depressive disorder exhibit consistently low positivity preference before treatment. In a subset of patients, we also assessed the positivity preference after two months of treatment in which positivity gaze preference increased to levels similar to healthy individuals. We discuss the possible practical diagnostic applications of these findings, as well as how this general gaze-related trait may influence other behavioral and psychological aspects.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Percepção Visual , Atenção , Individualidade , Fenótipo
7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 182, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589364

RESUMO

Most current approaches to establish subgroups of depressed patients for precision medicine aim to rely on biomarkers that require highly specialized assessment. Our present aim was to stratify participants of the UK Biobank cohort based on three readily measurable common independent risk factors, and to investigate depression genomics in each group to discover common and separate biological etiology. Two-step cluster analysis was run separately in males (n = 149,879) and females (n = 174,572), with neuroticism (a tendency to experience negative emotions), body fat percentage, and years spent in education as input variables. Genome-wide association analyses were implemented within each of the resulting clusters, for the lifetime occurrence of either a depressive episode or recurrent depressive disorder as the outcome. Variant-based, gene-based, gene set-based, and tissue-specific gene expression test were applied. Phenotypically distinct clusters with high genetic intercorrelations in depression genomics were found. A two-cluster solution was the best model in each sex with some differences including the less important role of neuroticism in males. In females, in case of a protective pattern of low neuroticism, low body fat percentage, and high level of education, depression was associated with pathways related to olfactory function. While also in females but in a risk pattern of high neuroticism, high body fat percentage, and less years spent in education, depression showed association with complement system genes. Our results, on one hand, indicate that alteration of olfactory pathways, that can be paralleled to the well-known rodent depression models of olfactory bulbectomy, might be a novel target towards precision psychiatry in females with less other risk factors for depression. On the other hand, our results in multi-risk females may provide a special case of immunometabolic depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Masculino , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Depressão/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Medicina de Precisão , Modelos Animais
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8149, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589491

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCWs) were at high risk of experiencing psychological distress during COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on HCWs' mental health in a Spanish hospital. Cross-sectional study of HCW, active between May and June 2020. A web-based survey assessed probable current mental disorders (major depressive disorder [PHQ-8 ≥ 10], generalized anxiety disorder [GAD-7 ≥ 10], panic attacks, post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD; PLC-5 ≥ 7], or substance use disorder [CAGE-AID ≥ 2]). The Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) was used to assess severe impairment and items taken from the modified self-report version of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) assessed suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A total of 870 HCWs completed the survey. Most frequent probable mental disorders were major depressive disorder (33.6%), generalized anxiety disorder (25.5%), panic attacks (26.9%), PTSD (27.2%), and substance use disorder (5.0%). Being female, having aged 18-29 years, being an auxiliary nurse, direct exposure to COVID-19-infected patients, and pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders were positively associated with mental issues. Hospital HCWs presented a high prevalence of symptoms of mental disorders, especially depression, PTSD, panic attacks, and anxiety. Younger individuals and those with lifetime mental disorders have been more vulnerable to experiencing them.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão
9.
Psychosom Med ; 86(3): 202-209, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe psychiatric symptom worldwide, and the coexistence of MDD with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is common in clinical practice. However, gender differences in comorbid MetS in first-episode and drug-naïve (FEDN) MDD patients have not been reported. Here, we explored potential gender differences in the prevalence and clinical correlates of comorbid MetS in FEDN MDD patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1718 FEDN MDD patients was conducted. Demographic and clinical data were collected. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive subscale were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, and psychotic symptoms, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS was 1.645-fold higher in female MDD patients (38.50%) than in male patients (26.53%). Patients with MetS had higher HAMD score, Hamilton Anxiety Scale score, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive subscale score than patients without MetS (p values < .001). Furthermore, suicide attempts (male: odds ratio [OR] = 1.706, p = .034; female: OR = 1.639, p = .004) and HAMD score (male: OR = 1.251, p < .001; female: OR = 1.148, p < .001) were independently associated with MetS in male and female patients, whereas age of onset was independently associated with MetS only in female patients (OR = 1.744, p = .047). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest significant gender differences in the prevalence and clinical correlates of comorbid MetS in FEDN MDD patients. Clinical variables (suicide attempts and HAMD scores) may be independently associated with MetS in MDD patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Síndrome Metabólica , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Neuromolecular Med ; 26(1): 11, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592597

RESUMO

Suicide is a global public health issue, with a particularly high incidence in individuals suffering from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The role of cholesterol in suicide risk remains controversial, prompting investigations into genetic markers that may be implicated. This study examines the association between CYP46A1 polymorphisms, specifically SNPs rs754203 and rs4900442, and suicide risk in a Mexican MDD patient cohort. Our study involved 188 unrelated suicide death victims, 126 MDD patients, and 144 non-suicidal controls. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were assessed using the Real Time-polymerase chain reaction method, and associations with suicide risk were evaluated using chi-square tests. The study revealed significant differences in allelic and genotypic frequencies in rs754203 SNP between suicide death and controls. The CYP46A1 rs754203 genotype G/G was significantly linked with suicide, and the G allele was associated with a higher risk of suicide (OR = 1.370, 95% CI = 1.002-1.873). However, we did not observe any significant differences in genotype distribution or allele frequencies of CYP46A1 rs4900442. Our study suggests that carriers of the CYP46A1 rs754203 G allele (A/G + G/G) may play a role in suicidal behavior, especially in males. Our findings support that the CYP46A1 gene may be involved in susceptibility to suicide, which has not been investigated previously. These results underscore the importance of further research in different populations to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of the role of CYP46A1 in suicide risk and to develop targeted interventions for at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Suicídio , Masculino , Humanos , Colesterol 24-Hidroxilase , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Frequência do Gene , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
JMIR Ment Health ; 11: e53998, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder affects approximately 1 in 5 adults during their lifetime and is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Yet, a minority receive adequate treatment due to person-level (eg, geographical distance to providers) and systems-level (eg, shortage of trained providers) barriers. Digital tools could improve this treatment gap by reducing the time and frequency of therapy sessions needed for effective treatment through the provision of flexible, automated support. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary clinical effect of Mindset for Depression, a deployment-ready 8-week smartphone-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) supported by brief teletherapy appointments with a therapist. METHODS: This 8-week, single-arm open trial tested the Mindset for Depression app when combined with 8 brief (16-25 minutes) video conferencing visits with a licensed doctoral-level CBT therapist (n=28 participants). The app offers flexible, accessible psychoeducation, CBT skills practice, and support to patients as well as clinician guidance to promote sustained engagement, monitor safety, and tailor treatment to individual patient needs. To increase accessibility and thus generalizability, all study procedures were conducted remotely. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed via attrition, patient expectations and feedback, and treatment utilization. The primary clinical outcome measure was the clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, administered at pretreatment, midpoint, and posttreatment. Secondary measures of functional impairment and quality of life as well as maintenance of gains (3-month follow-up) were also collected. RESULTS: Treatment credibility (week 4), expectancy (week 4), and satisfaction (week 8) were moderate to high, and attrition was low (n=2, 7%). Participants self-reported using the app or practicing (either on or off the app) the CBT skills taught in the app for a median of 50 (IQR 30-60; week 4) or 60 (IQR 30-90; week 8) minutes per week; participants accessed the app on an average 36.8 (SD 10.0) days and completed a median of 7 of 8 (IQR 6-8) steps by the week 8 assessment. The app was rated positively across domains of engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information. Participants' depression severity scores decreased from an average Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score indicating moderate depression (mean 19.1, SD 5.0) at baseline to a week 8 mean score indicating mild depression (mean 10.8, SD 6.1; d=1.47; P<.001). Improvement was also observed for functional impairment and quality of life. Gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that Mindset for Depression is a feasible and acceptable treatment option for individuals with major depressive disorder. This smartphone-led treatment holds promise to be an efficacious, scalable, and cost-effective treatment option. The next steps include testing Mindset for Depression in a fully powered randomized controlled trial and real-world clinical settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05386329; https://clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT05386329?term=NCT05386329.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Aplicativos Móveis , Adulto , Humanos , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Qualidade de Vida
12.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 969, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphone-based digital mental health interventions (DMHI) have been described as a purported solution to meet growing healthcare demands and lack of providers, but studies often don't account for whether patients are concurrently in another treatment modality. METHODS: This preregistered quasi-experimental intent-to-treat study with 354 patients enrolled in a therapist-supported DMHI examined the treatment effectiveness of the Meru Health Program (MHP) as a stand-alone treatment as compared to the MHP in combination with any other form of treatment, including (1) in-person therapy, (2) psychotropic medication use, and (3) in-person therapy and psychotropic medication use. RESULTS: Patients with higher baseline depressive and anxiety symptoms were more likely to self-select into multiple forms of treatment, an effect driven by patients in the MHP as adjunctive treatment to in-person therapy and psychotropic medication. Patients in combined treatments had significantly higher depressive and anxiety symptoms across treatment, but all treatment groups had similar decreasing depressive and anxiety symptom trajectories. Exploratory analyses revealed differential treatment outcomes across treatment combinations. Patients in the MHP in combination with another treatment had higher rates of major depressive episodes, psychiatric hospitalization, and attempted death by suicide at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with higher depressive and anxiety symptoms tend to self-select into using DMHI in addition to more traditional types of treatment, rather than as a stand-alone intervention, and have more severe clinical characteristics. The use the MHP alone was associated with improvement at a similar rate to those with higher baseline symptoms who are in traditional treatments and use MHP adjunctively.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Suicídio , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Combinada
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612683

RESUMO

The midbrain dopamine system is a sophisticated hub that integrates diverse inputs to control multiple physiological functions, including locomotion, motivation, cognition, reward, as well as maternal and reproductive behaviors. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that binds to G-protein-coupled receptors. Dopamine also works together with other neurotransmitters and various neuropeptides to maintain the balance of synaptic functions. The dysfunction of the dopamine system leads to several conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, major depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) has been identified as an important relay nucleus that modulates homeostatic plasticity in the midbrain dopamine system. Due to the complexity of synaptic transmissions and input-output connections in the VTA, the structure and function of this crucial brain region are still not fully understood. In this review article, we mainly focus on the cell types, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, ion channels, receptors, and neural circuits of the VTA dopamine system, with the hope of obtaining new insight into the formation and function of this vital brain region.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Neuropeptídeos , Humanos , Dopamina , Área Tegmentar Ventral , Neurotransmissores
14.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615239

RESUMO

How to achieve a high-precision suicide attempt classifier based on the three-dimensional psychological pain model is a valuable issue in suicide research. The aim of the present study is to explore the importance of pain avoidance and its related neural features in suicide attempt classification models among patients with major depressive disorder. By recursive feature elimination with cross-validation and support-vector-machine algorithms, scores from the measurements and the task-based EEG signals were chosen to achieve a suicide attempt classification model. In the multimodal suicide attempt classifier with an accuracy of 83.91% and an area under the curve of 0.90, pain avoidance ranked as the top one in the optimal feature set. Theta (reward positive feedback minus neutral positive feedback) was the shared neural representation ranking as the top one of event-related potential features in pain avoidance and suicide attempt classifiers. In conclusion, the suicide attempt classifier based on pain avoidance and its related affective processing neural features has excellent accuracy among patients with major depressive disorder. Pain avoidance is a stable and strong indicator for identifying suicide risks in both traditional analyses and machine-learning approaches. A novel methodology is needed to clarify the relationship between cognitive and affective processing evoked by punishment stimuli and pain avoidance.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Tentativa de Suicídio , Dor , Potenciais Evocados , Aprendizado de Máquina
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8258, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589409

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and potentially debilitating illness whose etiology and pathology remains unclear. Non-coding RNAs have been implicated in MDD, where they display differential expression in the brain and the periphery. In this study, we quantified small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) expression by small RNA sequencing in the lateral habenula (LHb) of individuals with MDD (n = 15) and psychiatrically-healthy controls (n = 15). We uncovered five snoRNAs that exhibited differential expression between MDD and controls (FDR < 0.01). Specifically, SNORA69 showed increased expression in MDD and was technically validated via RT-qPCR. We further investigated the expression of Snora69 in the LHb and peripheral blood of an unpredicted chronic mild stress (UCMS) mouse model of depression. Snora69 was specifically up-regulated in mice that underwent the UCMS paradigm. SNORA69 is known to guide pseudouridylation onto 5.8S and 18S rRNAs. We quantified the relative abundance of pseudouridines on 5.8S and 18S rRNA in human post-mortem LHb samples and found increased abundance of pseudouridines in the MDD group. Overall, our findings indicate the importance of brain snoRNAs in the pathology of MDD. Future studies characterizing SNORA69's role in MDD pathology is warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Habenula , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Habenula/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , RNA Ribossômico 18S , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/metabolismo
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 335: 115859, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574700

RESUMO

Little is known about the effects of common daily experiences in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The Daily Hassles and Uplifts Scale (HUPS) was assessed in 142 treatment-naïve adult MDD outpatients randomized to 12 weeks of treatment with either antidepressant medication (ADM) or Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). Three HUPS measures were analyzed: hassle frequency (HF), uplift frequency (UF), and the mean hassle intensity to mean uplift intensity ratio (MHI:MUI). Remission after treatment was not predicted by these baseline HUPS measures and did not moderate outcomes by treatment type. In contrast, HUPS measures significantly changed with treatment and were impacted by remission status. Specifically, HF and MHI:MUI decreased and UF increased from baseline to week 12, with remission leading to significantly greater decreases in HF and MHI:MUI compared to non-remission. ADM-treated patients demonstrated significant improvements on all three HUPS measures regardless of remission status. In contrast, remitters to CBT demonstrated significant improvements in HF and MHI:MUI but not UF; among CBT non-remitters the only significant change was a reduction in HF. The changes in HUPS measures are consistent with how affective biases are impacted by treatments and support the potential value of increasing attention to positive events in CBT.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adulto , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Arch Iran Med ; 27(2): 72-78, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the impact of psychiatric disorders on the productivity of individuals and society's economy, we aimed to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among the employees of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1282 employees of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2019. The required data were collected by trained psychologists using Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In this process, psychiatric disorders were considered dependent variables, and demographic variables as independent variables. The relationship between independent and dependent variables was assessed using the chi-square test and Binary logistic regression in Stata version 17. RESULTS: The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among employees was 14.12%, 12.48%, and 3.9%, respectively. The prevalence of GAD in women was significantly higher than men (17.06% vs. 10.02%, P<0.001). The prevalence of GAD was 42.86%, 15.97%, 13.49%, and 16.67 in widowed, single, married, and divorced employees, respectively (P=0.016). The prevalence of MDD in women was significantly higher than men (16.59% vs. 7.64%, P<0.001). The prevalence of MDD was 16.3%, 11.2%, 9.6%, and 8.56% in employees with Bachelor's, Associate, Master's degree, and High school diploma, respectively (P=0.009). CONCLUSION: Considering the relatively high prevalence of GAD and MDD among the employees of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, strengthening counseling centers in the university and encouraging employees to participate in these centers, and examining them in terms of mental health help identify people at risk of mental disorders in time and provide counseling services to these people.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Mentais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 261, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disease (MDD), schizophrenia (SCZ), and bipolar disorder (BD) are common psychiatric disorders, and their relationship with thyroid cancer has been of great interest. This study aimed to investigate the potential causal effects of MDD, SCZ, BD, and thyroid cancer. METHODS: We used publicly available summary statistics from large-scale genome-wide association studies to select genetic variant loci associated with MDD, SCZ, BD, and thyroid cancer as instrumental variables (IVs), which were quality controlled and clustered. Additionally, we used three Mendelian randomization (MR) methods, inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger regression and weighted median estimator (WME) methods, to estimate the bidirectional causal relationship between psychiatric disorders and thyroid cancer. In addition, we performed heterogeneity and multivariate tests to verify the validity of the IVs. RESULTS: We used two-sample bidirectional MR analysis to determine whether there was a positive causal association between MDD and thyroid cancer risk. The results of the IVW analysis (OR = 3.956 95% CI = 1.177-13.299; P = 0.026) and the WME method (OR = 5.563 95% CI = 0.998-31.008; P = 0.050) confirmed that MDD may increase the risk of thyroid cancer. Additionally, our study revealed a correlation between genetic susceptibility to SCZ and thyroid cancer (OR = 1.532 95% CI = 1.123-2.088; P = 0.007). The results of the WME method analysis based on the median estimate (OR = 1.599 95% CI = 1.014-2.521; P = 0.043) also suggested that SCZ may increase the risk of thyroid cancer. Furthermore, our study did not find a causal relationship between BD and thyroid cancer incidence. In addition, the results of reverse MR analysis showed no significant causal relationships between thyroid cancer and MDD, SCZ, or BD (P > 0.05), ruling out the possibility of reverse causality. CONCLUSIONS: This MR method analysis provides new evidence that MDD and SCZ may be positively associated with thyroid cancer risk while also revealing a correlation between BD and thyroid cancer. These results may have important implications for public health policy and clinical practice. Future studies will help elucidate the biological mechanisms of these associations and potential confounders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Esquizofrenia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Depressão , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética
19.
Trials ; 25(1): 247, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for antidepressant treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Our repeated studies suggest that DNA methylation of a specific CpG site in the promoter region of exon IV of the BDNF gene (CpG -87) might be predictive of the efficacy of monoaminergic antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and others. This trial aims to evaluate whether knowing the biomarker is non-inferior to treatment-as-usual (TAU) regarding remission rates while exhibiting significantly fewer adverse events (AE). METHODS: The BDNF trial is a prospective, randomized, rater-blinded diagnostic study conducted at five university hospitals in Germany. The study's main hypothesis is that {1} knowing the methylation status of CpG -87 is non-inferior to not knowing it with respect to the remission rate while it significantly reduces the AE rate in patients experiencing at least one AE. The baseline assessment will occur upon hospitalization and a follow-up assessment on day 49 (± 3). A telephone follow-up will be conducted on day 70 (± 3). A total of 256 patients will be recruited, and methylation will be evaluated in all participants. They will be randomly assigned to either the marker or the TAU group. In the marker group, the methylation results will be shared with both the patient and their treating physician. In the TAU group, neither the patients nor their treating physicians will receive the marker status. The primary endpoints include the rate of patients achieving remission on day 49 (± 3), defined as a score of ≤ 10 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-24), and the occurrence of AE. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial protocol has received approval from the Institutional Review Boards at the five participating universities. This trial holds significance in generating valuable data on a predictive biomarker for antidepressant treatment in patients with MDD. The findings will be shared with study participants, disseminated through professional society meetings, and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00032503. Registered on 17 August 2023.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina , Metilação , Biomarcadores
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 335: 115881, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579459

RESUMO

Traumatic events increase risk of mental illnesses, but childhood neglect prevalence in psychiatric disorders is understudied. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed neglect prevalence, including emotional neglect (EN) and physical neglect (PN), among adults with psychiatric disorders. We conducted a systematic search and meta-analysis in 122 studies assessing different psychiatric disorders. Prevalence was 46.6% (95%CI[34.5-59.0]) for unspecified neglect (Ne), 43.1% (95%CI[39.0-47.4]) for EN, and 34.8% (95%CI[30.6-39.2]) for PN. Although a moderating effect of the psychiatric diagnostic category was not confirmed, some clinical diagnoses had significantly lower prevalence rates than others. Patients with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder showed lower prevalence rates of EN and PN, whereas lower prevalence was found in psychotic disorders and eating disorders for PN only. Neglect assessment was a significant moderator for Ne and PN. No moderating effect of age and sex on neglect prevalence was found. Heterogeneity levels within and between psychiatric diagnostic categories remained high. This is the first meta-analysis examining diverse types of neglect prevalence considering different psychiatric diagnoses. Our results explore the prevalence of childhood neglect and its subtypes among adults with psychiatric disorders, contributing to understanding the nuanced interplay between neglect and specific psychiatric conditions, and guiding interventions for affected individuals.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Prevalência , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...