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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21522, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756193

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) are separate clinical entities with distinct pathophysiological features. But in some special conditions PRES and RCVS can occur simultaneously. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the unique case of a 40-year-old female presented with crescendo headache, blurred vision, and recurrent generalized tonic-clonic seizure. She had a minor neck injury 1 week before but attracted no more attention. Neurological tests on admission yielded a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13. No obvious focal neurological deficit apart from positive signs of meningeal irritation was presented. DIAGNOSES: Xanthochromia and hemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid with pleocytosis was found on lumbar puncture. Cranial computed tomography was negative but magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated bilateral areas of vasogenic edema in the parieto-occipital lobes and cerebellum consistent with PRES. An incidental subacute spinal subdural hematoma extending from the level of C6 to T1 was depicted by spinal magnetic resonance imaging, presumably as a complication of negligible neck trauma. Spinal digital subtraction angiography showed no evidence of spinal aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, or dural arteriovenous fistula. Cerebral digital subtraction angiography showed segmental narrowing and dilatation of vessels, a potential feature of RCVS, involving the circle of Willis and their branches. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with nimodipine for vasodilation and other symptomatic therapies. The spinal subdural hematoma was not warranted for surgical intervention and managed with simple analgesics. OUTCOMES: The patient experienced a dramatic improvement in neurological symptoms and was discharged without sequelae. Follow-up imaging showed complete resolution of all radiological changes. LESSONS: Clinician should be aware of spinal subdural hematoma as the potential trigger in development of PRES and RCVS. We speculate that endothelial dysfunction and vascular tone dysregulation may be implicated to play the major pathophysiologic role.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Hematoma Subdural Espinal/complicações , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Vasoconstrição
2.
Stroke ; 51(9): e227-e231, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) evolved quickly into a global pandemic with myriad systemic complications, including stroke. We report the largest case series to date of cerebrovascular complications of COVID-19 and compare with stroke patients without infection. METHODS: Retrospective case series of COVID-19 patients with imaging-confirmed stroke, treated at 11 hospitals in New York, between March 14 and April 26, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and outcome data were collected, and cases were compared with date-matched controls without COVID-19 from 1 year prior. RESULTS: Eighty-six COVID-19-positive stroke cases were identified (mean age, 67.4 years; 44.2% women). Ischemic stroke (83.7%) and nonfocal neurological presentations (67.4%) predominated, commonly involving multivascular distributions (45.8%) with associated hemorrhage (20.8%). Compared with controls (n=499), COVID-19 was associated with in-hospital stroke onset (47.7% versus 5.0%; P<0.001), mortality (29.1% versus 9.0%; P<0.001), and Black/multiracial race (58.1% versus 36.9%; P=0.001). COVID-19 was the strongest independent risk factor for in-hospital stroke (odds ratio, 20.9 [95% CI, 10.4-42.2]; P<0.001), whereas COVID-19, older age, and intracranial hemorrhage independently predicted mortality. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for stroke in hospitalized patients and mortality, and stroke presentations are frequently atypical.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Angiografia Cerebral , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 28-34, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650921

RESUMO

Involvement of atherosclerosis in extracardiac vascular territories may identify coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at higher risk for adverse events. We investigated the long-term prognostic implications of polyvascular disease in patients with CAD, and further analyzed lipid goal attainment and its relation to patient outcomes. The study was a retrospective analysis of 10,297 patients who underwent coronary revascularization, categorized as having CAD alone (83.1%) or with multisite artery disease (MSAD) (16.9%) including cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) and/or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HR) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death) according to vascular territories involved, and in relation to most-recent lipid levels attained, were analyzed. Patients with MSAD were older with higher burden of co-morbidities. The rate of MACE (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death) and its individual components increased with the number of affected vascular beds. Adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) for MACE was 1.41 (1.24 to 1.59) in patients with CAD and CBVD, 1.46 (1.33 to 1.62) in CAD and PAD, and 1.69 (1.49 to 1.92) in those with CAD and CBVD and PAD, compared with CAD alone. Most-recent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels <55 mg/dl and <70 mg/dl were attained by 21.8% and 44.6% of patients with CAD alone, in comparison to 22.7% and 43.3% in MSAD. Compared with patients with most-recent LDL-C > 100 mg/dl, attaining LDL-C < 70 mg/dl had an adjusted HR for MACE of 0.52 (0.47 to 0.57) in CAD only patients and 0.66 (0.57 to 0.78) in MSAD patients. In conclusion, the presence of CBVD and/or PAD in patients with CAD is associated with higher burden of co-morbidities and progressive increase in long-term MACE. More than half of CAD patients with or without MSAD do not achieve lipid goals, which are associated with a significantly lower risk for adverse events.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Hipercolesterolemia/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Instável/epidemiologia , Angina Instável/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
5.
Stroke ; 51(9): e219-e222, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Initial reports suggest a significant risk of thrombotic events, including stroke, in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is little systematic data on stroke incidence and mechanisms, particularly in racially diverse populations in the United States. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, observational study of stroke incidence and mechanisms in all patients with COVID-19 hospitalized from March 15 to May 3, 2020, at 3 Philadelphia hospitals. RESULTS: We identified 844 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (mean age 59 years, 52% female, 68% Black); 20 (2.4%) had confirmed ischemic stroke; and 8 (0.9%) had intracranial hemorrhage. Of the ischemic stroke patients, mean age was 64 years, with only one patient (5%) under age 50, and 80% were Black. Conventional vascular risk factors were common, with 95% of patients having a history of hypertension and 60% a history of diabetes mellitus. Median time from onset of COVID symptoms to stroke diagnosis was 21 days. Stroke mechanism was cardioembolism in 40%, small vessel disease in 5%, other determined mechanism in 20%, and cryptogenic in 35%. Of the 11 patients with complete vascular imaging, 3 (27%) had large vessel occlusion. Newly positive antiphospholipid antibodies were present in >75% of tested patients. Of the patients with intracranial hemorrhage, 5/8 (63%) were lobar intraparenchymal hemorrhages, and 3/8 (38%) were subarachnoid hemorrhage; 4/8 (50%) were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: We found a low risk of acute cerebrovascular events in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Most patients with ischemic stroke had conventional vascular risk factors, and traditional stroke mechanisms were common.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Incidência , Pacientes Internados , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombose/complicações , Trombose/epidemiologia
6.
Elife ; 92020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729463

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 has recently emerged as a serious jolt to human life and economy. Initial knowledge established pulmonary complications as the chief symptom, however, the neurological aspect of the disease is also becoming increasingly evident. Emerging reports of encephalopathies and similar ailments with the detection of the virus in the CSF has elicited an urgent need for investigating the possibility of neuroinvasiveness of the virus, which cannot be ruled out given the expression of low levels of ACE2 receptors in the brain. Sensory impairments of the olfactory and gustatory systems have also been reported in a large proportion of the cases, indicating the involvement of the peripheral nervous system. Hence, the possibility of neurological damage caused by the virus demands immediate attention and investigation of the mechanisms involved, so as to customize the treatment of patients presenting with neurological complications.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Ageusia/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Encefalite Viral/etiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo
7.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(3): 341-344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak is currently the major public health concern worldwide. This infection, caused by the novel coronavirus Sars Cov2, primarily affects respiratory system, but there is increasing evidence of neurologic involvement and cerebrovascular accidents. CASE REPORT: We present a case of stroke in a 62-year-old COVID-19-positive patient, with multiple vascular risk factors. The patient arrived 1 h after onset of symptoms, was treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) with improvement of neurologic deficits, and later developed right foot arterial ischemia (recanalized by balloon catheter angioplasty) and left arm superficial venous thrombosis. A control computed tomography (CT) scan 7 days after onset showed hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic lesion without mass effect. However, respiratory and neurologic conditions improved so that the patient was discharged to rehabilitation. DISCUSSION: Until now, few cases of stroke in COVID-19 have been described, mainly in severe forms. This patient had ischemic injuries in different sites as well as venous thrombosis; hence, we speculate that Sars Cov2 could have a direct role in promoting vascular accidents since its receptor ACE2 is a surface protein also expressed by endothelial cells. This case suggests that COVID-19 can favor strokes and in general vascular complications, even in milder cases, and the presence of preexisting risk factors could play a determinant role.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Causalidade , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 290-300, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-539324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds worldwide, different forms of reports have described its neurologic manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Literature search performed following systematic reviews guidelines, using specific keywords based on the COVID-19 neurological complications described up to May 10th, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 43 articles were selected, including data ranging from common, non-specific symptoms, such as hyposmia and myalgia, to more complex and life-threatening conditions, such as cerebrovascular diseases, encephalopathies, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CONCLUSION: Recognition of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized despite the obvious challenges faced by clinicians caring for critical patients who are often sedated and presenting other concurrent systemic complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Ageusia/complicações , Encefalopatias/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Humanos , Mialgia/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Pandemias
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437415

RESUMO

The recently discovered novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 virus), has brought the whole world to standstill with critical challenges, affecting both health and economic sectors worldwide. Although initially, this pandemic was associated with causing severe pulmonary and respiratory disorders, recent case studies reported the association of cerebrovascular-neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, which is also life-threatening. Several SARS-CoV-2 positive case studies have been reported where there are mild or no symptoms of this virus. However, a selection of patients are suffering from large artery ischemic strokes. Although the pathophysiology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus affecting the cerebrovascular system has not been elucidated yet, researchers have identified several pathogenic mechanisms, including a role for the ACE2 receptor. Therefore, it is extremely crucial to identify the risk factors related to the progression and adverse outcome of cerebrovascular-neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Since many articles have reported the effect of smoking (tobacco and cannabis) and vaping in cerebrovascular and neurological systems, and considering that smokers are more prone to viral and bacterial infection compared to non-smokers, it is high time to explore the probable correlation of smoking in COVID-19 patients. Herein, we have reviewed the possible role of smoking and vaping on cerebrovascular and neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, along with potential pathogenic mechanisms associated with it.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
10.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(2)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596934

RESUMO

Neurological manifestations in patients with COVID-19 are more frequently being reported. Cerebrovascular events have been reported in around 3% of patients. In this review we summarize the published literature on cerebrovascular events in patients with COVID-19 as available on the PubMed database. So far, 3 studies have reported cerebrovascular events. Cerebrovascular events were identified on screening patients with decreased consciousness or in the presence of focal neurological deficits. These events were common in elderly, critically ill patients and in patients with prior cardio-cerebrovascular comorbidities. The diagnosis of cerebrovascular events was confirmed with computed tomography of the brain in most studies reporting neurological events. Multiple pathological mechanisms have been postulated regarding the process of neurological and vascular injury among which cytokine storm is shown to correlate with mortality. Patients with severe illness are found to have a higher cardio- cerebrovascular comorbidity. With an increasing number of cases and future prospective studies, the exact mechanism by which these cerebrovascular events occur and attribute to the poor outcome will be better understood.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Estado Terminal , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias
11.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(2)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527073

RESUMO

Neurological manifestations in patients with COVID-19 are more frequently being reported. Cerebrovascular events have been reported in around 3% of patients. In this review we summarize the published literature on cerebrovascular events in patients with COVID-19 as available on the PubMed database. So far, 3 studies have reported cerebrovascular events. Cerebrovascular events were identified on screening patients with decreased consciousness or in the presence of focal neurological deficits. These events were common in elderly, critically ill patients and in patients with prior cardio-cerebrovascular comorbidities. The diagnosis of cerebrovascular events was confirmed with computed tomography of the brain in most studies reporting neurological events. Multiple pathological mechanisms have been postulated regarding the process of neurological and vascular injury among which cytokine storm is shown to correlate with mortality. Patients with severe illness are found to have a higher cardio- cerebrovascular comorbidity. With an increasing number of cases and future prospective studies, the exact mechanism by which these cerebrovascular events occur and attribute to the poor outcome will be better understood.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Estado Terminal , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486196

RESUMO

The recently discovered novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 virus), has brought the whole world to standstill with critical challenges, affecting both health and economic sectors worldwide. Although initially, this pandemic was associated with causing severe pulmonary and respiratory disorders, recent case studies reported the association of cerebrovascular-neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, which is also life-threatening. Several SARS-CoV-2 positive case studies have been reported where there are mild or no symptoms of this virus. However, a selection of patients are suffering from large artery ischemic strokes. Although the pathophysiology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus affecting the cerebrovascular system has not been elucidated yet, researchers have identified several pathogenic mechanisms, including a role for the ACE2 receptor. Therefore, it is extremely crucial to identify the risk factors related to the progression and adverse outcome of cerebrovascular-neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Since many articles have reported the effect of smoking (tobacco and cannabis) and vaping in cerebrovascular and neurological systems, and considering that smokers are more prone to viral and bacterial infection compared to non-smokers, it is high time to explore the probable correlation of smoking in COVID-19 patients. Herein, we have reviewed the possible role of smoking and vaping on cerebrovascular and neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, along with potential pathogenic mechanisms associated with it.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
14.
Neurol Sci ; 41(7): 1667-1671, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483687

RESUMO

RESULTS: Various neurological manifestations have been reported in the literature associated with COVID-19, which in the current study are classified into Central Nervous System (CNS) related manifestations including headache, dizziness, impaired consciousness, acute cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) related manifestations such as hyposmia/anosmia, hypogeusia/ageusia, muscle pain, and Guillain-Barre syndrome. CONCLUSION: During the current context of COVID-19 pandemic, physicians should be aware of wide spectrum of neurological COVID-19 sign and symptoms for early diagnosis and isolation of patients. In this regard, COVID-19 has been associated with many neurological manifestations such as confusion, anosmia, and ageusia. Also, various evidences support the possible CNS roles in the COVID-19 pathophysiology. In this regard, further investigation of CNS involvement of SARS-COV-2 is suggested.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cefaleia/complicações , Cefaleia/virologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
15.
J Infect Dis ; 222(4): 556-563, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526012

RESUMO

Patients who died from COVID-19 often had comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic obstructive lung disease. Although angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is crucial for SARS-CoV-2 to bind and enter host cells, no study has systematically assessed the ACE2 expression in the lungs of patients with these diseases. Here, we analyzed over 700 lung transcriptome samples from patients with comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and found that ACE2 was highly expressed in these patients compared to control individuals. This finding suggests that patients with such comorbidities may have higher chances of developing severe COVID-19. Correlation and network analyses revealed many potential regulators of ACE2 in the human lung, including genes related to histone modifications, such as HAT1, HDAC2, and KDM5B. Our systems biology approach offers a possible explanation for increased COVID-19 severity in patients with certain comorbidities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pulmão/enzimologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/genética , Comorbidade , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Biologia de Sistemas , Transcriptoma
16.
World Neurosurg ; 141: e437-e446, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a dramatic impact on health care systems and a variable disease course. Emerging evidence demonstrates that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is associated with central nervous system disease. We describe central nervous system manifestations in critical patients with COVID-19 at our tertiary center. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of all actively critical patients with COVID-19 admitted to our tertiary care academic center in New Orleans, Louisiana, on April 22, 2020, with new onset of neurologic disease. Patients were grouped into 1 of 3 categories according to imaging and clinical features; encephalopathy, acute necrotizing encephalopathy, and vasculopathy. RESULTS: A total of 27 of 76 (35.5%) critical patients with COVID-19 met inclusion criteria. Twenty patients (74%) were designated with COVID-19-associated encephalopathy, 2 (7%) with COVID-19-associated acute necrotizing encephalopathy, and 5 (19%) with COVID-19-associated vasculopathy. Sixty-three percent of neurologic findings were demonstrated on computed tomography, 30% on magnetic resonance imaging, and 44% on electroencephalography. Findings most often included ischemic strokes, diffuse hypoattenuation, subcortical parenchymal hemorrhages, and focal hypodensities within deep structures. Magnetic resonance imaging findings included diffuse involvement of deep white matter, the corpus callosum, and the basal ganglia. For patients with large-territory ischemic stroke, all but one displayed irregular proximal focal stenosis of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of active critical COVID-19 admissions at our revealed a high percentage of patients with new neurologic disease. Although variable, presentations followed 1 of 3 broad categories. A better understanding of the neurologic sequalae and radiographic findings will help clinicians mitigate the impact of this disease.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/etiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/terapia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/terapia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Cuidados Críticos , Estudos Transversais , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Leigh/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Leigh/etiologia , Doença de Leigh/terapia , Louisiana , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 290-300, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds worldwide, different forms of reports have described its neurologic manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Literature search performed following systematic reviews guidelines, using specific keywords based on the COVID-19 neurological complications described up to May 10th, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 43 articles were selected, including data ranging from common, non-specific symptoms, such as hyposmia and myalgia, to more complex and life-threatening conditions, such as cerebrovascular diseases, encephalopathies, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CONCLUSION: Recognition of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized despite the obvious challenges faced by clinicians caring for critical patients who are often sedated and presenting other concurrent systemic complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Ageusia/complicações , Encefalopatias/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Humanos , Mialgia/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Pandemias
20.
Neurotox Res ; 38(1): 1-7, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244976

RESUMO

As a severe and highly contagious infectious disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Several case reports have demonstrated that the respiratory system is the main target in patients with COVID-19, but the disease is not limited to the respiratory system. Case analysis indicated that the nervous system can be invaded by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and that 36.4% of COVID-19 patients had neurological symptoms. Importantly, the involvement of the CNS may be associated with poor prognosis and disease worsening. Here, we discussed the symptoms and evidence of nervous system involvement (directly and indirectly) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and possible mechanisms. CNS symptoms could be a potential indicator of poor prognosis; therefore, the prevention and treatment of CNS symptoms are also crucial for the recovery of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Terapia Combinada , Transtornos da Consciência/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tontura/epidemiologia , Tontura/etiologia , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/etiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Intracraniana/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/virologia , Nervo Olfatório/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Psicoterapia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos das Sensações/epidemiologia , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
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