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1.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107113, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is mounting evidence that opioid use disorder is experienced differently by people of different genders and race/ethnicity groups. Similarly, in the US access to specific medications for opioid use is limited by gender and race/ethnicity. This study aims to evaluate if gender or race/ethnicity is associated with different rates of treatment retention in the US, for each of three medications used to treat opioid use disorder. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, CINHAL, and PsychINFO, databases. All studies that provided a ratio of those retained in treatment at a specified time in terms of gender and/or race/ethnicity and medication were included. Variables were created to assess the effects of time in treatment, recruited sample, required attendance at concurrent psychosocial treatment, and adherence to strict rules of conduct for continuation in treatment on retention. Meta-analytical and meta-regression methods were used to compare studies on the ratio of those who completed a specific time in treatment by race/ethnicity group and by gender. RESULTS: Nineteen articles that provided the outcome variable of interest were found (11 buprenorphine, six methadone, and two naltrexone). Meta-analyses found that treatment retention was similar for all gender and racial/ethnic groups for all three medications. Meta-regression found that those of the African American group who were recruited into buprenorphine treatment were retained significantly longer than African Americans in buprenorphine treatment who were studied retrospectively. Also, both genders had significantly lower retention in methadone treatment when there was the additional requirement of psychosocial therapy.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Healthc Q ; 24(3): 7-12, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792441

RESUMO

Prenatal opioid use is increasingly common and can have adverse impacts on maternal and child health. In Ontario, there are no clear guidelines or universal programs to support the healthy development of children with prenatal opioid exposure. We present the epidemiology of prenatal opioid exposure in Ontario, summarize research examining child health outcomes with a focus on child development, review emerging guidelines for child health and developmental surveillance and highlight promising programs. We emphasize the need to strengthen current Canadian recommendations for routine enhanced developmental and vision screening and ensure funding for evidence-based integrated maternal/child services.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Políticas , Gravidez
3.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 42(4): 367-372, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793410

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In this report, we describe 13 cases of drug overdose in Michigan in which valeryl fentanyl was found in postmortem blood. Valeryl fentanyl is a schedule I opioid that is rarely found in drug overdoses in the United States. Although little data exist on the mortality and morbidity associated with valeryl fentanyl, its molecular structure indicates that it would be less potent than fentanyl.When analyzing blood samples for valeryl fentanyl, samples from peripheral sites were sometimes negative for quantitative levels; however, samples from central sites in the same decedent were positive. This could indicate unique pharmacokinetics for valeryl fentanyl, which could have implications for other fentanyl analogs. Given the paucity of pharmacodynamic information, the prohibition of its use, the potential to buttress law enforcement efforts in monitoring drug trafficking trends, and to determine the efficacy of current regulations, laboratories should test for valeryl fentanyl. When testing for valeryl fentanyl, and likely other fentanyl analogs, the site of sample collection is important: central sources of blood are preferred to peripheral sources.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides , Fentanila , Humanos , Michigan , Estados Unidos
4.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6770, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757760

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The COVID-19 pandemic led to several changes to methadone treatment protocols at federal opioid treatment programs in the USA. ISSUE: Protocol changes were designed to reduce transmission of COVID-19 while allowing for continuity of care, but those changes also demonstrated that many policies surrounding opioid use disorder care in the USA cause unnecessary burdens to patients. In this commentary, we describe how current policies create and maintain fatal barriers to methadone treatment for people in rural communities who have opioid use disorder, and highlight how COVID-19 adaptations and more flexible methadone models in other countries can better allow for effective and accessible care. Reasons and ways to address these issues to create lasting solutions for rural communities are discussed. LESSONS LEARNED: We focus on three lessons: (1) methadone dispensing and take-home schedules during COVID-19, (2) telehealth services during COVID-19, and (3) international models in use prior to COVID-19. We then outline recommendations for each lesson to improve access to methadone treatment long term for rural communities in the USA. There is an urgent need to implement recommendations that maintain flexible approaches and address methadone treatment barriers in the rural USA. To achieve lasting health policy change and combat stigma about addiction and methadone treatment, there is a need for advocacy efforts that give voice to rural residents impacted by inequitable access to methadone treatment and rural-tailored educational initiatives that promote the evidence base for methadone. We hope opioid treatment program directors, regulatory authorities, and health policymakers consider our recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/reabilitação , População Rural , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
5.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 35(4): 320-329, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726648

RESUMO

Opioid use in the perinatal period has escalated rapidly, with potentially devastating outcomes for perinatal persons and infants. Substance use treatment is effective and has the potential to greatly improve clinical outcomes; however, characteristics of care received from providers including nurses have been described as a barrier to treatment. Our purpose was to describe supportive perinatal care experiences of persons with opioid use disorder. A qualitative descriptive study design was used to examine experiences of 11 postpartum persons (ages 22-36 years) in medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder at an academic medical center in the southern region of the United States. Participants were interviewed about experiences with perinatal and neonatal care during the child's hospitalization for neonatal abstinence syndrome surveillance and/or treatment. Four themes of supportive care experiences emerged: informing, relating, accepting, and holistic supporting. Participants reported a range of positive and negative perinatal care experiences, with examples and counterexamples provided. This fuller understanding of perceptions and lived experiences of care can inform practice changes and educational/training priorities. Future research is needed to facilitate development of comprehensive care models geared to address perinatal care needs of persons with opioid use disorder.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Assistência Perinatal , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 67, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CHOICES study randomized participants with HIV and opioid use disorder (OUD) to HIV clinic-based extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), which requires complete cessation of opioid use, versus treatment-as-usual (i.e., buprenorphine, methadone). Study participants randomized to XR-NTX were interviewed to assess their experiences with successful and unsuccessful XR-NTX induction. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were completed with a convenience sample of study participants with HIV and OUD (n = 37) randomized to XR-NTX in five HIV clinics between 2018 and 2019. All participants approached agreed to be interviewed. Interviews were digitally recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants included women (43%), African Americans (62%) and Hispanics (16%), between 27 to 69 years of age. Individuals who completed XR-NTX induction (n = 20) reported experiencing (1) readiness for change, (2) a supportive environment during withdrawal including comfort medications, and (3) caring interactions with staff. Four contrasting themes emerged among participants (n = 17) who did not complete induction: (1) concern and anxiety about withdrawal including past negative experiences, (2) ambivalence about or reluctance to stop opioids, (3) concerns about XR-NTX effects, and (4) preferences for other medications. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight opportunities to improve initiation of XR-NTX in high-need groups. Addressing expectations regarding induction may enhance XR-NTX initiation rates. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03275350. Registered September 7, 2017. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03275350?term=extended+release+naltrexone&cond=Opioid+Use .


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769591

RESUMO

The opioid epidemic is a public health crisis that disproportionately affects our unsheltered neighbors. Because medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is effective for preventing deaths from drug overdose and retention is associated with better health outcomes, there is a clear need for more research on factors impacting retention in care. This retrospective cohort analysis examines the relationship between attendance in counseling and retention on buprenorphine for three or more months for individuals experiencing homelessness being treated at a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) and Public Health Service Act §330(h) Health Care for the Homeless Program grantee in San Diego County, California. The cohort included 306 adults experiencing homelessness who had at least one prescription for buprenorphine and participated in a MAT program between 2017 and 2019. The sample included 64.4% men, almost exclusively white, and 35% lived in a place not meant for human habitation. Of the sample, 97 patients were retained at 3 months and 209 were not. Results from a logistic regression model showed that counseling appointments were positively associated with retention at three months (OR = 1.57, p < 0.001). Findings from this study inform future MAT program design components for people experiencing homelessness.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1_suppl): 72S-79S, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Traditional public health surveillance of nonfatal opioid overdose relies on emergency department (ED) billing data, which can be delayed substantially. We compared the timeliness of 2 new data sources for rapid drug overdose surveillance-emergency medical services (EMS) and syndromic surveillance-with ED billing data. METHODS: We used data on nonfatal opioid overdoses in Kentucky captured in EMS, syndromic surveillance, and ED billing systems during 2018-2019. We evaluated the time-series relationships between EMS and ED billing data and syndromic surveillance and ED billing data by calculating cross-correlation functions, controlling for influences of autocorrelations. A case example demonstrates the usefulness of EMS and syndromic surveillance data to monitor rapid changes in opioid overdose encounters in Kentucky during the COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: EMS and syndromic surveillance data showed moderate-to-strong correlation with ED billing data on a lag of 0 (r = 0.694; 95% CI, 0.579-0.782; t = 9.73; df = 101; P < .001; and r = 0.656; 95% CI, 0.530-0.754; t = 8.73; df = 101; P < .001; respectively) at the week-aggregated level. After the COVID-19 emergency declaration, EMS and syndromic surveillance time series had steep increases in April and May 2020, followed by declines from June through September 2020. The ED billing data were available for analysis 3 months after the end of a calendar quarter but closely followed the trends identified by the EMS and syndromic surveillance data. CONCLUSION: Data from EMS and syndromic surveillance systems can be reliably used to monitor nonfatal opioid overdose trends in Kentucky in near-real time to inform timely public health response.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/prevenção & controle , Emergências/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 68, 2021 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted a significant toll on the lives of people who use opioids (PWUOs). At the same time, more flexible regulations around provision of opioid use disorder (OUD) services have led to new opportunities for facilitating access to services for PWUOs. In the current scoping review, we describe new services and service modifications implemented by treatment and harm reduction programs serving PWUO, and discuss implications for policy and practice. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted within PubMed, LitCovid, Embase, and PsycInfo for English-language studies published in 2020 that describe a particular program, service, or intervention aimed at facilitating access to OUD treatment and/or harm reduction services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Abstracts were independently screened by two reviewers. Relevant studies were reviewed in full and those that met inclusion criteria underwent final data extraction and synthesis (n = 25). We used a narrative synthesis approach to identify major themes around key service modifications and innovations implemented across programs serving PWUO. RESULTS: Reviewed OUD treatment and harm reduction services spanned five continents and a range of settings from substance use treatment to street outreach programs. Innovative service modifications to adapt to COVID-19 circumstances primarily involved expanded use of telehealth services (e.g., telemedicine visits for buprenorphine, virtual individual or group therapy sessions, provision of donated or publicly available phones), increased take-home medication allowances for methadone and buprenorphine, expanded uptake of long-acting opioid medications (e.g. extended-release buprenorphine and naltrexone), home delivery of services (e.g. MOUD, naloxone and urine drug screening), outreach and makeshift services for delivering MOUD and naloxone, and provision of a safe supply of opioids. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed multiple challenges for PWUOs, while simultaneously accelerating innovations in policies, care models, and technologies to lower thresholds for life-saving treatment and harm reduction services. Such innovations highlight novel patient-centered and feasible approaches to mitigating OUD related harms. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term impact of these approaches and inform policies that improve access to care for PWUOs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 66, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergency department (ED) offers an important opportunity to identify patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and initiate treatment. However, post-ED follow-up is challenging, and novel approaches to enhance care transitions are urgently needed. Outcomes following ED visits have traditionally focused on overdose, treatment engagement, and mortality with an absence of patient reported outcomes (PROs), for example patient ability to schedule follow-up OUD treatment appointments or pick up a prescription medication, that may better inform evaluation of treatment pathways and near-term outcomes after acute events. In the context of increasing novel secure mobile health (mHealth) platforms, we explored the feasibility and acceptability of electronically collecting PROs from ED patients with non-medical opioid use to enhance care in the ED and transitions of care. METHODS: ED patients with non-medical opioid use or opioid overdose who endorsed willingness and ability to complete electronic surveys after discharge were enrolled from a tertiary, urban academic ED. Participants were enrolled in an mHealth platform, shared electronic health records with researchers, and completed electronic surveys of PROs at baseline, three- and thirty-days post discharge from the hospital, including questions about ability to schedule a follow-up appointment, pick up a prescription medication and overdose risk behaviors. Primary outcomes were measures of feasibility and acceptability of electronic PRO collection among ED patients with non-medical opioid use. RESULTS: Among 1,808 patients assessed for eligibility between June-December 2019, 101 of 130 (78%) eligible adult patients consented to participate. Ninety-six (95%) of 101 patients completed registration in the mHealth platform, and 77/96 (80%) were successful in sharing their electronic health data. Completion rates for the baseline, three-day and thirty-day surveys were 97% (93/96), 49% (47/96) and 42% (40/96). Implementation challenges included short engagement window during ED visit, limited access to smartphones/computers, insufficient battery life of participant phone to access email and password, forgotten emails and passwords, multi-step verification processes for account set-up, and complaints about hospital care, most of which were effectively addressed by study personnel. CONCLUSIONS: ED patients with OUD were willing to share electronic health information and PROs, although implementation challenges were common, and more than half of participants were lost-to-follow-up after hospital discharge at 30 days. Efforts to streamline communication and remove barriers to engagement are needed to improve the collection of PROs and pathways of care in ED patients with OUD. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03985163). Date of Registration: June 10, 2019, Retrospectively registered (First enrollment June 8, 2019). https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT03985163.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Telemedicina , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Eletrônica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
13.
Nursing ; 51(9): 44-47, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633996

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Substance use treatment inequities among rural populations are well documented and the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated these inequalities, forcing healthcare providers to be creative in the delivery of treatment. Systematic reviews on the use of telehealth to treat patients with substance use disorder indicate that it is a promising alternative to in-person services. This article examines the evidence supporting the use of telehealth in treating patients with opioid use disorder and explores other promising options that can help overcome pandemic-related barriers to treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/enfermagem , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 520, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) frequently present with comorbid psychiatric illnesses which have significant implications for their treatment outcomes. Notably, these are often identified by self-report. Our study examined the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported psychiatric diagnoses against a structured diagnostic interview in a cohort of patients receiving outpatient pharmacological treatment for OUD. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from adults receiving outpatient opioid agonist treatment for OUD in clinics across Ontario, Canada, we compared participants' self-reported psychiatric diagnoses with those identified by the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Version 6.0 administered at the time of study entry. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for self-report of psychiatric diagnoses. RESULTS: Amongst a sample of 683 participants, 24% (n = 162) reported having a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Only 104 of these 162 individuals (64%) reporting a comorbidity met criteria for a psychiatric disorder as per the MINI; meanwhile, 304 (75%) participants who self-reported no psychiatric comorbidity were in fact identified to meet MINI criteria for a psychiatric disorder. The sensitivity and specificity for any self-reported psychiatric diagnoses were 25.5% (95% CI 21.3, 30.0) and 78.9% (95% CI 73.6, 83.6), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings raise questions about the utility of self-reported psychiatric comorbidity in patients with OUD, particularly in the context of low sensitivity of self-reported diagnoses. Several factors may contribute to this including remittance and relapse of some psychiatric illnesses, underdiagnosis, and the challenge of differentiating psychiatric and substance-induced disorders. These findings highlight that other methods should be considered in order to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in patients with OUD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639456

RESUMO

The provision of opioid agonist treatments (OATs), as a standard approach towards opioid dependence syndrome, differs widely between countries. In response to access disparities, in 2014, the Council of Europe's Pompidou Group first brought together an expert group on framework conditions for the treatment of opioid dependence. The group used a Delphi approach to structure their discussions and develop guiding principles for the modernisation of OAT regulations and legislation. The expert group identified some 60 guiding principles, which were then the subject of wide public consultation. Endorsed by Pompidou Group member states, the final report identified four key recommendations: (1) Prescription and delivery without prior authorisation schemes; (2) Effective removal of financial barriers to access to care; (3) Coordination and follow-up by a national consultative body; and (4) Neutral, precise and respectful terminology. During meetings, the expert group hypothesised that inequalities in OAT access are likely to be linked to underlying rationales which in theory are contradictory, but in practice co-exist within the different political frameworks. The present article considers the perceived influence upon different regulatory frameworks. Discussion is centred around the potential impact of underlying rationales upon the effective implementation of a modernised framework.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Políticas , Encaminhamento e Consulta
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of women who are pregnant with opioid use disorder (OUD) also smoke tobacco but are rarely offered tobacco cessation counseling. While the effects of exposure to opioids and nicotine in utero are well-understood separately, understanding the impact of the combined exposure to these substances on neonatal outcomes is lacking. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted using PubMed and Scopus databases for studies addressing the combined exposure to opioids and nicotine during pregnancy published between 1 January 1980 and 9 July 2019. A total of 29 papers met the eligibility criteria for inclusion, with nine being identified as clinical trials (three from the MOTHER study) and two as secondary data analysis of clinical trial data. RESULTS: Neonatal outcomes for infants who had a combined exposure to opioids and nicotine in utero indicated a reduction in birth weight and birth length. Findings in infants exposed to both nicotine and opioids were mixed with regard to the duration of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), the likelihood of treatment for NAS, doses of medicine used to treat NAS, and NAS scores when compared with infants who had opioid exposure without nicotine. CONCLUSIONS: The combined exposure to nicotine and opioids during pregnancy may lead to a reduction in neonatal birth weight and birth length and more severe NAS signs, compared with opioid use alone, but more research is necessary to identify the minimum dosage and length of nicotine exposure to accurately predict these outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Nicotina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Gravidez
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638633

RESUMO

Opioid addiction is a complex phenomenon with genetic, social, and other components. Due to such complexity, it is difficult to interpret the outcome of clinical studies, and thus, mutations found in individuals with these addictions are still not indisputably classified as opioid addiction-causing variants. Here, we computationally investigated two such mutations, A6V and N40D, found in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1. The mutations are located in the extracellular domain of the corresponding protein, which is important to the hetero-dimerization of OPRM1 with the delta opioid receptor protein (OPRD1). The hetero-dimerization of OPRD1-OPRM1 affects the signaling pathways activated by opioids and natural peptides and, thus, could be considered a factor contributing to addiction. In this study, we built four 3D structures of molecular pathways, including the G-protein signaling pathway and the ß-arrestin signaling pathway of the heterodimer of OPRD1-OPRM1. We also analyzed the effect of mutations of A6V and N40D on the stability of individual OPRM1/OPRD1 molecules and the OPRD1-OPRM1 heterodimer with the goal of inferring their plausible linkage with opioid addiction. It was found that both mutations slightly destabilize OPRM1/OPRD1 monomers and weaken their association. Since hetero-dimerization is a key step for signaling processes, it is anticipated that both mutations may be causing increased addiction risk.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/genética , Receptores Opioides delta/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Receptores Opioides/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Dimerização , Humanos , Mutação/genética , beta-Arrestinas/genética
19.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211052401, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686099

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Increasing rates of Opioid Use Disorder among pregnant women are a significant public health issue. Care for these women is fragmented, and multiple barriers to care have been identified. Program: The Tides, Inc. is attempting to address these needs by providing comprehensive, coordinated care, beginning in pregnancy and extending beyond the birth of their infant. IMPLEMENTATION: Using a collaborative model, care is coordinated between multiple existing agencies in an effort to reduce barriers and improve access to care. Funding for these services is provided through county funding and existing payor sources (eg, insurance, Medicaid). EVALUATION: Participant and program outcomes were evaluated at the end of each year of the program. In addition, participants who had completed the program at the end of year 1 were asked to complete a survey providing qualitative information about their experience in the program. Of these participants, 73% reported no opiate use and 100% had full custody of their infants. DISCUSSION: The Tides, Inc. program utilizes existing resources to provide coordinated and comprehensive care for pregnant women with Opioid Use Disorder. In addition to improving outcomes for women and their infants, this program can reduce cost and burden on community entities such as the justice system and foster care networks. This program can serve as a model for other communities to coordinate care for women and their infants.


Assuntos
Mães , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Medicaid , Gravidez
20.
Adv Emerg Nurs J ; 43(4): 331-343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699423

RESUMO

Efforts to minimize the impact of prescribed opioids on future adverse outcomes are reliant on emergency care providers' ability to screen and detect opioid use disorder (OUD). Many prescriptions are initiated in the emergency department (ED) for acute pain; thus, validated measures are especially needed. Our systematic review describes the available opioid-related screening measures identified through search of the available literature. Measures were categorized by intent and applied clinical setting. We found 44 articles, identifying 15 screening measures. Of these, nine were developed to screen for current opioid misuse and five to screen for risk of future opioid misuse. None were created for use outside of a chronic pain setting. Many measures were applied differently from intended purpose. Although several measures are available, screening for adverse opioid outcomes in the ED is hampered by lack of validated instruments. Development of clarified conceptual models and ED-specific research is necessary to limit OUD.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tratamento de Emergência , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
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