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Codas ; 35(4): e20220007, 2023.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37556703


PURPOSE: To identify the main categories of the Activities and Participation component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and to verify the association with age, gender, education, and speech therapy diagnosis in children who are assisted by an oral language clinic. METHODS: This is an analytical and cross-sectional observational study, carried out with secondary data from 32 medical records of children with the majority male, mean age of 41.03 months, in early childhood education and language disorder associated with other conditions. The main speech-language pathology manifestations were coded according to the pre-selected categories of the Activities and Participation component, and descriptive and bivariate statistical analyzes were performed, and the Fisher's Exact test was used with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The descriptive analysis of the pre-selected categories allowed us to verify a high number of "Not informed" answers, with a higher percentage in vocal expression without speech (d331) performance (93.8%), making decisions (d177) ability (90.6%), problem solving (d175) performance (65.6%) and capacity (87.5%), reception of oral messages (d310) performance (65.6%) and eating (d550) capacity (65.6%). Among the 24 categories selected, 12 jointly contemplated the Qualifiers of Performance and Capacity. There was a statistically significant association between the three categories with sociodemographic data and speech therapy diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Difficulties were identified in several categories of the Activities and Participation component and statistically significant associations between them and sociodemographic data and speech therapy diagnoses, showing the impacts of oral language disorders on the activities and participation of children assisted in an outpatient speech therapy service.

OBJETIVO: Identificar as principais categorias do componente Atividades e Participação da Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde, bem como os possíveis qualificadores de Capacidade e Desempenho, e verificar suas associações com idade, sexo, escolaridade e diagnóstico fonoaudiológico em crianças atendidas em um ambulatório de linguagem oral. MÉTODO: Trata-se de estudo observacional analítico e transversal, realizado com dados secundários de 32 prontuários de crianças com maioria do sexo masculino, média de idade de 41,03 meses, em ensino infantil e transtorno de linguagem associado a outras condições. Foi realizada a codificação das principais manifestações fonoaudiológicas segundo as categorias do componente Atividades e Participação pré-selecionadas e realizadas análises estatísticas descritivas e bivariadas e uso do teste Exato de Fisher com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A análise descritiva das categorias pré-selecionadas permitiu verificar um número alto de respostas "Não informado", com maior porcentagem em expressão vocal sem fala (d331) desempenho (93,8%), tomar decisões (d177) capacidade (90,6%), resolver problemas (d175) desempenho (65,6%) e capacidade (87,5%), recepção de mensagens orais (d310) desempenho (65,6%) e comer (d550) capacidade (65,6%). Dentre as 24 categorias selecionadas, 12 contemplaram conjuntamente os qualificadores de Desempenho e Capacidade. Houve associação com significância estatística entre as categorias (d175, d815 e d350) com dados sociodemográficos e diagnósticos fonoaudiológicos. CONCLUSÃO: Foram identificadas dificuldades em categorias do componente Atividades e Participação e associações com significância estatística entre elas e os dados sociodemográficos e diagnósticos fonoaudiológicos, evidenciando impactos dos transtornos de linguagem oral nas atividades e participação de crianças atendidas em um serviço ambulatorial.

Avaliação da Deficiência , Transtornos da Linguagem , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Fala , Assistência Ambulatorial , Atividades Cotidianas , Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde
Int J Lang Commun Disord ; 58(5): 1510-1525, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37189292


BACKGROUND: Understanding the natural history of developmental speech and language impairments can support the selection of children whose difficulties are persistent rather than transitory. It can also provide information against which the effectiveness of intervention can be evaluated. However, natural history data are difficult to collect ethically. Furthermore, as soon as an impairment is identified, the behaviour of those around changes, thus creating some level of intervention. Longitudinal cohort studies, where intervention is minimal, or the control arm of randomized trials have provided the best evidence. However, occasional opportunities arise where service waiting lists can provide data about the progress of children who have not received intervention. This natural history study arose within an ethnically diverse, community paediatric speech and language therapy service in the UK where levels of social disadvantage are high. AIMS: To identify (1) the characteristics of the children who attended initial assessment and were selected for treatment; (2) the differences between children who did and did not attend reassessment; and (3) the factors associated with outcomes. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A cohort of 545 children were referred and assessed as in need of therapy. Due to resource constraints, intervention was not available for an average of 12 months. Children were invited to attend for a reassessment of need. Initial and follow-up assessments were conducted by experienced clinicians using service guidelines and the Therapy Outcomes Measures Impairment Scale (TOM-I). Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses examined child outcomes for changes in communication impairment, demographic factors and length of wait. OUTCOMES & RESULTS: At initial assessment, 55% of children presented with severe and profound communication impairments. Children offered appointments at clinics in areas of high social disadvantage were less likely to attend reassessment. By reassessment, 54% of children showed spontaneous improvement (mean TOM-I rating change = 0.58). However, 83% were still judged to require therapy. Approximately 20% of children changed their diagnostic category. Age and impairment severity at initial assessment were the best predictors of continuing requirement for input. CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: Although children do make spontaneous progress post-assessment and without intervention, it is likely that the majority will continue to be assigned case status by a Speech and Language Therapist. However, when evaluating the effectiveness of interventions, clinicians need to factor in the progress that a proportion of the caseload will make spontaneously. Services should be mindful that a lengthy wait may disproportionately impact children who already face health and educational inequalities. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: What is already known on the subject Data from longitudinal cohorts (where intervention has been minimal) and the no treatment control arms of randomized controlled trials have provided the best evidence of the natural progression of speech and language impairments in children. These studies provide a varied rate of resolution and progress depending on the case definitions and measurements used. What this study adds to existing knowledge Uniquely, this study has evaluated the natural history of a large cohort of children who had been waiting for treatment for up to 18 months. Data showed that, over a period of waiting for intervention, the majority of those identified as a case by a Speech and Language Therapist remained a case. Using the TOM, on average children in the cohort made just over half a rating point progress during their waiting period. What are the potential or actual clinical implications of this work? The maintenance of treatment waiting lists is probably an unhelpful service strategy for two reasons: first, the case status of the majority of the children is unlikely to change whilst they await intervention and thus children and their families are subjected to further limbo waiting time; second, the dropout from the waiting list may disproportionately affect children who are offered appointments in clinics where there are higher levels of social disadvantage, thus exacerbating inequalities in the system. Currently, a suggested reasonable outcome of intervention is a 0.5 rating change in one domain of TOMs. Study findings suggest this is insufficiently stringent for a paediatric community clinic caseload. There is a need to evaluate spontaneous improvement which may occur in other TOM domains (i.e., Activity, Participation and Wellbeing) and to agree an appropriate change metric for a community paediatric caseload.

Transtornos da Comunicação , Transtornos da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fala , Fonoterapia/métodos , Listas de Espera
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 32(2): 762-785, 2023 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36857041


PURPOSE: Acquired central dysgraphia is a heterogeneous neurological disorder that usually co-occurs with other language disorders. Written language training is relevant to improve everyday skills and as a compensatory strategy to support limited oral communication. A systematic evaluation of existing writing treatments is thus needed. METHOD: We performed a systematic review of speech and language therapies for acquired dysgraphia in studies of neurological diseases (PROSPERO: CRD42018084221), following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) checklist with a search on several databases for articles written in English and published until August 31, 2021. Only methodological well-designed studies were included. Further assessment of methodological quality was conducted by means of a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist. RESULTS: Eleven studies of 43 patients in total were included. For each study, we collected data on type of population, type of impairment, experimental design, type of treatment, and measured outcomes. The studies had a medium level of assessed methodological quality. An informative description of treatments and linkages to deficits is reported. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is a need for further experimental evidence, most treatments showed good applicability and improvement of written skills in patients with dysgraphia. Lexical treatments appear to be more frequently adopted and more flexible in improving dysgraphia and communication, especially when a multimodal approach is used. Finally, the reported description of treatment modalities for dysgraphia in relation to patients' deficits may be important for providing tailored therapies in clinical management.

Agrafia , Transtornos da Linguagem , Humanos , Agrafia/diagnóstico , Agrafia/etiologia , Agrafia/terapia , Fala , Terapia da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Idioma
Distúrb. comun ; 34(4): 57098, dez. 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425834


Introdução: Quando um transtorno de linguagem se apresenta desde a infância e não é diagnosticado ou tratado, independente da língua e de sua modalidade, pode acarretar uma série de consequências em todas as fases da vida. Objetivo: Identificar e analisar a produção científica que aborda a ocorrência de transtornos de linguagem em pessoas surdas que se comunicam por língua de sinais. Estratégia de pesquisa: Levantamento da literatura nacional e internacional nas bases de dados, Embase, ERIC, LILACS, PubMed e Scielo. A pergunta norteadora foi "Como a Fonoaudiologia aborda os casos de pessoas surdas usuárias de língua de sinais e que são acometidas por transtornos de linguagem nessa modalidade?". Critério de seleção: Artigos que abordavam práticas fonoaudiológicas em quadros de transtorno de linguagem em população usuária de língua de sinais. Resultados: Foram identificados 295 artigos, e após aplicar os critérios de elegibilidade, oito foram incluídos na análise. O intervalo de tempo de publicação encontrado foi de 12 anos (de 2007 até 2018), estudos majoritariamente do Reino Unido, de delineamento observacional e ainda com amostra restrita. Conclusão: Há escassez de estudos que abordem os transtornos de linguagem em crianças surdas sinalizadoras, principalmente no âmbito nacional. Esse achado chama atenção para a necessidade de estudos que abordem práticas fonoaudiológicas de intervenção nesses transtornos, viabilizando a formação dos fonoaudiólogos quanto às práticas clínicas.

Introduction: When a language disorder presents itself since childhood and is not diagnosed or treated, regardless of the language and its modality, it can have a series of consequences, in all stages of life. Purpose: To identify and analyze the scientific production that addresses the occurrence of language disorders in deaf people who communicate using sign language. Research strategies: Search in national and international literature in databases Embase, ERIC, LILACS, PubMed and Scielo. The guiding question was "How does Speech Language Therapy address the cases of deaf signers who are affected by language disorders in this modality?". Selection criteria: Manuscripts that addressed speech language therapy practices in language disorder conditions in a population of deaf signers. Results: 295 articles were identified; after applying the eligibility criteria, eight were included in the analysis. The time interval found between publications was 12 years (from 2007 to 2018); most studies were from the United Kingdom, with observational design and with a restricted sample. Conclusion: The number of studies that address language disorders in deaf sign children is scarce, especially in the national context. This finding evidences the need for studies that address speech language therapy intervention practices in these disorders, enabling the training of speech language therapists regarding clinical practices.

Introducción: Cuando un trastorno del lenguaje se presenta desde la infancia y no es diagnosticado ni tratado, independientemente del lengua y su modalidad, puede tener una serie de consecuencias en todas las etapas de la vida. Objetivo: Identificar y analizar la producción científica que aborda la ocurrencia de trantornos del lenguaje en personas sordas que se comunican por lengua de senãs. Estrategia de investigación: Relevamiento de literatura nacional e internacional en bases de datos, Embase, ERIC, LILACS, PubMed Y Scielo. La pregunta orientadora fue «¿cómo aborda la logopedia los casos de personas sordas que utilizan la lengua de senãs y que se ven afectadas por transtornos del linguaje en esta modalidad?" Criterios de selección: Articulos que abordan las prácticas de logopedia en condiciones de trastornos del lenguaje en una población que usa lengua de senãs. Resultados: Se identificaron 295 artículos, ocho fueron incluidos en el análisis luego de aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad . El intervelo de tiempo de publicación fue 12 años (de 2007 a 2018) en su mayoría de Reino Unido, con diseño observacional y aún con una muestra restringida. Conclusión: Hay una escasez de estudios que aborden los trastornos del lenguaje en niños sordos de signos, principalmente a nivel nacional. Este hallazgo llama la atención sobre la necesidad de estudios que aborden las prácticas de intervención logopédica en estos trastornos, permitiendo la formación de logopedas en las prácticas clínicas.

Humanos , Língua de Sinais , Fonoaudiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Comunicação não Verbal
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(4): 1702-1718, 2022 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613324


OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to (a) examine children's access to services for their speech and language disorders during their lifetimes; (b) identify any child, disorder, and family characteristics associated with access to services; and (c) describe the speech and language service providers among children who received care. STUDY DESIGN: Data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey were used for this retrospective cohort study. Our sample included 491 children (ages 3;0-17;11 [years;months]) with speech disorders and 333 children with language disorders. We measured the receipt of services for speech or language difficulties (main outcome) and the type of professional providing services (secondary outcome). We examined associations between services and child, disorder, and family characteristics. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of children with speech and language disorders had ever received services for their difficulties. Privately insured children and children with co-occurring conditions were more likely to receive services than their peers who were uninsured (speech: 6.1 [1.7,21.3]; language: 6.6 [1.3,32.9]) and had no co-occurring conditions (speech: 2.1 [1.2,3.9]; language: 2.9 [1.5,5.5]). Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) were the most commonly reported provider of services (speech: 68%, language: 60%) followed by early interventionists. CONCLUSIONS: Most children with speech and language disorders received services. However, disparities existed by race/ethnicity, health insurance type, co-occurring diagnoses, and disorder duration (speech only). Most children who received services were being provided with care by the experts of speech and language: SLPs. Updated population-based data and implementation studies are needed to document speech and language screening, referral, and access to services. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL:

Transtornos da Linguagem , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fala , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Fala/terapia , Fonoterapia
J Commun Disord ; 97: 106196, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526293


INTRODUCTION: Language and communication disruptions in schizophrenia are at the center of a large body of investigation. Yet, the remediation of such disruptions is still in its infancy. Here we targeted what is known to be one of the most damaged language domains in schizophrenia, namely pragmatics, by conducting a pragmatics-centered intervention with a randomized controlled trial design and assessing also durability and generalization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study with these characteristics. METHODS: Inspired by the Gricean account of natural language use, we tailored a novel treatment addressing the pragmatics of communication (PragmaCom) and we tested its efficacy in a sample of individuals with schizophrenia randomized to the experimental group or to an active control group. The primary outcome with respect to the efficacy of the PragmaCom was measured by changes in pragmatic abilities (as evaluated with the global score of the Assessment of Pragmatic Abilities and Cognitive Substrates test) from baseline to 12 weeks and at 3-month follow-up. The secondary outcome was measured by changes in metaphor comprehension, abstract thinking, and global functioning from baseline to 12 weeks and at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: Relative to the control group, at post-test the PragmaCom group showed greater and enduring improvement in global pragmatic skills and in metaphor comprehension. At follow-up, these improvements persisted and the PragmaCom exerted beneficial effects also on functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limited sample size, we believe that these findings offer initial yet encouraging evidence of the possibility to improve pragmatic skills with a theoretically grounded approach and to obtain durable and clinically relevant benefits. We argue that it is time that therapeutic efforts embrace communicative dysfunctions in order to improve illness outcome.

Transtornos da Linguagem , Esquizofrenia , Comunicação , Compreensão , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Esquizofrenia/terapia
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(2): 854-880, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120298


PURPOSE: Most research on language acquisition and impairments is neutral to work setting; however, work settings (e.g., schools, health care) are expected to differ in alignment with overlaid workplace models (e.g., education, medical). These differences may affect clinical service provision for individuals with specific language impairment (SLI). This article evaluates potential effects of work setting on top-down advocacy initiatives and clinical service provision for children with symptoms of SLI. METHOD: Speech-language pathologists serving pediatric populations in health care-based (n = 140) and school-based (n = 423) work settings completed a three-part survey: (a) participant demographics, (b) report of case/workload and practice patterns, and (c) clinical vignettes and eligibility belief. Data analysis included descriptives and chi-square tests. RESULTS: The work setting groups reported differences in eligibility terminology, eligibility criteria, and practice patterns from the point of referral through discharge. The reported differences aligned with overlaid workplace models. As compared to the school-based group, health care-based participants reported fewer eligibility restrictions in the workplace, agreed more often with a belief in less restrictive eligibility criteria, and reported more sensitive clinical decisions when operating under neutral workplace circumstances. Despite these findings, health care-based participants reported a smaller proportion of individuals with language impairment only on their caseload. DISCUSSION: Work setting variations influence the underidentification of individuals with SLI for speech-language pathology services. Differences in responses by workplace indicate the need for unique and targeted advocacy efforts. Shifting diagnostic terminology and criteria will be insufficient in closing the gap unless advocacy efforts also address speech-language pathologists' workplace realities.

Transtornos da Linguagem , Transtorno Específico de Linguagem , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho , Local de Trabalho
Rev. Hosp. Clin. Univ. Chile ; 33(3): 200-210, 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1417199


People with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) can present a variety of communication disorders that affect their roles and social participation, affecting their quality of life and that of their environment. An early approach to these people and their communication difficulties could improve/compensate/facilitate communication, minimizing the effects on their daily life. Purpose: To contribute with recommendations for communication therapy in people with MS. Method: narrative literature review related to the topic. Results: There are few investigations focused on the intervention of communication in people with MS, those found are works in small populations, with evaluations at the beginning and at the end of therapy. The most promising studies are those that show specific effects on speech, through the LSVT LOUD, which not only improves communicative effectiveness, but has also shown improvements in dysphagia (eating disorder). significant to consider interventions with the environment and aimed at the quality of life of the affected individuals and families. Conclusions: The different presentations that MS has and its individual characteristics in each person, makes it difficult to have specific evidence on the most effective types of therapy. Despite this, it is possible to use therapies focused on different communication symptoms and adapt them under certain considerations to address communication in people with MS. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Comunicação , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações
Estilos clín ; 27(2)2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1435614


Este trabalho parte de inquietações acerca do atendimento de uma criança, na Clínica de Linguagem, cuja mãe solicitou um diagnóstico diferencial entre Apraxia de Fala na Infância e Transtorno do Espectro Autista. Discute-se a contradição entre a indecidibilidade diagnóstica e a suposta universalidade destas categorias. O objetivo é propor um diagnóstico de linguagem que leve em consideração não somente as inusitadas produções orais de uma criança, mas seu modo de relação à fala do outro e à própria. Utilizou-se como método a discussão de um caso clínico, cujo diagnóstico de linguagem era indicativo de fracassos na inscrição significante no corpo. A intervenção foi realizada sobre o efeito da fala da criança no outro que, à deriva, ficava preso ao espelhamento do gesto motor, impossibilitado de a ele atribuir valor linguístico

Este trabajo es fruto de la preocupación por el tratamiento de un niño, realizada desde la perspectiva de la Clínica del Lenguaje. La madre trajo el niño con la solicitud del diagnóstico diferencial entre Apraxia del Habla en la Infancia y Trastorno del Espectro Autista. Señaló la contradicción entre la entificación y la fijeza de estas categorías y lo que aparece enmascarado bajo la apariencia de indecidibilidad diagnóstica. Propongo articular las inusuales producciones orales del niño con gestos corporales. El diagnóstico del lenguaje, indicativo de fallas en la inscripción del lenguaje en el cuerpo, implicó una intervención sobre el efecto del habla del niño sobre el otro, quien, a la deriva, quedó atrapado en el reflejo del gesto motor e incapaz de atribuirle valor linguístico

This paper is due to concerns on the treatment of a child from the perspective of the Language Clinic. The mother brought the child with the request for the differential diagnosis between Speech Apraxia in Childhood and Autistic Spectrum Disorder. On the article, I highlight the contradiction between the entification and fixity of these categories and what appears masked under the semblance of diagnostic undecidability. I propose to articulate the child's unusual oral productions with bodily gestures. The language diagnosis, indicative of failures in the language inscription in the body, implied an intervention on the effect of the child's speech on the other, who, adrift, was trapped in the mirroring of the motor gesture and unable to attribute linguistic value to it

Ce travail est le résultat de préoccupations concernant le traitement, à la Clinique du Langage, d'un enfant amené para sa mère avec une demande de diagnostic différentiel entre l'Apraxie de la Parole chez l'enfant et Trouble du Spectre Autistique. Dans ce contexte, je souligne la contradiction entre l'éntification et la fixité de ces catégories et ce qui apparaît masqué sous un semblant d'indécidabilité du diagnostic. Je propose d'articuler les productions orales inhabituelles de l'enfant avec des gestes corporels. Le diagnostic du langage, révélateur de défaillances de l'inscription significant dans le corps, impliquait une intervention sur l'effet de la parole de l'enfant sur l'autre, qui, à la dérive, était piégé dans le miroir du geste moteur et incapable de lui attribuer une valeur linguistique

Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico
Semin Speech Lang ; 42(3): 192-210, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261163


Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) assess health outcomes from the patient's perspective. The National Institutes of Health has invested in the creation of numerous PROMs that comprise the PROMIS, Neuro-QoL, and TBI-QoL measurement systems. Some of these PROMs are potentially useful as primary or secondary outcome measures, or as contextual variables for the treatment of adults with cognitive/language disorders. These PROMs were primarily created for clinical research and interpretation of group means. They also have potential for use with individual clients; however, at present there is only sparse evidence and direction for this application of PROMs. Previous research by Cohen and Hula (2020) described how PROMs could support evidence-based practices in speech-language pathology. This companion article extends upon that work to present clinicians with implementation information about obtaining, administering, scoring, and interpreting PROMs for individual clients with cognitive/language disorders. This includes considerations of the type and extent of communication support that is appropriate, implications of the relatively large measurement error that accompanies individual scores and pairs of scores, and recommendations for applying minimal detectable change values depending on the clinician's desired level of measurement precision. However, more research is needed to guide the interpretation of PROM scores for an individual client.

Transtornos da Linguagem , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Adulto , Cognição , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida
Distúrb. comun ; 33(1): 114-123, mar. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1400111


Objetivo: investigar os efeitos do grupo terapêutico em linguagem descritos em estudos brasileiros. Estratégia de pesquisa: a pesquisa foi realizada nas bases eletrônicas Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS - Bireme) e SciELO. Critérios de seleção: artigos de intervenção em linguagem, realizados em grupo; artigos disponíveis na íntegra e em língua portuguesa; população-alvo abrangendo pré-escolares, escolares, adultos e idosos; artigos publicados no período de 1980 a janeiro 2018; artigos de terapia direta. Critérios de exclusão: artigos de revisão de literatura; artigos repetidos entre as bases eletrônicas; artigos envolvendo terapias individuais ou terapia indireta. A partir dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, dez estudos foram considerados e analisados. Foram realizadas análises descritivas dos estudos, considerando: ano de publicação, objetivo do estudo, amostragem, método de avaliação pré- e pós-intervenção, estruturação das sessões terapêuticas, referencial teórico e principais resultados. Resultados: verificou-se diversidade de objetivos terapêuticos, de estruturação dos atendimentos e faixa etária dos participantes, 40% dos autores descreveram o referencial teórico. Os instrumentos de avaliação foram relatados em 70% dos estudos. Portanto, constatou-se escassez de estudos que exploram os efeitos da terapia coletiva de linguagem. Conclusão: destaca-se a necessidade de maiores investimentos na realização e estruturação das terapias fonoaudiológicas em grupo e a divulgação dessas informações.

Purpose: this study aims to investigate the effects of the Group therapy in language described in Brazilian studies. Research strategies: the search was performed in the electronic databases Virtual Health Library - (VHL Regional Portal) and SciELO. Inclusion criteria: group intervention studies in language; studies available in full and in Portuguese; target population comprising preschoolers, schoolchildren, adults and the elderly; studies published from 1980 to January 2018; direct therapy studies. Exclusion criteria: literature review studies; studies duplicated between electronic databases studies involving individual therapies or indirect therapy. As a result, ten studies were incorporated into the review. The studies' descriptive analysis was performed based on the following items: year of publication, study's objective, sampling, pre- and post-intervention evaluation method, session's structure, theoretical framework and main results. Results: the objectives, the profile of the participants and the structure of the services were diversified. The theoretical framework for group formation was described in 40% studies, 70% described the evaluation instruments. There was a scarcity of studies exploring the effects of speech and language therapy. Conclusion: there is a need for greater investments in the development and structuring of speech and language therapy in group and the dissemination of this information.

Objetivo: investigar los efectos del grupo terapéutico en el lenguaje descrito en estudios brasileños. Estrategia de investigación: la investigación fue hecha utilizando la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS - Bireme) y las bases de datos electrónicas SciELO. Criterios de selección: artículos de intervención del lenguaje, realizados en grupo; artículos disponibles en su totalidad y en portugués; población objetivo que comprende preescolares, escolares, adultos y ancianos; artículos publicados desde 1980 hasta enero de 2018; artículos de terapia directa. Criterios de exclusión: artículos de revisión de literatura; artículos repetidos entre bases electrónicas; artículos relacionados con terapias individuales o terapia indirecta. A partir de los criterios de inclusión y exclusión, se consideraron y analizaron diez estudios. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos de los estudios, considerando: año de publicación, objetivo del estudio, muestreo, método de evaluación antes y después de la intervención, estructuración de sesiones terapéuticas, referencial teórico y resultados principales. Resultados: hubo una diversidad de objetivos terapéuticos, de como estructurar la atención y el grupo de edad de los participantes. 40% describieron el referencial teórico e 70% los instrumentos de evaluación. Por lo tanto, hubo una escasez de estudios que exploren los efectos de la terapia colectiva del lenguaje. Conclusión: existe la necesidad de mayores inversiones en la realización y estructuración de la terapia del lenguaje em grupo y la difusión de esta información.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prática de Grupo , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(1): 75-87, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361791


JASP-EMT, the combined Enhanced Milieu Teaching (EMT) and Joint Attention, Structured Play, and Emotion Regulation (JASPER) interventions, has been found to be effective for promoting social communication in young children with autism (Kasari et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 53(6):635-646, , 2014). The current study examined the effects of this naturalistic intervention on social language use in three children with autism who were in the early stages of language acquisition. Generalization to communication partners who did not utilize the intervention strategies was systematically examined using a multiple-baseline design. The results from this study indicate that this blended intervention is effective in increasing target social language for young children with autism, however, generalization to communication partners does not readily occur. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Comunicação , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Habilidades Sociais , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(1): 129-143, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377905


Conclusions about the efficacy of tele-therapy for parent-mediated intervention for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are limited, due to the shortage of direct comparisons between tele-therapy and traditional face-to-face therapy. In this study, we implemented a parent training program, which targeted on language facilitating intervention strategies. Fifteen parents of children with ASD participated in person, and 15 participated via online video conferencing. We measured parents' intervention fidelity and children's initiations, responses, lexical diversity and morphosyntactic complexity. Results indicated significant improvements in parents' fidelity and children's lexical diversity and morphosyntactic complexity. No significant differences were detected between the two therapy delivery groups on any outcome measures. Finally, children's progress on morphosyntactic complexity was significantly correlated with parents' improvement on fidelity.

Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Pais/educação , Telemedicina/métodos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Projetos Piloto
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(1): 266-278, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201722


Purpose The present pilot study aimed to provide estimates of the feasibility and efficacy of a remote microphone (RM) system as an augmentative intervention to improve the functional listening performance of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and language disorder. Method Eight children with ASD and language disorder participated. Efficacy of the RM system was determined by evaluating participants' functional listening performance, as measured by an observational measure in RM-off and RM-on conditions. Responses were evaluated at the individual level using an alternating conditions design. Results Adequate feasibility was demonstrated as all participants were able to complete tasks in the RM-on condition. A subset of participants showed significant improvements in their functional listening performance in the RM-on condition, as demonstrated by visual inspection and effect sizes (nonoverlapping data points and percentage of data points exceeding the mean), indicating that there may be important sources of individual differences in responses to RM use in children with ASD. Conclusion The results of this pilot study provide support for future research on RM systems to target functional listening performance in children with ASD and language disorder.

Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos da Linguagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Projetos Piloto
EMBO Rep ; 21(12): e52028, 2020 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289274


Brain imaging and research on bilinguals and patients with speech disorders is helping to unravel semantic processing - the way how the brain interprets and stores sentences and stories.

Transtornos da Linguagem , Semântica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neurobiologia
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 51(4): 939-954, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692636


Purpose Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working within the pediatric field will find themselves working with school-age children and consequently collaborating with teaching staff. Knowledge of the links between language, speech, and literacy can support and inform successful collaboration between the SLP and the teacher and their shared goal of facilitating the school-age child in accessing the curriculum. To facilitate and develop the collaborative working practices of SLPs working with school-age children and teaching staff, it is helpful, to both parties, to develop and extend their explicit understanding of the link between language, speech, and spelling. Method In this tutorial, I describe how verbal and written speech and language skills are inextricably linked and key to spelling development and progress. I will (a) discuss the complexities of spelling in the English language; (b) describe the links between language, speech, and spelling; and (c) propose a linguistically informed approach to spelling intervention. Conclusion SLPs have expertise in the key speech and language domains such as phonology, morphology, and semantics and are therefore well placed to play an important role in supporting learners in making links between these domains in relation to spelling development and intervention.

Pessoal de Saúde , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Fala , Ensino , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística , Alfabetização , Motivação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Semântica
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 51(3): 509-513, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692961


Purpose This article introduces the Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools Forum: Morphological Awareness as a Key Factor in Language-Literacy Success for Academic Achievement. The goal of this forum is to relate the influence morphological awareness (MA) has on overall language and literacy development with morphology acting as the "binding agent" between orthography, phonology, and semantics (Perfetti, 2007) in assessment and intervention for school-aged children. Method This introduction provides a foundation for MA development and explores the influence MA has over the course of school-aged language and literacy development. Through summaries of the 11 articles in this forum, school-based speech-language pathologists will be able to convey the importance of MA to promote successful educational outcomes for kindergarten to adolescent students. The forum explores researcher-developed assessments used to help identify MA skill level in first- through eighth-grade students at risk for literacy failure to support instructional needs. The forum also provides school-based speech-language pathologists with details to design and implement MA interventions to support academic success for school-aged students with varying speech-language needs (e.g., dual language emersion, vocabulary development, reading comprehension) using various service delivery models (e.g., small group, classroom-based, intensive summer camps). Conclusion MA is effective in facilitating language and literacy development and as such can be an ideally focused on using multilinguistic approaches for assessment and intervention. The articles in this issue highlight the importance in assessment measures and intervention approaches that focus on students' MA to improve overall academic success in children of all ages and abilities.

Sucesso Acadêmico , Conscientização , Idioma , Linguística/educação , Alfabetização/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Leitura , Instituições Acadêmicas , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Estados Unidos
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 51(3): 561-571, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692963


Purpose Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) work with students with specific language impairment and specific learning disorder who are known to have deficits in morphological knowledge and morphological awareness. Thus, it is important that SLPs have explicit knowledge of morphology to classify, elicit, and correct morphological errors to improve these students' morphological knowledge and morphological awareness. The purposes of this clinical focus article are to summarize current evidence about SLPs and other educators' explicit knowledge of language, to identify information that supports explicit knowledge of morphology, and to illustrate the use of explicit knowledge of morphology with a hypothetical case study. Method A case-based demonstration of an SLP's use of his/her explicit knowledge of morphology to analyze a fourth-grade student's production of derivational morphemes in a spoken language sample and on a sentence completion task is presented. Results and Conclusion The SLP's morphological analyses and summarization of the analyses are presented.

Competência Clínica/normas , Transtornos da Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Linguística , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Masculino , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/normas
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 51(3): 531-543, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692967


Purpose Reading and writing are language-based skills, and effective literacy instruction/intervention practices should include an explicit linguistic focus. A multilinguistic structured literacy approach that integrates morphological awareness is proven beneficial to improve reading and writing for students with language literacy deficits. The key components of this approach are explored. Method An intensive 2-week clinical summer camp, Camp CHRONICLE, which utilizes a multilinguistic structured literacy intervention model that integrates morphological awareness for adolescents with literacy deficits, is reviewed, and three case examples are included. Conclusion Multilinguistic structured literacy intervention with a morphological awareness focus is an ideal approach to improve literacy skills of children and adolescents with language literacy deficits. Supplemental Material

Conscientização , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Linguística/educação , Alfabetização , Adolescente , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Leitura , Estados Unidos , Redação