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1.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 63(9): 679-683, 2021.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647307

RESUMO

It has been known for some time that patients with severe mental disorders often suffer from somatic comorbidity and that they have a shorter life expectancy. However, also patients with personality pathology often suffer from a poorer somatic health associated with a shorter life expectancy. In daily practice a poor somatic condition in these patients seems often due to a maladaptive life style. Moreover, clinical evidence suggests that a maladaptive life style hinders a good outcome of the (psychotherapeutic) treatment. In this article I present a brief review of the literature, describe three fictitious cases and give suggestions how to diagnose and intervene on a maladaptive life style. One had to take in account that a maladaptive life style often is used as a coping mechanism to combat one's difficulties.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Adaptação Psicológica , Comorbidade , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia
2.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 139, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the validation of the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis-Structure Questionnaire (OPD-SQ). METHODS: A clinical sample of 399 adults and a nonclinical general population sample of 50 healthy adults completed measures of depression, attachment, psychiatric symptomatology and distress. Internal consistency and concurrent validity were assessed. Test-retest and Reliable Change Index were also calculated, as was the ability of the OPD-SQ to distinguish between the clinical and general population groups. RESULTS: High internal consistencies were found; significant differences between clinical and nonclinical samples, and significant associations with psychiatric symptomatology, depression and psychological distress. CONCLUSION: The Chilean OPD-SQ has good reliability, and discriminates between clinical and healthy samples.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Adulto , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(6): 541-558, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519620

RESUMO

The manualized focused infant/toddler-parent psychotherapy fSKEPT is a psychodynamic focal treatment of early childhood regulatory disorders, in which either a conflict-related or a personality functioning-related treatment focus is carried out. The aim of the study is to review the effectiveness of fSKEPT depending on two different therapeutic treatment focuses. For this purpose, n = 81 families who received fSKEPT were examined as part of secondary analyzes of a randomized controlled study. The therapeutic treatment focus did not predict the effectiveness for any of the examined target criteria (maternal psychological stress F(1,70) = 0.71, p = .401, maternal depression F(1,70) = 0.18, p = .678, infant regulatory symptoms F(1,70) = 0.11, p = .753, maternal self-efficacy F(1,70) = 0.038, p = .847, maternal reflective functioning F(1,50) = 0.56, p = .458). In a subsample of n = 33 families (40 % of the total sample) we tested whether the therapeutic interventions used in the therapy correspond to the treatment focus of the therapists. No significant difference was found between personality functioning-specific interventions (t(28) = 1.71, p = .099) and unspecific interventions (t(28) = 1.77, p = .087) when comparing the two treatment focus groups. In the conflict focus group significantly more conflict-specific interventions were used (t(28) = 2,71, p = .011). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the focus concept of the fSKEPT treatment. The focus and the flexible individual adaptation of the interventions in the course of the treatment may help offering parents with different psychological vulnerabilities and ressources an equally effective treatment. In addition, the relevance of unspecific interventions and relationship-promoting aspects of the treatment are discussed.


Assuntos
Pais , Psicoterapia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Personalidade , Estresse Psicológico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(234): 184-187, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506452

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Personality disorders is comprised of deeply ingrained and enduring behavioral patterns, manifesting themselves as inflexible responses to a broad range of personal and social situations." Personality Disorders are frequently occurring among patients with substance use disorders. Co-occurrence of substance use disorders and personality disorder is associated with a greater functional impairment affecting treatment adherence. This study's objective was to find out the prevalence of personality disorders among substance use disorders from the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, of a tertiary care center of Nepal. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done at the Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Shree Birendra Hospital, Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal. The ethical approval was approved by the Institutional Review Committee prior to the study. The International Personality Disorder Examination ICD-10 module interview schedule was used to determine personality disorders. There were 100 patients, 86 males and 14 females of age ranging between 18-59 years, from different education levels, socioeconomic statuses, and ethnicities. RESULTS: Of the total 100 patients, 63% of the patients with substance use disorders were found to have either single 24 (24%) or multiple 39 (39%) personality disorders. The most frequently identified disorders were Emotionally Unstable Borderline Type 34 (34%), Anxious Personality Disorder 27 (27%), Emotionally Unstable Impulsive Type 27 (27%). CONCLUSIONS: Present study indicates that personality disorders were highly comorbid with patients of substance use disorders with either single or multiple personality disorders. Personality disorders mostly found in substance use disorders are Emotional Unstable Borderline Type, Anxious Personality Disorder, and Emotional Unstable impulsive Type.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(5. Vyp. 2): 35-40, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical and psychopathological specifics of the first depressive episode (DE) in the context of formation of personality anomalies and their dynamics in adolescence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-seven patients (180 male, 57 female), aged 16 to 25 years, with the first DE and comorbid personality disorder (PD) were clinically observed and psychopathologically evaluated. Later 149 patients from this group participated in the follow-up study. RESULTS: The first DE with PD in adolescence is characterized by psychopathological variety due to PD type and age factor. Diagnosis of PD in adolescence is based on pathological traits, while affective impairment is a separate dimension. PD determines the clinical features of the first DE and all spectrum of affective disorders. The high conjugation of the first DE with autoagressive behavior confirms their suicidal risk. Autoagressive behavior is noted in 201 (84.8%) patients, of which 59 (29.4%) had non-suicide self-injury (NSSI) and 14 (70.6%) had suicidal activity. The follow-up study identified variants of further dynamics of PD with comorbid affective spectrum disorders after the first DE developed in youth that had prognostic value: unipolar major depression in schizoid PD (13 (37.1%) patients), cluster C PD (8 (26.7%)); bipolar affective disorders in borderline (42 (28.2%)) and narcissistic (16 (40.0%)) PD; recurrent depressive disorder in PD of cluster C (14 (46.7%)). CONCLUSIONS: The revealed clinical and psychopathological features will contribute to the creation of a unified model for predicting affective disorders and the formation of therapy standards.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adolescente , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia
6.
Psychol Assess ; 33(9): 880-889, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424018

RESUMO

The present study addresses the need for short and accessible maladaptive trait measures that cover all relevant aspects of developmental trait pathology, in order to comprehensively assess potential antecedents of personality pathology. From this perspective, we present a 98-item version of the well-established Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI) measure (DIPSI-B), that is fully age-neutral across the developmental stages of childhood and adolescence, and further includes those items from the original measure with the most optimal coverage of the latent traits. Relying on a large community-based sample of Flemish children and adolescents (N = 1873) randomly split and balanced in terms of age and gender, a precise selection of items was performed followed by an inspection of psychometric properties. The final item-set appears to be reliable, structurally stable, and invariant across both gender and age. We hope that its feasibility stimulates the integration of the DIPSI-B in ongoing prospective designs examining developmental antecedents of personality disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444001

RESUMO

The current diagnostic systems for mental health disorders are categorical, which, it has been argued, poorly reflect the reality of mental health problems. This is especially relevant in emotional disorders (EDs), especially due to the existing comorbidity between supposedly different disorders. To address this, Brown and Barlow developed a hybrid dimensional-categorical approach to EDs that can be evaluated with the Multidimensional Emotional Disorder Inventory (MEDI), a transdiagnostic self-report questionnaire. This study aims to adapt and explore the sources of validity evidence of the MEDI in a non-clinical sample of Spanish university students (n = 455). Two confirmatory analyses were performed: one with a four-dimensional structure obtained with an exploratory analysis and another with the original nine-dimensional structure of the MEDI. The latter obtained a better fit. The descriptive data, including percentiles, T-scores, and sex differences in total scores are also provided, together with sources of validity evidence. These revealed significant moderate interrelations between factors and with related measures (e.g., personality, depression, and anxiety). This study adapted the MEDI for use in Spanish, provides further support about its factor structure, and offers novel data about its validity sources. The MEDI makes the evaluation of dimensional and transdiagnostic models easier, which might be fundamental in present and future research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Universidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444412

RESUMO

In addition to social and environmental factors, individual personality traits have intricately linked with maladaptive behaviour. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review the link between individual personality traits and criminality. A systematic review was conducted to obtain information regarding the link between individual personality traits with criminal behaviour in the Sage, Web of Science, APA PsycNet, Wiley Online Library, and PubMed databases. The results indicate that individual personality traits that contribute towards criminality are (i) psychopathy; (ii) low self-control; and (iii) difficult temperament. As an overall impact, the review is expected to provide in-depth understanding of the link between individual personality traits and criminality; hence, greater consideration will be given to the dimension of personality as a notable risk factor of criminal behaviour.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Transtornos da Personalidade , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Humanos , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatively strong theoretical assumptions and previous studies concerning co-occurring addictive behaviors suggest a subpopulation representing general proclivity to behavioral addictions (BAs), and there are gender-specific subpopulations. This study aimed to compare latent profile analysis (LPA) and latent class analysis (LCA) as the methods of investigating different clusters of BAs in the general student population and among students positively screened for at least one BA. Participants and procedure: Analyses of six BAs (study, shopping, gaming, Facebook, pornography, and food) and their potential antecedents (personality) and consequences (well-being) were conducted on a full sample of Polish undergraduate students (N = 1182) and a subsample (n = 327) of students including individuals fulfilling cutoff for at least one BA. RESULTS: LPA on the subsample mostly replicated the previous four profiles found in the full sample. However, LCA on a full sample did not replicate previous findings using LPA and showed only two classes: those with relatively high probabilities on all BAs and low probabilities. LCA on the subsample conflated profiles identified with LPA and classes found with LCA in the full sample. CONCLUSIONS: LCA on dichotomized scores (screened positively vs. negatively) were less effective in identifying clear patterns of interrelationships between BAs based on relatively strong theoretical assumptions and found in previous research. BAs can be investigated on the whole spectrum of behavior, and person-centered analyses might be more useful when they are based on continuous scores. This paper provides more detailed analyses of the four basic clusters of BAs, prevalence, and co-occurrence of particular BAs within and between them, their gender and personality risk factors, relationships to well-being, and their interrelationships as emerging from the results of this and previous studies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Estudantes
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444361

RESUMO

Analysing the emotional behaviour of adolescents is fundamental because of its relationship with maladaptive behaviour and even possible psychological maladjustments. For this reason, this study had two objectives: to analyse the existence of significant differences in socio-emotional behaviour in English, Spanish, and Chilean adolescents, taking gender into account, and to analyse the relationship between emotional behaviour and the effective personality model in the Spanish and Chilean samples. A total of 2534 adolescents participated (609 English, 1677 Spanish, and 248 Chilean). The Abbreviated Scale of Emotional Behaviour (ECEA_R: aggressive tendency, social reactivity, and social support) and the Effective Personality Questionnaire-Adolescents (CPE-A: academic self-realisation, socio-affective self-realisation, and resolute efficacy) were applied. A MANOVA was carried out to study the differences in adolescents' socio-emotional behaviour, taking gender and nationality into account, and a correlational analysis was undertaken to explore the relationship between the variables of emotional behaviour (aggressive tendency, social reactivity, and social support) and effective personality (academic self-realisation, socio-affective self-realisation, and resolute efficacy). Regarding the first objective, for aggressive tendency, English male adolescents stood out, followed by Spanish and Chilean male adolescents and females of all nationalities. In terms of social reactivity, female adolescents stood out over male adolescents and, with regard to social support, Spanish adolescents (male and female) stood out over other nationalities, followed by Chilean and English adolescents (males and females). The results of the second objective indicated a negative relationship between aggressive tendency and academic self-realisation, but a positive relationship for social reactivity and social support (only in the Spanish sample) with most of the effective personality factors. The results are relevant for the application of prevention and intervention programs that improve or implement social and affective competencies in adolescents who develop the effective personality construct.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444149

RESUMO

Aversive personality traits have been linked to risk-taking across various domains. Herein, we investigated whether the common core of aversive traits, the Dark Factor of Personality (D), is related to risk-taking. Whereas the conceptualizations of D (common core of aversive traits) and risk-taking (not inherently socially and/or ethically aversive) do not necessarily imply an association, several theoretical considerations do suggest a positive relation between the constructs. In three studies (overall n = 689), we linked D to various self-report measures of risk-taking (Studies 1 and 2), as well as to a behavioral risk-taking task (Study 3). Overall, D was positively (although not always statistically significantly) related to self-reported risk-taking in terms of financial, health-related, and recreational risk-taking, fearlessness, novelty sensation seeking, intensity sensation seeking, and drug use. However, we did not find an association between D and behavioral risk-taking. Our findings provide insights into the relation between aversive personality and risk-taking, but also point to inconsistencies depending on the specific nature of risk-taking studied.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Assunção de Riscos
12.
J Fam Pract ; 70(5): 239-243, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410914

RESUMO

Specific behaviors or expressed thoughts may signal a need for screening. Take into account an individual's strengths and limitations when designing a Tx approach.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
13.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107086, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gaming Disorder (GD) is characterized by a pattern of persistent and uncontrolled gaming behavior that causes a marked impairment in important areas of functioning. The evolution of the worldwide incidence of this disorder warrants further studies focused on examining the existence of different subtypes within clinical samples, in order to tailor treatment. This study explored the existence of different profiles of patients seeking treatment for GD through a data-driven approach. METHODS: The sample included n = 107 patients receiving treatment for GD (92% men and 8% women) ranging between 14 and 60 years old (mean age = 24.1, SD = 10). A two-step clustering analysis approach explored the existence of different underlying GD profiles based on a broad set of indicators, including sociodemographic features, clinical course of the condition (e.g., onset or evolution), psychopathological symptoms, and personality traits. RESULTS: Two GD profiles emerged. The first cluster grouped together patients who presented with a lower psychological impact (n = 72, 66.1%), whereas the second cluster comprised patients with a higher psychological impact (n = 35, 32.7%). Cluster comparisons revealed that those patients presenting the higher impact were older, with a later onset of pathological gaming patterns, and more pronounced psychopathological symptoms and dysfunctional personality profiles. CONCLUSIONS: GD severity is influenced by specific demographic, clinical, and psychopathological factors. The identification of two separate profiles provides empirical evidence that contributes to the conceptualization of this disorder, as well as to the development of reliable and valid screening tools and effective intervention plans focused on the precise characteristics of the treatment-seeking patients.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360262

RESUMO

During the past decades, the relationship between various psychological parameters had been studied in detail. However, the dependency structure of correlated parameters was rarely investigated. Knowing the dependence structure helps in finding the probability matrix of the interaction between the parameters. In this research, a novel approach was introduced in psychological analysis using copula functions. For this purpose, the self-esteem and anxiety of 141 university students in Iran were extracted using the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and the Zang Anxiety Scale. Then the dependence structure of self-esteem and anxiety were established using copula functions. The Frank copula achieved the best fit for the joint variables of self-esteem and anxiety. Finally, the probability matrix of different classes of anxiety, taking into account self-esteem classes, was extracted. The results indicated that poor self-esteem leads to severe or very severe anxiety, with more than 98% probability, while strong self-esteem may lead to normal and mild anxiety, with about 80% probability. It can be concluded that the method was promising, and that copula functions can open a window to the dependence structure analysis of psychological parameters.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Autoimagem , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade , Psicoterapia
15.
Psychol Assess ; 33(10): 952-961, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292000

RESUMO

The Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) is a normal range inventory for assessing a variety of empirically derived primary traits. These trait scores can be differentially weighted to estimate higher-order broad dimensions such as Positive Emotionality (PEM), Negative Emotionality (NEM), and Constraint (CON). However, broad trait scores are estimated using proprietary regression equations and necessitate near complete administration of the inventory. We aimed to increase measurement efficiency by creating abbreviated item-based approximations of these weighted scores. To parsimoniously delineate and differentiate the broad traits, classical test theory and item response theory approaches were used to identify five items from each primary trait scale approximating the weighted estimates while also maintaining the breadth of MPQ content coverage. Initial scale development relied on the MPQ-276 (standard form) normative sample (n = 1,237), which was followed by cross-validation using two samples of twins and cotwins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (n = 1,304, n = 1,305). Additional validation was conducted using a third sample of undergraduate students (n = 201).The resulting item-based scales (PEM-20, NEM-15, CON-15) demonstrated strong convergence with the established proprietary broad trait estimates. Furthermore, these abbreviated scales exhibited similar associations with the external measures of personality and psychopathology. Abbreviated item-based scales may have utility for efficient estimation of the same broadband personality dimensions assessed by longer forms of the MPQ. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
16.
Psychol Assess ; 33(10): 998-1012, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323549

RESUMO

To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian translation of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2 (SNAP-2) diagnostic scales, 837 Italian community-dwelling adults and 429 consecutively admitted Italian psychiatric adults were administered the SNAP-2. The 12 SNAP-2 diagnostic scales yielded reliable scores in both community (median ω value = .90) and psychiatric (median ω value = .92) samples. The 6-month temporal stability was adequate for all SNAP-2 diagnostic scales (median test-retest r-value = .84) in a subsample of the community-dwelling adults (n = 97). When we examined the correlations between the SNAP-2 diagnostic scales and the Five-Factor Model Rating Form trait scales among the community-dwelling adults, the double-entry intraclass correlation values (median ICCDE = .94) indicated a marked similarity between our correlation profiles and the correlation profiles that were reported in Samuel and Widiger (2008) meta-analysis. In our psychiatric-adult sample, the SNAP-2 diagnostic scales showed adequate convergent-validity coefficients (median r-value = .61) with criterion measures of DSM-IV axis II/DSM-5 Section II personality disorders (PDs). Finally, relative-weight analysis results showed that selected Personality Inventory for DSM-5 trait-scale scores explained a substantial amount of variance in SNAP-2 antisocial, avoidant, borderline, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal PD scale scores (median R 2 value = .55). As a whole, our data suggest that the Italian SNAP-2 diagnostic scales have adequate reliability and construct validity in the Italian culture. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto , Humanos , Vida Independente , Itália , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções
18.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 63(6): 441-450, 2021.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from previous meta-analyses of the impact of comorbid personality disorders (PD's) on treatment outcomes for depressive disorder are contradictory and biased by methodological differences between included studies. AIM: To investigate the impact of comorbid PD on the outcome of depression treatments, using only studies with controlled treatments and structured measurement instruments (PROSPERO, CRD42019120200). METHOD: Studies were searched in PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase, and in reference lists of selected articles and previous meta-analyses. Treatment studies for depression with a subset of individuals with comorbid PD were included. Primary outcome was depression severity change during treatment. Effect sizes were estimated using random effect models, study-level variables were examined with meta-regression. Bias was assessed with the Risk of Bias tool. RESULTS: Six studies involving 942 individuals (447 with PD) were included. There was no significant difference in depression severity reduction between individuals with and without PD (g = 0.03, 95% CI -0.15-0.20, p = 0.27). Heterogeneity and risk of bias were low. The meta-regression did not yield significant results. CONCLUSION: Findings don't indicate an impact of comorbid PD on the outcome of acute phase treatment for depression. Depressed patients with and without comorbid PD should receive the same evidence-based depression treatments.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing research confirming the existence of childhood personalities, which are recognizable from a developmental perspective, controversies over the possibility to assess personality in childhood have continued. The purpose of this study was to provide initial data on the validation of the Childhood Personality Assessment Q-Sort (CPAP-Q), a clinician report instrument that can be employed to evaluate children's personalities and address the gap in the field of emerging personality in children classification. METHOD: A sample of 135 clinicians completed the CPAP-Q to assess the personality features of 135 children (ages 4-11) who had been in their care between two and 12 months. The clinicians completed a clinical questionnaire to collect information on them, the children, and their families, as well as the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), to evaluate the children's behavioral problems and social competencies. RESULTS: Q-factor analysis identified seven specific emerging personality patterns: psychological health, borderline/impulsive, borderline/dysregulated, schizoid, inhibited/self-critical, obsessive, and dysphoric/dependent. These patterns revealed good levels of validity and reliability. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are preliminary, but seem to support the possibility of evaluating emerging personality patterns in childhood and their developmental pathways that may lead to personality disorders in adolescence and adulthood. The CPAP-Q promises to significantly contribute to less explored research areas and encourage systematic studies of children assessment, promoting best practices for individualized diagnoses.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Q-Sort , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200739

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to describe personality profiles and determinants of success in sports in relation to the Big Five Personality Model. In order to achieve this aim, personality profiles of players from various sports disciplines was set against the personality profile of champions-players who are considerably successful in sports competitions. Subsequently, an attempt was made to determine which personality traits significantly determine belonging to the group of champions-and therefore determine success in sport. The participants were men aged between 20 and 29 from the Polish population of sportsmen. A total of 1260 athletes were tested, out of whom 118 were qualified to the champions sample-those athletes had significant sports achievements. The research used the NEO-FFI Personality Questionnaire. Basic descriptive statistics, a series of Student's t-tests for independent samples using the bootstrapping method, as well as a logistic regression model were performed. In relation to other athletes, champions were characterized by a lower level of neuroticism and a higher level of extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. An important personality determinant was neuroticism: the lower the level of neuroticism, the greater the probability of an athlete being classified as a champion. There are differences between champions and other athletes in all personality dimensions in terms of the Big Five. Based on the result of the research, it can be stated that personality differences should be seen as a consequence of athletes' success, rather than as a reason for athletes' success, based on their age between 20 and 29.


Assuntos
Extroversão Psicológica , Homens , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
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