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1.
Psychodyn Psychiatry ; 52(2): 150-172, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829230

RESUMO

Patients with primary or co-occurring narcissistic disorders are seen routinely in general psychiatry settings. Contemporary trends in training and practice have impacted psychiatrists' skills and confidence in identifying and treating these disorders, which can range from relatively benign to high-acuity presentations. The goal of this article is to introduce key principles derived from transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) for use by clinicians in general practice in their work with patients with narcissistic disorders, even when those clinicians do not routinely provide individual psychotherapy. Practical application of TFP principles in work with patients with narcissistic disorders in general psychiatry are proposed, including in diagnostic evaluation, family engagement, prescribing, and safety assessment and risk management calculus. Many psychiatrists whose practices are focused primarily on psychopharmacology, or a "medical model," may not appreciate fully the impact of pathological narcissism in their work. Clinicians who may benefit from familiarity with TFP principles in work with patients with narcissistic disorders include the approximately one-half of U.S. psychiatrists who do not offer psychotherapy in their practice.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Psicoterapia , Transferência Psicológica , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Narcisismo
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 429, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have observed that mentalization-based treatment (MBT) is an effective treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD), but its effectiveness for other personality disorders (PDs) has hardly been examined. Additionally, the evidence supporting the claim that MBT improves mentalizing capacity is scarce. The present study examined whether (i) patients with a broad range of PDs enrolled in an MBT program would improve on several outcome measures (ii) mentalizing capacity would improve over time; (iii) patients with BPD would improve more than those with non-borderline PDs. METHOD: Personality disorders, psychiatric symptoms, social functioning, maladaptive personality functioning and mentalizing capacity were measured in a group of individuals with various PDs (n = 46) that received MBT. Assessments were made at baseline and after 6, 12, and 18 months of treatment. The severity of psychiatric symptoms, measured using the Outcome Questionnaire 45, was the primary outcome variable. RESULTS: Overall, enrollment in the MBT program was associated with a decrease in psychiatric symptoms and an improvement of personality functioning, social functioning for a mixed group of PDs (all p's ≤ .01). Bigger effect sizes were observed for BPD patients (n = 25) than for patients with non-BPD (n = 21), but the difference failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.06). A primary analysis showed that the decrease in psychiatric symptoms was significant in BPD patients (p = 0.01), not in non-BPD (p = 0.19) patients. However, a sufficiently powered secondary analysis with imputed data showed that non-BPD patients reported a significant decrease in psychiatric symptoms too (p = 0.01). Mentalizing capacity of the whole group improved over time (d = .68 on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and 1.46 on the Social Cognition and Object Relations System). DISCUSSION: These results suggest that MBT coincides with symptomatic and functional improvement across a broad range of PDs and shows that MBT is associated with improvements in mentalizing capacity. As the study is not experimental in design, we cannot make causal claims. CONCLUSION: Mentalization-based treatment may be an effective treatment for patients with a broad range of PDs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study design was approved by the Leiden University Ethical Committee.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Mentalização , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Teoria da Mente
3.
J Affect Disord ; 358: 292-301, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent systematic reviews highlight great variability in defining and assessing treatment-resistant depression (TRD). A key problem is that definitions are consensus rather than data-led. This study seeks to offer a comprehensive socio-demographic and clinical description of a relevant sample. METHODS: As part of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial, patients (N = 129) were managed in primary care for persistent depression and diagnosed with TRD. Data included previous treatment attempts, characteristics of the depressive illness, functioning, quality of life, co-occurring problems including suicidality, psychiatric and personality disorders, physical health conditions, and adverse events. RESULTS: Findings show a severe and chronic course of depression with a duration of illness of 25+ years. Overall, 82.9 % had at least one other psychiatric diagnosis and 82.2 % at least one personality disorder; 69.8 % had significant musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, or cardiovascular and respiratory physical health problems. All but 14 had severe difficulties in social and occupational functioning and reported severely impaired quality of life. Suicidal ideation was high: 44.9 % had made at least one serious suicide attempt and several reported multiple attempts with 17.8 % reporting a suicide attempt during childhood or adolescence. Of the patients, 79.8 % reported at least one adverse childhood experience. LIMITATIONS: Potential for recall bias, not examining possible interactions, and absence of a control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a complex and multifaceted condition and call for an urgent reconceptualization of TRD, which encompasses many interdependent variables and experiences. Individuals with TRD may be at a serious disadvantage in terms of receiving adequate treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento , Qualidade de Vida , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Psychol Assess ; 36(5): 311-322, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695788

RESUMO

The International Classification of Diseases, 11th Edition (ICD-11) includes a new personality disorder (PD) severity diagnosis that may be further characterized using up to five trait domain specifiers. Most of the previous studies have investigated the ICD-11 trait domains using self-report measures. The present study aimed to validate ICD-11 PD trait domains using a multimethod design in a community mental health sample (n = 336). We conducted two confirmatory factor analyses to examine the factor structure of the ICD-11 PD trait model, utilizing clinician-rating, self-report, and informant-report measures. Finally, we examined associations between clinician-rated, self-reported, and informant-reported ICD-11 trait domains with external criteria, specifically traditional PD symptoms and the five-factor model of normal personality. All clinician-rated, self-reported, and informant-reported domain scores loaded meaningfully on their expected factors when controlling for nontrivial method factors. Generally, the trait domains exhibited meaningful associations with conceptually relevant external criteria, although the anankastia domain exhibited more variability in its pattern of correlations across methods. Overall, the ICD-11 trait domain model shows promising reliability and validity, indicating good progress within the field of PD assessment toward a more useful PD operationalization. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Adolescente
5.
Hist Psychiatry ; 35(2): 243-247, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741364

RESUMO

An astronomical concept up to the eighteenth century, 'eccentricity' started to be used to refer to behaviours considered as odd, strange, rare, extravagant, etc. Once reified into a personality trait, it gained explanatory power. This not only increased its popularity but also facilitated its links with psychopathology and neuropsychology, and, via the shared concept of madness, with the notions of genius and creativity. This Classic Text describes the process whereby Alienism (Psychiatry) medicalized eccentricity. To this day, the latter remains firmly attached to 'psychoticism' and to some personality disorders.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Humanos , História do Século XIX , Psiquiatria/história , História do Século XVIII , Transtornos da Personalidade/história
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11635, 2024 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773198

RESUMO

Evidence links immune system alterations to major psychiatric disorders. The few previous studies on personality traits or personality disorders (PDs) indicate that immunometabolic dysregulation may be prevalent in this population. This study aimed to investigate relationships between personality traits, PDs, and immunometabolic markers in peripheral blood. We hypothesized that neuroticism would be correlated with elevated leptin. Participants were recruited as young adults seeking care for general psychiatric disorders. They responded to a personality inventory and were assessed for PDs, and reevaluated again at a 12 years follow-up. Blood samples were collected at the follow-up and analyzed for 29 immunometabolic markers. A positive correlation was found between the personality trait neuroticism and leptin (ρ = 0.31, p = 0.02). An exploratory analysis also revealed a positive correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (ρ = 0.36, p < 0.01) and neuroticism. These findings remained after adjusting for other variables in general linear models. There were no relationships between PDs and any immunometabolic markers. Results both confirm previous findings of correlations between the immunometabolic system and personality traits and suggest directions for future research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Neuroticismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/sangue , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Leptina/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Inventário de Personalidade , Adolescente
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 386, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773491

RESUMO

The current manuscript presents the convergence of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ), using its short form the DAPP-90, and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory for International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), the FFiCD, in the context of the five-factor personality model and the categorical approach of personality disorders (PDs). The current manuscript compares the predictive validity of both the FFiCD and the DAPP-90 regarding personality disorder scales and clusters. Results demonstrate a very high and meaningful convergence between the DAPP-90 and the FFiCD personality pathology models and a strong alignment with the FFM. The DAPP-90 and the FFiCD also present an almost identical predictive power of PDs. The DAPP-90 accounts for between 18% and 47%, and the FFiCD between 21% and 47% of PDs adjusted variance. It is concluded that both DAPP-90 and FFiCD questionnaires measure strongly similar pathological personality traits that could be described within the frame of the FFM. Additionally, both questionnaires predict a very similar percentage of the variance of personality disorders.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Psicometria , Modelos Psicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação da Personalidade/normas , Personalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas
8.
Aggress Behav ; 50(3): e22150, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764372

RESUMO

Structured clinical risk assessments represent a preferred means of assessing levels of aggression risk at different times and in different individuals. Increasing attention has been given to capturing protective factors, with sound risk assessment critical to high-secure forensic mental health care. The aim was to assess the predictive value of the HCR-20v3 for aggression risk and the long-term care pilot version of the SAPROF (the SAPROF-LC-pilot) in a high-secure forensic mental health inpatient population and to determine the incremental value of protective over risk factors. Participants were adult males detained in a high secure forensic mental health service, with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and/or personality disorder. The focus was on examining hospital based aggression (self- and other-directed) at two time points; up to 6 months (T1) and between 7 and 12 months (T2). The HCR-20V3 and SAPROF-LC-pilot demonstrated good predictive validity but with variability across subscales and aggression types/periods. Historical factors of the HCR-20V3 and External factors of the SAPROF-LC-pilot failed to predict, aside from a medium effect at T1 for verbal aggression and self-harm, for Historical factors. There was evidence for protective factors adding to prediction over risk factors alone, with the integration of protective and risk factors into a risk judgement particularly helpful in improving prediction accuracy. Protective factors contributed to risk estimates and particularly if integrated with risk factors. Combining risk and protective factors has clear predictive advantages, ensuring that protective factors are not supplementary but important to the aggression assessment process.


Assuntos
Agressão , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Masculino , Agressão/psicologia , Adulto , Medição de Risco , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Esquizofrenia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1381, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of epilepsy treatment is not only to control convulsive seizures but also to improve the quality of life of patients. This study aimed to investigate personality changes and the risk factors for their development in adult epilepsy patients. METHODS: A case-control study in a Class III, Class A hospital. The study comprised 206 adult epilepsy patients admitted to the Neurology Department at the First Hospital of Jilin University between October 2019 and December 2021, while the control group consisted of 154 community volunteers matched with the epilepsy group based on age, sex, and education. No additional treatment interventions were determined to be relevant in the context of this study. RESULTS: There is a significantly higher incidence of personality changes in epilepsy than in the general population, and patients with epilepsy were more likely to become psychoticism, neuroticism, and lie. Epilepsy patient's employment rate and average quality of life score were significantly lower than that of the general population and had strong family intimacy but poor adaptability in this study. There are many factors affecting personality change: sleep disorders, economic status, quality of life, use of anti-seizure drugs, family cohesion and adaptability. The independent risk factors were quality of life and family cohesion.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Masculino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Adulto , Epilepsia/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Personalidade , China/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia
10.
Span J Psychiatry Ment Health ; 17(2): 88-94, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population studies on social anxiety disorder (SAD) are relatively scarce and there is no previous reported evidence on prevalence or correlates of SAD in an Andalusian general population sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a random representative sample previously identified via standard stratification procedures. Thus, a final sample of 4507 participants were included (response rate 83.7%). Interviewees were thoroughly assessed on sociodemographic, clinical and psychosocial factors, including: exposures to threatening life events (TLEs), childhood abuse, personality disorder and traits (neuroticism, impulsivity, paranoia), global functioning, physical health and toxics consumption. SAD diagnosis was ascertained using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Both, pooled prevalences (with 95% confidence intervals) and risk correlates for SAD were estimated using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Estimated prevalence for SAD was 1.1% (95% CI=0.8-1.4). Having a SAD diagnosis was independently and significantly associated with younger age, poorer global functioning, higher neuroticism and paranoia personality traits, having suffered childhood abuse and exposure to previous TLEs. Furthermore, SAD was significantly associated with comorbid personality disorder, major depression, panic disorder and alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Among this large Andalusian population sample, the prevalence of SAD and its associated factors are relatively similar to previously reported international studies, although no population study had previously reported such a strong association with paranoia.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Humanos , Fobia Social/epidemiologia , Fobia Social/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Comorbidade , Idoso , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
11.
Psychol Assess ; 36(5): 323-338, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695789

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to revise and update the MMPI-2-RF personality disorder (PD) syndrome scales for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3). Study 1 describes the development of the MMPI-3 PD syndrome scales in three separate samples of community participants (n = 1,591), university students (n = 1,660), and outpatient mental health patients (n = 1,537). The authors independently evaluated each of the 72 new MMPI-3 items and rated them for appropriateness for scale inclusion and used various statistical procedures for final item selection. Ultimately, all 10 scales were revised, with nine incorporating items that were new to the MMPI-3. In Study 2, we subsequently validated the new MMPI-3 PD Syndrome scales against measures of traditional PD measures, trait measures of the Alternative Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition-5 model of personality disorders (AMPD) and the five-factor model (FFM) of personality, and specific criterion measures of externalizing, psychopathy, narcissism, emotional dysregulation, and self-harm, in two samples of university students (ns = 489 and 645). With some exceptions, the results were generally supportive of the convergent and discriminant validities of the MMPI-3 PD Syndrome scales. The Histrionic PD scale in particular was associated with questionable results and diverged most strongly from the theoretical construct it was originally meant to reflect. Further continuous validation of the scales is needed, especially in clinical samples, but the findings to date are promising. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
MMPI , Transtornos da Personalidade , Psicometria , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas
13.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 19(1): 37, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of co-occurring mental disorders (termed 'dual diagnosis') among patients receiving opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is scarce. This study aimed (1) to estimate the prevalence and structure of dual diagnoses in two national cohorts of OAT patients and (2) to compare mental disorders between OAT patients and the general populations stratified on sex and standardized by age. METHODS: A registry-linkage study of OAT patients from Czechia (N = 4,280) and Norway (N = 11,389) during 2010-2019 was conducted. Data on mental disorders (F00-F99; ICD-10) recorded in nationwide health registers were linked to the individuals registered in OAT. Dual diagnoses were defined as any mental disorder excluding substance use disorders (SUDs, F10-F19; ICD-10). Sex-specific age-standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) were calculated for 2019 to compare OAT patients and the general populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of dual diagnosis was 57.3% for Czechia and 78.3% for Norway. In Czechia, anxiety (31.1%) and personality disorders (25.7%) were the most prevalent, whereas anxiety (33.8%) and depression (20.8%) were the most prevalent in Norway. Large country-specific variations were observed, e.g., in ADHD (0.5% in Czechia, 15.8% in Norway), implying differences in screening and diagnostic practices. The SMR estimates for any mental disorders were 3.1 (females) and 5.1 (males) in Czechia and 5.6 (females) and 8.2 (males) in Norway. OAT females had a significantly higher prevalence of co-occurring mental disorders, whereas SMRs were higher in OAT males. In addition to opioid use disorder (OUD), other substance use disorders (SUDs) were frequently recorded in both countries. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate an excess of mental health problems in OAT patients compared to the general population of the same sex and age in both countries, requiring appropriate clinical attention. Country-specific differences may stem from variations in diagnostics and care, reporting to registers, OAT provision, or substance use patterns.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 36(1-2): 165-179, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557337

RESUMO

The article presents two theoretical perspectives that provide a helpful framework in psychobiographical research, especially when psychobiographies concern religious suicide. The first is typical in contemporary psychology, a subjective analysis focused on the individual, looking at life course/lifetime in the light of personality psychology. The second one is represented by anthropological research on the concept of honour-shame and the sociological works of E. Durkheim. Contemporary psychobiography should consider sociocultural context and refer to social sciences (anthropology, sociology). This applies in particular to the psychobiographies of people representing a world of values different from the Western world, i.e. non-WEIRD people. The problem is especially true of monotheistic religions that grew up in the world of honour-shame cultural code (Middle East, Mediterranean culture). The natural human need for psychological power is then woven into a specific set of beliefs and values that may, in extreme cases, favour the decision to commit suicide. Suicide acts seen in this perspective are no longer the act of sick or socially alienated people but often the act of fully healthy, conscious, educated and socially integrated people. Such a dramatic decision may become the only way to regain a sense of dignity, strength and control.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Suicídio , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade , Religião , Oriente Médio
15.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301256, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558089

RESUMO

Formalistic tasks are widely utilized in modern companies due to their ability to increase productivity and contribute to the achievement of corporate goals at a lower cost. However, these tasks are often meet with resistance from individuals because they do not provide direct short-term rewards for their efforts. Drawing on social cognitive theory, this study examined the influence of individual quality and organizational attachment on the completion of formalistic tasks. To address this, the study conducted a questionnaire survey to collect data from 602 Chinese respondents and built a structural equation model for data analysis. Through empirical research, the study confirmed the positive role of individual quality, including knowledge and personality, in the completion of formalistic tasks. Furthermore, the study proved that avoidant attachment could significantly weaken the effect of some components of individual quality on formalistic task completion. This paper is the first to reveal the influence of individual and environmental factors on individuals' completion of formalistic tasks, progressing from bottom to top. The implications of these results are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Cognição Social , Organizações , Cognição
16.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(2): e2967, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572780

RESUMO

Transdiagnostic models of psychopathology address many of the shortcomings common to categorical diagnostic systems. These empirically derived models conceptualize psychopathology as a few broad interrelated and hierarchically arranged dimensions, with an overarching general psychopathology dimension, the p-factor, at the apex. While transdiagnostic models are gaining prominence in mental health research, the lack of available tools has limited their clinical translation. The present study explored the potential of creating transdiagnostic scales from the joint factor structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory, Alternative Model of Personality Disorder trait scales (AMPD), and the clinical scales of the SPECTRA: Indices of Psychopathology (SPECTRA). Exploratory factor analysis in a clinical sample (n = 212) identified five factors corresponding to the Negative Affect/Internalizing, Detachment, Antagonism/Externalizing, Disinhibition/Externalizing, and Thought Disorder transdiagnostic dimensions. Goldberg's "Bass-Ackward" method supported a hierarchical structure. Five composite transdiagnostic scales were created by summing each factor's highest loading PAI and SPECTRA scales. A global psychopathology scale was created by summing the five composite scales. All the composite scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Correlations between the composite scales and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 provide initial validity evidence for four composite and global scales. The composite thought disorder scale had no conceptually corresponding NEO domain. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 278, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social media bring not only benefits but also downsides, such as addictive behavior. While an ambivalent closed insecure attachment style has been prominently linked with internet and smartphone addiction, a similar analysis for social media addiction is still pending. This study aims to explore social media addiction, focusing on variations in attachment style, mental distress, and personality between students with and without problematic social media use. Additionally, it investigates whether a specific attachment style is connected to social media addiction. METHODS: Data were collected from 571 college students (mean age = 23.61, SD = 5.00, 65.5% female; response rate = 20.06%) via an online survey administered to all enrolled students of Sigmund Freud PrivatUniversity Vienna. The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS) differentiated between students addicted and not addicted to social media. Attachment style was gauged using the Bielefeld Partnership Expectations Questionnaire (BFPE), mental distress by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), and personality by the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). RESULTS: Of the total sample, 22.7% of students were identified as addicted to social media. For personality, it was demonstrated that socially media addicted (SMA) students reported significantly higher values on the neuroticism dimension compared to not socially media addicted (NSMA) students. SMA also scored higher across all mental health dimensions-depressiveness, anxiety, and somatization. SMA more frequently exhibited an insecure attachment style than NSMA, specifically, an ambivalent closed attachment style. A two-step cluster analysis validated the initial findings, uncovering three clusters: (1) secure attachment, primarily linked with fewer occurrences of social media addiction and a lower incidence of mental health problems; (2) ambivalent closed attachment, generally associated with a higher rate of social media addiction and increased levels of mental health problems; and (3) ambivalent clingy attachment, manifesting a medium prevalence of social media addiction and a relatively equitable mental health profile. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes are aligned with previous research on internet and smartphone addiction, pointing out the relevance of an ambivalent closed attachment style in all three contexts. Therapeutic interventions for social media addiction should be developed and implemented considering these findings.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Masculino , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia
18.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296214, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625985

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate whether two closely related but socially distinct species of gerbils differ in personality patterns. Using a suit of multivariate repeated assays (docility test, dark-light emergence test, startle test, novel object test, elevated platform test, and stranger test), we assessed contextual and temporal consistency of docility, boldness, exploration, anxiety, and sociability in the solitary midday gerbil, Meriones meridianus, and social Mongolian gerbil, M. unguiculatus. We revealed contextually consistent and highly repeatable sex-independent but species-specific personality traits. Species differed in temporal repeatability of different behaviours, and contextual consistency was more pronounced in solitary M. meridianus than in social M. unguiculatus. This finding contradicts the social niche specialization hypothesis, which suggests that personality traits should be more consistent in more social species. Instead, we hypothesize that social complexity should favour more flexible and less consistent behavioural traits. The habituation effect indicative of learning abilities was weak in both species yet stronger in social M. unguiculatus, supporting the relationship between the sociality level and cognitive skills. In both species, only a few different behavioural traits covaried, and the sets of correlated behaviours were species-specific such that the two species did not share any pair of correlated traits. Between-species differences in personality traits, habituation, and behavioural syndromes may be linked to differences in sociality. The lack of prominent behavioural syndromes is consistent with the idea that context-specific individual behavioural traits might be favoured to allow more flexible and adequate responses to changing environments than syndromes of correlated functionally different behaviours.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Personalidade , Animais , Gerbillinae , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Transtornos da Personalidade
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301365, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals require many personal attributes in addition to cognitive abilities and psychomotor skills for competent practice. Multiple Mini- Interviews are being employed globally to assess personality attributes of candidates for selection in health professions education at all level of entry; these attributes are namely, communication skills, critical thinking, honesty, responsibility, health advocacy, empathy and sanctity of life. Considering the high stakes involved for students, faculty, institutions and the society, rigorous quality assurance mechanisms similar to those used for student assessment must be employed for student selection, throughout the continuum of medical education. It is a difficult undertaking as these psychological constructs are difficult to define and measure. Though considered to yield reliable and valid scores, studies providing multiple evidences of internal structure especially dimensionality of Multiple Mini-Interviews are sparse giving rise to questions if they are measuring a single or multiple constructs and even if they are measuring what they are purported to be measuring. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to provide statistical support of the multi-dimensional nature of our Multiple Mini Interviews, hypothesized a-priori, through CFA. Another objective is to provide multiple evidences for the internal structure. Our study highlights the link between content and internal structure evidences of the constructs, thus establishing that our Multiple Mini Interviews measure what they were intended to measure. METHOD: After securing permission from the Institutional review board, an a-priori seven factor-model was hypothesized based on the attributes considered most essential for the graduating student of the institution. After operationally defining the attributes through extensive literature search, scenarios were constructed to assess them. A 5-point rating scale was used to rate each item on the station. A total 259 students participated in the multiple mini interviews over a period of three days. A training workshop had been arranged for the participating faculty. RESULTS: The reliability coefficient using Cronbach's alpha were calculated (range from 0.73 to 0.94), Standard Error of Measurement (ranged from 0.80 to1.64), and item to station-total correlation ranged from 0.43-0.50 to 0.75-0.83. Inter-station correlation was also determined. Confirmatory factor analysis endorsed the results of Exploratory factor analysis in the study revealing a seven model fit with multiple indices of Goodness-of-fit statistics such as Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) value 0.05, Standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) value with less than 0.08. All these indices showed that model fit is good. The Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the multi-dimensional nature of our MMIs and also confirmed that our stations measured the attributes that they were supposed to measure. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the validity evidence of Multiple Mini-Interviews, in selection of candidates, with required personality traits for healthcare profession. It provides the evidence for the multi-dimensional structure of Multiple Mini interviews administered with multiple evidences for its internal structure and demonstrates the independence of different constructs being measured.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Psicometria
20.
J Pers Disord ; 38(2): 126-137, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592909

RESUMO

The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) has become influential in the dimensional assessment of personality dysfunction. Though most studies have examined links between PID-5 trait domains and personality pathology, a number of investigations have assessed relationships between PID-5 scores and symptom disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety). We employed meta-analytic techniques to synthesize findings in this area, identifying 26 publications assessing associations between PID-5 scores and symptom disorders (N of effect sizes across the five trait domains = 260). PID-5 domain score effect sizes (rs) ranged from 0.20 for Antagonism to 0.35 for Negative Affect (all ps < .00001). Relationships between PID-5 scores and specific forms of psychopathology were generally consistent with expectations, with some unanticipated relationships as well. Findings confirm that the pathological personality traits assessed by the PID-5 predict symptom disorders as well as personality dysfunction, extending the heuristic value and clinical utility of the measure.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia
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