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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(708): 1796-1800, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997449

RESUMO

Behavioural disorders in adults with mental disabilities are very common and represent a diagnostic challenge. In fact, they often hide a somatic problem, which is more frequent in this population compared to the general population. These somatic symptoms may cause or enhance psychiatric symptoms. People with mental disabilities often have difficulties expressing their pain, which often manifests itself as mood changes. Consequently, it is important to be able to identify the pain as a priority and to treat it. The general practitioner should therefore check for the most common somatic complaints in people with mental disabilities, with the help of the acronym DODUGO (Dental, Otic, Digestive, UroGenital, Orthopaedic).


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Comportamento Problema , Adulto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Dor/complicações , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/complicações , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237609, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of maternal personality and perceived social support for peripartum changes in psychopathological symptoms remains unresolved. METHODS: In a regional-epidemiological sample of 306 women, depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms were assessed three times during pregnancy and three times after delivery with the 21-item version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. In pregnancy, the Big Five personality traits and perceived social support were assessed with the short version of the Big Five Inventory and the Social Support Questionnaire. RESULTS: Multilevel analyses revealed that depressive (b = -0.055) and stress (b = -0.047) symptoms decreased from early to late pregnancy. After delivery, anxiety symptoms were lower (two months postpartum: b = -0.193; four/ 16 months postpartum: b = -0.274), but stress symptoms were higher (two months postpartum: b = 0.468; four/ 16 months postpartum: b = 0.320) than during pregnancy. Across the peripartum period, more conscientious and more extraverted women experienced lower depressive and stress symptoms (b = -0.147 to -0.177), and more emotionally stable women experienced lower depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms (b = -0.294 to -0.415). More emotionally stable women more strongly increased in anxiety during pregnancy (b = 0.019), and more extraverted women less strongly increased in depression after delivery (b = -0.010). Moreover, peripartum depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms were lower in women with higher perceived social support (b = -0.225 to -0.308). CONCLUSIONS: Less emotionally stable, less conscientious, and less extraverted women and women with lower perceived social support seem to be at increased risk for peripartum psychopathological symptoms and might thus particularly profit from targeted prevention.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 268-280, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754973

RESUMO

The United Kingdom (UK) government has commissioned numerous interventions across all stages of the criminal justice pathway for managing offenders likely to have a personality disorder, with the intention to reduce reoffending, improve psychological wellbeing, and develop workforce capabilities. Psychologically Informed Practice (PIP) models underpin these. To evaluate a modified PIP model within the post-imprisonment community stage of the Offender Personality Disorder (OPD) pathway, specifically workforce development, within all London (UK) probation supervised hostels (approved premises), we used both non-equivalent control group and pre-post repeated measure designs to compare changes in staff and offender outcomes before and after introduction of a PIP model across all 12 London approved premises. Findings revealed statistically significant improvements in a number of workforce outcomes (measured using the Personality Disorder - Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory) which were moderated by age and gender. Data did not support associated improvements in resident offender outcomes (progressive moves, rearrests/reoffences, or breaches leading to recalls). The modified PIP is an effective intervention model for improving some workforce outcomes among probation supervised hostel staff, particularly for women, but our findings suggest that intervention development may be required for significant improvements to be observed in resident offending outcomes. In addition, further research is necessary to determine the longer term effects of PIP on absenteeism, employee turnover, quality of resident-staff interactions, and overall culture change among staff working within the post-imprisonment community stage of the OPD pathway.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Direito Penal , Feminino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Reino Unido
4.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 105-116, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Case formulation plays a key role in effective management of offenders' needs, particularly on the Offender Personality Disorder Pathway (OPDP). AIMS: To validate a method of investigating formulations with offenders still in prison but in the OPD Pathway and investigate agreement over the content of formulations between each of the main dyadic pairs: offender-clinician, offender-key worker and clinician-key worker. METHODS: We developed a checklist of the main features of a formulation from a review of initial formulations in the files of prisoners in two prisons which operate within the OPD Pathway system. We then recruited 30 violent offenders in each OPD wing of two prisons, and asked each of them, their clinically qualified worker (usually a psychologist) and the criminal justice system key worker to complete a formulation summary according to a card-sort process based on this checklist. We calculated the level of agreement between pairs of raters (e.g. offender and key worker) about the importance of aspects of each domain to the case using intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The rating tool showed good internal validity. Analysis of inter-rater ratings showed agreement among teams on aspects relating to prisoners' observable actions, experiences and external support domains, but little agreement on cognitions, feelings, risky situations or staff/self-support, mainly affecting the prisoner-key worker dyad. There were, however, significant differences in agreement rates between the two sites. CONCLUSIONS: Agreement within teams about formulations is strong where content relates to overt behaviours and points of fact, but weaker on risk, cognitions and support. The appropriateness of this approach to formulation across cultural groups may need further evaluation as the main measured difference between the prisons was in distribution of ethnic and cultural groups.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Prisioneiros , Prisões/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 141, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Feeling Word Checklist (FWC) is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess therapists' countertransference (CT) feelings. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a brief, 12-item version of the Feeling Word Checklist (FWC-BV). The second aim was to validate the factor structure by examining the associations between the FWC-BV factors, patients' personality pathology and therapeutic alliance (TA). METHODS: Therapists at 13 different outpatient units within the Norwegian Network of Personality Disorders participated, and the study includes therapies for a large sample of patients (N = 2425) with personality pathology. Over a period of 2.5 years, therapists completed the FWC-BV for each patient in therapy every 6 months. Statistical methods included exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis. Internal consistency was estimated using Mc Donald's coefficient Omega (ωt). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV - Axis II (SCID II) and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) were used as diagnostic instruments, and patient-rated TA was assessed using the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-SR). RESULTS: Factor analyses revealed three clinically meaningful factors: Inadequate, Idealised and Confident. These factors had acceptable psychometric properties. Most notably, a number of borderline PD criteria correlated positively with the factors Inadequate and Idealised, and negatively with the factor Confident. All the factors correlated significantly with at least one of the WAI-SR subscales. CONCLUSIONS: The FWC-BV measures three clinically meaningful aspects of therapists' CT feelings. This brief version of the FWC seems satisfactory for use in further research and in clinical contexts.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/normas , Contratransferência , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Autorrelato/normas , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emoções , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Clín. salud ; 31(1): 1-12, mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191911

RESUMO

Los problemas de conceptualización de los trastornos de personalidad (TP) y su acomodo con el resto de las patologías siguen suscitando un prometedor esfuerzo investigador y clínico que va dando frutos al identificar procesos transdiagnósticos y proponer modelos heurísticos de interacción. Desde el marco de la personalidad como diátesis, estudiamos en una muestra de personas con TP grave (N = 310) el papel mediador de diversas variables en la gravedad sintomatológica. Mediante análisis de conglomerados hallamos una tipología bidimensional que divide de manera exhaustiva y exclusiva al 100% de los participantes. El análisis de mediación revela que el efecto de la personalidad como continuum unidimensional en gravedad sintomatológica está mediado por pensamientos automáticos negativos y fusión cognitiva; su efecto como tipología bidimensional (internalización y externalización) parece mediado solo por pensamientos automáticos. Se discuten los hallazgos e implicaciones de cara al nuevo paradigma de una ciencia clínica basada en procesos


The problems of conceptualization of personality disorders (PD) and their adjustment within the rest of pathologies continue to boost a promising research and clinical effort that helps to identify transdiagnostic processes and suggestheuristic interaction models. Understanting personality from the framework of diathesis, we analized the mediating role of a number of variables in symptom severity in a sample of people with severe PD (N = 310). By means of cluster analysis, we found a two-dimension typology that divides exhaustively and exclusively 100% of the participants. Mediation analyses found that personality as a one-dimension continuum has an effect on symptomatic severity mediated by negative automatic thoughts and by cognitive fusion; its effect as a two-dimension typology (internalization and externalization) appears to be mediated only by automatic thoughts. These findings and their implications are discussed in the context of a new paradigm of a process-based clinical science


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
7.
Aggress Behav ; 46(3): 266-277, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149387

RESUMO

Multiple reviews and meta-analyses have identified the low pole of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) Agreeableness (also called Antagonism) as the primary domain-level personality correlates of aggression across self-report and behavioral methodologies. In the current study, we expand on this literature by investigating the relations between FFM facets and aggressive behavior as measured by laboratory competitive reaction time tasks (CRTTs). Across three samples (total N = 639), we conducted weighted mean analyses, multiple regression analyses, and dominance analyses to determine which FFM facets were the strongest predictors of aggression within and across domains. These analyses suggested that facets of Agreeableness were among the strongest consistent predictors of CRTT aggression, including Sympathy (r = -.21) and Cooperation (r = -.14), but facets from other FFM domains also yielded meaningful relations (e.g., Anger from Neuroticism; r = .17). We conclude by discussing these results in the context of controversies surrounding laboratory aggression paradigms and emphasizing the importance of considering small effect sizes in the prediction of societally harmful behavior like aggression.


Assuntos
Agressão , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Personalidade , Emoções , Hostilidade , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 14-21, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055366

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to determine if personality disorder (PD) predicted functional outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Data (n=71) from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled 12-week trial assessing the efficacy of 200 mg/day adjunctive minocycline for MDD were examined. PD was measured using the Standardized Assessment of Personality Abbreviated Scale. Outcome measures included Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and Range of Impaired Functioning (RIFT). Analysis of covariance was used to examine the impact of PD (dichotomized factor [≥ 3] or continuous measure) on the outcome measures-treatment group correlation. Results: PD was identified in 69% of the sample. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline scores for each of the outcome measures, there was no significant difference between participants with and without PD on week 12 scores for any of the outcome measures (all p > 0.14). Conclusion: In this secondary analysis of a primary efficacy study, PD was a common comorbidity among those with MDD, but was not a significant predictor of functional outcomes. This study adds to the limited literature on PD in randomized controlled trials for MDD. Clinical trial registration: ACTRN12612000283875.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Minociclina/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Satisfação Pessoal , Testes de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida , Comorbidade , Efeito Placebo , Método Duplo-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Autorrelato , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105268

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the formation of positive personality phenomena in patients with mild cognitive impairment and asthenic syndrome during the treatment with recognan (citicoline). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (17 men and 21 women), aged 18 to 45 years (mean age 27.8±12.1 years), with asthenic syndrome with mild cognitive impairment (ICD-10 F06.7) were examined. Patients were divided into two groups: 20 people in the main group and 18 people in the comparison group. The main group received recognan (orally, in solution, 100 mg in 1 ml) for 30 days, the daily dosage of the drug was 0.5 g (5 ml solution). The comparison group did not receive any medications. Adapted methods of positive personality psychology were used: the Fordyce Emotions Questionnaire, the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), the Adult Hope Scale (AHS), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), M. Atkinson's Scale of Emotional Maturity, the projective technique 'Map of experiences'. The follow-up period was 30 days. All subjects were examined three times (at baseline, 15 and 30 days after treatment). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After a month of treatment with recognan, there was an improvement of positive personality traits and a significant decrease in negative experiences, indicating the positive impact of the drug on the formation of positive personality manifestations and compensation for emotional disorders in patients with mild cognitive impairment and asthenic syndrome.


Assuntos
Astenia/complicações , Astenia/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Citidina Difosfato Colina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Personalidade/complicações , Transtornos da Personalidade/tratamento farmacológico , Personalidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Astenia/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Citidina Difosfato Colina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e84, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915099

RESUMO

AIMS: Although immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) are associated with multiple mental health conditions, there is a paucity of literature assessing personality disorders (PDs) in these populations. We aimed to estimate and compare the incidence of any PD in IMID and matched cohorts over time, and identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with the incidence of PD. METHODS: We used population-based administrative data from Manitoba, Canada to identify persons with incident inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using validated case definitions. Unaffected controls were matched 5:1 on sex, age and region of residence. PDs were identified using hospitalisation or physician claims. We used unadjusted and covariate-adjusted negative binomial regression to compare the incidence of PDs between the IMID and matched cohorts. RESULTS: We identified 19 572 incident cases of IMID (IBD n = 6,119, MS n = 3,514, RA n = 10 206) and 97 727 matches overall. After covariate adjustment, the IMID cohort had an increased incidence of PDs (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.72; 95%CI: 1.47-2.01) as compared to the matched cohort, which remained consistent over time. The incidence of PDs was similarly elevated in IBD (IRR 2.19; 95%CI: 1.69-2.84), MS (IRR 1.79; 95%CI: 1.29-2.50) and RA (IRR 1.61; 95%CI: 1.29-1.99). Lower socioeconomic status and urban residence were associated with an increased incidence of PDs, whereas mid to older adulthood (age 45-64) was associated with overall decreased incidence. In a restricted sample with 5 years of data before and after IMID diagnosis, the incidence of PDs was also elevated before IMID diagnosis among all IMID groups relative to matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: IMID are associated with an increased incidence of PDs both before and after an IMID diagnosis. These results support the relevance of shared risk factors in the co-occurrence of PDs and IMID conditions.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/complicações , Inflamação/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/epidemiologia , Incidência , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Masculino , Manitoba/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112747, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927168

RESUMO

There is evidence that patients with multiple suicide attempts in their history are at greater risk to repeat attempt and eventually die by suicide compared to those with a single attempt. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore possible differences in clinical characteristics between patients with a single attempt and patients with repeated attempts. Two hundred thirty one patients hospitalised in psychiatric department after suicide attempt were studied. Comparisons were made in relation to age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis, aggression, depression severity, suicide intent and mode of attempt. Highest frequencies of patients with repeated attempts were found for bipolar disorder (69%) and lowest for adjustment/personality disorders (39%). In patients with repeated attempts, female gender was associated with non-violent attempt mode. Depressive symptomatology was higher in patients with repeated attempts among females. In patients with depression those with repeated attempts were younger than patients with single attempt. In patients with mood disorders, total aggression and hostility scores were higher in females with repeated attempts but not in males. Psychiatric diagnosis, gender and attempt mode are features that differentiate patients with single and repeated attempts and should be considered to identify patients at increased risk to repeat attempt and design effective prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112763, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951870

RESUMO

Gambling disorder (GD) frequently co-occurs with substance use disorders. However, the extent to which GD co-occurs with behavioral addictions (BAs) and the demographic, clinical, and personality correlates of comorbid GD and BA is largely unknown. The aims of the present research were to address this gap among people seeking treatment for GD (N = 458) in São Paulo, Brazil. Structured clinical interviews diagnosed individuals with GD and other psychiatric disorders. The Shorter PROMIS questionnaire was used to identify BAs (work, exercise, food bingeing, sex, and shopping). Questionnaires assessed demographic characteristics, gambling behavior, and personality. Of the total sample, 206 (45.0%) participants met the criteria of having at least one behavioral addiction (GD+BA). The most common comorbid BA was food bingeing (8.1%) with the least common being exercise (3.6%). In a multivariate logistic regression, individuals with GD+BA tended to be younger, and had greater rates of comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and bulimia nervosa compared to participants who did not present with a comorbid BA. Taken together, individuals with GD+BA present with increased psychopathology. These results may have important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with GD and comorbid BAs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Personalidade , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Autorrelato , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Health Psychol ; 39(3): 245-254, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity, which has been increasing worldwide. However, bariatric surgery causes dramatic physical changes that can cause significant stress. Prior research has found that psychological variables such as personality traits and levels of psychopathology can influence success after bariatric surgery (in terms of body mass index [BMI] reduction and weight loss). However, most prior studies have been limited by small sample sizes, inconsistent follow up, and categorical assessment of psychopathology. METHOD: The present study examines the predictive utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales for three bariatric surgery outcomes (BMI reduction, weight loss, and percent excess weight loss [%EWL]) across 10 follow-up points 5 years after surgery. It also examines the largest sample of bariatric surgery-completing patients (N = 2,267) on the PAI to date. Latent growth modeling was used to examine change in the outcome variables. RESULTS: Results indicate that personality and psychopathology variables predicted less BMI reduction, weight loss, and %EWL 5 years after surgery and also affected the trajectories of change in the outcome variables across time. The PAI scales predicted more variance in the 5-year BMI outcomes than did age and gender. The most robust effects were for scales assessing phobias, traumatic stress, identity problems, and negative relationships. CONCLUSION: The PAI may be useful to clinical health psychologists who conduct recommended psychological evaluations with potential bariatric surgery candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986163

RESUMO

Despite the scientific consensus on the efficacy of psychotherapy for the treatment of psychological disorders, the evidence of treatment-related changes towards normalization of abnormal brain functions in patients is mixed. In the present experiment, we investigated whether treatment can affect early information processing, by testing abnormal event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by internal and external signals in panic disorder. Sixteen patients with panic disorder and comorbid personality disorder and sixteen control participants performed a response-choice task and a passive viewing task in two testing sessions, separated by around 14 months. During this period, patients received psychological treatment. In agreement with previous studies of performance monitoring, the abnormal amplitude of the Ne/ERN-an index of error processing based on internal signals-did not change between the first and second testing session. However, treatment-related changes were evident for the abnormal vertex positive potential (VPP) evoked by external signals in the response-choice task and the passive viewing task. In patients, the VPP was smaller in the second session compared to the first session, whereas no significant changes occurred in controls. This result supplies evidence of treatment-related changes towards normalization in the early information processing of external visual stimuli in panic disorder.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/fisiopatologia , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno de Pânico/complicações , Transtornos da Personalidade/complicações , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicoterapia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(2): 161-164, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977828

RESUMO

Research is scarce regarding the mechanisms by which pathological narcissism--consisting of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability--is linked with depression. The present study examined whether impaired emotional processing would mediate relations between pathological narcissism domains and depressive symptoms in a sample of 99 psychiatric outpatients. A significant indirect effect was found for narcissistic vulnerability on depressive symptoms, through unprocessed emotion as a mediator. Findings suggest that narcissistic vulnerability contributes to persistent and intrusive negative feelings, which in turn contribute to depressive symptom severity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/complicações , Inventário de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 285: 112779, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983505

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by re-experiencing, avoidance, negative alterations in cognition and mood, and arousal symptoms per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). While numerous symptom combinations are possible to meet diagnostic criteria, simplification of this heterogeneity of symptom presentations may have clinical utility. In a nationally representative sample of American adults with lifetime DSM-5 PTSD diagnoses from the third wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 2,365), we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to identify qualitatively distinct PTSD symptom typologies. Subsequently, we used linear and logistic regressions to identify demographic, trauma-related, and psychiatric characteristics associated with membership in each class. In contrast to prior LCAs with DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, fit indices for the present analyses of DSM-5 PTSD revealed a four-class solution to the data: Dysphoric (23.8%), Threat-Reactivity (26.1%), High Symptom (33.7%), and Low Symptom (16.3%). Exploratory analyses revealed distinctions between classes in socioeconomic impairment, trauma exposure, comorbid diagnoses, and demographic characteristics. Although the study is limited by its cross-sectional design (preventing analysis of temporal associations or causal pathways between covariates and latent classes), findings may support efforts to develop personalized medicine approaches to PTSD diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise de Classes Latentes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Idoso , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(2): 607-622, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989410

RESUMO

A diverse U.S. sample comprising 1437 men and 1474 women was assessed on sexual orientation, masculinity-femininity of occupational preferences (MF-Occ), self-ascribed masculinity-femininity (Self-MF), Big Five personality traits, sex drive, and sociosexuality (positive attitudes toward uncommitted sex). Discriminant analyses explored which traits best distinguished self-identified heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual individuals within each sex. These analyses correctly classified the sexual orientation of 55% of men and 60% of women, which was substantially better than a chance rate (33%) of assigning participants to one of three groups. For men, MF-Occ and Self-MF distinguished heterosexual, bisexual, and gay men, with heterosexual men most gender typical, gay men most gender atypical, and bisexual men intermediate. Independently, higher sex drive, sociosexuality, and neuroticism and lower conscientiousness distinguished bisexual men from other groups. For women, gender-related interests and Self-MF distinguished lesbians from other groups, with lesbians most gender atypical. Independently, higher sociosexuality, sex drive, and Self-MF distinguished non-heterosexual from heterosexual women. These findings suggest that variations in self-reported sexual orientation may be conceptualized in terms of two broad underlying individual difference dimensions, which differ somewhat for men and women: one linked to gender typicality versus gender atypicality and the other linked to sex drive, sociosexuality, and various personality traits.


Assuntos
Bissexualidade/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychol Assess ; 32(1): 29-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414851

RESUMO

To assess the psychometric properties of the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD, where ICD-11 is the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision), a sample of Italian community-dwelling adult participants (N = 1,122) was administered the PiCD, the Five-Factor Model Rating Form, the Big Five Inventory, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Short Form (where DSM-5 is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition), and the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning. Our findings supported the unidimensionality hypothesis for the PiCD Negative Affectivity, Detachment, and Dissocial scale items, whereas adequate fit indices were observed for the bifactor model of the PiCD Disinhibition and Anankastic item joint polychoric correlation matrix. The PiCD scales showed adequate internal consistency, test-retest reliability (n = 262), and meaningful relationships with five-factor model domains and their maladaptive variants. A four-factor model of the joint correlation matrix of the PiCD, Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Short Form, and the five-factor model composite score was provided with adequate fit. All PiCD scales were significantly associated with the impairment in personality functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
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