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1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(2): 160-171, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417005

RESUMO

In this early study, written in 1985, I examined six of the most important personality traits of Sylvia Plath, the poet and writer (1). Sylvia oscillated between positions of dependency and independence; she was characterised by sexual inhibition and promiscuity, writer's block and an explosion of writing, achievement con- straint and liberation from the constraint, emotional dependence and independence. Paradoxically, she committed suicide when far more things (children, productive creative period, publication of her novel) tied her to life than was the case before her first suicide attempt (2). Her life was spent in the perspective of death; death was her main point of reference, and at the same time was a constantly present alternative solution (3). Her neurasthenic, sometimes bipolar mode of existence determined her everyday behaviour: fatigue, irritability, a low ability to tolerate failure, a tendency to somatisation, anxious attitude, low self-esteem (4). She lived between extremes: insensitivity and over-sensitivity, bad and good moods, ego systole and ego diastole, ambivalence towards close family members (father, mother, Ted), relationship fluctuating between adoration and hate (5). Her poetry persona was characterised by object phobia: in her poems objects become hooks, loops, traps (6). She was ambivalent towards both women and men: she hated women, while her effective therapist was a woman; she was jealous of men, she was not capable of a symmetrical partner relationship, she was either subordinate or superior. In Plath's poetry the incompatible dichotomy of soft worm and hard mask refers to the irreconcilable contradiction between the male and female world.


Assuntos
Pessoas Famosas , Transtornos da Personalidade/história , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Autoimagem , Suicídio/história , Suicídio/psicologia , Redação/história
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(2): 182-188, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite relatively consistent findings regarding the number of personality pathology domains, differences in domain structure remain. Recently the proposed ICD-11 domains were partially validated in a sample of patients with major depression producing five domains: Detached, Anankastic, Negative Emotional, Antisocial and Borderline. The aim of our study was to attempt to cross-validate these findings in a sample of patients primarily diagnosed with personality disorder (PD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All subjects were assessed by Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis II PD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied on fifty seven DSM PD symptoms selected to represent the five proposed domains. RESULTS: SCID II data were collected from a total of 223 subjects. The EFA extracted five factors. The first factor labeled as borderline-internalizing constituted of borderline together with avoidant and dependent items, the second, labeled as disinhibited/ borderline externalizing, incorporated narcissistic and histrionic items. The other three separate factors in our study labeled as antisocial, anankastic and detached, were less robust. CONCLUSIONS: In our study five personality pathology domains were partly replicated. The most robust findings support the existence of the two factors, borderline-internalizing and disinhibited/borderline externalizing. However, the EFA was performed on a relatively low prevalence symptoms distribution, particularly for antisocial and schizoid factors.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
3.
Occup Ther Int ; 2019: 9030897, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049046

RESUMO

Introduction: Personality disorders are common mental health disorders, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 4 to 15%. People living with personality disorders are extensively seeking mental health services, yet few papers focus on their unique occupational needs or effective rehabilitation interventions that may alleviate the occupational issues they face. Occupational therapists are encouraged to support engagement in socially valued occupations, while preventing engagement in damaging ones, despite a lack of evidence on the meaning and the lived experiences of people. Objectives: This paper describes the meaning attributed by people living with personality disorders to their main occupations and the underlying needs they strive to fulfill through occupational engagement, whether or not these occupations are sanctioned. Methods: This exploratory study rests on a descriptive interpretative methodology. The participants were ten men and women, aged between 18 and 35 years old and living with a Cluster B personality disorder. A semistructured interview guide allowed participants to build narratives on occupations that are important to them and discuss how these occupations shape their identity. A thematic content analysis fostered the development of a coding structure that reflected a first-account perspective. Results: The narratives provided by the participants depict a variety of meaningful occupations, many of which are socially disapproved. Many of these occupations serve as a coping strategy to deal with distressing situations, to connect with others who share similar life experiences, or to reestablish a fragile sense of control. Other occupations are socially disapproved due to the overinvestment of the participants' commitment. While participants described how this overinvestment allowed them to control destructive impulses, significant others perceived it as counterproductive and unnecessary. Participants perceived self-care occupations as painful and tedious chores or meaningless occupations. Engaging in productive occupations allowed some participants to gain recognition or to identify their competencies, but also confirmed their differences, creating some form of alienation or marginalisation. Conclusion: This exploratory study invites clinicians and researchers to develop a more responsive understanding of occupational engagement for this population. The results highlight the importance of situating occupations in their context, while endorsing a first-account perspective, to better understand the forces that shape occupational engagement. Ultimately, occupational therapists should critically appraise their assumptions around healthy and unsanctioned occupations, in order to respond with sensitivity to the needs and experience of their clients, without perpetuating the marginalisation and discrimination they face.


Assuntos
Ocupações , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Narração , Terapia Ocupacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
4.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 214-224, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181691

RESUMO

La relación entre el sexting y la personalidad en los adolescentes ha sido escasamente investigada. Además, es notoria la escasez de estudios longitudinales que aborden los predictores y consecuencias del sexting. Este estudio analiza los datos de 624 adolescentes que fueron evaluados en dos ocasiones (T1 y T2) distanciadas por un período de un año, y a los que se administraron cuestionarios para medir el sexting, los rasgos de personalidad del modelo de cinco factores (MCF), y posibles consecuencias psicosociales del sexting (acoso/ciberacoso, bienestar emocional). Los resultados indican que mayor extraversión y menor amabilidad y responsabilidad (T1) se relacionan con sexting (T2). El estudio permite también identificar qué facetas específicas de personalidad (T1) se asocian con el sexting registrado en T2. Además, los análisis de regresión muestran que la extraversión predice aumentos en sexting entre T1 y T2. En cuanto a las consecuencias, una alta implicación en sexting T1 predice descensos en la victimización y en las emociones positivas experimentadas entre T1 y T2. Por tanto, este estudio muestra que la personalidad permite predecir los cambios en sexting a lo largo de la adolescencia; el sexting, a su vez, parece asociarse a consecuencias psicosociales relevantes en este período del desarrollo


The relationships between personality and sexting have been scarcely studied. In addition, the scarcity of longitudinal studies about predictors and consequences of sexting is notorious. This study analyzed the longitudinal data from 624 adolescents who were evaluated on two occasions (T1 and T2) separated by a period of one year, and to whom questionnaires were administered to measure sexting, the personality traits of the five factor model (FFM), as well as possible psychosocial consequences of sexting. The results indicate that high extraversion and low agreeableness and conscientiousness (T1) are related to sexting (T2). In addition, the study also allows us to identify which specific facets of personality (T1) are associated with sexting registered in T2. On the other hand, regression analyses indicate that extraversion predicts increases in sexting between T1 and T2. As for the outcomes of sexting, a high involvement in sexting T1 predicts decreases in victimization and in the positive emotions experienced between T1 and T2. Therefore, this study shows that personality allows for prediction of changes in sexting throughout adolescence; sexting, in turn, seems to be associated with relevant psychosocial consequences in this developmental period


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Webcasts como Assunto , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Perigoso
5.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 47(2): 61-9, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The fact that more and more people suffer from dementia makes it very important to know the different risk factors to prevent their appearance. The objective of this article is to study personality disorder as a possible risk factor for the onset of an insane process, and to relate personality disorders of Cluster B and dementia. METHODOLOGY: A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out with scientific literature published up to 2015. RESULTS: Twelve of the articles that we found met the specified criteria of selection and quality and study the relationship between a personality disorder and the emergence of a dementia. Although with the studies made so far it can't be concluded that the first one is a risk factor for the second one, it has been noted, thanks to neuroimaging techniques, that patients with Cluster B personality disorders develop alterations in brain structures (in the prefrontal, temporal and parietal cortex, as well as an alteration in the NAA levels and the grey matter levels) and which are also involved in a demented process. CONCLUSIONS: Definitely, the patients with medical record of the borderline or narcissistic personality disorder present more alterations in the brain structures mentioned, such that presenting these types of personality disorders could increase the risk of developing dementia in the future.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Demência/etiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(1): 32-36, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attachment parameters have an effect on later relationship patterns and the development of parameters of self-concept and personality. In the current study the role of attachment parameters on personality dimensions was investigated, especially with respect to personality disorders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 134 psychiatric inpatients were examined on attachment and personality parameters using the schedule FEB as a questionnaire on the parental attachment and the SKI as a self-concept inventory. RESULTS: Regression and correlation analyses suggest positive influences of parental care and negative influences of parental overprotection on the development of ego-strength in adulthood. Patients with personality disorders reported to have experienced less maternal care during their childhood and showed a trend towards a reduced ego-strength in adulthood compared to patients with others mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Relationships of attachment parameters in childhood with personality dimension are explorable. This approach seems meaningful for a better understanding of the development of personality disorders. Clinicians should be familiar with attachment patterns when treating people with mental disorders in order to adequately include appropriate personality dimensions in the therapy.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Apego ao Objeto , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(1): 37-42, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body image concerns are associated with the poor prognosis of bipolar disorder, but it is unknown whether bipolar I (BD I) and II (BD II) types differ in these concerns and their associations with personality styles or affective states. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We therefore invited 89 BD I, 91 BD II patients, and 159 healthy volunteers to undergo the tests of the Body Image Concern Scale (BICS), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Hypomania Checklist - 32, the Plutchik - van Praag Depression Inventory, and the Parker Personality Measure. RESULTS: Both BD I and BD II displayed higher scores of ongoing affective states and of personality disorder functioning styles than healthy controls did. BD II scored higher on all six BICS scales than controls did, and higher on five than BD I did. The depressive measure predicted four, and Dependent style predicted three BICS scales in BD I; and the depressive measure predicted all six BICS scales, hypomanic measure predicted one, and Avoidant style predicted one in BD II. CONCLUSIONS: Body image concerns and their associations with the affective states and personality styles were different in BD I and BD II, suggesting different pathological mechanisms, clinical symptom severities and managements for the two types of bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Imagem Corporal , Transtornos da Personalidade , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Emoções , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
8.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(1. Vyp. 2): 39-44, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006790

RESUMO

AIM: To identify the influence of combined pathology, an organic personality disorder and affective disturbances, on the regulation of subjects' legally significant behavior in forensic-psychiatric examination in criminal and civil proceedings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of patients with the diagnosis of organic personality disorder (ICD-10 F07) established in the course of forensic-psychiatric examination were studied. The first group included 82 criminally prosecuted men (mean age 40.7±15.8); the second group comprised 50 women (mean age 65.1±15.4) and 28 men (mean age 60.2±14.4), who underwent forensic-psychiatric examination in civil litigation over declaring their contracts null and void. All patients had affective disorders. Standard expertise procedure and data analysis were used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The modifying influence of a set of psychogenic factors is of great significance in the course of forensic-psychiatric examination of individuals diagnosed with organic personality disorder: in criminal proceedings these are determined by the fact of being prosecuted, and in civil proceedings by the problems of adaptation, deterioration of one's social status, and the somatic ill-being. The unfavorable dynamics of organic mental disorder in these cases manifested itself in decompensation of personality, cognitive disturbances or addition of comorbid depressive disorders (68.3 and 31.7%, respectively). In 48.7% of patients, the addition of affective pathology to organic disorders significantly increased the extent of disturbance of cognitive functions, insight and prognostic capacity, volitional control of activity, which determined the incapacity of patients to understand the significance of their own actions and control them at the time of entering into contract.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Criminosos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arch Pediatr ; 26(3): 138-144, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898314

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with higher psychopathology, including emotional and personality disorders, in the adult population, whether or not they are obese; although few data are available on adolescents, particularly among obese adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association of both emotional disorders and personality dimensions with BED in obese adolescents. METHODS: The sample consisted of 115 French adolescents enrolled at a clinical unit for the multidisciplinary care of their overweight or obesity. BED was defined using the Binge Eating Scale (BES). Emotional disorders and personality dimensions were assessed using the following tools: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI); impulsivity was determined by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). Associations between emotional disorders (BDI/BAI) and personality dimensions (TAS/BIS/JTCI), considered first separately and then jointly with BED were determined with multivariate analysis. RESULTS: More severe depression (ß=0.27, CI [0.06; 0.48], P=0.011), a higher level of excess weight (ß=1.91, CI [0.22; 3.59], P=0.027), older age (ß=1.28, CI [0.43; 2.14], P=0.003), and greater cooperativeness (ß=0.36, CI [0.07; 0.66], P=0.017) were independently significantly associated with the presence of BED. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study underlines the co-occurrence of emotional and personality disorders with BED. This points out the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and the relevance of a joint diagnosis of binge eating, emotional disorders, and personality dimensions in obese adolescents, for better prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Psychol Assess ; 31(4): 417-419, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920276

RESUMO

Personality and its assessment are growth areas in the psychological literature and are important in applied practice. In the decades since personality reemerged as a viable scientific construct following the person-situation debate, we have learned much about the nature and full breadth of personality traits as well as refined methods for the assessment of personality characteristics. Indeed, the personality assessment literature currently is vibrant and now intersects with numerous other disciplines, including traditional psychometrics, developmental psychology and psychopathology, clinical psychology, neuroscience, industrial-organizational psychology, and educational and social psychology. This growth in the personality assessment literature inspired us to organize an expert meeting on personality assessment. This 2-day event-which was held in Oostduinkerke (Belgium) in September 2016-brought together junior and senior personality assessment researchers as well as a number of methodologists from around the world and focused on sharing modern viewpoints on personality assessment from a wide diversity of perspectives. Following the meeting, we envisioned this special issue, including papers from meeting attendees addressing topics that emerged from the discussion sessions and are the result of fruitful and often new collaborations. Although the papers were invited, all were subjected to critical peer review and underwent revisions prior to their publication here. In what follows, the overall rationale for the present special issue and the connection between the different papers will be outlined from an integrative perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Personalidade , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
11.
Psychol Assess ; 31(4): 502-515, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920277

RESUMO

Personality and psychopathology are composed of dynamic and interactive processes among diverse psychological systems, manifesting over time and in response to an individual's natural environment. Ambulatory assessment techniques promise to revolutionize assessment practices by allowing access to the dynamic data necessary to study these processes directly. Assessing manifestations of personality and psychopathology naturalistically in an individual's own ecology allows for dynamic modeling of key behavioral processes. However, advances in dynamic data collection have highlighted the challenges of both fully understanding an individual (via idiographic models) and how s/he compares with others (as seen in nomothetic models). Methods are needed that can simultaneously model idiographic (i.e., person-specific) processes and nomothetic (i.e., general) structure from intensive longitudinal personality assessments. Here we present a method, group iterative multiple model estimation (GIMME) for simultaneously studying general, shared (i.e., in subgroups), and person-specific processes in intensive longitudinal behavioral data. We first provide an introduction to the GIMME method, followed by a demonstration of its use in a sample of individuals diagnosed with personality disorder who completed daily diaries over 100 consecutive days. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Modelos Psicológicos , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Personalidade , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Diário como Assunto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
12.
Psychol Assess ; 31(4): 516-531, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869961

RESUMO

Both theories and cutting-edge research highlight the dynamic nature of personality and personality pathology, thereby posing significant challenges for an exclusively between-person, trait-based approach to personality assessment. In a series of 3 studies, we explored the viability of integrating within-person, dynamic aspects into clinical personality assessment by means of daily dairy methods. In the 1st study, 314 students filled out a 73-item questionnaire capturing daily behaviors and situation experiences across 7-10 consecutive days. We used multilevel exploratory factor analyses to construct a shortened version, the Personality Dynamics Diary (PDD). In the 2nd study, the PDD was applied in a sample of 77 psychotherapy inpatients across 40 days, on average. In the 3rd study, 35 psychotherapy outpatients as well as their therapists judged the clinical utility of a smartphone version of the PDD. Taken together, we were able to construct a relatively brief self-report measure that assesses major dimensions of within- and between-person differences of situations and behaviors in daily life with acceptable reliability. Application in clinical samples provided further evidence for the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the PDD but also highlighted possible obstacles in clinical practice as well as the need for further replication and refinement. We conclude that daily diary methods have the potential to integrate within- and between-person approaches to personality assessment. By applying measures like the PDD, clinicians may gain insight into the psychological mechanisms that give rise to, and maintain, a person's maladaptive dispositions and ultimately find individualized leverage points for targeted therapeutic interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Diário como Assunto , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato
13.
Psychol Assess ; 31(4): 420-431, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869965

RESUMO

The predominant model of general personality structure is arguably the Five Factor Model (FFM), consisting of the 5 broad domains of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. A hypothesis of long-standing interest has been that personality disorders can be understood as extreme and/or maladaptive variants of the domains and facets of the FFM. This hypothesis has now been formally recognized within Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Section III and within the proposal for the 11th edition of the World Health Organization's diagnostic manual. However, a notable feature of both proposals is that they are largely (albeit not exclusively) unipolar with respect to maladaptive personality structure. The purpose of the current article is to present theoretical and empirical support for the presence of maladaptivity at both poles of all 5 domains of the FFM. Discussed in particular are implications for assessment for this maladaptive personality structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Riv Psichiatr ; 54(1): 24-30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760934

RESUMO

Few studies have addressed the issue of psychopathology and personality of individuals with problematic use of internet. In this study we research psychopathological symptoms, personality traits and predictive variables associated with problematic internet use. The study was conducted on a total of 343 students from four Italian Universities using Pathological Internet Use Scale, Big Five Questionnaire, and Symptom Check List 90 Revised. According to this study 52.7% of the sample shows a problematic internet use while only 7.6% don't suffer from any symptom. More than half of subjects admits to have got into arguments with a significant other over being online, and to have missed social engagements because of online activities. Subjects with problematic internet use scored higher in psychopathological scales. Low levels of Friendliness and Emotional Stability could predict the problematic use of internet. Problematic internet use may be associated with higher psychopathology levels and personality traits.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Personalidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Computadores de Mão/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Microcomputadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 4139404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733834

RESUMO

Objectives: The findings of previous studies focused on personality disorders in epileptic patients are difficult to interpret due to nonhomogeneous samples and noncomparable methods. Here, we aimed at studying the personality profile in patients with mild temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with psychiatric comorbidity. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with mTLE (22 males, mean age 40.7 ± 12.1) underwent awake and sleep EEG, 3T brain MRI, and an extensive standardized diagnostic neuropsychiatric battery: Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), Beck Depression Inventory-2, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Drug history was collected in detail. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis was performed on TCI-R data, while all other clinical and psychological variables were compared across the resulting clusters. Results: Scores of Harm Avoidance (HA), Reward Dependence (RD), Persistence (P), Cooperativeness (C), and Self-Transcendence (ST) allowed the identification of two clusters, describing different personality subtypes. Cluster 1 was characterized by an early onset, more severe anxiety traits, and combined drug therapy (antiepileptic drug and Benzodiazepine/Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) compared to Cluster 2. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that different personality traits may play a role in determining the clinical outcome in patients with mTLE. Specifically, lower scores of HA, RD, P, C, and ST were associated with worse clinical outcome. Thus, personality assessment could serve as an early indicator of greater disease severity, improving the management of mTLE.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Caráter , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Temperamento/fisiologia
16.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 61(2): 84-91, 2019.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Demoralisation is a multidimensional concept, with helplessness and hopelessness as its key elements. Many patients, both in somatic and in mental health care, suffer from demoralisation. In the process of recovery, remoralisation constitutes a first step.
AIM: To investigate demoralisation in alcohol-dependent inpatients with co-occurring psychiatric disorders.
METHOD: Included in this study were 159 alcohol-dependent inpatients admitted to clinics for dual diagnosis. Demoralisation was assessed at treatment entry and again one month later.
RESULTS: A strong level of demoralisation was found, particularly in the co-occurrence of depression, anxiety and personality disorders. At treatment entry, 92% of patients was clinically demoralised and, one month later, this was 89%. In patients with co-occurring depression, mood and personality disorders, a significant decrease of demoralisation was found after one month, whereas in patients with developmental and psychotic disorders this was not the case. In 11% of patients there was clinically relevant improvement and in 7.5% there was clinically relevant deterioration; the latter mainly in patients with co-occurring developmental and psychotic disorders.
CONCLUSION: At start of treatment, these alcohol-dependent patients were strongly demoralised, especially in the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders. Although there was a significant improvement in demoralisation after one month of treatment, patients remained strongly demoralised. In one in ten patients there was clinically relevant remoralisation. As a first step in the process of recovery, clinicians should pay more attention to remoralisation. Targeted interventions, aimed at this specific population, are necessary.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moral , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(2): 200-205, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined a hypothesized pathway by which interoceptive dysfunction accounted for associations between personality features (harm avoidance, self-directedness, and perfectionism) and anorexia nervosa (AN) severity (indicated by drive for thinness, eating disorder-related preoccupations and rituals, and body mass index). METHOD: The study sample (n = 270, mean age = 28.47, 95.2% female, 98% White/Caucasian) consisted of probands and biological relatives who met DSM-IV criteria for lifetime diagnoses of AN (omitting criterion D, amenorrhea) drawn from the Price Foundation Anorexia Nervosa Affected Relative Pairs Study (AN-ARP). Participants completed measures assessing personality, interoceptive dysfunction, and eating pathology. RESULTS: Associations between personality features of low self-directedness and high perfectionism and indicators of AN severity (drive for thinness and eating disorder-related preoccupations and rituals) were significant, as were the hypothesized indirect pathways through interoceptive dysfunction. Neither harm avoidance nor body mass index was significantly related to other study variables, and the proposed indirect pathways involving these variables were not significant. DISCUSSION: Findings suggest that certain personality features may relate to AN severity, in part, through their associations with interoceptive dysfunction. Future research should examine prospective associations and the value of interventions targeting interoceptive dysfunction for interrupting the link between personality and AN severity.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 340-348, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599437

RESUMO

With the increase in the popularity of the Internet, more and more of its users are becoming addicted to it. Special focus in this study is placed on adolescents and emerging adults who constitute the largest number of users in Poland. The participants in the study were 718 individuals aged 12 to 30 (M = 17.57, SD = 3.63). There were two groups: 390 adolescents (aged 12-17 years, M = 14.71 years, SD = 0.99; 192 females) and 328 emerging adults (aged 18-30 years, M = 20.96 years, SD = 2.54; 197 females). The respondents completed: the Polish versions of Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the IPIP-BFM-20 questionnaire measuring the Big Five, and the Future Time Perspective Questionnaire. The results showed that depression had the highest predictive power for IA. Personality traits were related to Internet addiction. In both groups, conscientiousness and agreeableness had negative contribution to Internet addiction. In the group of adolescents extraversion was a positive predictor of IA, whereas in emerging adults intellect was a negative predictor of IA. FTP long and FTP goals were predictors of IA in the group of emerging adults.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Internet , Personalidade/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
An. psicol ; 35(1): 47-57, ene. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181023

RESUMO

El Inventario PID-5 de la American Psychiatric Association, evalúa la personalidad y sus trastornos desde el modelo dimensional de rasgos (DSM-5 Sección III), orientando el diagnóstico y las necesidades terapéuticas individuales. Analizamos la utilidad de su aplicación en pacientes derivados a un Hospital de Día para Trastornos de Personalidad (Clústers B y C). En la muestra de 85 sujetos, 51 % son Trastorno Límite (TLP) y 47 % Trastorno de Personalidad No Especificado/Mixto (TPNE/TPM), presentando el 65 % trastornos clínicos comórbidos. Del grupo TLP 89 % son mujeres, 53 % menores de 30 años; en el PID-5 presentan un perfil de mayor gravedad, destacando los Dominios Afecto Negativo y Desinhibición, y las facetas depresión, impulsividad, anhedonia y distraibilidad. Presentan mayor intensidad de síntomas límite (Cuestionario BEST), utilizan menos estrategias de afrontamiento de síntomas y más estrategias de evitación (Cuestionario COPE-28). En el TPNE/TPM, el 58 % son mujeres, 80 % mayores de 30 años, en su perfil del PID-5 destaca afectividad negativa, especialmente la faceta ansiedad. Ambos grupos muestran rasgos límites y evitativos en el screening IPDE. El PID-5 se ha mostrado útil para confirmar diagnósticos específicos (TLP), también para describir el perfil de rasgos y plantear las necesidades terapéuticas concretas tanto en TLP como en TPNE/TPM


The PID-5 Inventory of the American Psychiatric Association evaluates personality and related disorders based on the dimensional trait model (DSM-5 Section III), which guides individual diagnosis and therapeutic needs. We analysed its usefulness as it was applied to patients that had been referred to a Day Hospital for Personality Disorders. In the sample of 85 subjects, 51 % had Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), and 47 % had Personality Disorder NOS or Mixed (PD-NOS/MP), 65 % presenting comorbid clinical disorders. Among the BPD group, 89 % were women, 53 % were under 30 years old; they presented a PID-5 profile of greater severity, the Negative Affect and Disinhibition Domains stood out, as well as the facets of depression, impulsivity, anhedonia and distraction. Their borderline symptoms (BEST scale) were of greater intensity, they used fewer symptom coping strategies and more avoidance strategies (COPE-28 inventory). Among the PD-NOS/MP group, 58 % are women, 80 % were aged over 30 years, and negative affectivity, especially anxiety, stood out in their PID-5 profile. Both groups show borderline and avoidant features in the IPDE screening. The PID-5 was useful for confirming specific diagnoses (BPD), for describing the trait profile as well as proposing the specific therapeutic needs of both BPD and PD-NOS/MP patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
An. psicol ; 35(1): 131-139, ene. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181032

RESUMO

Background: This research determines the level of prediction of sensation seeking and self-efficacy on sexual risk behaviors in young Mexicans. The sensations seeking and self-efficacy have a combined impact on the risk sexual behaviors of young people. Method: The sensation seeking and selwef-efficacy were measured with two different scales in a non-probabilistic sample of 1012 young people, between 14 and 22 years old, from Mexico City. Results: showed that three facets of the sensation seeking and two dimensions of self-efficacy have a direct incidence in the sexual risk behavior of young people consistent with the postulated hypothesis and that in combination explain 19.2% of the variance. Conclusions: consider the combined effect of the search for sensation seeking and self-efficacy, as well as the practical implications for the development of preventive programs on sexual risk behavior in young people


Antecedentes: La presente investigación determina el nivel de predicción de la búsqueda de sensaciones y la autoeficacia sobre la conducta sexual de riesgo en jóvenes mexicanos. Se plantea que la búsqueda de sensaciones y la autoeficacia tienen una incidencia combinada en el comportamiento sexual de riesgo de los jóvenes. Método: Se midieron la búsqueda de sensaciones y la autoeficacia con dos escalas diferentes en una muestra no probabilística de 1012 jóvenes, entre 14 y 22 años, de la Ciudad de México. Resultados: mostraron tres facetas de la búsqueda de sensaciones y dos dimensiones de la autoeficacia, tienen una incidencia directa en la conducta sexual de riesgo de los jóvenes consistente con la hipótesis postulada y que en combinación explican el 19.2% de la varianza. Conclusiones: considera el efecto combinado de la búsqueda de sensaciones y la autoeficacia, así como las implicaciones prácticas para la elaboración de programas preventivos sobre la conducta sexual de riesgo en los jóvenes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Assunção de Riscos , Sensação , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , México/epidemiologia
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