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1.
Psychol Assess ; 33(9): 880-889, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424018

RESUMO

The present study addresses the need for short and accessible maladaptive trait measures that cover all relevant aspects of developmental trait pathology, in order to comprehensively assess potential antecedents of personality pathology. From this perspective, we present a 98-item version of the well-established Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI) measure (DIPSI-B), that is fully age-neutral across the developmental stages of childhood and adolescence, and further includes those items from the original measure with the most optimal coverage of the latent traits. Relying on a large community-based sample of Flemish children and adolescents (N = 1873) randomly split and balanced in terms of age and gender, a precise selection of items was performed followed by an inspection of psychometric properties. The final item-set appears to be reliable, structurally stable, and invariant across both gender and age. We hope that its feasibility stimulates the integration of the DIPSI-B in ongoing prospective designs examining developmental antecedents of personality disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
J Fam Pract ; 70(5): 239-243, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410914

RESUMO

Specific behaviors or expressed thoughts may signal a need for screening. Take into account an individual's strengths and limitations when designing a Tx approach.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
3.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(5): 497-502, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292181

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review the recent literature on contemporary psychological perspectives of personality disorders, including novel psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at these vulnerable individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Among the various psychological theories and models of personality disorders, still the most popular and researched are psychodynamic, cognitive and interpersonal perspectives. More specifically, object relations theory, cognitive schema conceptualization and interpersonal circumplex model have produced the most empirical investigations of personality disorders in recent years. Latest work has suggested that all three perspectives have contributed to and are compatible with the dimensional personality disorders framework in DSM-5-AMPD and ICD-11 (including level of personality functioning and personality traits). These models have yielded specific psychological treatments of personality disorders; although most psychotherapies have been constructed for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), there is an increasing number of treatment modalities aimed at individuals with other forms of personality disorder, such as those with narcissistic or antisocial traits/disorders. More research into their effectiveness and long-term benefits is necessary. SUMMARY: Novel research keeps updating our knowledge on the cause, manifestations and psychological treatments of personality disorders, particularly from psychodynamic, cognitive and interpersonal perspectives.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
4.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(4): 468-475, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956346

RESUMO

Suicide behaviors are peculiar aspects of several cluster B disorders, including Narcissistic Personality Disorder. To date, it is still unclear which facet of narcissism is more related to the desire to die and which other factors are involved in this relationship. This study aims to offer preliminary empirical evidences concerning the relationship between narcissism, emotion dysregulation and suicide ideation. We administered the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), PID-5-BF (Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Short Form) and Beck Scale for Suicide ideation (BSI) to a sample of individuals with suicide ideation (n = 70) and a sample of community participants (n = 154). Controlling for age, gender and Negative Affectivity, we found that BSI scores correlated significantly with the vulnerable dimension of narcissism, but not with the grandiose one, and with all DERS dimension, apart from Awareness. Nevertheless, emotion dysregulation moderates the relationship between vulnerable narcissism and suicide ideation. Suicide ideation seems to be deeply connected with the vulnerable dimension of pathological narcissism and the relationship between the constructs is totally mediated by emotion dysregulation. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade
5.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 2048-2053, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963540

RESUMO

Violence committed by individuals with severe mental disorders has become a growing focus of interest among physicians, law enforcement officials, and the general population. Homicide involving relatives, specially parricide, matricide, and filicide, despite the relatively low incidence of these crimes, may be enigmatic, so forensic psychiatrist are frequently called on the courts to answer questions about insanity and criminal responsibility. The current study aims to describe Brazilian cases of parricide, matricide, and filicide associated with presence of major mental disorders and personality disorders, discussing the assessment of criminal responsibility in each case. The case series described were specifically related to people with mental illness, as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and borderline personality with comorbidity of drug abuse. Two of them were considered not guilty by reason of insanity, and the other one was considered partially criminally responsible, according to Brazilian Law and Forensic Psychiatric Reports of the cases. The justice determined compulsory psychiatric treatment for all of them. The question of criminal responsibility of individuals with mental disorders is challenging for criminal justice, psychiatry, and society. Adequate treatment is mandatory to prevent crimes involving mental disorders, as shown in literature. The verification of criminal responsibility is essential for persons' adequate referral in any system of criminal law, thus protecting human rights and referring those who need psychiatric treatment.


Assuntos
Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Núcleo Familiar , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Rev. psicanal ; 28(1): http://revista.sppa.org.br/index.php/RPdaSPPA/article/view/826, Abril 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254380

RESUMO

Reflete-se acerca de certas características do sujeito contemporâneo e de sua grave deficiência de ser. Compreendido como entidade que habita no entroncamento de dois mundos, o interno e o externo, ele é, neste espaço, um terceiro hoje fragmentado pela lógica pós-moderna. Discute-se algumas questões relativas à condição de um sujeito narcisista atravessado pelos ditames da cultura atual (AU)


This article brings a reflection about the contemporary subject and its severe deficiency of being. Thought as an entity that inhabits the crossroad of two worlds, internal and external, it is in this third space a third one fragmented by post-modern logic. Some aspects are discussed regarding the condition of a narcissistic subject crossed by the dictates of current culture (AU)


Se reflexiona acerca de ciertas características del sujeto contemporáneo y su grave deficiencia de ser. Comprendido como entidad que habita en el cruce de dos mundos, el interno y el externo, él es un tercero en este espacio hoy fragmentado por la lógica posmoderna. Se discute algunas cuestiones relacionadas a la condición de un sujeto narcisista cruzado por dictámenes de la cultura actual (AU)


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fatores Sociológicos , Pós-Modernismo , Narcisismo
7.
Psychol Assess ; 33(6): 511-525, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779194

RESUMO

Enduring patterns of socially aversive behavior are ascribed to stable personality disorders (such as narcissistic or antisocial tendencies) in clinical psychology or to so called "dark" traits in personality psychology. As recently shown, the substantial overlap among the latter constructs is attributable to a single underlying disposition, called the Dark Factor of Personality (D). Whereas evidence supports the conceptualization of D as the core of aversive traits, the structure of the specific factors of D received less empirical attention so far. To this end, this study further scrutinizes the internal structure of D with items stemming from 12 different aversive traits assessed in three large and heterogeneous samples (total N > 160,000). Specifically, we (a) explored the bifactor structure of D using a modified "bass-ackwards" approach, (b) cross-validated the identified factor solutions via confirmatory factor analyses, and (c) examined the empirical relation of D and the specific factors to five criterion measures. Results indicate that a bifactor structure modeling D along with five specific factors-or themes-labeled Callousness, Deceitfulness, Narcissistic Entitlement, Sadism, and Vindictiveness, best describes the internal structure of D. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade/classificação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Clín. salud ; 32(1): 1-6, mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201422

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of affective temperaments and personality traits with suicide attempts in patients suffering from depression. A total of 251 patients diagnosed with recurrent depressive disorder or major depression episode were divided in groups with previous suicide attempts (n = 168) and without such attempts (n = 83) and given a sociodemographic questionnaire, TEMPS-A, and a personality questionnaire, VP+2-70. In all temperaments other than hyperthymic, higher scores were predominant in the group of patients with previous suicide attempts. The model including affective temperaments and personality traits successfully classified 72.5% of cases. Only depressive temperament was found to be a significant positive predictor with negative valence close to statistical significance. The cross-sectional design limits our ability to draw conclusions about causality and current affective status of the patients was not controlled for. However, our findings further prove the importance of affective temperament as a screening tool for suicide risk in depressed patients


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la relación de los temperamentos afectivos y los rasgos de personalidad con los intentos de suicidio en pacientes que sufren depresión. Un total de 251 pacientes diagnosticados de trastorno depresivo recurrente o episodio de depresión mayor se dividió en dos grupos, uno con intentos de suicidio previos (n = 168) y otro sin estas tentativas (n = 83), a los que se aplicó un cuestionario sociodemográfico, TEMPS-A, y un cuestionario de personalidad, VP+2-70. En todos los temperamentos que no eran los hipertímicos las puntuaciones más altas se dieron predominantemente en el grupo de pacientes con tentativas de suicidio previas. El modelo que incluye temperamentos afectivos y rasgos de personalidad clasificó adecuadamente al 72.5% de los casos. Solo el temperamento depresivo apareció como predictor positivo significativo con valencia negativa cercana a la significación estadística. El diseño transversal limita nuestra capacidad para sacar conclusiones sobre la causalidad además de que no se controló el estado afectivo actual de los pacientes. Sin embargo, los resultados destacan aún más la importancia del temperamento afectivo como herramienta de detección del riesgo de suicidio en pacientes deprimidos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Caráter , Ideação Suicida , Temperamento , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Medição de Risco , Neuroticismo
9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Self-Expression Emotion Regulation in Art Therapy Scale (SERATS) was developed as art therapy lacked outcome measures that could be used to monitor the specific effects of art therapy. Although the SERATS showed good psychometric properties in earlier studies, it lacked convergent validity and thus construct validity. METHOD: To test the convergent validity of the SERATS correlation was examined with the EES (Emotional Expressivity Scale), Emotion Regulation Strategies for Artistic Creative Activities Scale (ERS-ACA) and Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS). Patients diagnosed with a Personality Disorder, and thus having self-regulation and emotion regulation problems (n = 179) and a healthy student population (n = 53) completed the questionnaires (N = 232). RESULTS: The SERATS showed a high reliability and convergent validity in relation to the ERS-ACA approach strategies and self-development strategies in both patients and students and the HUMS healthy scale, in patients. Hence, what the SERATS measures is highly associated with emotion regulation strategies like acceptance, reappraisal, discharge and problem solving and with improving a sense of self including self-identity, increased self-esteem and improved agency as well as the healthy side of art making. Respondents rated the SERATS as relatively easy to complete compared to the other questionnaires. CONCLUSION: The SERATS is a valid, useful and user-friendly tool for monitoring the effect of art therapy that is indicative of making art in a healthy way that serves positive emotion regulation and self-development.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Terapia pela Arte , Regulação Emocional , Emoções , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Psicometria , Autoimagem
10.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(3): 152-154, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620913

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The US Department of Defense specifically states that intellectual disability and personality disorders are not diseases for compensation purposes, and disabilities from them may not be service connected absent a superimposed mental disorder. In addition, the diagnosis of a personality disorder led to the discharge of 31,000 troops during the years 2001 to 2010. I review the history of these developments, and how the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders enabled these actions. In contrast, the United Kingdom and Canada do not allow such actions. Whether our approach is logical seems highly questionable, especially given the significant problems with the DSM's definitions of personality disorders, definitions at odds with the literature.


Assuntos
Militares/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade , United States Department of Defense/organização & administração , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Psiquiatria Militar/organização & administração , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Estados Unidos
11.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 21(1): 179-191, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201967

RESUMO

La práctica regular de Actividad Física Deportiva (en adelante AFD) tiene efectos beneficiosos a nivel físico y cognitivo. Trabajos recientes han encontrado influencia entre la práctica de AFD y la mejora en memoria, en rendimiento académico, en autoestima, en atención y en Funciones Ejecutivas. En el presente trabajo de corte comparativo han participado 110 estudiantes de Educación Primaria y de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de las localidades de Ourense y Málaga, con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 14 años (M=10,89; DT=1,54). Los estudiantes se asignaron a diferentes grupos: estudiantes que practican AFD federados en clubes deportivos a nivel competitivo o AFD-F (n= 37), estudiantes que practican AFD en horario extraescolar en los centros educativos o AFD-C (n=37) y un grupo de estudiantes que no practicaban ningún tipo de AFD o No-AFD (n=36). Los resultados muestran la modulación de la AFD en diferentes modalidades de inhibición, comparando estudiantes que practican y los que no practican AFD (en línea con trabajos previos). Por otra parte, se ha analizado si la modalidad de AFD (AFD-F vs. AFD-C) contribuye al desarrollo diferencial de algunos componentes inhibitorios. Los resultados muestran que la AFD en ambos grupos (AFD-F y AFD-C) mejora el control atencional y el control inhibitorio, evidenciando similares resultados en la habilidad para cumplir las reglas, en la precisión en la búsqueda visual y en la flexibilidad cognitiva. Sin embargo, hemos encontrado que la práctica de AFD-F mejora los índices en el control de la impulsividad en comparación con la práctica de AFD-C


The regular practice of Sports Physical Activity (hereinafter SPA) has beneficial effects at a physical and cognitive level. Recent works have found improvement in memory, in academic performance, in self-esteem, in attention and in Executive Functions. In this comparative study, a sample of 110 students of Primary and Secondary Education from Ourense and Málaga (Spain) between the ages of 8 and 14 years was used (M=10,89; SD=1,54). The participants were assigned to three groups: students who practice federated physical-sports activity in sports clubs at a competitive level or SPA-F (n=37), students who practice physical-sports activity in out-of-school hours in schools or SPA-C (n=37) and a group of students who did not practice any type of physical-sports activity Not-SPA (n=36). The results show the modulation of SPA in different inhibition modes, comparing students who do not practice SPA and those who practice SPA, in line with previous work. In a second step, we analysed whether the SPA modality, that is, whether it is developed in a sports club and therefore the students are federated (SPA -F) or whether it is developed in the school's extracurricular activities (SPA-C), contributes to the differential development of inhibition. The results show that SPA, regardless of where they carry out the activity, improves some components of EF such as attentional control, inhibitory control, showing similar results in the ability to follow the rules, in the precision in the visual search and in the cognitive flexibility. However, we have found that SPA-F practice improves impulsivity control rates compared to SPA-C practice


A prática regular da Actividade Física Desportiva (adiante designada por AFD) tem efeitos benéficos a nível físico e cognitivo. Na última década tem havido um interesse crescente em determinar como as capacidades cognitivas são beneficiadas pelo exercício físico, e neste sentido foram encontradas melhorias na memória, desempenho académico, auto-estima, atenção e funções executivas a partir da prática regular da AFD. Neste estudo estudo comparativo, foi utilizada uma amostra de 110 estudantes do Ensino Primário e Secundário de Ourense e Málaga (Espanha) entre os 8 e 14 anos de idade (M=10,89; DT=1,54). Os participantes foram distribuídos por três grupos: estudantes que praticam actividade físico-desportiva federada em clubes desportivos a nível competitivo ou AFD-F (n=37), estudantes que praticam actividade físico-desportiva em horário extra-escolar nas escolas ou AFD-C (n=37) e um grupo de estudantes que não praticam qualquer tipo de actividade físico-desportiva Não AFD (n=36). Os resultados mostram que o AFD em ambos os grupos (AFD-F e AFD-C) melhora alguns componentes do FE como o controlo atencional, o controlo inibitório, mostrando resultados semelhantes na capacidade de cumprir as regras, na precisão da pesquisa visual e na flexibilidade cognitiva. Contudo, descobrimos que a prática da AFD-F melhora os índices no controlo da impulsividade em comparação com a prática da AFD-C


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Autoimagem , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Análise de Variância
12.
Res Dev Disabil ; 110: 103856, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497856

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Oasi Research Institute of Troina (Italy) became an important hotbed for infection; in fact, 109 patients with different levels of Intellectual Disability (ID) tested positive for COVID-19. The procedures and interventions put in place at the Oasi Research Institute due to the COVID-19 pandemic are exhaustively reported in this paper. The description of the clinical procedures as well as remote/in person psychological support services provided to people with ID and their families are here divided into three different sections: Phase I (or Acute phase), Phase II (or Activity planning), and Phase III (or Activity consolidation). In each section, the main psycho-pathological characteristics of patients, the reactions of family members and the multidisciplinary interventions put in place are also described.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/reabilitação , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Telemedicina , Academias e Institutos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Hotspot de Doença , Surtos de Doenças , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/reabilitação , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/reabilitação , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/reabilitação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychopathology ; 54(1): 26-38, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440399

RESUMO

Theory and research have consistently shown that pathological narcissism can best be described by 2 phenotypic expressions, narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability. The current study sought to examine the specific types of interpersonal problems reported by those high in narcissistic grandiosity and high in narcissistic vulnerability as well as examine the nomological network associated with these 2 manifestations of narcissism. In a sample of university students who completed self-report measures of pathological narcissism, interpersonal problems, depression, self-esteem, malignant self-regard, self-defeating personality disorder symptoms, and anger, we found that narcissistic grandiosity (n = 108) was associated with one distinct interpersonal profile, for example, being overly intrusive in relationships with others, while narcissistic vulnerability (n = 88) was associated with a wider range of interpersonal problems on the interpersonal circumplex. Using cluster analysis, we found 3 interpersonal subtypes associated with narcissistic vulnerability, an intrusive subtype, a cold subtype, and a socially avoidant subtype. Further examination of group differences showed that the 3 interpersonal subtypes associated with narcissistic vulnerability could also be distinguished based on their experience and expression of anger. This suggests the importance of assessing profiles of interpersonal functioning and anger in narcissistic vulnerability. The clinical implications of our results are discussed.


Assuntos
Psicoterapia Interpessoal/métodos , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies assessing personality dimensions by the "Temperament and Character Inventory" (TCI) have previously found an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and lower Novelty Seeking and higher Harm Avoidance scores. Here, we aimed to describe personality dimensions of PD patients with motor fluctuations and compare them to a normative population and other PD populations. METHODS: All PD patients awaiting Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) answered the TCI before neurosurgery. Their results were compared to those of historical cohorts (a French normative population, a de novo PD population, and a PD population with motor fluctuations). RESULTS: Most personality dimensions of our 333 included PD patients with motor fluctuations who are candidates for DBS were different from those of the normative population and some were also different from those of the De Novo PD population, whereas they were similar to those of another population of PD patients with motor fluctuations. CONCLUSIONS: During the course of PD, personality dimensions can change in parallel with the development of motor fluctuations, either due to the evolution of the disease and/or dopaminergic treatments.


Assuntos
Caráter , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inventário de Personalidade
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 297: 113718, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465524

RESUMO

Social avoidance in young patients is a clinically worrisome phenomenon that characterizes impending schizophrenia, but that also constitutes a core phenomenon in avoidant personality disorder (AvPD), schizoid personality disorder (ScPD), and in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Especially in the absence of any other clinically relevant phenomena, understanding the origins of social avoidance may be one the most challenging tasks in assessing whether adolescents and young adults are at risk for developing schizophrenia. Descriptive and psychometric assessments only allow to comment on the absence or the presence of this phenomenon, but do not capture the origins and the meaning of social avoidance. Based on a narrative review, we highlight the importance of a phenomenological approach to unveil the Gestalt of social avoidance in these mental disorders, including and appraisal of the underlying mental structures and attachment styles. The phenomenological approach allows to distinguish the Gestalt of social avoidance between AvPD, ScPD, ASD, and beginning schizophrenia, to ensure correct diagnostic labelling and optimal treatment, and to avoid unwarranted stigmatization.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizoide/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizoide/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Pers Assess ; 103(4): 455-464, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783548

RESUMO

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), the deliberate destruction of one's own body tissue without suicidal intent, is a prevalent problem linked to adverse outcomes. Many assessment tools designed to assess for NSSI risk are limited by their behavioral focus, which does not cover the numerous affective, cognitive, and interpersonal correlates. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a widely used inventory of personality and psychopathology that assesses a range of empirical correlates of NSSI risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of the MMPI-2-RF for assessing these NSSI-related constructs. On the basis of a review of the literature and item content, we pre-identified MMPI-2-RF measures of constructs associated with NSSI risk. Correlations between scores on these scales and the number of methods of NSSI identified several meaningful results, including some small but consistent gender differences in these associations. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses indicated that scores on some expected MMPI-2-RF scales independently predicted NSSI variability. Relative risk ratio analyses demonstrated the potential clinical utility of MMPI-2-RF scale scores for assessing risk of engagement in NSSI. These findings indicate that the MMPI-2-RF may be a useful tool for assessing risk for NSSI among college students.


Assuntos
MMPI , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Personalidade , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/diagnóstico , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Addict ; 30(1): 34-42, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research has shown that alcohol craving is associated with psychiatric comorbidities. However, no population studies have examined the odds of psychiatric disorders in cravers and noncravers. The purpose of this study was to investigate current prevalence rates and odds ratios of psychiatric disorders among alcohol drinkers with and without alcohol craving in a population-based sample. We also compared four craving groups (cravers with and without alcohol use disorder [AUD], noncravers with and without AUD) for psychiatric comorbidities. METHODS: The study data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). A subset of the NESARC sample (N = 22 000) who reported alcohol use during the past 12 months was included. Prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders were compared among current drinkers with alcohol craving (N = 900) and without alcohol craving (N = 21 500). RESULTS: Cravers had higher prevalence rates of current psychiatric disorders than noncravers. Even after adjustment for other psychiatric disorders including AUD, cravers had significantly higher odds of any substance use disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.01), any mood disorder (AOR, 1.78), any anxiety disorder (AOR, 1.86), and any personality disorder (AOR, 1.92) than noncravers. Interestingly, cravers without AUD had even higher rates of any anxiety disorder and any personality disorder than noncravers with AUD. CONCLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Alcohol craving is associated with a higher prevalence of various psychiatric disorders. These findings suggest that alcohol craving may be related to transdiagnostic features that are present across various psychiatric disorders. (Am J Addict 2021;30:34-42).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Fissura , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Prevalência , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Qual Life Res ; 30(2): 567-575, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Severity Indices of Personality Problems 118 (SIPP-118) is a self-report questionnaire that aims to measure core components of (mal)adaptive personality functioning that can change over time. In this study, we aimed to assess the facet strength of the 16 facets across three large clinical samples. METHODS: Data from Norwegian and Dutch psychiatric patients were analyzed in this international multi-center study (N1 = 2814, N2 = 4751, N3 = 2217). Bi-factor modeling was used to assess to what degree the SIPP items tap into an overall general factor. The incremental value (distinctiveness) of the facets was studied using proportional reduction in mean squared error (PRMSE) based statistics. RESULTS: The estimated model showed adequate fit. The explained common variance (ECV) attributable to the general factor equaled 50% for all three samples. All but two facets (stable self-image and frustration tolerance) showed sufficient levels of distinctiveness. The findings were observed to be comparable across the three samples. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that the general factor was relatively weak, and the facets had a clear incremental value.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Gambl Stud ; 37(2): 571-582, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974858

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the unique and common role that some cognitive, personality and relational characteristics play in male adolescents' regular gambling behavior. Participants were 273 male adolescents and young adults aged 15-19 recruited in sports betting centers. They completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, the Hypercompetitive Attitude scale, and The Coping Strategy Indicator. The relationship between narcissistic rivalry and gambling was mediated by hyper-competitiveness and avoidant coping strategy. These findings suggest that narcissistic features and maladaptive coping strategies might be involved in the development of disordered gambling in youth, supporting a compensatory model of this addictive behavior and claiming for preventative actions that take into account the psychological vulnerabilities of adolescents and young adults.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Narcisismo , Personalidade , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Psychol ; 56(2): 266-275, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876335

RESUMO

Cooperation is vital for modern society. Previous studies showed that procedural fairness promotes cooperation; however, they mainly focused on cooperation intention, which may fail to reveal actual cooperative behaviour. Moreover, little is known regarding the personality boundary of the effect of procedural fairness on cooperation. Guided by previous findings that self-esteem increases sensitivity to procedural unfairness, we attempted to explore the moderating effect of self-esteem on the association between procedural fairness and cooperative behaviour. In Experiment 1, 160 participants' self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; procedural fairness was manipulated in two conditions, depending on whether money was allocated in an economic game by rolling the dice twice or an allocator's arbitrary choice. Cooperative behaviour was assessed using the chicken game paradigm. Experiment 2 (148 participants) aimed to replicate and extend the results of Experiment 1 using a more rigorous experimental design, in which the possible effect of outcome favourability was excluded. The results of both experiments consistently showed that procedural fairness positively predicted cooperative behaviour, and this association was significant in high-self-esteem individuals, but not in low-self-esteem individuals. These findings shed light on the vital role of self-esteem in understanding the relationship between procedural fairness and cooperative behaviour.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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