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1.
Span J Psychiatry Ment Health ; 17(2): 88-94, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population studies on social anxiety disorder (SAD) are relatively scarce and there is no previous reported evidence on prevalence or correlates of SAD in an Andalusian general population sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a random representative sample previously identified via standard stratification procedures. Thus, a final sample of 4507 participants were included (response rate 83.7%). Interviewees were thoroughly assessed on sociodemographic, clinical and psychosocial factors, including: exposures to threatening life events (TLEs), childhood abuse, personality disorder and traits (neuroticism, impulsivity, paranoia), global functioning, physical health and toxics consumption. SAD diagnosis was ascertained using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Both, pooled prevalences (with 95% confidence intervals) and risk correlates for SAD were estimated using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Estimated prevalence for SAD was 1.1% (95% CI=0.8-1.4). Having a SAD diagnosis was independently and significantly associated with younger age, poorer global functioning, higher neuroticism and paranoia personality traits, having suffered childhood abuse and exposure to previous TLEs. Furthermore, SAD was significantly associated with comorbid personality disorder, major depression, panic disorder and alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Among this large Andalusian population sample, the prevalence of SAD and its associated factors are relatively similar to previously reported international studies, although no population study had previously reported such a strong association with paranoia.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Humanos , Fobia Social/epidemiologia , Fobia Social/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Comorbidade , Idoso , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1381, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of epilepsy treatment is not only to control convulsive seizures but also to improve the quality of life of patients. This study aimed to investigate personality changes and the risk factors for their development in adult epilepsy patients. METHODS: A case-control study in a Class III, Class A hospital. The study comprised 206 adult epilepsy patients admitted to the Neurology Department at the First Hospital of Jilin University between October 2019 and December 2021, while the control group consisted of 154 community volunteers matched with the epilepsy group based on age, sex, and education. No additional treatment interventions were determined to be relevant in the context of this study. RESULTS: There is a significantly higher incidence of personality changes in epilepsy than in the general population, and patients with epilepsy were more likely to become psychoticism, neuroticism, and lie. Epilepsy patient's employment rate and average quality of life score were significantly lower than that of the general population and had strong family intimacy but poor adaptability in this study. There are many factors affecting personality change: sleep disorders, economic status, quality of life, use of anti-seizure drugs, family cohesion and adaptability. The independent risk factors were quality of life and family cohesion.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Masculino , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Adulto , Epilepsia/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Personalidade , China/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11635, 2024 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773198

RESUMO

Evidence links immune system alterations to major psychiatric disorders. The few previous studies on personality traits or personality disorders (PDs) indicate that immunometabolic dysregulation may be prevalent in this population. This study aimed to investigate relationships between personality traits, PDs, and immunometabolic markers in peripheral blood. We hypothesized that neuroticism would be correlated with elevated leptin. Participants were recruited as young adults seeking care for general psychiatric disorders. They responded to a personality inventory and were assessed for PDs, and reevaluated again at a 12 years follow-up. Blood samples were collected at the follow-up and analyzed for 29 immunometabolic markers. A positive correlation was found between the personality trait neuroticism and leptin (ρ = 0.31, p = 0.02). An exploratory analysis also revealed a positive correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (ρ = 0.36, p < 0.01) and neuroticism. These findings remained after adjusting for other variables in general linear models. There were no relationships between PDs and any immunometabolic markers. Results both confirm previous findings of correlations between the immunometabolic system and personality traits and suggest directions for future research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Neuroticismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/sangue , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Leptina/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Inventário de Personalidade , Adolescente
4.
Psychol Assess ; 36(5): 323-338, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695789

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to revise and update the MMPI-2-RF personality disorder (PD) syndrome scales for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3). Study 1 describes the development of the MMPI-3 PD syndrome scales in three separate samples of community participants (n = 1,591), university students (n = 1,660), and outpatient mental health patients (n = 1,537). The authors independently evaluated each of the 72 new MMPI-3 items and rated them for appropriateness for scale inclusion and used various statistical procedures for final item selection. Ultimately, all 10 scales were revised, with nine incorporating items that were new to the MMPI-3. In Study 2, we subsequently validated the new MMPI-3 PD Syndrome scales against measures of traditional PD measures, trait measures of the Alternative Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition-5 model of personality disorders (AMPD) and the five-factor model (FFM) of personality, and specific criterion measures of externalizing, psychopathy, narcissism, emotional dysregulation, and self-harm, in two samples of university students (ns = 489 and 645). With some exceptions, the results were generally supportive of the convergent and discriminant validities of the MMPI-3 PD Syndrome scales. The Histrionic PD scale in particular was associated with questionable results and diverged most strongly from the theoretical construct it was originally meant to reflect. Further continuous validation of the scales is needed, especially in clinical samples, but the findings to date are promising. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
MMPI , Transtornos da Personalidade , Psicometria , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas
5.
Aggress Behav ; 50(3): e22150, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764372

RESUMO

Structured clinical risk assessments represent a preferred means of assessing levels of aggression risk at different times and in different individuals. Increasing attention has been given to capturing protective factors, with sound risk assessment critical to high-secure forensic mental health care. The aim was to assess the predictive value of the HCR-20v3 for aggression risk and the long-term care pilot version of the SAPROF (the SAPROF-LC-pilot) in a high-secure forensic mental health inpatient population and to determine the incremental value of protective over risk factors. Participants were adult males detained in a high secure forensic mental health service, with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and/or personality disorder. The focus was on examining hospital based aggression (self- and other-directed) at two time points; up to 6 months (T1) and between 7 and 12 months (T2). The HCR-20V3 and SAPROF-LC-pilot demonstrated good predictive validity but with variability across subscales and aggression types/periods. Historical factors of the HCR-20V3 and External factors of the SAPROF-LC-pilot failed to predict, aside from a medium effect at T1 for verbal aggression and self-harm, for Historical factors. There was evidence for protective factors adding to prediction over risk factors alone, with the integration of protective and risk factors into a risk judgement particularly helpful in improving prediction accuracy. Protective factors contributed to risk estimates and particularly if integrated with risk factors. Combining risk and protective factors has clear predictive advantages, ensuring that protective factors are not supplementary but important to the aggression assessment process.


Assuntos
Agressão , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Masculino , Agressão/psicologia , Adulto , Medição de Risco , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Esquizofrenia
6.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(2): e2967, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572780

RESUMO

Transdiagnostic models of psychopathology address many of the shortcomings common to categorical diagnostic systems. These empirically derived models conceptualize psychopathology as a few broad interrelated and hierarchically arranged dimensions, with an overarching general psychopathology dimension, the p-factor, at the apex. While transdiagnostic models are gaining prominence in mental health research, the lack of available tools has limited their clinical translation. The present study explored the potential of creating transdiagnostic scales from the joint factor structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory, Alternative Model of Personality Disorder trait scales (AMPD), and the clinical scales of the SPECTRA: Indices of Psychopathology (SPECTRA). Exploratory factor analysis in a clinical sample (n = 212) identified five factors corresponding to the Negative Affect/Internalizing, Detachment, Antagonism/Externalizing, Disinhibition/Externalizing, and Thought Disorder transdiagnostic dimensions. Goldberg's "Bass-Ackward" method supported a hierarchical structure. Five composite transdiagnostic scales were created by summing each factor's highest loading PAI and SPECTRA scales. A global psychopathology scale was created by summing the five composite scales. All the composite scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Correlations between the composite scales and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 provide initial validity evidence for four composite and global scales. The composite thought disorder scale had no conceptually corresponding NEO domain. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Determinação da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
7.
Psychol Assess ; 36(5): e13-e26, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602784

RESUMO

The Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms-Expanded version (IDAS-II) is one of the few tools designed to assess internalizing symptoms based on dimensional models. We conducted two studies, the first testing internal validity aspects of the IDAS-II and the second testing the external validity of the scales. In the first study we adapted the IDAS-II to Brazilian Portuguese and tested its internal structure, including a higher order factorial solution coherent with the internalizing spectrum, the stability of the factor structure, and its measurement invariance for sex and racial groups. Participants were 2,379 Brazilian adults. In the second study, we investigated the IDAS-II scales' associations with broad pathological personality traits in Brazilian (N = 245) and North American (N = 402) samples. The results of the first study indicated that the IDAS-II scales are grouped into three first-order factors (Distress, Obsessions/Fear, and Positive Mood), replicating Wester et al. (2022) and Petre et al. (2023). Our results also suggested the plausibility of an internalizing second-order factor for the IDAS-II Brazilian version. The multigroup confirmatory factor analysis shows that this scale is invariant for males and females and for White and Black/Brown people. In the second study, the IDAS-II scales demonstrated mostly coherent associations with broad domains of pathological personality traits. Besides the internal validity of the Brazilian IDAS-II, our results also provide information about its external validity and expand its nomological network, as it is the first study reporting its associations with broad domains of pathological personality traits. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Psicometria , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Fatores Sexuais , Análise Fatorial , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Idoso , Inventário de Personalidade
8.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(4): e6084, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common condition with a substantial negative impact on older adults' quality of life. This study examines whether individual differences in behavioral, cognitive, and emotional traits assessed by the five major dimensions of personality are related to the risk of concurrent and incident UI. METHODS: Participants were older women and men (N > 26,000) from the Midlife in the United States Survey, the Health and Retirement Study, and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. In each cohort, personality traits (measured with the Midlife Development Inventory) and demographic (age, sex, education, and race), clinical (body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure), and behavioral (smoking) factors were assessed at baseline. UI was assessed at baseline and again 8-20 years later. Results for each cohort were combined in random-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: Consistently across cohorts, higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness were related to a higher risk of concurrent and incident UI. To a lesser extent, extraversion, openness, and agreeableness were also related to lower risk of concurrent and incident UI. BMI, diabetes, blood pressure, and smoking partially accounted for these associations. There was little evidence that age or sex moderated the associations. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides novel, robust, and replicable evidence linking personality traits to UI. The higher vulnerability for UI for individuals who score higher on neuroticism and lower on conscientiousness is consistent with findings for other multifactorial geriatric syndromes. Personality traits can help identify individuals at risk and may help contextualize the clinical presentation of comorbid emotional, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Longitudinais , Neuroticismo , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 103: 102661, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461694

RESUMO

As Forensic Psychology continues to expand as an independent field, professionals regularly resort to psychological assessment tools to assess people involved within the justice system. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a 344-item, self-report inventory that aims to provide meaningful information for diagnosis and clinical decision-making, specifically relating to psychopathology, personality, and psychosocial environment. Its applicability in forensic settings has been increasingly recognized on account of its benefits in comparison to other self-report inventories (e.g., MMPI-2, MCMI-III), since it includes scales that are relevant to forensic settings (e.g., violence risk levels, psychopathy, substance abuse), and the existence of profile distortion indicators is useful when dealing with highly defensive and/or malingering populations. The goal of this paper is to conduct a thorough review of the PAI's utility in forensic settings, by focusing on the relevant forensic constructs assessed by the PAI (e.g., personality disorders, psychosis, substance abuse, aggression, recidivism risk, and response distortion), as well as its application to offender and inmate populations, intimate partner violence contexts, family law cases, and forensic professionals. Overall, the PAI continues to gather international recognition and its relevance and usefulness in forensic settings is generally accepted and acknowledged.


Assuntos
Determinação da Personalidade , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Reincidência , Psicologia Forense , Estabelecimentos Correcionais , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Psiquiatria Legal , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Agressão , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
10.
J Trauma Dissociation ; 25(3): 394-407, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376101

RESUMO

Gender differences in the prevalence, types and outcomes of traumas have consistently been reported in the literature. Other research has documented that exposure to trauma is associated with the development and maintenance of pathological personality traits. In the current study, we examined the moderating role of gender in the association between lifetime exposure to trauma and pathological personality traits. The sample included 148 clients who sought treatment at a community mental health clinic. All participants completed online questionnaires including demographic information, the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF) at the entry to treatment. Our findings documented a significant association between exposure to trauma and pathological personality traits in men, but not in women. Furthermore, this pattern of results was specifically evident within two personality domains: antagonism and detachment. These findings contribute to the theoretical understanding of the interplay between trauma, gender, and the development of pathological personality traits. They expand upon the growing knowledge about the mental health crisis among boys and men by shedding light on the unique vulnerabilities that men face in response to traumatic experiences and how these experiences can have a lasting impact on their adaptive functioning. Consequently, at the clinical level, the current study emphasizes the importance of paying particular attention to men's trauma histories and explicitly exploring these during the intake session.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais
11.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 45(1): 55-68, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38295428

RESUMO

Schema therapy is an integrative approach to treat patients with personality disorders and other complex psychological problems. Group schema therapy has been developed to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of schema therapy by providing a supportive and stimulating environment for change. This article introduces the River of Life Method, a novel technique for facilitating group schema therapy, based on the metaphor of a river of life. The method helps patients to identify and modify their maladaptive schemas and modes in a nurturing process in the group. The article describes the theoretical background, the practical steps, and the clinical applications of the method. It also presents the patients' experience with the method, based on their feedback and self-reports. The results showed that the method was well received by both patients and therapists, and that it had positive effects on schema modes, psychological distress, and coping with adversities and hope for the future.


Assuntos
Psicoterapia de Grupo , Terapia do Esquema , Humanos , Rios , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
12.
Schmerz ; 38(2): 118-124, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37071211

RESUMO

Chronic pain is usually a complex disorder with possible indications for an impairment at the personality functioning level. Guidelines recommend a multiprofessional interdisciplinary treatment approach. Based on the alternative model of personality disorders of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, eleventh revision (ICD-11), an integrative manual was designed to exactly fit the interdisciplinary multimodal treatment of patients of the day clinic for pain at the orthopedic clinic of the University Hospital Heidelberg. The treatment manual specifically promotes various areas of personality functioning levels, such as emotion regulation, identity, empathy and relationships through individual and group interventions against the background of a mentalization-based therapeutic attitude. A focus group was used to qualitatively evaluate the implementation of the new treatment manual. With good applicability of the manual and satisfaction of the therapy team, a common language for the interdisciplinary team could be created to improve the therapeutic interaction.


Assuntos
Mentalização , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Terapia Combinada , Dor , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais
13.
Personal Disord ; 15(2): 122-127, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37956048

RESUMO

The International Classification of Diseases (11th edition; ICD-11) has adopted a classification of personality disorders (PDs) that abolishes the established International Classification of Diseases (10th edition; ICD-10) PD types in favor of global severity and stylistic trait domain specifiers. The goal of the current study was to describe the empirical relationship between traditional PD types and the ICD-11 trait domains, which is anticipated to inform and guide clinicians in this profound transition. A total of 246 patients were rated by their clinicians. The Informant-Personality Inventory for ICD-11 was used to rate ICD-11 trait domains while PD types were assigned categorically according to ICD-10. Empirical associations were investigated by means of bivariate correlation and logistic regression analyses with bootstrapping. Results overall showed expected and conceptually meaningful associations between ICD-11 trait domains and categorical ICD-10 PD types, with only a few unexpected deviations. Findings suggest that ICD-11 trait domains capture stylistic features of the established PD types in a conceptually coherent manner. These findings may facilitate continuity and guide translation between categorical PD types (i.e., ICD-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [fifth edition]) and the new ICD-11 classification in mental health care. Future research should seek to replicate these findings in various clinical settings while also integrating the essential PD severity classification. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Inventário de Personalidade
14.
Personal Ment Health ; 18(1): 60-68, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37941508

RESUMO

No clinician-rating tool has formally been developed to assess the ICD-11 model of personality disorder (PD) severity. We therefore developed and evaluated the 14-item personality disorder Severity ICD-11 (PDS-ICD-11) Clinician-Rating Form. A combined sample of 195 patients was rated by mental health professionals or clinical research assistants in New Zealand using the PDS-ICD-11 Clinician-Rating Form. Responses were subjected to item-response theory analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. In a subsample, we examined interrater reliability and convergence with self- and informant-reported measures of personality impairment, dysfunction in various psychopathology domains, and traditional PD symptoms. Item-response theory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the item functioning and unidimensionality, respectively, of the PDS-ICD-11 Clinician-Rating Form. The interrater reliability was very promising (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.94, p < 0.001). PDS-ICD-11 Clinician-Rating Form scores were associated with established measures of personality dysfunction at large effect sizes. This initial development study suggests that the PDS-ICD-11 Clinician-Rating Form constitutes a psychometrically sound instrument that provides a clinically based impression of the severity of personality dysfunction according to the official ICD-11 description. More research is needed to corroborate its validity and utility, and a structured interview is warranted for diagnostic purposes. The final PDS-ICD-11 Clinician-Rating Form is included as online supporting information.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
15.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 70(1): 209-217, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37840279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a significant clinical and social burden, there is a relative scarcity of epidemiological studies on Personality Disorder (PD). AIM: To determine the current prevalence of PD and the psychosocial correlates associated with this in the Andalusian population. METHOD: We carried out a cross-sectional population mental-health survey in Andalusia, southern Spain. Thus, 4,518 randomly selected participants were interviewed following sampling using different standard stratification levels. We used the Spanish version of the SAPAS to estimate PD prevalence. In addition, a full battery of other instruments was utilized to explore global functionality, childhood abuse, maltreatment, threatening life events, personality traits (neuroticism, impulsivity and paranoia), medical and psychiatric comorbidities, family history of psychological problems and other potential risk factors for PD. RESULTS: PD prevalence (10.8%; 95% CI [9.8, 11.7]) and ran two different multivariate models for PD. We obtained the highest PD prevalence in those affected by any mental disorder plus those reporting having suffered childhood abuse, particularly sexual abuse. Additional potential risk factors or correlates of PD identified were: younger age, lower levels of functioning, less social support, poorer general health, having suffered maltreatment, threatening life events, higher suicidal risk scores and higher levels of both neuroticism and impulsivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports PD prevalence and risk correlates in consonance with similar findings reported in other Western populations. However, longitudinal studies are needed to elicit a more thorough group of prospective determinants of PD.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 126(1): 105-127, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37079847

RESUMO

Past research on determinants of victim blaming mainly concentrated on individuals' just-world beliefs as motivational process underlying this harsh reaction to others' suffering. The present work provides novel insights regarding underlying affective processes by showing how individuals prone to derive pleasure from others' suffering-individuals high in everyday sadism-engage in victim blaming due to increased sadistic pleasure and reduced empathic concern they experience. Results of three cross-sectional studies and one ambulatory assessment study applying online experience sampling method (ESM; overall N = 2,653) document this association. Importantly, the relation emerged over and above the honesty-humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness personality model (Study 1a), and other so-called dark traits (Study 1b), across different cultural backgrounds (Study 1c), and also when sampling from a population of individuals frequently confronted with victim-perpetrator constellations: police officers (Study 1d). Studies 2 and 3 highlight a significant behavioral correlate of victim blaming. Everyday sadism is related to reduced willingness to engage in effortful cognitive activity as individuals high (vs. low) in everyday sadism recall less information regarding victim-perpetrator constellations of sexual assault. Results obtained in the ESM study (Study 4) indicate that the relation of everyday sadism, sadistic pleasure, and victim blaming holds in everyday life and is not significantly moderated by interpersonal closeness to the blamed victim or impactfulness of the incident. Overall, the present article extends our understanding of what determines innocent victims' derogation and highlights emotional mechanisms, societal relevance, and generalizability of the observed associations beyond the laboratory. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Sadismo , Humanos , Sadismo/psicologia , Prazer , Estudos Transversais , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
17.
Personal Disord ; 15(1): 94-99, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37498699

RESUMO

The assessment of personality pathology based on dimensional models may improve self-other agreement, but previous research mainly adopted a categorical approach and overlooked the role of the person of the therapist. Our study examined patient-clinician agreement in a mixed sample of Italian outpatients using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the PID-5-Informant Form (PID-5-IRF). Moreover, the role of clinician personality traits on agreement was preliminary explored. Sixty-eight outpatients (51.4% male, M = 30.30, SD = 12.05 years) and their treating clinicians (N = 22; 77.3% female, M = 43.77 ± 8.45 years) entered the study. Patients completed the PID-5, whereas clinicians filled-in the PID-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF) and the PID-5-IRF for each patient they involved. A multilevel Bayesian analysis showed that rank-order agreement was large for domains (mean r = .60) and moderate for facets (mean r = .44). As regards mean-level agreement, patient ratings on cognitive/perceptual dysregulation, distractibility, eccentricity, and emotional lability were higher than clinician ratings, whereas patients' scores on depressivity were lower than clinicians' ones. Scores on the PID-5-BF detachment positively predicted agreement on anhedonia, anxiousness, depressivity, distractibility, separation insecurity, and suspiciousness, while scores on the PID-5-BF negative affectivity, antagonism, and disinhibition negatively predicted agreement on few specific facets. Current findings suggest that clinician personality traits may contribute to agreement on maladaptive personality traits, but areas of discrepancies remain in case of low observable internal ones. Since patient-clinician agreement is crucially involved in therapeutic alliance, further research on this issue is highly encouraged. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Teorema de Bayes , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Inventário de Personalidade
18.
J Pers Assess ; 106(1): 72-82, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37220386

RESUMO

The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a broadband measure of psychopathology that is widely used in applied settings. Researchers developed regression-based estimates that use the PAI to measure constructs of the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) - a hybrid dimensional and categorical approach to conceptualizing personality disorders. Although prior work has linked these estimates to formal measures of the AMPD, there is little work investigating the clinical correlates of this scoring approach of the PAI. The current study examines associations between these PAI-based AMPD estimates and life data in a large, archival dataset of psychiatric outpatients and inpatients. We found general support for the criterion validity of AMPD estimate scores, such that a theoretically consistent pattern of associations emerged with indicators such as prior academic achievement, antisocial behavior, psychiatric history, and substance abuse. These results provide preliminary support to this scoring approach for use in clinical samples.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade
19.
Mil Med ; 189(3-4): e766-e772, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37738176

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Narcissism has been studied for its role in leadership using various versions of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). Narcissism is described as having a "dark and negative" side as well as a "positive or bright" side. The bright side of narcissism, in particular, has been studied for its role in leadership. In studies among military personnel in Finland and Hungary, the NPI has been associated with positive leadership traits. We assessed if measures of narcissistic personality were predictive of entrance to and graduation from the Army Ranger Course among United States (U.S.) Army personnel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included the NPI as one of the measures in the Ranger Resilience and Improved Performance on Phospholipid-bound Omega-3's (RRIPP-3) study. RRIPP-3 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary supplement intervention trial at Fort Benning, GA, that enrolled 555 officers when they entered the U.S. Army Infantry Basic Officer Leadership Course (IBOLC) with the intention to complete the U.S. Ranger School. RRIPP-3 volunteer participants consumed eight dietary supplements daily containing 2.3 g of omega-3 (krill oil) or macadamia nut oil (control) over a 20-week period. Blood spot samples were collected to monitor intake compliance. Cognitive functioning, resilience, and mood were assessed at approximately 14 and 16 weeks. Dietary intake was also assessed. The 40-item, forced-choice NPI was included to assess if three factors of narcissism: Leadership/Authority, Grandiose/Exhibitionism, and Entitlement/Exploitativeness measures of narcissistic personality were associated with entrance to and graduation from the Army Ranger Course. RESULTS: Of the 555 soldiers enrolled in RRIPP-3, there were no statistically significant differences in the total NPI scores comparing U.S. Army IBOLC officers who enrolled (n = 225) versus did not enroll (n = 330, p = .649) or graduated (n = 95; versus did not graduate [n = 460, p = .451]) from the Ranger Course. None of the three-factor NPI subscales differed statistically comparing either enrollment in (p = .442, .510, and .589, respectively) or graduation from the Ranger Course (p = .814, .508, and .813, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although narcissism has been positively associated with military trainee success in other countries, we did not find an association between narcissism and trainee success among U.S. Army trainees, and accordingly the level of narcissism did not predict trainee success or failure.


Assuntos
Militares , Humanos , Liderança , Narcisismo , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Estados Unidos , Método Duplo-Cego
20.
Psychopathology ; 57(2): 136-148, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37906996

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5th edition (DSM-5) considers impairments in empathy a basic feature of personality disorders (PDs). In contrast, the AMPD pathological personality trait model and the categorical DSM-5 Section II PD model associate deficits in empathy to specific forms of personality pathology. The present study investigated to what extent impairments in cognitive and emotional empathy are markers of general versus specific personality pathology. METHODS: In a clinical sample (n = 119), the Multifaceted Empathy Test was used to assess cognitive empathy, emotional empathy for positive emotions, and emotional empathy for negative emotions. Personality functioning, pathological personality traits, and DSM-5 Section II PDs were assessed via interviews and self-reports. Confirmatory factor analyses were applied to associate the three empathy facets with the three personality pathology approaches, each modeled with general personality pathology (common factor) and specific personality pathology (residuals of indicators). RESULTS: Impairments in cognitive empathy and emotional empathy for positive emotions were significantly correlated with general personality pathology. All three empathy facets were also correlated to specific personality pathology when controlling for general personality pathology, respectively. Impairments in cognitive empathy were incrementally associated with identity and empathy (personality functioning), psychoticism (pathological personality traits), and paranoid and dependent PD (DSM-5 Section II PDs). Deficits in emotional empathy for positive emotions were incrementally associated with self-direction and intimacy (personality functioning) and detachment (pathological personality traits). Impairments in emotional empathy for negative emotions were incrementally associated with antagonism (pathological personality traits) and antisocial PD (DSM-5 Section II PDs). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that impairments in cognitive empathy and emotional empathy for positive emotions, but not for negative emotions, are markers of general personality pathology, while deficits in the three empathy facets are also markers for specific personality pathology.


Assuntos
Empatia , Transtornos da Personalidade , Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Personalidade , Emoções , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Cognição , Inventário de Personalidade
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