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1.
Addict Behav ; 155: 108047, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence and comorbidity of alcohol consumption and anxiety, it is unclear whether alcohol consumption influences long-term anxiety. This study aimed to systematically review the literature on the long-term longitudinal effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety in adults. METHODS: EMBASE, PsychInfo, Medline, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched from inception to April 12th, 2024. Articles analysing the relationship between alcohol consumption and anxiety symptoms or anxiety disorder diagnosis at least three-months later in adults were eligible. Articles were screened and extracted by two independent reviewers with study quality assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. RESULTS: From 884 records, eight studies of mixed quality met inclusion criteria. One study using a sample representative of the USA population found low volume consumption was associated with lower long-term anxiety. All other studies used a convenience sample or a specific medical population sample. The significance and direction of the relationship between alcohol consumption and long-term anxiety in these studies varied, likely due to differences in alcohol consumption thresholds used and populations studied. CONCLUSIONS: A paucity of research on the longitudinal effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety was found, highlighting a significant gap in the research literature. Furthermore, existing research, primarily focussed on clinical subpopulations, has yielded mixed results. Further research is needed to explore the longitudinal dose dependent impact of alcohol consumption on anxiety using samples representative of national populations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Ansiedade , Humanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia
2.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303445, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723002

RESUMO

Imposter syndrome (IS) and low self-esteem (SE) are common issues affecting medical students that can impact their well-being and development. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with IS and SE among medical students at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 523 medical students in years 2-6 at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia, completed validated questionnaires on IS (Young Imposter Scale) and SE (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Sociodemographic factors were also collected. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze IS and SE prevalence and correlates. Five hundred twenty-three students with a mean age of 22.09 ± 1.933 participated. The prevalence of low SE and positive IS was 17.6% and 24.3%, respectively. IS and SE had a significant negative correlation (p<0.001). Several sociodemographic factors were associated with increased IS, including 2nd and 4th-year students, forced study choice, and a grade point average (GPA) of 3.0-3.49 (P<0.05). Paternal education beyond high school was associated with lower IS (P<0.05). Logistic regression analyses confirmed that 2nd-year students had a 3.88 times higher odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI); 2.19-6.88), and 4th-year students had a 2.37 times higher OR (95% CI; 1.40-4.02) of IS than other years. For SE, advanced academic years, forced study choice, 7+ hours of sleep, and a GPA above 3.5 were associated with higher levels (P<0.05). Negative self-appraisals were associated with lower SE, while positive attitudes were associated with higher SE (P<0.05). Our study reveals that IS and low SE are prevalent among Jazan University, Saudi Arabia, medical students. Therefore, intervention courses that address these issues in medical education at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia, may be necessary to support medical students' well-being and academic success.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Universidades , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade
3.
Adv Rheumatol ; 64(1): 40, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal chronic pain is a leading cause of global disability and laboral incapacity. However, there is a lack of population-based studies that investigate the relationship between chronic pain and mental disorders with a control group, particularly among low- and middle-income countries. Chronic pain is a serious public health problem in terms of human suffering, and in terms of socioeconomic implications. Frequent association with different mental disorders increases disability, decreases quality of life, and makes diagnosis and treatment challenging. The present study aimed to evaluate the presence of mental disorders in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and compare with a control group without pain. METHODS: We selected 100 patients in a regular follow-up at the Musculoskeletal Pain Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital and compared them with 100 painless individuals from the control group from June 2016 to June 2018. The instruments used were the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-PLUS) and a structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic data. Statistical analysis used t-test, chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: In the sample evaluated, the majority of patients were women (83%), of brown color (54%), with lower-level education (51%), lower salary range (73%) and high absenteeism rate at work (60,7%). Patients with chronic pain had more psychiatric disorders (88% vs. 48% in the control group; p < 0.001). The most frequent diagnoses were anxiety disorders with panic attacks (44%), generalized anxiety (36%), mixed anxiety and depression disorder (33%), social phobia (30%), agoraphobia (29%), suicide risk (28%), and major depression (27%). CONCLUSION: Positive correlations of mental disorders and chronic musculoskeletal pain have been documented. This suggests that psychiatric components must be taken into account in the management of chronic pain syndromes. The use of Mini Plus as a diagnostic tool for psychiatric disorders can contribute to optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic pain and encourage the creation of policies with strategies and criteria for quick access to Multi-professional Services.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Transtornos Mentais , Dor Musculoesquelética , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Pânico , Qualidade de Vida , Fobia Social , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 57: e13389, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716983

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 outbreak, there was a sharp increase in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Acupuncture therapy has the advantages of accurate clinical efficacy, safety and reliability, few adverse reactions, and no dependence, and is gradually becoming one of the emerging therapies for treating GAD. We present a study protocol for a randomized clinical trial with the aim of exploring the mechanism of brain plasticity in patients with GAD and evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of acupuncture treatment. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) will be used to assess cortical excitability in GAD patients and healthy people. Sixty-six GAD patients meeting the inclusion criteria will be randomly divided into two groups: TA group, (treatment with acupuncture and basic western medicine treatment) and SA group (sham acupuncture and basic western medicine treatment). Twenty healthy people will be recruited as the control group (HC). The parameters that will be evaluated are amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical resting period (CSP), resting motor threshold (RMT), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score. Secondary results will include blood analysis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), serotonin (5-HT), and brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF). Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and after the intervention (week 8). This study protocol is the first clinical trial designed to detect differences in cerebral cortical excitability between healthy subjects and patients with GAD, and the comparison of clinical efficacy and reliability before and after acupuncture intervention is also one of the main contents of the protocol. We hope to find a suitable non-pharmacological alternative treatment for patients with GAD.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Transtornos de Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Humanos , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , COVID-19/terapia , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e42547, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotherapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), currently have the strongest evidence of durable symptom changes for most psychological disorders, such as anxiety disorders. Nevertheless, only about half of individuals treated with CBT benefit from it. Predictive algorithms, including digital assessments and passive sensing features, could better identify patients who would benefit from CBT, and thus, improve treatment choices. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish predictive features that forecast responses to transdiagnostic CBT in anxiety disorders and to investigate key mechanisms underlying treatment responses. METHODS: This study is a 2-armed randomized controlled clinical trial. We include patients with anxiety disorders who are randomized to either a transdiagnostic CBT group or a waitlist (referred to as WAIT). We index key features to predict responses prior to starting treatment using subjective self-report questionnaires, experimental tasks, biological samples, ecological momentary assessments, activity tracking, and smartphone-based passive sensing to derive a multimodal feature set for predictive modeling. Additional assessments take place weekly at mid- and posttreatment and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups to index anxiety and depression symptom severity. We aim to include 150 patients, randomized to CBT versus WAIT at a 3:1 ratio. The data set will be subject to full feature and important features selected by minimal redundancy and maximal relevance feature selection and then fed into machine leaning models, including eXtreme gradient boosting, pattern recognition network, and k-nearest neighbors to forecast treatment response. The performance of the developed models will be evaluated. In addition to predictive modeling, we will test specific mechanistic hypotheses (eg, association between self-efficacy, daily symptoms obtained using ecological momentary assessments, and treatment response) to elucidate mechanisms underlying treatment response. RESULTS: The trial is now completed. It was approved by the Cantonal Ethics Committee, Zurich. The results will be disseminated through publications in scientific peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this trial is to improve current CBT treatment by precise forecasting of treatment response and by understanding and potentially augmenting underpinning mechanisms and personalizing treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03945617; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT03945617. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/42547.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Smartphone , Humanos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Psicoterapia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 203, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744808

RESUMO

Perinatal affective disorders are common, but standard screening measures reliant on subjective self-reports might not be sufficient to identify pregnant women at-risk for developing postpartum depression and anxiety. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be associated with affective disorders. The current exploratory study aimed to evaluate the predictive utility of late pregnancy HRV measurements of postpartum affective symptoms. A subset of participants from the BASIC study (Uppsala, Sweden) took part in a sub-study at pregnancy week 38 where HRV was measured before and after a mild stressor (n = 122). Outcome measures were 6-week postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms as quantified by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). In total, 112 women were included in a depression outcome analysis and 106 women were included in an anxiety outcome analysis. Group comparisons indicated that lower pregnancy HRV was associated with depressive or anxious symptomatology at 6 weeks postpartum. Elastic net logistic regression analyses indicated that HRV indices alone were not predictive of postpartum depression or anxiety outcomes, but HRV indices were selected as predictors in a combined model with background and pregnancy variables. ROC curves for the combined models gave an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 for the depression outcome and an AUC of 0.83 for the anxiety outcome. HRV indices predictive of postpartum depression generally differed from those predictive of postpartum anxiety. HRV indices did not significantly improve prediction models comprised of psychological measures only in women with pregnancy depression or anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão Pós-Parto , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Feminino , Depressão Pós-Parto/fisiopatologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Suécia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 361, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A concentrated transdiagnostic and micro choice-based group treatment for patients with depression and anxiety has previously shown to yield significant reduction in symptoms and increased level of functioning from pre to 3-month follow-up. In the present study, we report the results after 12 months follow-up. METHODS: This was a non-randomized clinical intervention pilot study, conducted in line with a published protocol. Sixty-seven consecutively referred patients, aged 19-47 (mean age 32.5, SD = 8.0) were included and completed treatment. All had a severity of their problems that entitled them to care in the specialist public mental health care. Self-reported age at onset of symptoms was 17.6 (SD = 7.9) years. Mean number of prior treatment courses was 3.5 (SD = 3.3; range 0-20). The main objective was to assess the treatment effectiveness by questionnaires measuring relevant symptoms at pre-treatment, 7 days-, 3 months-, 6 months- and at 12-months follow-up. RESULTS: Validated measures of functional impairment (WSAS), depression (PHQ9), anxiety (GAD7), worry (PSWQ), fatigue (CFQ), insomnia (BIS) and illness perception (BIPQ) improved significantly (p < .0005) from before treatment to 12 months follow-up, yielding mostly large to extremely large effect sizes (0.89-3.68), whereas some moderate (0.60-0.76). After 12 months, 74% report an overall improvement in problems related to anxiety and depression. Utilization of specialist, public and private mental health care was reported as nonexistent or had decreased for 70% of the patients at 12-month follow up. CONCLUSIONS: The concentrated, micro-choice based group treatment approach yielded a highly clinically significant reduction in a wide range of symptoms already one week after treatment, and the positive results persisted at 12-month follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05234281, first posted date 10/02/2022.


Assuntos
Psicoterapia de Grupo , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Resultado do Tratamento , Seguimentos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia
8.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 19(1): 37, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of co-occurring mental disorders (termed 'dual diagnosis') among patients receiving opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is scarce. This study aimed (1) to estimate the prevalence and structure of dual diagnoses in two national cohorts of OAT patients and (2) to compare mental disorders between OAT patients and the general populations stratified on sex and standardized by age. METHODS: A registry-linkage study of OAT patients from Czechia (N = 4,280) and Norway (N = 11,389) during 2010-2019 was conducted. Data on mental disorders (F00-F99; ICD-10) recorded in nationwide health registers were linked to the individuals registered in OAT. Dual diagnoses were defined as any mental disorder excluding substance use disorders (SUDs, F10-F19; ICD-10). Sex-specific age-standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) were calculated for 2019 to compare OAT patients and the general populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of dual diagnosis was 57.3% for Czechia and 78.3% for Norway. In Czechia, anxiety (31.1%) and personality disorders (25.7%) were the most prevalent, whereas anxiety (33.8%) and depression (20.8%) were the most prevalent in Norway. Large country-specific variations were observed, e.g., in ADHD (0.5% in Czechia, 15.8% in Norway), implying differences in screening and diagnostic practices. The SMR estimates for any mental disorders were 3.1 (females) and 5.1 (males) in Czechia and 5.6 (females) and 8.2 (males) in Norway. OAT females had a significantly higher prevalence of co-occurring mental disorders, whereas SMRs were higher in OAT males. In addition to opioid use disorder (OUD), other substance use disorders (SUDs) were frequently recorded in both countries. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate an excess of mental health problems in OAT patients compared to the general population of the same sex and age in both countries, requiring appropriate clinical attention. Country-specific differences may stem from variations in diagnostics and care, reporting to registers, OAT provision, or substance use patterns.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(3): e2995, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Theoretical conceptualizations of emotion and affect regulation have a considerable common ground. However, mentalization theory considers the ability to regulate affects as being contingent on the ability to mentalize. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between emotion regulation and mentalization, operationalized as reflective functioning, in a sample of patients with depression and/or anxiety. METHODS: The study used data from the TRAns-diagnostic Cognitive behavioural Therapy versus standard cognitive behavioural therapy (TRACT-RCT) trial. Patients with depression and/or anxiety (N = 291; 64.4% female; Mage = 32.2; SD = 11.0) completed the Emotion Regulation Strategies Questionnaire (ERSQ) and the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (RFQ-6). Correlation and regression analyses were performed to determine associations of the measures of ERSQ and RFQ-6 in relation to the outcome variables, global well-being (World Health Organization Well-being Index; WHO-5) and social functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale; WSAS). RESULTS: Overall, the patients had a reduced level of emotion regulation (MERSQ_Total = 1.77; SD = 0.59). However, only mildly impaired reflective functioning was found (MRFQ-6 = 3.57; SD = 1.26). ERSQ correlated significantly with RFQ-6 (r = -0.31), that is, more frequent use of emotion regulation strategies was associated with less hypomentalization. ERSQ was a stronger predictor of well-being and social function than RFQ-6. CONCLUSION: In patients with anxiety and/or depression, hypomentalization as measured by the RFQ-6 is not a major problem, but emotion regulation is. It seems that these two, theoretically related constructs, do not necessarily co-occur. Alternatively, the RFQ-6 scale might not capture the mentalization construct in a valid way. Emotion regulation strategies are highly related to symptomatology; therefore, they are likely to be an important target for psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Mentalização , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 47(2): 355-365, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724125

RESUMO

We review the literature on various strategies to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Although traditional pharmacotherapy has only a small additive effect, research demonstrates that it is possible to select interventions that potentiate known mechanisms of CBT. D-cycloserine appears to potentiate activity at the N-methyl D-ethyl aspartate receptor and thereby facilitates fear extinction. Exercise may increase neural plasticity and thereby increase the efficacy of CBT for depression and anxiety. Noninvasive brain stimulation is thought to target the specific cortical regions needed for CBT response, but results have been mixed. Several other compounds appear promising but await controlled research before their efficacy as an augmentation strategy can be determined.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Humanos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Ciclosserina/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia
11.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 47(2): 311-323, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724122

RESUMO

Anxiety and depression are prevalent and impairing psychiatric problems for children and adolescents. In this review, the authors summarize information about their prevalence and impact, the most common assessment methods, the main components of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and research on the effectiveness of CBT for these disorders. Future directions, including improving access to CBT through technology-based approaches and increasing personalization of treatment, are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Humanos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Depressão/terapia
12.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 33(S1): e2008, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We provide an overview of Qatar's first epidemiological study on prevalence, predictors, and treatment contact for mood and anxiety disorders. AIMS: We highlight the importance of the three-pronged study, its aims, and its key components. MATERIALS & METHODS: The first component comprised a probability-based representative survey of Qatari and non-Qatari (Arab) adult males and females recruited from the general population and interviewed using the International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI version 3.3). The second component, a clinical reappraisal study, assessed concordance between diagnoses based on the CIDI and independent clinical assessments conducted by trained clinical interviewers. The third component comprised a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of healthy survey respondents who were matched to patients with psychosis. RESULTS: 5000 survey interviews provided data on prevalence and treatment of common mental disorders. Clinical re-interviews (N = 485) provided important diagnostic validity data. Finally, state-of-the art structural and functional brain markers for psychosis were also collected (N = 100). DISCUSSION: Descriptive epidemiological data were collected to inform future mental health priorities in Qatar and situates these within a global context. CONCLUSION: The study fills important gaps in regional and global estimates and establish necessary baseline to develop comprehensive risk estimates for mental health in Qatar's young population.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Catar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Prevalência , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico
13.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 33(S1): e2012, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate 12-month prevalence, persistence, severity, and treatment of mental disorders and socio-demographic correlates in Qatar. METHODS: We conducted the first national population-based telephone survey of Arab adults between 2019 and 2022 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and estimated 12-month DSM-5 mood and anxiety disorders and their persistence (the proportion of lifetime cases who continue to meet 12-month criteria). RESULTS: The 12-month prevalence of any disorder was 21.1% (10.4% mild, 38.7% moderate, and 50.9% severe) and was associated with: younger age, female, previously married, and with persistence of any disorder. Persistence was 74.7% (64.0% mood and 75.6% anxiety) and was significantly associated with secondary education or lower. Minimally adequate treatment received among those with any 12-month mental disorder was 10.6% (74.6% in healthcare and 64.6% non-healthcare sectors). Severity and the number of disorders significantly associated with each other and with treatment received (χ2 = 7.24, p = 0.027) including adequate treatment within the mental health specialty sector (χ2 = 21.42, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Multimorbidity and sociodemographics were associated with 12-month mental disorder. Treatment adequacy in Qatar are comparable to high-income countries. Low treatment contact indicate need for population-wide mental health literacy programes in addition to more accessible and effective mental health services.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtornos do Humor , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Humanos , Catar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Idoso
14.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 33(S1): e2011, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate lifetime prevalence, risk, and treatment for mental disorders and their correlates in Qatar's general population for the first time. METHODS: We conducted a national phone survey of 5,195 Qatari and Arab residents in Qatar (2019-2022) using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.3 and estimated lifetime mood and anxiety defined diagnoses. Survival-based discrete time models, lifetime morbid risk, and treatment projections were estimated. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 28.0% and was associated with younger cohorts, females, and migrants, but lower formal education. Treatment contact in the year of disorder onset were 13.5%. The median delay in receiving treatment was 5 years (IQR = 2-13). Lifetime treatment among those with a lifetime disorder were 59.9% for non-healthcare and 63.5% for healthcare; it was 68.1% for any anxiety and 80.1% for any mood disorder after 50 years of onset. Younger cohorts and later age of onset were significantly predictors of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in Qatar is comparable to other countries. Treatment is significantly delayed and delivered largely in non-healthcare sectors thus the need for increased literacy of mental illness to reduce stigma and improve earlier help-seeking in healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtornos do Humor , Humanos , Catar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Idoso
15.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(3): e2985, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taking patient preference into consideration has received increased attention in the last decades. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the effects of patient preference on clinical outcome, satisfaction and adherence regarding treatment of depression and anxiety. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO and Scopus were searched for (cluster) randomized controlled trials. Twenty-six randomized controlled clinical trials were included, comprising 3670 participants, examining the effect of patient preference regarding treatment of anxiety and depression on clinical outcome, satisfaction and/or adherence. RESULTS: No effect of patient preference was found on clinical outcome [d = 0.06, 95% CI = (-0.03, 0.15), p = 0.16, n = 23 studies]. A small effect of patient preference was found on treatment satisfaction [d = 0.33, 95% CI = (0.08, 0.59), p = 0.01, n = 6 studies] and on treatment adherence [OR = 1.55, 95% CI = (1.28, 1.87), p < 0.001, n = 22 studies]. LIMITATIONS: Patient preference is a heterogeneous concept, future studies should strive to equalize operationalization of preference. Subgroup analyses within this study should be interpreted with caution because the amount of studies per analysed subgroup was generally low. Most studies included in this meta-analysis focused on patients with depression. The small number of studies (n = 6) on satisfaction, prevents us from drawing firm conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: While this meta-analysis did not find a positive effect of considering patient preference on clinical outcome, it was associated with slightly better treatment satisfaction and adherence. Accommodating preference of patients with anxiety and depression can improve treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO: CRD42020172556.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtorno Depressivo , Preferência do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Humanos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(3): e2978, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706135

RESUMO

Current research indicates that anxiety disorders and elevated levels of trait anxiety are associated with biases and impairments when thinking of personally relevant future events, that is, future thinking. However, to date, little research has been conducted into how people with symptoms of clinical anxiety perceive the functions of future thinking. The current study presents a cross-sectional survey comparing individuals with elevated symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and related functional impact (N = 51, 43.1% female, Mage = 33.1, SD = 10.2) matched on age and gender with individuals with no clinically significant symptoms of GAD (N = 51, 43.1% female, Mage = 33.3, SD = 10.1) on self-reported functions of future thinking and a battery of items assessing the phenomenological characteristics. The results indicated various significant differences in the perceived functions of future thinking and its phenomenological characteristics in those with elevated GAD symptoms. Broadly, they indicate more frequent future thinking and more commonly for self-distraction or processing negatively valenced future events, and generally less adaptive mental representations that support current thinking on the psychopathological process of increased worry, anxious arousal and maladaptive cognition in clinical anxiety symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Pensamento , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Previsões , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Clin Psychol Psychother ; 31(3): e2984, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706159

RESUMO

This study examined whether goal-directed treatment leads to improved treatment outcomes for patients with a primary mood or anxiety disorder and whether beneficial outcomes are achieved sooner compared to treatment as usual. In a quasi-experimental controlled study with a nested design, 17 therapists received training in goal-directed treatment and treated 105 patients with anxiety or mood disorders using principles of goal-directed treatment. Treatment results on a generic self-report instrument were compared with two control groups: a historical control group consisting of 16 of the 17 participating therapists, who provided treatment as usual to 97 patients before having received training in goal-directed treatment, and a parallel control group consisting of various therapists, who provided treatment as usual to 105 patients. Symptom reduction on a self-report measure was compared using multilevel analysis. A survival analysis was performed to assess whether a satisfactory end state had been reached sooner after goal-directed treatment. The results of this study show that goal-directed treatment only led to a significantly better overall treatment outcome compared to the parallel treatment as usual group. Furthermore, goal-directed treatment was significantly shorter than both treatment as usual groups. In conclusion, this research suggest that goal-directed treatment led to a similar or better treatment outcome in a shorter amount of time.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Objetivos , Transtornos do Humor , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Adulto , Resultado do Tratamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia/métodos
18.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 62(5): 7-10, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709090

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illnesses and frequently co-occur with other mental and somatic symptoms or disorders. Primary care nurse practitioners (NPs) are key in reducing the treatment gap through early identification, treatment, and/or referral to behavioral health providers. Confronting primary care NPs are problems with time constraints, multiple comorbidities, and limited mental health training, particularly in relation to the differences in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of first-line anxiety disorder medications across age groups. The current article provides a brief summary of evidence-based treatment focusing on pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders in the primary care setting. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 62(5), 7-10.].


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica
20.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1359146, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694985

RESUMO

Introduction: Anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental disorders. This cross-sectional research aimed to determine anxiety literacy (A-Lit) psychometric properties among the Iranian population in 2022. Methods: This research was conducted on 690 people in Iran in 2022. In this study, people were selected by proportional stratified sampling, and the validity and reliability of the A-Lit designed by Griffiths were assessed. Validity of A-Lit was assessed by face validity, content validity, and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability of A-Lit was evaluated by the McDonald's omega coefficient, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and test- retest. In analytical sections, the tests of One-way ANOVA, Chi-squared test, and independent samples t-test were used. Results: The rates of S-CVI/Ave and CVR for A-Lit were 0.922 and 0.774, respectively. In confirmatory factor analysis, three items were deleted because the factor loading was less than 0.4, and goodness-of-fit indexes (Some of goodness-of-fit indexes: χ2/df = 4.175, GFI: 0.909, RMSEA = 0.068, PCFI = 0.745, AGFI = 0.883) were confirmed as the final model with 19 items. For all items, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.832, the McDonald's omega coefficient was 0.835, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.874. According to the results of this study, 1.3% (n = 9) did not answer any questions correctly and 8.4% (n = 58) were able to answer 1-6 questions correctly. Approximately 72% (n = 495) were able to answer 7-12 questions, and eventually only 18.6% (n = 128) were able to answer 13 questions and more. There was a significant relationship between sex, age group, occupation status, marital status, and get information related to mental illness with A-Lit level (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The Persian version of A-Lit was confirmed with 19 items, and this scale is a reliable tool for measuring A-Lit in the general population. The results also showed that a few people have a higher level of anxiety literacy and that educational and intervention programs need to be designed and implemented for the public population.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiedade , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia
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