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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(3): 271, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38363415

RESUMO

Some studies have shown the effect of air pollution on migraine. However, it needs to be confirmed in larger-scale studies, as scientific evidence is scarce regarding the association between air pollution and migraine. Therefore, this systematic review aims to determine whether there are associations between outdoor air pollution and migraine. A literature search was performed in Scopus, Medline (via PubMed), EMBASE, and Web of Science. A manual search for resources and related references was also conducted to complete the search. All observational studies investigating the association between ambient air pollution and migraine, with inclusion criteria, were entered into the review. Fourteen out of 1417 identified articles met the inclusion criteria and entered the study. Among the gaseous air pollutants, there was a correlation between exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (78.3% of detrimental relationships) and carbon monoxide (CO) (68.0% of detrimental relationships) and migraine, but no apparent correlation has been found for sulfur dioxide (SO2) (21.2% of detrimental relationships) and ozone (O3) (55.2% of detrimental relationships). In the case of particulate air pollutants, particulate matter with a diameter of 10 µm or less (PM10) (76.0% of detrimental relationships) and particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) (61.3% of detrimental relationships) had relationships with migraine. In conclusion, exposure to NO2, CO, PM10, and PM2.5 is associated with migraine headaches, while no conclusive evidence was found to confirm the correlation between O3 and SO2 with migraine. Further studies with precise methodology are recommended in different cities around the world for all pollutants with an emphasis on O3 and SO2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Ozônio , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Ozônio/efeitos adversos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise
3.
Lancet Neurol ; 23(3): 313-324, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365382

RESUMO

Migraine is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite the recent approval of several calcitonin gene-related peptide-targeted therapies, many people with migraine do not achieve satisfactory headache improvement with currently available therapies and there continues to be an unmet need for effective and tolerable migraine-specific treatments. Exploring additional targets that have compelling evidence for their involvement in modulating migraine pathways is therefore imperative. Potential new therapies for migraine include pathways involved in nociception, regulation of homoeostasis, modulation of vasodilation, and reward circuits. Animal and human studies show that these targets are expressed in regions of the CNS and peripheral nervous system that are involved in pain processing, indicating that these targets might be regarded as promising for the discovery of new migraine therapies. Future studies will require assessment of whether targets are suitable for therapeutic modulation, including assessment of specificity, affinity, solubility, stability, efficacy, and safety.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/metabolismo , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Dor
4.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 21, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migraine is one of the main causes of disability worldwide. Anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have proven to be safe and efficacious as preventive migraine treatments. However, their use is restricted in many countries due to their apparently high cost. Cost-benefit studies are needed. OBJECTIVE: To study the cost-benefit of anti-CGRP MAbs in working-age patients with migraine. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of consecutive migraine patients treated with anti-CGRP MAbs (erenumab, fremanezumab and galcanezumab) following National reimbursement policy in a specialized headache clinic. Migraine characteristics and the work impact scale (WPAI) were compared between baseline (M0) and after 3 (M3) and 6 months (M6) of treatment. Using WPAI and the municipal average hourly wage, we calculated indirect costs (absenteeism and presenteeism) at each time point. Direct costs (emergency visits, acute medication use) were also analysed. A cost-benefit study was performed considering the different costs and savings of treating with MAbs. Based on these data an annual projection was conducted. RESULTS: From 256 treated working-age patients, 148 were employed (89.2% women; mean age 48.0 ± 8.5 years), of which 41.2% (61/148) were responders (> 50% reduction in monthly headache days (MHD)). Statistically significant reductions between M0 and M3/M6 were found in absenteeism (p < 0.001) and presenteeism (p < 0.001). Average savings in indirect costs per patient at M3 were absenteeism 105.4 euros/month and presenteeism 394.3 euros/month, similar for M6. Considering the monthly cost of anti-CGRP MAbs, the cost-benefit analysis showed savings of 159.8 euros per patient at M3, with an annual projected savings of 639.2 euros/patient. Both responders and partial responders (30-50% reduction in MHD) presented a positive cost-benefit balance. The overall savings of the cohort at M3/M6 compensated the negative cost-benefit balance for non-responders (< 30% reduction in MHD). CONCLUSION: Anti-CGRP MAbs have a positive impact in the workforce significantly reducing absenteeism and presenteeism. In Spain, this benefit overcomes the expenses derived from their use already at 3 months and is potentially sustainable at longer term; also in patients who are only partial responders, prompting reconsideration of current reimbursement criteria and motivating the extension of similar cost-benefit studies in other countries.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cefaleia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Idoso
5.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 22, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About one-third of persons with migraine experience transient neurologic symptoms, referred to as aura. Despite its widespread prevalence, comprehensive clinical descriptions of migraine with aura remain sparse. Therefore, we aimed to provide an in-depth phenotypic analysis of aura symptoms and characteristics in a cross-sectional study of a large sample of adults diagnosed with migraine with aura. METHODS: Data were extracted from the baseline characteristics of participants in the Registry for Migraine (REFORM) study - a single-center, prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were adults diagnosed with migraine aura, reporting ≥ 4 monthly migraine days in the preceding 3 months. Trained personnel conducted in-person semi-structured interviews, capturing details on the nature, duration, localization, and progression of individual aura symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 227 enrolled participants with migraine with aura, the mean age was 41.1 years, with a predominant female representation (n = 205 [90.3%]). Visual aura was present in 215 (94.7%) participants, somatosensory aura in 81 (35.7%), and speech and/or language aura in 31 (13.7%). A single type of aura was observed in 148 (65.2%) participants, whilst 79 (34.8%) reported multiple aura types. Most participants (n = 220 [96.9%]) described their aura symptoms as positive or gradually spreading. Headache in relation to aura was noted by 218 (96.0%) participants, with 177 (80.8%) stating that the onset of aura symptoms preceded the onset of headache. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a detailed clinical depiction of persons with migraine with aura, who were predominantly enrolled from a tertiary care unit. The findings highlight potential gaps in the available literature on migraine with aura and should bolster clinicians' acumen in diagnosing migraine with aura in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Enxaqueca com Aura , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Enxaqueca com Aura/diagnóstico , Enxaqueca com Aura/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Longitudinais , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros
6.
Cephalalgia ; 44(2): 3331024231222923, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to describe the prevalence and evolution of depressive symptoms in a cohort of migraine patients treated with anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies. METHODS: This is an exploratory, prospective, unicentric, one-year longitudinal study. We included migraine patients who started treatment with anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies. Baseline demographic data, medical history, concomitant medication and migraine characteristics were collected. The presence of depressive symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory-II quarterly and treatment response was categorized according to the reduction in monthly headache days. A generalized mixed-effect regression model was used to model depression score over a one-year treatment taking into account frequency response rates. RESULTS: We included 577 patients: 84.2% females; median (range) age 47.0 (39.0-53.0) years, 46.1% (266/577) of them presented depressive symptoms at baseline (16.1% mild, 13.3% moderate and 16.6% severe). After six-month treatment, 47.4% (126/266) reduced headache frequency ≥50% after one year and 63.5% (169/266) achieved a clinically significant improvement in depression symptoms. We observed a 30.8% (-50.0%, -3.2%) main reduction in depression score during the first quarter. The improvement in depression symptoms was independently associated with headache frequency response: non-responders, -25.0% (-43.9%, -1.1%); partial responders, -30.2% (-51.3%, -7.6%); and good responders, -33.3% (-54.6%, -7.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies targeting CGRP are effective in reducing depressive symptoms in patients with migraine. The main change of depression score happens during the first three months of treatment. The reduction in depressive symptoms is independent of migraine frequency improvement.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico
7.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 199: 17-42, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307644

RESUMO

The advent of the triptans revolutionized acute migraine treatment. The older migraine-specific drugs, the ergot alkaloids (ergotamine and dihydroergotamine), also relieve migraine attacks through agonism at the 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors, but the triptans have much greater specificity for these receptors. Unlike the ergot alkaloids, the triptans do not activate many other receptor types, and therefore are much better tolerated. This reduction in side effects greatly enhanced their clinical utility as it allowed a far greater proportion of patients to take a full therapeutic dose. As a result, the clinical use of ergotamine is minimal today, although dihydroergotamine still has a significant clinical role. There is extensive evidence that the seven triptans available today, sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, eletriptan, naratriptan, almotriptan, and frovatriptan, are effective in the acute treatment of migraine. Available formulations include oral tablets, orally dissolving tablets, subcutaneous injections, nasal sprays, and in some countries, rectal suppositories. For optimal benefit, therapy needs to be individualized for a given patient both regarding the triptan chosen and the formulation. This chapter discusses the ergot alkaloids and the triptans, including mechanism of action, evidence for efficacy, clinical use, and adverse effects.


Assuntos
Ergotamina , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina , Humanos , Di-Hidroergotamina/uso terapêutico , Ergotamina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Triptaminas/uso terapêutico , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
8.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 199: 107-124, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307640

RESUMO

Migraine is a prevalent and disabling neurological disease. Its preventive treatment for decades has been rather limited due to the absence of disease-specific therapies with limited efficacy and tolerability. The advances made in migraine research have led to the discovery of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its role in migraine pathophysiology. CGRP is a neuropeptide that acts as potent vasodilator and is involved in pain processing. Increased levels of plasma CGRP have been observed during migraine attacks as well as interictally when comparing patients with migraine and healthy controls. In the last years, two classes of drugs antagonizing CGRP have therefore been developed as the first migraine-specific preventive treatments: anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and gepants. Four mAbs have been approved: erenumab, galcanezumab, fremanezumab, and eptinezumab. Gepants are small molecules that antagonize the CGRP receptor; currently only rimegepant and atogepant have been approved for migraine prevention. These new drugs have demonstrated efficacy and safety in clinical trials for both episodic and chronic migraine, and results from their real-world experience are being increasingly reported in literature. In this review, we provide an overview of anti-CGRP drugs and their placement in migraine prevention.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Peptídeo Relacionado com o Gene de Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3550, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347033

RESUMO

Chronic headache is a serious clinical problem in women which psychological factors play major role and requires an approach with bio-psycho-social integrity. Psychiatric comorbidities such as anxiety disorder and major depression are frequent. Young described Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) as maladaptive and dysfunctional patterns that appear due to unpleasant situations occurred between patient and people who were important to him. EMS affect perception, emotions, thoughts and behaviors that makes a basis for many disorders. EMS are found to be related with depression, anxiety and somatization within recent literature. In literature, chronic pain and migraine's relationship with EMS were studied before in a few separate articles. However, there is a lack of data that compares the relationship between EMS and clearly distinguished headache types: migraine (MH) and tension-type headache (TTH) especially in female patients who are more prone to somatic complaints/findings. Our study directly compared three groups, migraine and tension type headache and healthy controls. 150 female patients with chronic headache were enrolled for study in consecutive fashion. Exclusion criteria were as follows: age < 18 or > 60 years, male gender, existence of comorbidity affecting central nervous system, headache due to drug/substance abuse, previous diagnosis of migraine with aura, previous diagnosis of psychotic disease, mental retardation, cognitive disorders, being in delirium state. Patients were grouped into two categories according to type of headache and a third control group. All patients were evaluated with Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) and their scores were noted and categorized in related schema domains. Sociodemographic data were comparable among groups. However, there were significant differences in terms of previous psychiatric diagnosis and psychiatric drug usage. When we compared YSQ scores, groups differed in many schema categories. MH group showed significantly higher scores in dependency/incompetency, unrelenting standards and punitiveness schemas when compared to remaining two groups. TTH group had significantly more points in emotional deprivation, vulnerability to harm or illness schemas among all groups. On the other hand, control group had significantly higher scores in insufficient self-discipline and entitlement/grandiosity schemas when compared to both MH and TTH groups. Presence of EMS in female patients with headache significantly differed from control group. Types of EMS were also significantly different between patients with MH and TTH among this whole headache group. We suggest that a comprehensive psychotherapeutic approach that targets to improve coping methods for distinct EMS in distinct headache types would provide critical aid to general treatment of headaches especially in resistant cases.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Cefaleia do Tipo Tensional , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cefaleia
10.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 20, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347465

RESUMO

Migraine is a disabling neurovascular disorder among people of all ages, with the highest prevalence in the fertile years, and in women. Migraine impacts the quality of life of affected individuals tremendously and, in addition, it is associated with highly prevalent metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction. Also, the clinical response to drugs might be affected in patients with metabolic disease due to body composition and metabolic change. Therefore, the efficacy of antimigraine drugs could be altered in patients with both migraine and metabolic disease. However, knowledge of the pharmacology and the related clinical effects of antimigraine drugs in patients with metabolic disease are limited. Therefore, and given the clinical relevance, this article provides a comprehensive overview of the current research and hypotheses related to the influence of metabolic state and body composition on the action of antimigraine drugs. In addition, the influence of antimigraine drugs on metabolic functioning and, vice versa, the influence of metabolic diseases and its hormonal modulating medication on migraine activity is outlined. Future exploration on personalizing migraine treatment to individual characteristics is necessary to enhance therapeutic strategies, especially given its increasing significance in recent decades.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Feminino , Qualidade de Vida , Obesidade , Composição Corporal , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(5): e37055, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of the potential benefits of wet-cupping therapy in reducing physiological pain severity in migraine; however, the role of this therapy on mental pain is unclear in this process. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effectiveness of wet-cupping therapy on physiological and mental pains in patients with migraine. In this study, 72 migraine patients were treated with wet-cupping therapy and followed up after 1 month. METHODS: The severity of physiological and mental pain was measured before therapy, 10 minutes and 1 month following therapy. RESULTS: The study showed that patients in the wet-cupping therapy had a significantly lower mean value of physiological (0.42 vs 3.39; P < .001) and mental pain (1.60 vs 3.06; P < .001) compared to the patients in the control group, respectively. The mean value of the physiological was significantly decreased from 6.97 (baseline) to 0.73 (10 minutes) and 0.63 (1 month; P < .001) in the wet-cupping therapy patients, and the mean value of mental pain from 3.76 (baseline) to 0.71 (10 minutes) and 1.71 (1 month; P < .001). The mean values of physiological and mental pains were significantly reduced (from 7.80-3.39; P < .001) and (from 3.48-3.06; P = .0044), respectively. The level of physiological pain severity was significantly decreased with a decreasing level of mental pain severity at the posttest within the control (r = 0.5471; P = .0002) and the wet-cupping therapy (r = 0.3814; P .0412). CONCLUSION: This study showed that the physiological pain was controlled by the mental pain in the wet-cupping therapy.


Assuntos
Ventosaterapia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Dor no Peito , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Medição da Dor
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338971

RESUMO

There is evidence to suggest that hormonal migraine is associated with altered cerebrovascular function. We aimed to investigate whether the expression of genes related to endothelial function in venous blood (1) might influence cerebrovascular function, (2) differs between hormonal migraineur and non-migraineur women, and (3) changes following resveratrol supplementation. This study utilised data obtained from 87 women (59 hormonal migraineurs and 28 controls) where RNA from venous blood was used to quantify gene expression and transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to evaluate cerebrovascular function. Spearman's correlation analyses were performed between gene expression, cerebrovascular function, and migraine-related disability. We compared the expression of genes associated with endothelial function between migraineurs and non-migraineurs, and between resveratrol and placebo. The expression of several genes related to endothelial function was associated with alterations in cerebrovascular function. Notably, the expression of CALCA was associated with increased neurovascular coupling capacity (p = 0.013), and both CALCA (p = 0.035) and VEGF (p = 0.014) expression were associated with increased cerebral blood flow velocity in the overall study population. Additionally, VCAM1 expression correlated with decreased pulsatility index (a measure of cerebral arterial stiffness) (p = 0.009) and headache impact test-6 scores (p = 0.007) in the migraineurs. No significant differences in gene expression were observed between migraineurs and controls, or between placebo and resveratrol treatments in migraineurs. Thus, altering the expression of genes related to endothelial function may improve cerebrovascular function and decrease migraine-related disability.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Humanos , Feminino , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana , Circulação Cerebrovascular/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339171

RESUMO

Resistant migraine characterizes those patients who have failed at least three classes of migraine prophylaxis. These difficult-to-treat patients are likely to be characterized by a high prevalence of psychological disturbances. A dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), including alteration in the levels of endocannabinoid congeners, may underlie several psychiatric disorders and the pathogenesis of migraines. Here we explored whether the peripheral gene expression of major components of the ECS and the plasma levels of endocannabinoids and related lipids are associated with psychological disorders in resistant migraine. Fifty-one patients (age = 46.0 ± 11.7) with resistant migraine received a comprehensive psychological evaluation according to the DSM-5 criteria. Among the patients, 61% had personality disorders (PD) and 61% had mood disorders (MD). Several associations were found between these psychological disorders and peripheral ECS alterations. Lower plasma levels of palmitoiletanolamide (PEA) were found in the PD group compared with the non-PD group. The MD group was characterized by lower mRNA levels of diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) and CB2 (cannabinoid-2) receptor. The results suggest the existence of peripheral dysfunction in some components of the ECS and an alteration in plasma levels of PEA in patients with resistant migraine and mood or personality disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética
14.
Elife ; 122024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329894

RESUMO

Migraine headache is hypothesized to involve the activation and sensitization of trigeminal sensory afferents that innervate the cranial meninges. To better understand migraine pathophysiology and improve clinical translation, we used two-photon calcium imaging via a closed cranial window in awake mice to investigate changes in the responses of meningeal afferent fibers using a preclinical model of migraine involving cortical spreading depolarization (CSD). A single CSD episode caused a seconds-long wave of calcium activation that propagated across afferents and along the length of individual afferents. Surprisingly, unlike previous studies in anesthetized animals with exposed meninges, only a very small afferent population was persistently activated in our awake mouse preparation, questioning the relevance of this neuronal response to the onset of migraine pain. In contrast, we identified a larger subset of meningeal afferents that developed augmented responses to acute three-dimensional meningeal deformations that occur in response to locomotion bouts. We observed increased responsiveness in a subset of afferents that were already somewhat sensitive to meningeal deformation before CSD. Furthermore, another subset of previously insensitive afferents also became sensitive to meningeal deformation following CSD. Our data provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying migraine, including the emergence of enhanced meningeal afferent responses to movement-related meningeal deformations as a potential neural substrate underlying the worsening of migraine headache during physical activity.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Camundongos , Animais , Meninges , Neurônios , Locomoção
15.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 19, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical characteristics and treatment practice of patients with migraine in Japan in real-world setting have not been fully investigated. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims database to understand the clinical practice of migraine in recent years and to characterize patients potentially not managed well by current treatment options. METHODS: Our study used data from the large claims database maintained by JMDC Inc. Patients with diagnosis of headache or migraine between January 1, 2018, and July 31, 2022, were defined as the headache cohort, and those with migraine diagnosis and prescription of migraine treatments among the headache cohort were included in the migraine cohort. In the headache cohort, characteristics of medical facilities and status of imaging tests to distinguish secondary headache were examined. Treatment patterns and characteristics of patients potentially not managed well by acute/preventive treatment were described in migraine cohort. RESULTS: In the headache cohort, 989,514 patients were included with 57.0% females and mean age of 40.3 years; 77.0% patients visited clinics (with ≤ 19 bed capacities) for their primary diagnosis, and 30.3% patients underwent imaging tests (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging). In the migraine cohort, 165,339 patients were included with 65.0% females and mean age of 38.8 years. In the migraine cohort, 95.6% received acute treatment while 20.8% received preventive treatment. Acetaminophen/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were most common (54.8%) as the initial prescription for migraine treatment followed by triptan (51.4%). First treatment prescription included preventive treatment in 15.6%, while the proportion increased to 82.2% in the fourth treatment prescription. Among patients with more than 12 months of follow-up, 3.7% had prescription patterns suggestive of risk of medication-overuse headache, and these patients were characterized by a higher percentage of females and a higher prevalence of comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that approximately one-fifth of the patients with migraine visiting medical facilities use preventive drugs. The presence of potential patients at risk of medication-overuse headache and the role of clinics in migraine treatment were also described.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Japão/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/tratamento farmacológico
17.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(2): e14595, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332541

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limited clinical evidence is available regarding the potential effectiveness of anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies for the preventive treatment of migraine with aura. AIM OF THE STUDY: This observational study involved a series of migraine patients affected by either migraine with or without aura, who were investigated for any changes in their frequencies and their migraine aura attack characteristics observed during treatment with anti-CGRP Mabs over a 1-year period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve migraine patients were included, seven of whom were treated with erenumab, 2 with fremanezumab, and 3 with galcanezumab. Clinical data were collected at baseline, which were defined as 3 months prior to the initiation of treatment, and thereafter at each trimester, over the 1-year treatment period. The parameters included the number of headache and migraine days/month, the frequency of aura episodes, the number of days with acute drug intakes/month, and the scores from the migraine disability status scale (MIDAS), and the Headache Impact Test 6 (HIT-6). RESULTS: Anti-CGRP Mbs antibodies induced significant decreases in mean headache and migraine without aura days per month, the number of days with medication intake, as well as MIDAS and HIT-6 scores (p < 0.0001). In contrast, the anti-CGRP Mab treatment did not appear to impact the frequency of migraine with aura attacks but seemed to reduce both the intensity and the duration of headache phases of migraine aura. Furthermore, some migraine patients referred to having aura attacks without headache over the course of the treatment period. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the above findings, we hypothesize that anti-CGRP Mabs did not influence neuronal and vascular events related to cortical spreading depression (CSD) which is considered the pathophysiological substrate of aura. Conversely, these antibodies are able to counteract, via their peripheral mechanisms of action, the sensitization of the trigemino-vascular pathway which is triggered by CSD. This aforementioned might explain why in our patients, migraine aura attacks remained unchanged in their frequencies, but the headache phases were either reduced or absent.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Enxaqueca com Aura , Humanos , Enxaqueca com Aura/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Cefaleia
18.
Trials ; 25(1): 123, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no evidence-based hormonal treatment for migraine in women. Several small studies suggest a beneficial effect of combined oral contraceptives, but no large randomized controlled trial has been performed. As proof of efficacy is lacking and usage may be accompanied by potentially severe side effects, there is a great need for clarity on this topic. METHODS: Women with menstrual migraine (n = 180) are randomly assigned (1:1) to ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel 30/150 µg or vitamin E 400 IU. Participants start with a baseline period of 4 weeks, which is followed by a 12-week treatment period. During the study period, a E-headache diary will be used, which is time-locked and includes an automated algorithm differentiating headache and migraine days. RESULTS: The primary outcome will be change in monthly migraine days (MMD) from baseline (weeks - 4 to 0) to the last 4 weeks of treatment (weeks 9 to 12). Secondary outcomes will be change in monthly headache days (MHD) and 50% responder rates of MMD and MHD. CONCLUSIONS: The WHAT! trial aims to investigate effectivity and safety of continuous combined oral contraceptive treatment for menstrual migraine. Immediate implementation of results in clinical practice is possible. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials.gov NCT04007874 . Registered 28 June 2019.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Feminino , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Cefaleia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Otol Neurotol ; 45(3): e177-e185, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of the motion sensitivity quotient (MSQ) in diagnosing pediatric vestibular migraine (VM) and to characterize the role of motion sensitivity and headache control on vestibular rehabilitation (VR) outcomes in pediatric VM. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Pediatric tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Children (≤18 years old) with dizziness who completed vestibular testing from January 2016 to August 2022, diagnosed with either VM or another vestibular disorder. INTERVENTIONS: VR, which included MSQ testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Initial MSQ, number and duration of vestibular physical therapy (PT) sessions, PT goals met, and posttreatment MSQ. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-seven patients met study criteria. MSQ was not a reliable diagnostic marker in pediatric VM as there was no difference in initial MSQ between VM and non-VM patients (9.4 vs. 7.8 in non-VM, p = 0.014). Both VM (n = 116) and non-VM (n = 141) patients demonstrated significant improvement in MSQ after VR (p = 0.004). However, VM patients tended to be less likely to meet at least one PT goal (60 vs. 77% in non-VM, p = 0.016, d = 0.37), although not significant. VM patients with more frequent headaches had significantly higher initial MSQ (p = 0.008). VM patients with more frequent headaches or higher initial MSQ tended to require increased number and longer duration of VR (small/medium effect size although not statistically significant after Bonferroni correction). CONCLUSION: VR is an effective treatment for both VM and non-VM pediatric patients. VM patients, especially those with severe motion sensitivity or poorly controlled headaches, may be less responsive to VR and may require increased frequency and duration of VR. Our findings propose the importance of counseling pediatric patients with severe motion sensitivity or uncontrolled migraines regarding realistic expectations of their VR course.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Doenças Vestibulares , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vertigem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/complicações , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Doenças Vestibulares/complicações , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Tontura/etiologia , Cefaleia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Brain Behav ; 14(2): e3427, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The comorbid relationship between migraine and depression has been well recognized, but its underlying pathophysiology is unclear. Here, we aimed to explore the structural changes of the amygdala and the abnormal functional connectivity of the centromedial amygdala (CMA) in migraineurs with depression. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted and functional magnetic resonance images were acquired from 22 episodic migraineurs with comorbid depression (EMwD), 21 episodic migraineurs without depression (EM), and 17 healthy controls (HC). Voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) were applied to examine the intergroup differences in amygdala volume. RESULTS: The bilateral amygdala volume was increased in the EMwD and EM groups compared with the HC group, but there were no differences between the EMwD and EM groups. The right CMA exhibited decreased rsFC in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in the EMwD group compared with the EM group, while rsFC increased between the CMA and the contralateral DLPFC in the EM group compared with the HC group. In addition, the EM group showed decreased rsFC between the left CMA and the left pallidum compared with the HC group. CONCLUSIONS: Enlarged amygdala is an imaging feature of EM and EMwD. The inconsistency of rsFC between CMA and DLPFC between migraineurs with and without depression might indicate that decreased rsFC between CMA and DLPFC is a neuropathologic marker for the comorbidity of migraine and depression. The core regions might be a potential intervention target for the treatment of EMwD in the future.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Humanos , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/epidemiologia , Córtex Cerebral , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comorbidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia
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