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2.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 172017, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552976

RESUMO

As global warming intensifies, extreme heat is becoming increasingly frequent. These extreme heatwaves have decreased the milk production of dairy animals such as cows and goats and have caused significant damage to the entire dairy industry. It is known that heat stress (HS) can induce the apoptosis and autophagy of mammary epithelial cells (MECs), leading to a decrease in lactating MECs. L-arginine can effectively attenuate HS-induced decreases in milk yield, but the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we found that HS upregulated the arginine sensor CASTOR1 in mouse MECs. Arginine activated mTORC1 activity through CASTOR1 and promoted mitochondrial biogenesis through the mTORC1/PGC-1α/NRF1 pathway. Moreover, arginine inhibited mitophagy through the CASTOR1/PINK1/Parkin pathway. Mitochondrial homeostasis ensures ATP synthesis and a stable cellular redox state for MECs under HS, further alleviating HS-induced damage and improving the lactation performance of MECs. In conclusion, these findings reveal the molecular mechanisms by which L-arginine relieves HS-induced mammary gland injury, and suggest that the intake of arginine-based feeds or feed additives is a promising method to increase the milk yield of dairy animals in extreme heat conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Lactação , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Camundongos , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Homeostase , Arginina/metabolismo
3.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 68(3): 325-331, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438158

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the association between ambient temperature and injuries and illnesses experienced by mine industry workers. Eleven years of de-identified data from a mine industry company in Australia was explored in regards to injuries and illnesses occurring due to outdoor exposure. Each case was filtered for reported symptoms, and meteorological data to match the location of the mine site and date reported were sourced. Of the 18 931 injuries and illnesses observed over the 11-year period, 151 cases of heat-related illness due to outdoor exposure were reported. Twenty-five conditions/symptoms of heat-illness were found, with the most prevalent being dehydration (n = 81), followed by heat rash (n = 40), dizziness (n = 24), and headache (n = 23). The mean number of symptoms reported by each worker was 2 ± 1. There was a positive correlation between ambient temperature and injuries/illnesses (r2 = 0.89, P < 0.001), where, as temperature increased so did the number of reported heat-related illnesses. Underreporting of heat-related illness and injury in the mining industry is likely, which is a risk to the health and wellbeing of employees. Workers require industry specific training about the severity of heat stress and the associated prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/diagnóstico , Temperatura , Austrália/epidemiologia , Indústrias , Temperatura Alta
4.
J Therm Biol ; 120: 103793, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471285

RESUMO

Cross-adaptation (CA) refers to the successful induction of physiological adaptation under one environmental stressor (e.g., heat), to enable subsequent benefit in another (e.g., hypoxia). This systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis investigated the effect of heat acclimation (HA) on physiological, perceptual and physical performance outcome measures during rest, and submaximal and maximal intensity exercise in hypoxia. Database searches in Scopus and MEDLINE were performed. Studies were included when they met the Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome criteria, were of English-language, peer-reviewed, full-text original articles, using human participants. Risk of bias and study quality were assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments checklist. Nine studies were included, totalling 79 participants (100 % recreationally trained males). The most common method of HA included fixed-intensity exercise comprising 9 ± 3 sessions, 89 ± 24-min in duration and occurred within 39 ± 2 °C and 32 ± 13 % relative humidity. CA induced a moderate, beneficial effect on physiological measures at rest (oxygen saturation: g = 0.60) and during submaximal exercise (heart rate: g = -0.65, core temperature: g = -0.68 and skin temperature: g = -0.72). A small effect was found for ventilation (g = 0.24) and performance measures (peak power: g = 0.32 and time trial time: g = -0.43) during maximal intensity exercise. No effect was observed for perceptual outcome measures. CA may be appropriate for individuals, such as occupational or military workers, whose access to altitude exposure prior to undertaking submaximal activity in hypoxic conditions is restricted. Methodological variances exist within the current literature, and females and well-trained individuals have yet to be investigated. Future research should focus on these cohorts and explore the mechanistic underpinnings of CA.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Masculino , Humanos , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipóxia
5.
Am J Ind Med ; 67(5): 466-473, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493300

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Monitoring physiological strain is recommended to safeguard workers during heat exposure, but is logistically challenging. The perceptual strain index (PeSI) is a subjective estimate thought to reflect the physiological strain index (PSI) that requires no physiological monitoring. However, sex is known to influence perceptions of heat stress, potentially limiting the utility of the PeSI. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess whether sex modifies the relationship between PeSI and PSI. METHODS: Thirty-four adults (15 females) walked on a treadmill (moderate intensity; ~200 W/m2) for 180 min or until termination (volitional fatigue, rectal temperature ≥39.5°C) in 16°C, 24°C, 28°C, and 32°C wet-bulb globe temperatures. Rectal temperature and heart rate were recorded to calculate PSI (0-10 scale). Rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation were recorded to calculate PeSI (0-10 scale). Relationships between PSI and PeSI were evaluated via linear mixed models. Mean bias (95% limits of agreement [LoA]) between PSI and PeSI was assessed via Bland-Altman analysis. Mean absolute error between measures was calculated by summing absolute errors between the PeSI and the PSI and dividing by the sample size. FINDINGS: PSI increased with PeSI (p < 0.01) but the slope of this relation was not different between males and females (p = 0.83). Mean bias between PSI and PeSI was small (-0.4 points), but the 95% LoA (-3.5 to 2.7 points) and mean absolute error were wide (1.3 points). IMPACT: Our findings indicate that sex does not appreciably impact the agreement between the PeSI and PSI during simulated occupational heat stress. The PeSI is not a suitable surrogate for the PSI in either male or female workers.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Estresse Ocupacional , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
6.
PM R ; 16(4): 398-403, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501700

RESUMO

Exertional heat illness remains a constant threat to the athlete, military service member, and laborer. Recent increases in the number and intensity of environmental heat waves places these populations at an ever increasing risk and can be deadly if not recognized and treated rapidly. For this reason, it is extremely important for medical providers to guide athletes, service members, and laborers in the implementation of awareness, education, and measures to reduce or mitigate the risk of exertional heat illness. Within the past 2 decades, a variety of wearable technology options have become commercially available to track an estimation of core temperature, yet questions continue to emerge as to its use, effectiveness, and practicality in athletics, the military, and the workforce. There is a paucity of data on the accuracy of many of these newer devices in the setting of true heat stroke physiology, and it is important to avoid overreliance on new wearable technology. Further research and improvement of this technology are critical to identify accuracy in the diagnosis and prevention of EHI.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Militares , Esportes , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Atletas , Fatores de Risco
7.
Med J Malaysia ; 79(Suppl 1): 82-87, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555890

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The palm oil (PO) industry is one of the most important sectors in the Malaysian economy. Workers at PO mills are, however, at risk for a number of health and safety issues, including heat stress, as the PO is one of the industries with high heat exposure. Heat stress occurs when a person's body cannot get rid of excess heat. Heat stress can result in heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat rash, and heat stroke. It also results in physiological and psychological changes that can have an impact on a worker's performance. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of heat stress on health-related symptoms and physiological changes among workers in a PO mill. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a PO mill located in Mukah, Sarawak, Malaysia. Thirty-one workers from the four workstations (sterilizer, boiler, oil, and engine rooms) were selected as the respondents in this study. Wet Bulb Globe Thermometer was used in this study to measure the environmental temperature (WBGTin). Body core temperature (BCT), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded both before and after working in order to assess the physiological effects of heat stress on workers. A set of questionnaires were used to determine sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents and their symptoms related to heat stress. Data were then analyzed using SPSS Ver28. RESULTS: The WBGTin was found to be above the ACGIH threshold limit value of heat stress exposure in the engine room, sterilizer, and boiler workstations (>28.0°C). Additionally, there was a significant difference in the worker's BCT in these three workstations before and after work (p<0.05). Only the systolic BP and HR of those working at the boiler workstation showed significant difference between before and after work (p<0.05). The most typical symptoms that workers experience as a result of being exposed to heat at work include headache and fatigue. However, statistical analysis using Spearman Rho's test showed that there is no correlation between heat stress level with physiological changes and health-related symptoms among study respondents (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Results of the present study confirmed that workers in PO mill were exposed to high temperatures while at work. Although the evidence indicates the physiological parameters in general are not significantly affected while working, it also demonstrated that worker's body adapts and acclimates to the level of heat. Even so, precautions should still be taken to reduce future heat exposure. It is recommended that a physiological study be carried out that focuses on cognitive function impairment to support the evidence regarding the effects of heat stress on PO mill workers.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Óleo de Palmeira/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Temperatura Alta , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/diagnóstico
8.
Genet Sel Evol ; 56(1): 23, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the current context of climate change, livestock production faces many challenges to improve the sustainability of systems. Dairy farming, in particular, must find ways to select animals that will be able to achieve sufficient overall production while maintaining their reproductive ability in environments with increasing temperatures. With future forecasted climate conditions in mind, this study used data from Holstein and Montbeliarde dairy cattle to: (1) estimate the genetic-by-temperature-humidity index (THI) interactions for female fertility, and (2) evaluate the production-fertility trade-off with increasing values of THI. RESULTS: Two-trait random regression models were fitted for conception rate (fertility) and test-day protein yield (production). For fertility, genetic correlations between different THI values were generally above 0.75, suggesting weak genotype-by-THI interactions for conception rate in both breeds. However, the genetic correlations between the conception rate breeding values at the current average THI (THI = 50, corresponding to a 24-h average temperature of 8 °C at 50% relative humidity) and their slopes (i.e., potential reranking) for heat stress scenarios (THI > 70), were different for each breed. For Montbeliarde, this correlation tended to be positive (i.e., overall the best reproducers are less affected by heat stress), whereas for Holstein it was approximately zero. Finally, our results indicated a weak antagonism between production and fertility, although for Montbeliarde this antagonism intensified with increasing THI. CONCLUSIONS: Within the range of weather conditions studied, increasing temperatures are not expected to exacerbate the fertility-production trade-off. However, our results indicated that the animals with the best breeding values for production today will be the most affected by temperature increases, both in terms of fertility and production. Nonetheless, these animals should remain among the most productive ones during heat waves. For Montbeliarde, the current selection program for fertility seems to be adequate for ensuring the adaptation of fertility traits to temperature increases, without adverse effects on production. Such a conclusion cannot be drawn for Holstein. In the future, the incorporation of a heat tolerance index into dairy cattle breeding programs would be valuable to promote the selection of animals adapted to future climate conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Leite , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Umidade , Temperatura , Leite/metabolismo , Lactação/genética , Temperatura Alta , Fertilidade/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária
9.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 35(1-2): 79-84, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the impact of heat stress on hydration and cognition among outdoor workers in hot environment. METHODS: Area heat stress assessments were measured using Quest Temp WBGT monitor. Sweat rate for dehydration and reaction time for acute cognitive processing were recorded using standard procedures. RESULTS: Heat stress measurements ranged from 23.8 °C - 42 °C. More than 50 % of the workers had high sweat rate (>1.2 L/h) when exposed to high environmental temperatures. Positive correlation was obtained between WBGT, sweat rate and reaction time which indicates that hyperthermia has an impact on neural network processing. Heart rate and reaction time also increased with rise in WBGT and heavy physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: There was impairment of cognitive functions (reaction time) under heat stress conditions. Hence, reaction time can be used to assess the short-term impact of heat stress on neural modulation and will help to plan effective intervention strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality among workers.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Temperatura Alta , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Temperatura , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Índia
10.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 35(1_suppl): 112S-127S, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38425235

RESUMO

The Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel in 2011 to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the recognition, prevention, and treatment of heat illness. The current panel retained 5 original members and welcomed 2 new members, all of whom collaborated remotely to provide an updated review of the classifications, pathophysiology, evidence-based guidelines for planning and preventive measures, and recommendations for field- and hospital-based therapeutic management of heat illness. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality. This is an updated version of the WMS clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of heat illness published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 2019;30(4):S33-S46.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Medicina Selvagem , Humanos , Medicina Ambiental , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Sociedades Médicas
11.
Nat Food ; 5(3): 206-210, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459392

RESUMO

Livestock heat stress threatens production, particularly in semi-arid, arid and tropical regions. Using established temperature thresholds for sheep, we modelled +1 °C and +3 °C temperature increases over the historical baseline, estimating that 2.1 million potential lambs are lost annually due to heat stress alone, increasing to 2.5 and 3.3 million, respectively, as temperatures rise. Heat stress poses risks at key periods of the reproductive cycle, with consequences across the Australian sheep flock.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Ovinos , Animais , Gravidez , Feminino , Peso ao Nascer , Temperatura , Austrália/epidemiologia , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
12.
Int J Biometeorol ; 68(4): 777-793, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427096

RESUMO

To adapt to Earth's rapidly changing climate, detailed modelling of thermal stress is needed. Dangerous stress levels are becoming more frequent, longer, and more severe. While traditional measurements of thermal stress have focused on air temperature and humidity, modern measures including radiation and wind speed are becoming widespread. However, projecting such indices has presented a challenging problem, due to the need for appropriate bias correction of multiple variables that vary on hourly timescales. In this paper, we aim to provide a detailed understanding of changing thermal stress patterns incorporating modern measurements, bias correction techniques, and hourly projections to assess the impact of climate change on thermal stress at human scales. To achieve these aims, we conduct a case study of projected thermal stress in central Hobart, Australia for 2040-2059, compared to the historical period 1990-2005. We present the first hourly metre-scale projections of thermal stress driven by multivariate bias-corrected data. We bias correct four variables from six dynamically downscaled General Circulation Models. These outputs drive the Solar and LongWave Environmental Irradiance Geometry model at metre scale, calculating mean radiant temperature and the Universal Thermal Climate Index. We demonstrate that multivariate bias correction can correct means on multiple time scales while accurately preserving mean seasonal trends. Changes in mean air temperature and UTCI by hour of the day and month of the year reveal diurnal and annual patterns in both temporal trends and model agreement. We present plots of future median stress values in the context of historical percentiles, revealing trends and patterns not evident in mean data. Our modelling illustrates a future Hobart that experiences higher and more consistent numbers of hours of heat stress arriving earlier in the year and extending further throughout the day.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos , Temperatura , Umidade , Vento , Sensação Térmica
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311953

RESUMO

Objective: Through the analysis of five cases of occupational heat illness caused by high temperature, we expounded the pathogenesis and summarized the clinical characteristics of heat cramp and heat exhaustion of the newly revised diagnostic criteria for occupational heat illness (GBZ41-2019), in order to prevent the occurrence of occupational heat illness to put forward controllable countermeasures. Methods: According to the occupational history, clinical diagnosis and treatment and the other relevant data submitted by five patients, the diagnosis process was analyzed and summarized. Results: Five patients developed symptoms from July to August in summer, belonging to high-temperature operation. They improved by timely treatment. The symptoms, signs and laboratory tests of the five patients were different, but they were diagnosed as occupational heat illness. Conclusion: Employers should pay attention to the high temperature protection and cooling work, and strengthen the labor protection. If patients with heat cramp and heat exhaustion were timely treated, they could basically recover. Occupational disease diagnosticians should seriously study the new diagnostic criteria of occupational disease and constantly improve their diagnostic ability.


Assuntos
Exaustão por Calor , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Doenças Profissionais , Humanos , Exaustão por Calor/complicações , Exaustão por Calor/diagnóstico , Exaustão por Calor/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/complicações , Temperatura Alta
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3459, 2024 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342943

RESUMO

This study investigated the risk of heatwaves for people with disabilities and other socioeconomic attributes using Health Care Bigdata in South Korea. The Health Care Bigdata provides detailed information on heat-related illness (HRI) patients in 2011-2020 from seven major cities. We employed the Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model (DLNM) to measure heat waves' relative risk. Our findings are four-fold. First, the relative risk (RR) of disabled people was 5.075 (95% confidence interval 4.476-5.674), significantly surpassing that of non-disabled people, 3.296 (2.517-4.075). Second, among various personal characteristics studied, disability influenced RR the most, exceeding impacts from elderly (4.457: 3.748-5.166), low-income (3.909: 3.004-4.813), and outdoor (4.052: 2.940-5.164). Third, the disabled young group (5.305: 4.414-6.195) was more vulnerable than the non-disabled elderly group (4.287: 3.576-4.999). Lastly, no significant difference in relative risk was observed between the mild (4.413: 3.855-4.971) and severe disabled groups (4.013: 3.121-4.905).


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Humanos , Idoso , Temperatura Alta , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Cidades , Risco
15.
J Therm Biol ; 119: 103798, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310809

RESUMO

Strategies to alleviate heat stress on live performance - dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) - and on physiological parameters - respiratory rate (RR) and panting score (PS) - of feedlot-finished cattle were evaluated by systematic review-meta-analysis. Using the PICO framework were identified 3813 records, with 31 publications and 6729 cattle being considered in the meta-analysis (MA). The comparison most reported was sun vs. shade (n = 24 publications), followed by shade vs. shade (area per animal and effectivity in reduce solar load) (n = 7 publications) and sun vs. sprinkling (n = 4 publications). Cattle with access to shade with total reduction in solar load improved ADG (p = 0.008) and FCE (p = 0.024), and reduced RR (p < 0.001) compared to unshaded animals. Cattle with access to shade with a height between 3 and 4 m increased ADG (p < 0.001), tended to improve FCE (p = 0.054), and reduced RR (p < 0.001) compared to unshaded animals. An area of shade from 2 to 4 m2/animal increased ADG (p = 0.002), and higher than 4 m2/animal reduced RR (p < 0.001) compared to unshaded animals. Animals that received sprinkling volume below 1 L/animal/min improved ADG (p = 0.008) compared to unshaded animals. Cattle with access to shade with a high area per animal improved DMI (p = 0.023) and ADG (p < 0.001) compared to animals with a low area. In univariate meta-regression, it was observed that the variables significantly (P < 0.05) influencing DMI were THI category; influencing ADG were cattle gender, THI category, and coat color; influencing FCE were cattle age and hemisphere; and influencing RR were country, THI category and climate. Performance and physiological parameters of feedlot-finished cattle under heat stress depend on animal and environmental characteristics.


Assuntos
Clima , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Bovinos , Animais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Taxa Respiratória , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Luz Solar , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária
16.
J Therm Biol ; 119: 103790, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354493

RESUMO

To evaluate the use of infrared thermography to assess the thermal status of heat-stressed and water-deprived Capra hircus, full-body surface temperature (TS) and six other body-thermal variables [core, rectal (TR), and skin (TSK) temperatures, respiratory and heart rates, and total body-thermal gradient (core-to-ambient, BTG)] were measured after three days of euhydration (EU), dehydration (DE), and rehydration (RE). Results revealed that the combined effect of heat stress and water deprivation had affected all tested variables including the TS, and once these animals gained access to water in the RE stage variables returned to their EU levels. Moreover, there were positive correlations between TS and all variables with the exception of BTG. From these six variables, only three variables (i.e. the TR, TSK, and BTG) during the DE stage and two variables (i.e. the TSK and BTG) throughout the experimental stages showed higher constancy (R2 ≥ 0 75, P < 0 001; agreement intervals ±1 96 95 % CI) with TS. However, BTG appeared more closely correlated with TS, representing the body-thermal status more realistically than other variables. In effect, the mean and thresholds of the BTG were predicted using the recorded TS and were within 0.02 °C of original estimates. Collectively, these findings show that infrared thermography is appropriate for assessing body-thermal status, and thus the welfare, of these animals under the three conditions studied, and conclude that full-body TS can be a surrogate proxy for BTG in these animals. Further experiments are needed to adequately examine the reproducibility of these results under biometeorologically-simulated environments and natural habitats.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Termografia , Animais , Termografia/métodos , Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/veterinária , Privação de Água , Cabras , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Água
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3974, 2024 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368465

RESUMO

Anthropogenic climate change has amplified human thermal discomfort in urban environments. Despite the considerable risks posed to public health, there is a lack of comprehensive research, evaluating the spatiotemporal changes in human thermal discomfort and its characteristics in hot-hyper arid regions, such as the Arabian Peninsula (AP). The current study analyzes spatiotemporal changes in human thermal discomfort categories and their characteristics in AP, using the newly developed high-resolution gridded ERA5-HEAT (Human thErmAl comforT) dataset for the period 1979-2022. In addition, the study assesses the interplay between the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indices for the study period. The results reveal a significant increase in human thermal discomfort and its characteristics, with higher spatial variability in the AP region. The major urban centers in the southwestern, central, and southeastern parts of AP have experienced significant increases in human thermal discomfort (0.4-0.8 °C), with higher frequency and intensity of thermal stress during the study period. The temporal distribution demonstrates a linear increase in UTCI indices and their frequencies and intensities, particularly from 1998 onward, signifying a transition towards a hotter climate characterized by frequent, intense, and prolonged heat stress conditions. Moreover, the UTCI and ENSO indices exhibit a dipole pattern of correlation with a positive (negative) pattern in the southwestern (eastern parts) of AP. The study's findings suggest that policymakers and urban planners need to prioritize public health and well-being in AP's urban areas, especially for vulnerable groups, by implementing climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies, and carefully designing future cities to mitigate the effects of heat stress.


Assuntos
El Niño Oscilação Sul , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Humanos , Cidades , Clima Desértico , Mudança Climática
18.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1739, 2024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409108

RESUMO

Innate immunity provides the first line of defense through multiple mechanisms, including pyrogen production and cell death. While elevated body temperature during infection is beneficial to clear pathogens, heat stress (HS) can lead to inflammation and pathology. Links between pathogen exposure, HS, cytokine release, and inflammation have been observed, but fundamental innate immune mechanisms driving pathology during pathogen exposure and HS remain unclear. Here, we use multiple genetic approaches to elucidate innate immune pathways in infection or LPS and HS models. Our results show that bacteria and LPS robustly increase inflammatory cell death during HS that is dependent on caspase-1, caspase-11, caspase-8, and RIPK3 through the PANoptosis pathway. Caspase-7 also contributes to PANoptosis in this context. Furthermore, NINJ1 is an important executioner of this cell death to release inflammatory molecules, independent of other pore-forming executioner proteins, gasdermin D, gasdermin E, and MLKL. In an in vivo HS model, mortality is reduced by deleting NINJ1 and fully rescued by deleting key PANoptosis molecules. Our findings suggest that therapeutic strategies blocking NINJ1 or its upstream regulators to prevent PANoptosis may reduce the release of inflammatory mediators and benefit patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Lipopolissacarídeos , Humanos , Gasderminas , Morte Celular , Inflamação/genética , Caspases/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Piroptose , Apoptose , Fatores de Crescimento Neural , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(4)2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400322

RESUMO

Nowadays climate change is affecting the planet's biodiversity, and livestock practices must adapt themselves to improve production without affecting animal welfare. This work investigates the influence that some climatic parameters such as Environment Temperature, Relative Humidity, Thermal excursion and Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), can have on milk quantity and quality in two different dairy species (buffaloes and cows) raised on the same farm. A further aim was to understand if THI threshold used for cows could also be used for buffaloes. The climatic parameters were recorded daily through a meteorological station located inside the farm. Milk quantity (converted into ECM) and quality (Fat Percentage-FP; Protein Percentage-PP; Somatic Cell Count-SCC) were measured. Data were analyzed with Spearman's correlation index, separately for buffaloes and cows. The results indicate a greater sensitivity of cows to heat stress and a strong negative correlation of the ECM with meteorological data (p < 0.01). The results of this study may stimulate the use of integrated technologies (sensors, software) in the dairy sector, since the IoT (sensors, software) helps to enhance animal well-being and to optimize process costs, with a precision livestock farming approach.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Gado , Temperatura Alta , Lactação , Umidade , Leite/metabolismo
20.
Drug Discov Ther ; 18(1): 60-66, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355123

RESUMO

Exertional heatstroke (EHS), a severe form of exertional heat illness (EHI), is the third leading cause of death in athletes; thus, early detection and prevention of EHI can help prevent EHS, which is a life-threatening condition. This study aimed to clarify the association between the cognizance of experiencing EHI and living conditions and specific EHI symptoms among collegiate athletes. This study was conducted in October 2022 by administering a questionnaire to 237 male collegiate athletes. Of the 215 (90.7%) respondents, 197 (91.6%) provided valid responses; among them, 88 (44.7%) responded they had experienced EHI, while 109 (55.3%) had not. A history of medical examinations due to EHI, having experienced headaches during summer activities, and having read the EHI manual were factors indicating cognizance of EHI. The number of times meals containing a staple food, main dish, and side dish were eaten in a day was a factor in preventing EHI. Early detection of EHI is important for its prevention, and it is important that athletes themselves have knowledge of symptoms and can correctly self-diagnose EHI. Emphasizing the potential of a well-balanced dietary intake has the potential to prevent EHI is crucial.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Condições Sociais , Humanos , Masculino , Temperatura Alta , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Atletas , Estudantes
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