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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 38(10): 933-936, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a family with intellectual developmental disorder with autism and speech delay (IDDAS) caused by a splice variant of TBR1 gene. METHODS: A pregnant women with mental retardation, who also had a family history of mental retardation, was admitted to Prenatal Diagnosis Center of WanBei Coal and Electricity Group General Hospital Corporation in April 2019. Molecular genetic tests were performed on the pregnant women and ten other family members to analyze the pathogenic genotype. Functional assays of the pathogenic variant was carried out by minigene technology. With the determination of the genotype, prenatal diagnosis was carried out by amniotic fluid sampling. RESULTS: Through whole exome sequencing, a novel splicing variant (c.1129-1G>C) was identified in the TBR1 gene of the proband, which has co-segregated with the disease phenotype in the family. The results of minigene assay showed abnormal splicing of exon 5. The variant was not detected in the fetal amniotic fluid. Fetal growth and development were normal one year after the birth. CONCLUSION: The c.1129-1G>C variant of the TBR1 probably underlay the disease in of the pedigree. Timely prenatal genetic diagnosis and consultation can help to stop the transmission of the pathogenic variant.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Deficiência Intelectual , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , China , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Linhagem , Gravidez
2.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 362, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496812

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations and supporting evidence on the effectiveness of universal screening for language and speech delay in children under 5 years of age for short- and long-term outcomes.We conducted a literature search up to the 20th of November 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported on the accuracy of the screening tests for detecting language and speech delay, the efficacy of existing interventions for children with language and speech delay, and the potential harms associated with screening and the associated interventions.Several screening tools are used to assess language and speech delay with a wide variation in their accuracy. Targeted interventions improve some measures of speech and language delay and disorders. However, there is no evidence on the effectiveness of such interventions in children detected by screening with no specific concerns about their speech or language before screening. There is no evidence assessing whether universal screening for language and speech delay in a primary care setting improves short and long-term outcomes (including speech and language outcomes and other outcomes). Finally, there is no evidence on the harms of screening for language and speech delay in primary care settings, and there is limited evidence assessing the potential harms of interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 356, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations to prevent morbidity and mortality in children was a high priority for the editorial group of a WHO pocket book for primary health care in the European region. However, the benefit of preventive interventions is not always clear and recommendations differ across countries and institutions. Here, we summarize the existing recommendations and the most recent evidence on ten selected preventive interventions applied to children under five years to inform this group. In addition, we reflect on the process and challenges of developing these summaries. METHODS: For each intervention, we systematically searched for current recommendations from the WHO, the United States Preventive Services Task Force, the workgroup PrevInfad from the Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics, the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Then, we systematically searched the sources above and the Cochrane library for relevant systematic reviews. For each topic, we reported the recommendations and the strength of the recommendation when and as reported by the authors. We summarized the main findings of systematic reviews with the certainty of the evidence as reported. Categorising the ten preventive interventions in three groups allowed narrative comparisons between similar types of interventions and between groups. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: For the single interventions of providing vitamins D and K and topical fluoride there is overall a high degree of consensus between institutions for the evidence of their effectiveness. For the multiple interventions to prevent sudden infant death syndrome and unintentional injuries consensus was more variable as evidence of effectiveness is harder to ascertain. For the screening interventions the summaries of recommendations and evidence varied too. While institutions generally agreed in recommending for vision screening and against universal screening for language and speech delay and iron deficiency, they had some differences for pulse oximetry and autism. The transparent and independent process shed light upon how institutions use existing evidence in their settings - common and different positions were accounted for and became visible. We also identified gaps and duplications of research. Our approach was a crucial starting point for developing the respective sections in the pocket book.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Programas de Rastreamento , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444058

RESUMO

Accurate measures of alexithymia, an inability to recognise and describe one's own emotions, that are suitable for children are crucial for research into alexithymia's development. However, previous research suggests that parent versus child reports of alexithymia do not correlate. Potentially, children may report on the awareness of their emotions, whereas parent-report measures may reflect children's verbal expression of emotion, which may be confounded by children's communicative abilities, especially in conditions such as Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). Given theoretical arguments that alexithymia may develop due to language impairments, further research into alexithymia in DLD is also needed. This project examined parent and child report measures of alexithymia in children with DLD (n = 106) and without DLD (n = 183), and their association to children's communication skills. Parent and child reports were not significantly correlated in either group, and children with DLD had higher alexithymia scores on the parent-report measure only. Thus, parent and child measures of alexithymia likely reflect different constructs. Pragmatic language problems related to more parent-reported alexithymia, over and above group membership. Structural language abilities were unrelated to alexithymia. We suggest decreased social learning opportunities, rather than a language measure artefact, underlie increased alexithymic difficulties in DLD.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos , Idioma , Relações Pais-Filho
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360506

RESUMO

Parent-implemented interventions are a highly common approach for enhancing communication and linguistic abilities of late talkers, involving a population that shows a small expressive vocabulary in the absence of other deficits that could explain it. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of a parent-implemented language intervention, It Takes Two to Talk®-The Hanen Program® for Parents (ITTT), to a clinician-directed therapy. Participants were 17 families and their late-talking children: 10 families took part in ITTT and 7 in the clinician-directed modality. The outcomes in the social communication domain were more favorable for the ITTT group, but there were no significant differences between groups as regards vocabulary and syntax. In terms of parents, the research focused on examining if there were significant changes in parents' stress and their perceptions of their children's communication abilities. No differences were observed in the level of stress. In contrast, the group that received the ITTT program significantly altered their perceptions of their children's communication difficulties in comparison with the clinician-directed therapy. These results have implications in the clinical management of late-talking children, and they are discussed in terms of evidence-based practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Comunicação , Humanos , Espanha , Vocabulário
6.
Res Dev Disabil ; 117: 104042, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal language development in both expressive and receptive domains occurs in most children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), although the language deficit is not a core symptom of ASD. However, previous studies disagree on the difference in the degree of impairment between expressive and receptive language in ASD. Existing research has concentrated on vocabulary and 'global expressive and receptive language', often using parental reports for language assessment. Moreover, most of these studies have focused on toddlers and preschoolers with ASD, whereas data from school-aged children with ASD are very limited. At the same time, the age of children might account for the inconsistencies across publications on expressive-receptive language difference in children with ASD. AIMS: The goal of the study was to directly compare the expressive and receptive language abilities of Russian primary-school-aged children with ASD (7-11 years old) at the levels of vocabulary, morphosyntax, and discourse. METHODS: 82 children with ASD participated in language testing. We used tests from the Russian Child Language Assessment Battery in order to assess vocabulary, morphosyntax, and discourse in expressive and receptive domains. RESULTS: Our results revealed different expressive and receptive patterns, depending on the linguistic level and tests complexity. Importantly, we showed that children's non-verbal IQ partly accounted for the difference between production and comprehension abilities. CONCLUSIONS: The expressive-better-than-receptive pattern in language has been considered by some authors as the unique hallmark of ASD. However, several studies, including our own, show that this is not a universal characteristic of ASD. We also revealed that expressive and receptive language patterns differed depending on the linguistic level, children's non-verbal IQ, and assessment tools.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Federação Russa , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3195-3211, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351812

RESUMO

Purpose Recent behavioral studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of implementing retrieval practice into learning tasks for children. Such approaches have revealed that repeated spaced retrieval (RSR) is particularly effective in promoting children's learning of word form and meaning information. This study further examines how retrieval practice enhances learning of word meaning information at the behavioral and neural levels. Method Twenty typically developing preschool children were taught novel words using an RSR learning schedule for some words and an immediate retrieval (IR) learning schedule for other words. In addition to the label, children were taught two arbitrary semantic features for each item. Following the teaching phase, children's learning was tested using recall tests. In addition, during the 1-week follow-up, children were presented with pictures and an auditory sentence that correctly labeled the item but stated correct or incorrect semantic information. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were time locked to the onset of the words noting the semantic feature. Children provided verbal judgments of whether the semantic feature was correctly paired with the item. Results Children recalled more labels and semantic features for items that had been taught in the RSR learning schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. ERPs also differentiated the learning schedules. Mismatching label-meaning pairings elicited an N400 and late positive component (LPC) for both learning conditions; however, mismatching RSR pairs elicited an N400 with an earlier onset and an LPC with a longer duration, relative to IR mismatching label-meaning pairings. These ERP timing differences indicated that the children were more efficient in processing words that were taught in the RSR schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. Conclusions Spaced retrieval practice promotes learning of both word form and meaning information. The findings lay the necessary groundwork for better understanding of processing newly learned semantic information in preschool children. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.15063060.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Semântica , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3140-3158, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255982

RESUMO

Purpose Developmental language disorder (DLD) is defined by persistent difficulties with language, but a growing body of evidence suggests that it is also associated with domain-general and nonverbal information-processing deficits. However, the interconnections between cognitive functions, both nonverbal and language related, are still unclear. With the aim of gaining more comprehensive insight into the cognitive deficits related to DLD, we investigated and compared the cognitive structure of children with DLD and typically developing (TD) children. Method As a part of the Helsinki longitudinal SLI study, monolingual Finnish preschoolers (N = 154; TD group: n = 66, DLD group: n = 88) were assessed with 23 tasks measuring nonverbal and verbal reasoning, language processing, memory, visuomotor functions, attention, and social cognition. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed to examine latent constructs and to test measurement invariance between the TD and DLD groups. Results Measurement invariance was not found across the TD and DLD groups. Best fitting structure for TD children included factors reflecting verbal abilities, processing speed/short-term memory, visuomotor functions, and visuoconstructive abilities/nonverbal reasoning. The DLD group's structure comprised nonverbal abilities, naming/expressive language, verbal comprehension, and verbal/declarative memory. Conclusions The findings suggest that the structure of cognitive functions differs in TD children and children with DLD already at preschool age. Nonverbal functions seem more unified, whereas verbal functions seem more varying in preschoolers with DLD compared to TD children. The results can be used in future research for prognosis of DLD and planning interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Compreensão , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Memória de Curto Prazo
9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3253-3288, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213951

RESUMO

Purpose The aim of this study was to extract key learning from intervention studies in which qualitative aspects of dosage, dose form, have been examined for children with developmental language disorder (DLD)-in vocabulary, morphosyntax, and phonology domains. This research paper emerged from a pair of systematic reviews, aiming to synthesize available evidence regarding qualitative and quantitative aspects of dosage. While quantitative aspects had been experimentally manipulated, the available evidence for dose form (tasks or activities within which teaching episodes are delivered) was less definitive. Despite this, the review uncovered insights of value to DLD research. Method A preregistered systematic review (PROSPERO ID: CRD42017076663) adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was completed. Included papers were quasi-experimental, randomized controlled trial, or cohort analytic studies, published in any language between January 2006 and May 2019; oral language interventions with vocabulary, morphosyntax, or phonology outcomes; and participants with DLD (M = 3-18 years). The intention was to include papers in which dose form was experimentally manipulated or statistically analyzed, while quantitative dosage aspects were controlled, such that definitive conclusions about optimal dose form could be drawn and gaps in the evidence identified. Results Two hundred and twenty-four papers met the above inclusion criteria; 27 focused on dose form. No study controlled for all quantitative aspects of dosage such that we could effectively address our original research questions. Despite this, key points of learning emerged with implications for future research. Conclusions There is tentative evidence of advantages for explicit over implicit instruction and of the benefits of variability in input, elicited production, and gestural and other visual supports. With careful design of dose form, there is potential to design more efficient interventions. Speech-language pathology research would benefit from an agreed taxonomy of dose form components and standardized reporting of intervention studies, to enable cross-study comparisons and a systematic accrual of knowledge to identify optimal dose form for clinical application.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Terapia da Linguagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vocabulário
10.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(2): e182-e190, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221464

RESUMO

Infants usually say their first word at the age of 12 months; subsequently, within the next 6-12 months, they develop a vocabulary of approximately 50 words, along with the ability to make two-word combinations. However, late talkers (LTs) demonstrate delayed speech in the absence of hearing impairments, cognitive developmental issues or relevant birth history. The prevalence of late language emergence (LLE) in toddlers is reported to be 10-15%. Studies of LTs are both theoretically and clinically significant. Early diagnosis and clinical intervention may result in relatively stable speech capabilities by the early school years. The present article aimed to review both theoretical and empirical studies regarding LLE within the process of first language acquisition, as well as methods for the early diagnosis of delayed speech in children and the authors' own clinical and theoretical recommendations.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/reabilitação , Fala , Vocabulário
11.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(5): 2275-2295, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269597

RESUMO

Purpose Nonword repetition has been endorsed as a less biased method of assessment for children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, but there are currently no systematic reviews or meta-analyses on its use with bilingual children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of nonword repetition in the identification of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children. Method Using a key word search of peer-reviewed literature from several large electronic databases, as well as ancestral and forward searches, 13 studies were identified that met the eligibility criteria. Studies were evaluated on the basis of quality of evidence, design characteristics, and reported diagnostic accuracy. A meta-regression analysis, based on study results, was conducted to identify task characteristics that may be associated with better classification accuracy. Results Diagnostic accuracy across studies ranged from poor to good. Bilingual children with LI performed with more difficulty on nonword repetition tasks than those with typical language. Quasi-universal tasks, which account for the phonotactic constraints of multiple languages, exhibited better diagnostic accuracy and resulted in less misidentification of children with typical language than language-specific tasks. Conclusions Evidence suggests that nonword repetition may be a useful tool in the assessment and screening of LI in bilingual children, though it should be used in conjunction with other measures. Quasi-universal tasks demonstrate the potential to further reduce assessment bias, but extant research is limited.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Multilinguismo , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem
12.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(5): 2069-2079, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280024

RESUMO

Purpose Nonword repetition has been cited as a measure of phonological working memory and continues to gain status as a clinical tool used to identify language impairment in school-age children. Less is known about nonword repetition skills in the toddler population. Method The current study presents a detailed analysis of errors by segmenting nonwords into word, syllable, and phoneme levels. Errors were also analyzed for type (e.g., addition, substitution, deletion). The Test of Early Nonword Repetition was used to measure performance in a sample of 36 typically developing children, aged 24-48 months. Clinical assessments including parent report, language sampling procedures, and standardized assessments were also administered. Results As a group, participants produced significantly more syllable errors compared to word-level errors; however, most errors were made at the phoneme level. Errors of addition were the least common error type, and no differences between substitutions or deletions were present for the entire sample. Toddlers (aged 2 years) produced more syllable-level errors compared to older children (aged 3 years). Substitution errors were positively correlated with performance on clinical measures of language, whereas deletion errors were negatively correlated with performance. Conclusion Nonword repetition performance patterns in young children may be associated with language delay or language impairment and have both clinical and theoretical relevance.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fonética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem
13.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3074-3099, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289320

RESUMO

Purpose This study investigated the effects of enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) on caregiver implementation of language support strategies and child communication skills using a hybrid telepractice service delivery model. Method Four caregivers and children with language delays aged 18-27 months participated in a multiple baseline across behaviors single-case research design. The therapist provided EMT to each caregiver-child dyad using a hybrid telepractice service delivery model with approximately 40% in-person and 60% telepractice sessions. Caregivers were taught to use five EMT language support strategies: matched turns, target talk, expansions, time delays, and milieu teaching episodes. Caregiver instruction followed the Teach-Model-Coach-Review approach. Caregiver outcomes were two measures of EMT implementation fidelity, accuracy, and frequency of EMT strategy use. Accuracy was measured by the percentage of spoken turns in which caregivers used each strategy correctly. Frequency was measured by the number of spoken turns in which caregivers used each strategy correctly. Child outcomes were number of communication acts, weighted count of communication acts, and number of different words. Results There was a functional relation between the intervention and the accuracy of EMT strategy use for all four dyads, and the frequency of strategy use for three dyads. Caregiver use of EMT strategies maintained for 6 weeks post-intervention. After caregivers learned EMT strategies, gradual increases in the number of communication acts, weighted count of communication acts, and number of different words occurred for three children. Conclusion Results demonstrate the preliminary efficacy of using a hybrid telepractice service delivery model to teach caregivers EMT language support strategies. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14977605.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Comunicação , Família , Humanos , Idioma
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(7): 827-834, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304418

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in early diagnosis for children with language delay/disorder. Methods: Children with language delay/disorder who were admitted to the Department of Health Care, Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Pediatric Institute from January 2019 to December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Based on informed consent, the peripheral blood of the children and their parents was collected for WES. Combining the clinical phenotypes of the children, the candidate variants, including single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs), were selected for validation and family segregation analysis using Sanger sequencing, real-time PCR or CNV-Seq. The pathogenicity of variants was evaluated based on ACMG guideline following with finial genetic diagnosis. Based on whether genetic diagnosis was achieved or not, 125 children with comprehensive examination of the Children Neuropsychological and Behavioral Scale(CNBS-R2016) were sub-grouped (positive/negative group), and the total scores and the detailed scores of five developmental sections (gross motor, fine motor, adaptive ability, language and social behavior ability) between two subgroups were compared. Results: A total of 165 children with language delay/disorder were recruited, including 109 males and 56 females. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.95∶1.The age of the children was (3.2±1.2) years old, the median age was 3.0 years. 45 children carry disease-related pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants, including 36 SNVs and 9 CNVs. The genetic diagnostic yield of this cohort was 27.3% (45/165). The inheritance analysis for core family members showed de novo variant accounted for 86% of genetic diagnosis (31/36). The positive diagnosis rate in girls was 45% (25/56), which was significantly higher than that in boys (18.3%, 20/109, χ²=12.171, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of positive diagnosis among all age groups (χ²=4.349, P>0.05). Interestingly, the scores of gross motors of positive group were significantly lower than that of negative group (61.5 vs. 69.4, t=-2.610, P<0.05). Otherwise, no significant difference was seen between two groups(t=-0.933, -1.298, -0.114, -0.214, all P>0.05). Conclusions: Language delay/disorder has complex genetic heterogeneity. WES has important application value in early etiological diagnosis for children with language delay/disorder.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(7): 2750-2765, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232699

RESUMO

Purpose This study evaluates the effectiveness of a nonword repetition (NWR) task in discriminating between Palestinian Arabic-speaking children with developmental language disorder (DLD) and age-matched typically developing (TD) children. Method Participants were 30 children with DLD aged between 4;0 and 6;10 (years;months) and 60 TD children aged between 4;0 and 6;8 matched on chronological age. The Arabic version of a Quasi-Universal NWR task was administered. The task comprises 30 nonwords that vary in length, presence of consonant clusters (CCs) and wordlikeness ratings. Responses were scored using an item-level scoring method to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the task. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted to determine the best cutoff point with the highest sensitivity and specificity values, and likelihood ratios were calculated. Results Children with DLD scored significantly lower on the NWR task than their age-matched TD peers. Only the DLD group was influenced by the phonological complexity of the nonwords, with nonwords with two CC being more difficult than nonwords with no or only one CC. For both groups, three-syllable nonwords were repeated less accurately than two- and one-syllable nonwords. Also, high word-like nonwords were repeated more accurately than nonwords with low wordlikeness ratings. The best cutoff score had sensitivity and specificity of 93% and highly informative likelihood ratios. Conclusions NWR was an area of difficulty for Palestinian Arabic-speaking children with DLD. NWR showed excellent discriminatory power in differentiating Arabic-speaking children diagnosed with DLD from their age-matched TD peers. NWR appears to hold promise for clinical use as it is a useful indicator of DLD in Arabic. These results need to be further validated using population-based studies. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.14880360.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Dev Psychol ; 57(5): 749-770, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166019

RESUMO

Impaired procedural learning has been suggested as a possible cause of developmental dyslexia (DD) and developmental language disorder (DLD). We evaluate this theory by performing a series of meta-analyses on evidence from the six procedural learning tasks that have most commonly been used to test this theory: the serial reaction time, Hebb learning, artificial grammar and statistical learning, weather prediction, and contextual cuing tasks. Studies using serial reaction time and Hebb learning tasks yielded small group deficits in comparisons between language impaired and typically developing controls (g = -.30 and -.32, respectively). However, a meta-analysis of correlational studies showed that the serial reaction time task was not a reliable correlate of language-related ability in unselected samples (r = .03). Larger group deficits were, however, found in studies using artificial grammar and statistical learning tasks (g = -.48) and the weather prediction task (g = -.63). Possible reasons for the discrepancy in results from different tasks that all purportedly measure procedural learning are highlighted. We conclude that current data do not provide an adequate test of the theory that a generalized procedural learning deficit is a causal risk factor for developmental dyslexia or developmental language disorder. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Dislexia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Linguística , Fatores de Risco
17.
Psychol Bull ; 147(5): 437-454, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060865

RESUMO

Communication is a core challenge for individuals on the autism spectrum, and many autistic individuals experience challenges with language. Prospective studies of younger siblings of children with autism show that siblings not only have an increased likelihood of developing autism themselves, but that even siblings without an autism spectrum diagnosis are more likely to have a language delay as toddlers than their peers without familial history of autism (Marrus et al., 2018). While there is substantial variability in the communicative abilities of siblings of children with autism in toddlerhood, it is not clear how these differences translate beyond the first 3 years of life. The present study used meta-analysis to evaluate a wide range of literature and determine whether siblings of children with autism (Sibs-A) over 48 months of age differ from comparison groups in their language and communication abilities. A total of 26 studies describing 22 cohorts were included. Over 2,000 Sibs-A were compared with neurotypical individuals without familial history of autism or siblings of individuals with another neurodevelopmental disability. Meta-analysis revealed a small but significant effect such that Sibs-A performed lower than comparison peers in overall language and communication. Effects were strongest for expressive language and linguistic processing speed, and there were substantially larger differences for experimenter-administered measures than for parent-report, though findings must be considered in the context of other study characteristics. Suggestions based on this meta-analytic review are provided to guide future research in understanding individual differences in the communicative development and outcomes of Sibs-A. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Comunicação , Irmãos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/complicações , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cognition ; 214: 104799, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139478

RESUMO

Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are delayed in learning language. The mechanisms underlying these delays are not well understood but may involve differences in how children process language. In the current experiment, we compared how 3- to 4-year-old children with ASD (n = 58) and 2- to 3-year-old children who are typically developing (TD, n = 44) use phonological information to incrementally process speech. Children saw pictures of objects displayed on a screen and heard sentences labeling one of the objects (e.g., Find the ball). For some sentences, the determiner the contained coarticulatory information about the onset of the target word. For other sentences, the determiner the did not contain any coarticulatory information. Children were faster to fixate the target object for sentences with vs. without coarticulation. This effect of coarticulation was the same for children with ASD compared to their TD peers. When controlling for group differences in receptive language ability, the effect of coarticulation was stronger for children with ASD compared to their TD peers. These results suggest that phonological processing is an area of relative strength for children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Linguística
19.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 79(4): 283-289, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the moderate stage of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), language disorder is more evident and it impacts on communication. An overview of language impairment could be helpful to find compensatory communication strategies for these patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify all language impairments among patients with moderate-stage of AD. METHODS: 20 patients diagnosed with probable AD based on the criteria of the NINCDS-ARDRA, with a MMSE score of 13-23 points and CDR=2, who were undergoing treatment for AD with therapeutic doses of acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, were assessed using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE), a test that provides a broad assessment of language. The results were compared with the performance of a normal population. RESULTS: The patients assessed in this study presented normal scores for oral and written word recognition, repetition, mechanics of writing, primer-level dictation and spelling to dictation but also had impairment at most levels of linguistic processing, in oral and written comprehension and production. In general, as expected, the tasks relying on access to the mental lexicon were most significantly affected. However, they performed well in the naming task, in which semantic cues were presented. Moreover, the patients assessed in this study had better performance in written comprehension tasks than in oral ones. CONCLUSION: The severity of the language impairments was not homogenous, with some linguistic abilities more impaired than others. The abilities that were found to be preserved can help to guide strategies for aiding in communication at this stage of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Semântica
20.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study emotional and behavioral disorders in children with specific language impairment (SLI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group included 60 children with a diagnosis of specific expressive language impairment at the age of 4-6 years. The following methods were used to assess emotional and behavioral disorders: the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the SNAP-IV scale, and the Questionnaire created by G.P. Lavrentieva and T.M. Titarenko. To objectify the severity of speech disorders, 10-point scales were used, assessing the level of comprehension of the addressed speech, the volume of the active vocabulary and the lexico-grammatical structure of speech. The control group consisted of 30 children of the same age without psycho-neurological disorders. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Speech disorders in children are often combined with behavioral disorders (61.7%). Children with SLI have significant attention disorders, hyperactivity and difficulties in relationships with peers compared with the control group. A comparative study shows that combined SLI and behavioral disorders lead to a more severe course of speech impairment.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno Específico de Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão , Emoções , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Fala
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