Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.859
Filtrar
1.
Talanta ; 236: 122842, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635232

RESUMO

A fluorescent aptasensor based on sensitized terbium(III) luminescence was constructed to detect melamine in milk. Tb3+ as the fluorescence probe can be sensitized by a guanine-rich single-stranded DNA sequence, so the complementary sequence of the polythymidine aptamer (cDNA) was modified with six consecutive guanine bases (G6). In the absence of melamine, melamine aptamer combined with cDNA to form a double helix structure, and G6 hybridized with the extended cytosine bases in the aptamer, resulting in low fluorescence intensity of Tb3+. In the presence of melamine, cDNA was released due to the specific recognition of melamine to the aptamer, resulting in stronger sensitized fluorescence intensity of Tb3+. Under the optimum conditions, the linear concentration of melamine in the milk ranged from 1.0 µg/mL to 10.0 µg/mL. This aptasensor can be used for the accurate and rapid detection of melamine in milk with a detection limit of 0.02 µg/mL, and has the advantages of high sensitivity, high efficiency, simple operation and low cost.


Assuntos
Luminescência , Leite , Animais , Limite de Detecção , Leite/química , Triazinas/análise
2.
Talanta ; 236: 122819, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635210

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based on plasmonic metal nanoparticles and semiconductors has been used as performance-enhancing structures for sensing trace chemicals. We have selected a case of oxide functional oxide organic nanostructure between ZnFe2O4 and ZnO, denoted as ZZF. By decorating such nanostructure with AuNPs, to identify R6G in varying concentrations (10-6 M - 10-12 M), an enhancement factor of 1.6 × 108 was observed. The material was used for the identification of melamine in the concentration range of 0.39 µM-7.92 µM. This high-performance nanocomposite provides improved melamine sensitivity towards SERS and the limit of detection as low as 0.39 µM. The Au-ZZF SERS substrate can yield a SERS enhancement factor of 1.37 × 107. The experimental performance demonstrates that excellent SERS enhancement is due to electrons movement within ZZF and Au nanoparticles. Owing to its easy and effective synthesis methodology, this sensitive and specific SERS substrate is a promising technique to detect trace chemicals. We further study the best energetically favorable orientation of melamine molecules over the substrate leading to the SERS activity using density functional theoretical study.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanocompostos , Óxido de Zinco , Ouro , Humanos , Prata , Triazinas
3.
Talanta ; 235: 122743, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517611

RESUMO

The analysis of contaminants in migration of food contact material (FCMs) is an urgent demand for food safety. In this study, melamine and formaldehyde in melamine kitchenware were selectively analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) via aptamer/derivatization-based membrane assembly. The membrane assembly was designed by simple filtration of Ag nanoparticles-decorated "stellate" silicon dioxide (SiO2/Ag) and composites of reduced graphene oxide and Ag nanoparticles (rGO/Ag) functioned with specific reagents. High selectivity can be realized by melamine aptamer and derivatization reagent of formaldehyde, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of melamine and formaldehyde analysis for 11 replicate measurements, 14 consecutive days and 25 batches are less than 6.0 %, which shows excellent repeatability and reproducibility. After the method was validated, the limits of detection (LOD) for melamine and formaldehyde are 0.15 mg/L and 0.21 mg/L, respectively. The developed method was applied to determine the content of melamine and formaldehyde in migration of melamine kitchenware with low relative errors (less than 5.3 %) compared to chromatographic results. The recoveries of melamine and formaldehyde for migrations of melamine kitchenware are 91.2-110.0 % and 94.0-106.0 % with RSDs in range of 1.8-8.3 % and 4.7-9.1 %, respectively. The method proposed a new concept of convenient, portable and reliable strategy for analysis of melamine and formaldehyde in migration from FCMs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Análise Espectral Raman , Formaldeído , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dióxido de Silício , Prata , Triazinas
4.
Se Pu ; 39(9): 998-1005, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486839

RESUMO

In this work, a polymer precursor was first synthesized using p-terphenyl (TP) and terephthaloyl chloride (TC) as monomers. Then, cross-linking was realized by means of a Schiff base reaction with melamine (MA) as a modifier to obtain an amine-functionalized porous organic polymer TP-TC-MA. The synthesized polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and point of zero charge (pHpzc) measurements, as well as on the basis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate the adsorption properties of TP-TC-MA for methyl orange (MO), a typical anionic azo dye that has widespread industrial application. The amount of MO adsorbed on TP-TC-MA was evaluated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy at a wavelength of 463 nm. Microscopic analysis revealed that the as-synthesized polymer had an aggregated particle-shaped structure. XRD spectra confirmed that TP-TC-MA was an amorphous polymer, consistent with the results of high-resolution TEM experiments. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and total pore volume of TP-TC-MA were determined as 708.5 m 2/g and 0.556 cm3/g, respectively. The measured pHpzc of TP-TC-MA was 4.0, probably because of the abundant nitrogen-containing groups provided by MA. The factors affecting adsorption, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial pollutant concentration, and ionic strength, were investigated. Because of the protonation of the N-atom in TP-TC-MA, the pH had a strong impact on the adsorption of MO. The removal efficiency could be maximized at the optimized pH of 3.0. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm, measured at 25 ℃ and a concentration of 50-500 mg/L, showed that the MO adsorption over TP-TC-MA followed the Langmuir isotherm, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 156.3 mg/g. The modeling of the experimental adsorption data was consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which indicated fast adsorption and chemisorption as the dominant mechanism. With increasing ionic strength, the adsorption of MO slightly decreased, suggesting a partial antagonistic ion effect. Results of the selectivity study revealed that TP-TC-MA was more selective toward MO than methylene blue (MB), which indicated that electrostatic interactions played a significant role during the adsorption progress. Five adsorption-desorption cycles showed that TP-TC-MA could be regenerated without significant deterioration of its adsorption efficiency, indicating that it has good stability and reusability. The observed adsorption performance indicated that this MA-modified porous organic polymer offers prospects for further research and application in the treatment of dye-containing wastewaters.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Compostos Azo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Porosidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Triazinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 24(9): 804-813, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530562

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with KIT/PDGFRA "homozygous mutation", the efficacy of targeted therapy and the prognosis. Methods: A retrospective cohort study and propensity score matching were used. "Homozygous mutation" was defined as the detection of KIT/PDGFRA gene status of GIST by Sanger sequencing, which showed that there was only mutant gene sequence in the sequencing map, lack of wild-type sequence or the peak height of mutant gene sequence was much higher than that of wild-type gene sequence (> 3 times). "Heterozygous mutation" was defined as the mutant gene sequences coexisted with wild type gene sequences, and the peak height was similar (3 times or less). The clinicopathological data and follow-up information of 92 GIST patients with KIT/PDGFRA "homozygous mutation" were collected from 4 hospitals in Shanghai from January 2008 to May 2021 (Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine: 70 cases; Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University: 14 cases; Changhai Hospital, Naval Military Medical University: 6 cases and Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine: 2 cases). Patients with perioperative death, other malignancies, and incomplete clinicopathological information were excluded. The clinicopathological features of the patients and the efficacy of targeted drug therapy were observed and analyzed. The efficacy was evaluated using Choi criteria, which were divided into complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). In addition, a total of 230 patients with high-risk GIST with "heterozygous mutation" in exon 11 of KIT gene and 117 patients with recurrent or metastatic GIST with "heterozygous mutation" in exon 11 of KIT gene were included. The propensity score matching method was used to match GIST patients with "heterozygous" and "homozygous" mutations in exon 11 of KIT gene (1∶1) for survival analysis. The disease-free survival (DFS) between two groups of high-risk GIST patients who underwent complete surgical resection were compared. And progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with recurrent or metastatic GIST were compared. Results: Of the 92 GIST cases with KIT/PDGFRA "homozygous mutation", 58 were males and 34 were females, with a median onset age of 62 (31-91) years. Primary GIST 83 cases. Primary high-risk GIST (53 cases), metastatic GIST (21 cases) and recurrent GIST (9 cases) accounted for 90.2% (83/92). There were 90 cases of KIT gene"homozygous mutation" (exon 11 for 88 cases, exon 13 for 1 case, exon 17 for 1 case), and 2 cases of PDGFRA gene "homozygous mutation" (exon 12 for 1 case, exon 18 for 1 case). The median follow-up time was 49 (8-181) months. Among the 61 cases of primary localized GIST undergoing complete surgical resection, 2 cases were intermediate-risk GIST, 5 cases were low-risk GIST, and 1 case was very low-risk GIST, of whom 1 case of intermediate-risk GIST received 1-year adjuvant imatinib mesylate (IM) therapy after operation, and no tumor recurrence developed during the follow-up period. The remaining 53 cases were high-risk GIST, and follow-up data were obtained from 50 cases, of whom 22 developed tumor recurrence during follow-up. Of 9 patients directly receiving neoadjuvant targeted therapy (IM or avapritinib), 5 had complete imaging follow-up data, and the evaluation of efficacy achieved PR. Of all the 92 GIST cases with KIT/PDGFRA "homozygous mutation", 50 (54.4%) had tumor metastasis or tumor recurrence or progression during follow-up, and 12 (13.0%) died of the tumor. Survival analysis combined with propensity score showed that in 100 cases of high-risk GISTs with complete resection, GISTs with "homozygous mutation" in exon 11 of KIT gene had shorter disease-free survival (DFS) than GISTs with "heterozygous mutation" in exon 11 of KIT gene (median DFS: 72 months vs. 148 months, P=0.015). In 60 cases of recurrent or metastatic GISTs with KIT gene exon 11 mutation, IM was used as the first-line treatment, and the progression-free survival (PFS) of GISTs with "homozygous mutation" was shorter compared to GISTs with "heterozygous mutation" (median PFS: 38 months vs. 69 months, P=0.044). The differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: "Homozygous mutation" in KIT/PDGFRA gene is associated with the progression of GIST. The corresponding targeted therapeutic drugs are still effective for GIST with KIT/PDGFRA gene "homozygous mutation". Compared with GIST patients with "heterozygous mutation" in KIT exon 11, GIST patients with "homozygous mutation" in KIT exon 11 are more likely to relapse after surgery and to develop resistance to IM. Therefore, it is still necessary to seek more effective treatment methods for this subset of cases.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , China , Feminino , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Pirazóis , Pirróis , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triazinas
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112756, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507040

RESUMO

Exposure to melamine, which is ubiquitous in daily life, is linked to adverse kidney outcomes. The melamine tolerable daily intake in humans is based on the no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) established in a single-toxicant murine model. However, humans are often simultaneously exposed to multiple environmental nephrotoxicants. The NOEL of melamine during coexposure with other toxicants needs to be evaluated. Oxalate is a potentially nephrotoxic terminal metabolite, and hyperoxaluria is reportedly associated with chronic kidney disease. We explored whether these two potential nephrotoxicants can interact and enhance kidney injury. We established a Sprague-Dawley rat model of coexposure to the melamine NOEL (63 mg/kg/day) and 2% hydroxy-L-proline (HLP, an oxalate precursor) in drinking water to simulate human environmental melamine exposure. Melamine/oxalate coexposure increased proximal tubular cell mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. The degrees of mitochondrial damage, tubular cell apoptosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis were elevated in coexposed rat kidneys. The evidence indicated that exposure to the melamine NOEL can cause renal tubular injury via oxidative stress and that this effect may be enhanced via interaction of melamine with other environmental factors, such as oxalate. Thus, melamine risk assessment and toxicity prevention should be conducted carefully in different susceptible populations.


Assuntos
Oxalatos , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Rim , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triazinas
7.
Analyst ; 146(19): 5898-5903, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570842

RESUMO

The adsorption of single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssDNA) on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) could stabilize AuNPs against aggregation even at high salt concentrations, and similar phenomena have also been observed on Au core/Pt shell nanoparticles (Au@PtNPs). Inspired by the knowledge that thymine can easily recognize melamine by forming triple H-bonds in aqueous medium, in this contribution, using polythymine-coated Au@PtNPs as the probe, we demonstrated that the responsive aggregation of polyT55 stabilized Au@PtNPs could occur and therefore result in the significant inhibition of the catalysed gas-generation reaction, the decomposition of H2O2 to H2O and O2 catalyzed by Au@PtNPs. Consequently, a pressure-based signaling strategy was developed for highly sensitive and specific melamine detection not only in laboratory but also in point-of-care (POC) settings, and the correlation between the pressure change (ΔP) signal and the melamine concentration was found to be linear from 0.025 to 10.0 µM with a limit of detection of 6.4 nM, providing a convenient new alternative and new train of thought for the specific detection of melamine.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Hidrogênio , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Testes Imediatos , Triazinas
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445654

RESUMO

Rigid polyurethane/polyisocyanurate (RPU/PIR) foam formulations were modified by evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) oil cake as a bio-filler in the amount of 5 to 50 wt.%. The obtained foams were tested in terms of processing parameters, cellular structure (SEM analysis), physico-mechanical properties (apparent density, compressive strength, brittleness, accelerated aging tests), thermal insulation properties (thermal conductivity coefficient, closed cells content, absorbability and water absorption), flammability, smoke emission, and thermal properties. The obtained results showed that the amount of bio-filler had a significant influence on the morphology of the modified foams. Thorough mixing of the polyurethane premix allowed better homogenization of the bio-filler in the polyurethane matrix, resulting in a regular cellular structure. This resulted in an improvement in the physico-mechanical and thermal insulation properties as well as a reduction in the flammability of the obtained materials. This research provided important information on the management of the waste product from the edible oil industry and the production process of fire-safe RPU/PIR foams with improved performance properties. Due to these beneficial effects, it was found that the use of evening primrose oil cake as a bio-filler for RPU/PIR foams opens a new way of waste management to obtain new "green" materials.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos/química , Oenothera biennis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Polímeros/química , Poliuretanos/química , Triazinas/química , Resíduos/análise , Ácido gama-Linolênico/química
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(16-17): 6463-6475, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357428

RESUMO

Bioremediation is becoming an increasingly popular approach for the remediation of sites contaminated with the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Multiple lines of evidence are often needed to assess the success of such approaches, with molecular studies frequently providing important information on the abundance of key biodegrading species. Towards this goal, the current study utilized shotgun sequencing to determine the abundance and diversity of functional genes (xenA, xenB, xplA, diaA, pnrB, nfsI) and species previously associated with RDX biodegradation in groundwater before and after biostimulation at an RDX-contaminated Navy Site. For this, DNA was extracted from four and seven groundwater wells pre- and post-biostimulation, respectively. From a set of 65 previously identified RDX degraders, 31 were found within the groundwater samples, with the most abundant species being Variovorax sp. JS1663, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Further, 9 RDX-degrading species significantly (p<0.05) increased in abundance following biostimulation. Both the sequencing data and qPCR indicated that xenA and xenB exhibited the highest relative abundance among the six genes. Several genes (diaA, nsfI, xenA, and pnrB) exhibited higher relative abundance values in some wells following biostimulation. The study provides a comprehensive approach for assessing biomarkers during RDX bioremediation and provides evidence that biostimulation generated a positive impact on a set of key species and genes. KEY POINTS: • A co-occurrence network indicated diverse RDX degraders. • >30 RDX-degrading species were detected. • Nine RDX-degrading species increased following biostimulation. • Sequencing and high-throughput qPCR indicated that xenA and xenB were most abundant.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Pseudomonas fluorescens , Biodegradação Ambiental , Triazinas
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 777, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with influenza virus infections are prone to complications and are common sources of influenza transmission. Baloxavir marboxil inhibits cap-dependent endonuclease and was approved for influenza treatment in adolescent, adult, and pediatric patients in Japan. The miniSTONE-2 study included pediatric patients with influenza (1 to < 12 years) and demonstrated similar median times to alleviation of signs and symptoms of influenza with a single dose of baloxavir granules (weight < 20 kg: 2 mg/kg, ≥ 20 kg: 40 mg) and oseltamivir. Although the baloxavir dose in miniSTONE-2 was higher than the Japanese-approved dose, baloxavir exposure in miniSTONE-2 was similar to Japanese pediatric patients who receive the Japanese-approved dose. This study will be the first randomized active-controlled study in pediatric patients with influenza using the Japanese-approved dose of baloxavir. METHODS: This is a multicenter, open-label, randomized, active-controlled trial in which 200 Japanese subjects aged 6 to < 12 years with influenza virus infection are randomly allocated (2:1) to a single dose of baloxavir at the approved dose in Japan (weight ≥ 10 to < 20 kg: 10 mg, ≥ 20 to < 40 kg: 20 mg, ≥ 40 kg: 40 mg) or oseltamivir twice daily for 5 days. The primary clinical endpoint is the time to illness alleviation of influenza, from administration of baloxavir or oseltamivir until the following criteria were met and sustained for at least 21.5 h (24 h-10%): cough and nasal discharge/nasal congestion rated as absent or mild axillary body temperature < 37.5 °C. The primary analysis population is the intention-to-treat infected population, which includes all pediatric subjects who receive at least one dose of study drug and have confirmed influenza virus infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The safety population includes all subjects who receive at least one dose of study drug. DISCUSSION: No comparative studies have been conducted to confirm the efficacy and safety of baloxavir versus a comparator in pediatric patients with influenza infection in Japan. The outcomes from this trial will provide evidence on the efficacy and safety of baloxavir as an antiviral treatment option for Japanese pediatric patients with influenza infection. Trial registration Japan Registry of Clinical Trials: jRCTs011200011. Registered November 2020. ( https://rctportal.niph.go.jp/en/ ).


Assuntos
Antivirais , Dibenzotiepinas , Influenza Humana , Oseltamivir , Adolescente , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Dibenzotiepinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triazinas
11.
Talanta ; 234: 122633, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364442

RESUMO

The detection of trace amounts of explosive materials is critical to the security at mass transit centers (e.g., airports and railway stations). In a typical screening process, a trap is used to probe a surface of interest to collect and transfer particulate residue to a detector for analysis. The collection of residues from the surface being probed is widely viewed as the limiting step in this process. A multi-institutional study was performed to establish a methodology for the evaluation of sampling media collection efficiencies. Dry deposited residues of 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), C-4 (an RDX-based explosive), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were harvested from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic, ballistic nylon (NYL), and uncoated aluminum surfaces using muslin, Texwipe cotton, and stainless-steel mesh traps. Transfer and collection efficiencies of the sample media were calculated based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Dry transfer efficiencies (DTE%) to all tested surfaces were greater than 75%, with transfer to ABS plastic being the lowest. Collection efficiency (CE%) varied significantly across the traps and the surfaces, yet some conclusions can be drawn; nylon had the lowest CE% for all cases (∼10%), and the stainless steel mesh had the lowest CE% for the evaluated traps (∼20%). Though the testing parameters have been standardized among the participants to establish a framework for an independent comparison of contact sampling media and surfaces, substantial variations in the DTE% and the CE% were observed, suggesting that other variables can affect contact sampling.


Assuntos
Substâncias Explosivas , Tetranitrato de Pentaeritritol , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Têxteis , Triazinas
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445688

RESUMO

The aim of the presented research was to obtain two new eco-polyols based on waste polylactide (PLA) and to check the effect on the properties of rigid polyurethane (RPU) foams and, based on these, rigid polyurethane/polyisocyanurate (RPU/PIR) foams. The synthesis of eco-polyols was based on the transesterification reaction of melted PLA with diethylene glycol in the presence of an organometallic catalyst. Properties of the obtained eco-polyols were examined for their potential as raw materials for synthesis of rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams, i.e., hydroxyl value, acid value, density, viscosity, pH, water content. Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR) were also carried out. Results of these tests confirmed the assumed chemical structure of the new polyols. RPU and RPU/PIR foam formulations were developed based on the obtained analytical results. Partial replacement of petrochemical polyol by eco-polyols in RPU and RPU/PIR foams decreased the value of apparent density, compressive strength, brittleness and water absorption. Moreover, all foams modified by eco-polyols showed higher resistance to aging. All RPU/PIR foams and most PRU foams modified by eco-polyols from waste PLA had better functional properties than the reference foams based on petrochemical polyol.


Assuntos
Polímeros/química , Poliuretanos/química , Triazinas/química , Catálise , Força Compressiva , Poliésteres/química , Poliuretanos/síntese química , Viscosidade
13.
Antiviral Res ; 194: 105158, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363859

RESUMO

It is more than 20 years since the neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir were approved for the treatment and prevention of influenza. Guidelines for global surveillance and methods for evaluating resistance were established initially by the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network (NISN), which merged 10 years ago with the International Society for influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases (isirv) to become the isirv-Antiviral Group (isirv-AVG). With the ongoing development of new influenza polymerase inhibitors and recent approval of baloxavir marboxil, the isirv-AVG held a closed meeting in August 2019 to discuss the impact of resistance to these inhibitors. Following this meeting and review of the current literature, this article is intended to summarize current knowledge regarding the clinical impact of resistance to polymerase inhibitors and approaches for surveillance and methods for laboratory evaluation of resistance, both in vitro and in animal models. We highlight limitations and gaps in current knowledge and suggest some strategies for addressing these gaps, including the need for additional clinical studies of influenza antiviral drug combinations. Lessons learned from influenza resistance monitoring may also be helpful for establishing future drug susceptibility surveillance and testing for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Dibenzotiepinas/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Viral , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Conhecimento , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Neuraminidase/uso terapêutico , Oseltamivir/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazinas/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Zanamivir/farmacologia
14.
Nat Chem ; 13(9): 843-849, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373598

RESUMO

Biochemical networks interconnect, grow and evolve to express new properties as different chemical pathways are selected during a continuous cycle of energy consumption and transformation. In contrast, synthetic systems that push away from equilibrium usually return to the same self-assembled state, often generating waste that limits system recyclability and prevents the formation of adaptable networks. Here we show that annealing by slow proton dissipation selects for otherwise inaccessible morphologies of fibres built from DNA and cyanuric acid. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, we observe that proton dissipation influences the growth mechanism of supramolecular polymerization, healing gaps within fibres and converting highly branched, interwoven networks into nanocable superstructures. Just as the growth kinetics of natural fibres determine their structural attributes to modulate function, our system of photoacid-enabled depolymerization and repolymerization selects for healed materials to yield organized, robust fibres. Our method provides a chemical route for error-checking, distinct from thermal annealing, that improves the morphologies and properties of supramolecular materials using out-of-equilibrium systems.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Indóis/química , Indóis/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Polimerização/efeitos da radiação , Triazinas/química
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2119151, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387680

RESUMO

Importance: Antiviral treatment of influenza is recommended for patients with influenza-like illness during periods of community cocirculation of influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2; however, questions remain about which treatment is associated with the best outcomes and fewest adverse events. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of neuraminidase inhibitors and the endonuclease inhibitor for the treatment of seasonal influenza among healthy adults and children. Data Sources: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Register of Clinical Trials were searched from inception to January 2020 (the last search was updated in October 2020). Study Selection: Included studies were randomized clinical trials conducted among patients of all ages with influenza treated with neuraminidase inhibitors (ie, oseltamivir, peramivir, zanamivir, or laninamivir) or an endonuclease inhibitor (ie, baloxavir) compared with other active agents or placebo. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two investigators identified studies and independently abstracted data. Frequentist network meta-analyses were performed; relative ranking of agents was conducted using P-score probabilities. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations criteria. Data were analyzed in October 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The time to alleviation of influenza symptoms (TTAS), complications of influenza, and adverse events (total adverse events, nausea, and vomiting). Results: A total of 26 trials were identified that investigated antiviral drugs at high or low doses; these trials included 11 897 participants, among whom 6294 (52.9%) were men and the mean (SD) age was 32.5 (16.9) years. Of all treatments comparing with placebo in efficacy outcomes, high-quality evidence indicated that zanamivir was associated with the shortest TTAS (hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58-0.77), while baloxavir was associated with the lowest risk of influenza-related complications (risk ratio [RR], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80) based on moderate-quality evidence. In safety outcomes, baloxavir was associated with the lowest risk of total adverse events (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74-0.96) compared with placebo based on moderate-quality evidence. There was no strong evidence of associations with risk of nausea or vomiting among all comparisons, except for 75 mg oseltamivir, which was associated with greater occurrence of nausea (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.38-2.41) and vomiting (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.47-2.41). Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and network meta-analysis, all 4 antiviral agents assessed were associated with shortening TTAS; zanamivir was associated with the shortest TTAS, and baloxavir was associated with reduced rate of influenza-related complications.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Dibenzotiepinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Zanamivir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Endonucleases/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metanálise em Rede , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1654: 462475, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438304

RESUMO

Rapid and high-flux enantiomer separation is significant for drug development. Membrane separation technology provides promising approaches for enantiomer separations. Porous membrane with good selectivity and high permeability is an ideal choice for enantiomer separations. Herein, we demonstrate the preparation of a novel two-dimensional chiral covalent triazine frameworks (CCTF) membrane by "in situ growth" method. Inheriting the strong chirality and specific interactions from CCTF, the CCTF membranes exhibited good enantioselectivity for drug intermediates and drug, including (R)/(S)-1-phenylethanol, (R)/(S)-1,1'-binaphthol and (R)/(S)-ibuprofen. Under optimal separation conditions, the enantiomeric excess value (e.e %) was above 21.7 % for (R)/(S)-1-phenylethanol, 12.0% for (R)/(S)-1,1'-binaphthol and 9.7 % for (R)/(S)-ibuprofen. The mechanism of the CCTF recognizing enantiomers were simulated by quantum mechanical calculations. In addition, the mechanism was also proved by the separation of enantiomers using this CCTF-modified silica column in liquid chromatography. The CCTF membrane may bring about the potentially application for large-scale production of chiral compounds. Meanwhile, this work provides a theoretical guidance for the application of CCOFs in enantiomer separation.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica , Triazinas , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Membranas Artificiais , Porosidade , Dióxido de Silício , Estereoisomerismo , Triazinas/química
17.
Talanta ; 234: 122710, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364502

RESUMO

The determination of triazine herbicides in water samples is of utmost importance, due to their persistence and excessive use. However, since the concentration of triazine pesticides in real samples is low, an extraction/preconcentration step is typically required. Capsule phase microextraction (CPME) is a recently introduced sample preparation technique in which highly efficient sol-gel sorbents are encapsulated in a tubular polymer membrane. This particular design integrates the filtration and stirring mechanism into one extraction device, enabling the application of CPME for in situ sampling. In this study, CPME coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was employed for the first time for the determination of six triazine herbicides (i.e., simazine, cyanazine, atrazine, prometryn, terbuthylazine and propazine) in water samples. Microextraction capsules containing a moderately hydrophobic sol-gel Carbowax 20 M sorbent provided the highest extraction efficiency towards the examined pesticides. The main parameters affecting the adsorption and desorption steps of the CPME procedure were investigated and optimized. Under the selected conditions, limits of detection (signal/noise = 3.3) were 0.15 ng mL-1 for the target analytes. Moreover, the relative standard deviation for the within-day and between-days repeatability were less than 7.2% and 9.9%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of mineral water, tap water, rainwater and lake water samples. The reported protocol could overcome the need for sample filtration prior to the sample preparation of the water samples, resulting in simplification of the overall sample handling, improved data quality with minimal loss of analytes and reduced sample preparation cost.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Herbicidas/análise , Polietilenoglicóis , Triazinas/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 350: 171-184, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280503

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported that melamine can accumulate in several regions of the brain including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Although melamine accumulation in the hippocampus has been verified to induce cognitive impairments, whether it can cause mPFC-dependent working memory deficits is still unknown. After chronic treatment with melamine (150 (Mel(150)) or 300 (Mel(300)) mg/kg), rats were tested during both delay nonmatching-to-sample spatial and odor discrimination tasks. Levels of AMPA receptor subunits in the mPFC were detected using western blotting. To further explore the mechanism at the cellular level, prefrontal activity was recorded during the odor discrimination. The working memory of Mel(150) rats was found to be significantly impaired in a 3-minute delay odor discrimination task (control: n = 6, Mel(150): n = 6; P < 0.05). Compared with the control group (n = 6), rats in the 300 mg/kg Mel(300)-treated group (n = 8) displayed working memory deficits in 60-second delay Y-maze task (P < 0.05), 1-minute and 3-minute delay odor discrimination tasks (both P < 0.05). The levels of AMPA receptor mGluR2/3 subunit were significantly decreased in rats of the Mel(150) (n = 7) and Mel(300) (n = 7) groups (both P < 0.05). Exposure to 150 (n = 7) or 300 mg/kg (n = 7) melamine resulted in significant inhibition of the regular-spiking neuron activity during the delay period of the memory test (both P < 0.05). Intraperitoneal (n = 7) and intra-mPFC (n = 6) infusions of GluR2/3 agonists, effectively enhanced the neural correlate (both P < 0.05) while rescuing cognitive deficits in Mel(300)-treated rats (both P < 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggested that melamine could induce prefrontal dysfunction and cause cognitive impairments.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de AMPA/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Triazinas/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Anal Methods ; 13(32): 3585-3591, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291246

RESUMO

A rapid and sensitive approach for enriching and extracting triazines from brown sugar samples was developed by combining magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction and HPLC/UV. In this work, a magnetic porous biochar (MPB) derived from low-cost bagasse was prepared and successfully employed as an adsorbent. A particular emphasis was placed on optimizing the extraction conditions, including the amount of MPB, extraction time, pH, type and volume of eluent, and salt concentration. Under optimized MSPE conditions, the method showed satisfactory linearity over concentration ranges of 2-200 µg L-1 for four triazines, with correlation coefficient values no less than 0.9981. Low limits of detection (0.27-0.33 µg L-1), good recoveries (81.7-100.7%), and satisfactory repeatability (RSDs ≤ 8.1%) were also demonstrated with respect to the analytical performance. The results demonstrated that the developed method was simple, rapid, sensitive, and efficient, indicating that it could extract and enrich trace triazines from real samples.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Extração em Fase Sólida , Celulose , Carvão Vegetal , Herbicidas/análise , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Porosidade , Açúcares , Triazinas/análise
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(18): e0091521, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260305

RESUMO

Rice is an important source of food for more than half of the world's population. Bacterial panicle blight (BPB) is a disease of rice characterized by grain discoloration or sheath rot caused mainly by Burkholderia glumae. B. glumae synthesizes toxoflavin, an essential virulence factor that is required for symptoms of the disease. The products of the tox operons, ToxABCDE and ToxFGHI, are responsible for the synthesis and the proton motive force (PMF)-dependent secretion of toxoflavin, respectively. The DedA family is a highly conserved membrane protein family found in most bacterial genomes that likely function as membrane transporters. Our previous work has demonstrated that absence of certain DedA family members results in pleiotropic effects, impacting multiple pathways that are energized by PMF. We have demonstrated that a member of the DedA family from Burkholderia thailandensis, named DbcA, is required for the extreme polymyxin resistance observed in this organism. B. glumae encodes a homolog of DbcA with 73% amino acid identity to Burkholderia thailandensis DbcA. Here, we created and characterized a B. glumae ΔdbcA strain. In addition to polymyxin sensitivity, the B. glumae ΔdbcA strain is compromised for virulence in several BPB infection models and secretes only low amounts of toxoflavin (∼15% of wild-type levels). Changes in membrane potential in the B. glumae ΔdbcA strain were reproduced in the wild-type strain by the addition of subinhibitory concentrations of sodium bicarbonate, previously demonstrated to cause disruption of PMF. Sodium bicarbonate inhibited B. glumae virulence in rice, suggesting a possible non-toxic chemical intervention for bacterial panicle blight. IMPORTANCE Bacterial panicle blight (BPB) is a disease of rice characterized by grain discoloration or sheath rot caused mainly by Burkholderia glumae. The DedA family is a highly conserved membrane protein family found in most bacterial genomes that likely function as membrane transporters. Here, we constructed a B. glumae mutant with a deletion in a DedA family member named dbcA and report a loss of virulence in models of BPB. Physiological analysis of the mutant shows that the proton motive force is disrupted, leading to reduction of secretion of the essential virulence factor toxoflavin. The mutant phenotypes are reproduced in the virulent wild-type strain without an effect on growth using sodium bicarbonate, a nontoxic buffer that has been reported to disrupt the PMF. The results presented here suggest that bicarbonate may be an effective antivirulence agent capable of controlling BPB without imposing an undue burden on the environment.


Assuntos
Burkholderia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Força Próton-Motriz , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Burkholderia/efeitos dos fármacos , Burkholderia/genética , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Burkholderia/patogenicidade , Carbonil Cianeto m-Clorofenil Hidrazona/farmacologia , Cebolas/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/metabolismo , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Triazinas/metabolismo , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...