Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.725
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280064, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652427

RESUMO

Advances in biocontrol potentials and fungicide resistance are highly desirable for Trichoderma. Thus, it is profitable to use mutagenic agents to develop superior strains with enhanced biocontrol properties and fungicide tolerance in Trichoderma. This study investigates the N-methyl-n-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) (100 mg/L) induced mutants of Trichoderma asperellum. Six NTG (3 each from 1st & 2nd round) induced mutants were developed and evaluated their biocontrol activities and carbendazim tolerance. Among the mutant N2-3, N2-1, N1 and N2-2 gave the best antagonistic and volatile metabolite activities on inhibition of chickpea F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, B. cinerea and R. bataticola mycelium under in vitro condition. Mutant N2-2 (5626.40 µg/ml) showed the highest EC50 value against carbendazim followed by N2-3 (206.36 µg/ml) and N2-1 (16.41 µg/ml); and succeeded to sporulate even at 2000 µg/ml of carbendazim. The biocontrol activity of N2-2 and N2 with half-dose of carbendazim was evaluated on chickpea dry root rot under controlled environment. Disease reduction and progress of the dry root rot was extremely low in T7 (N2-2 + with half-dose of carbendazim) treatment. Further, carbendazim resistant mutants demonstrated mutation in tub2 gene of ß-tubulin family which was suggested through the 37 and 183 residue changes in the superimposed protein structures encoded by tub2 gene in N2 and N2-2 with WT respectively. This study conclusively implies that the enhanced carbendazim tolerance in N2-2 mutant did not affect the mycoparasitism and plant growth activity of Trichoderma. These mutants were as good as the wild-type with respect to all inherent attributes.


Assuntos
Cicer , Fungicidas Industriais , Trichoderma , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Cicer/genética , Melhoramento Genético , Antibiose , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
2.
Planta ; 257(2): 31, 2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602606

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Molecular studies have elucidated Trichoderma's biocontrol mechanisms. Since fungicides have limited use, Trichoderma could control disease by new metabolic routes and epigenetic alterations. Due to environmental and health hazards, agrochemicals have been a concern since they were introduced in agriculture. Trichoderma, a well-known fungal genus with different mechanisms of action, is an alternative to pesticides and a great tool to help minimize disease incidence. Trichoderma-treated plants mainly benefit from disease control and growth promotion through priming, and these fungi can modulate plants' gene expression by boosting their immune system, accelerating their response to threats, and building stress tolerance. The latest studies suggest that epigenetics is required for plant priming and could be essential for growth promotion, expanding the possibilities for producing new resistant plant varieties. Trichoderma's propagules can be mass produced and formulated depending on the delivery method. Microsclerotia-based bioproducts could be a promising way of increasing the reliability and durability of marketed products in the field, as well as help guarantee longer shelf life. Developing novel formulations and selecting efficient Trichoderma strains can be tiresome, but patent search indicates an increase in the industrialization and commercialization of technologies and an expansion of companies' involvement in research and development in this field. Although Trichoderma is considered a well-known fungal genus, it still attracts the attention of large companies, universities, and research institutes around the world.


Assuntos
Micoses , Trichoderma , Trichoderma/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Plantas/microbiologia , Agricultura , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

RESUMO

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Aspergillus , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Organofosfonatos , Fungos , Glicina/análogos & derivados
4.
Food Chem ; 407: 135149, 2023 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493475

RESUMO

The effects of enzyme hydrolysis treatment, Aspergillus niger fermentation treatment, Trichoderma reesei fermentation treatment, Aspergillus niger-enzyme hydrolysis treatment and Trichoderma reesei-enzyme hydrolysis treatment on structural properties and adsorption capacities of soluble dietary fiber from Mesona chinensis Benth residues were evaluated and compared. The Aspergillus niger-enzyme hydrolysis treatment sample possessed more diverse structure, lower crystallinity and thermal stability than other modified samples. Meanwhile, it also observed the highest soluble dietary fiber yield (20.76 ± 0.31 %), water-holding capacity and glucose adsorption capacity (38.03 ± 0.28 mg/g). The Aspergillus niger fermentation treatment sample generated a high oil-holding capacity, nitrite ion adsorption capacity (181.84 ± 6.67 ug/g), cholesterol adsorption capacity (16.40 ± 0.37 mg/g) and sodium cholate adsorption capacity (94.80 ± 1.41 mg/g). Additionally, different monosaccharide composition was exhibited due to diverse extraction methods. Our finding revealed that these two modification methods could effectively enhance the economic value of Mesona chinensis Benth residues.


Assuntos
Celulase , Trichoderma , Aspergillus niger , Celulase/química , Adsorção , Fibras na Dieta , Hidrólise
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 370: 128520, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565817

RESUMO

To reduce the high cost of (hemi)cellulase production in lignocellulose biorefining, it is important to develop strategies to enhance enzyme productivity from economic and also readily manipulatable carbon sources. In this study, an artificial transcription factor XT was designed by fusing the DNA binding domain of Xyr1 to the transactivation domain of Tmac1. When overexpressed in Trichoderma reesei QM9414 Δxyr1, the XT recombinant strain (OEXT) greatly improved (hemi)cellulase production on repressing glucose compared with QM9414 on Avicel with 1.7- and 8.2-fold increases in pNPCase and xylanase activity, respectively. Both activities were even higher (0.9- and 33.8-fold higher, respectively) than the recombinant strain similarly overexpressing Xyr1. The dramatically enhanced xylanase activities in OEXT resulted from the elevated expression of various hemicellulases in the secretome. Moreover, the enzyme cocktail from OEXT improved the saccharification efficiency toward corn stover by 60% compared with enzymes from QM9414 with equal volume loading.


Assuntos
Celulase , Trichoderma , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Celulase/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Trichoderma/metabolismo
6.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113833, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592667

RESUMO

The influence of fossil fuels on the environment focused on the development of new technology on biofuels. In this situation, lignocellulolytic hydrolysis enzymes such as Cellobiohydrolase, ß-Glucosidase, Endoglucanase, cellulase and xylanase have broad applications in the biofuel production. The Trichoderma have used for the production of cellulase and xylanase to hydrolyze the lignocellulose. Hence, in the present study, co-culture has been employed to induce the production of polysaccharide hydrolyzing enzymes under both induction and repression conditions. The enzyme activity and its gene expression were induced by the co-culture of T. asperellum and B. amyloliquefaciens compared to the monoculture. Further, the co-culture upregulated the transcription regulatory genes and downregulated the repressor genes under both repressor and inducer conditions, respectively. The crude enzyme produced by the co-culture and monocultures using the optimized medium containing molasses, cornmeal and rice bran were further used to hydrolyze the pretreated corn Stover, rice straw, and wheat straw. These results indicate that the co-culture of T. asperellum and B. amyloliquefaciens is a promising and inexpensive method to advance the innovation on the continuous production of cellulase and xylanase under different circumstances for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into glucose for the bio-fuels.


Assuntos
Celulase , Trichoderma , Biomassa , Lignina
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36555304

RESUMO

Scientists all over the world conduct research to determine the influence of Trichoderma spp. on various groups of plants, mostly crops. However, there is little information on the influence of these fungi on ornamental plants. Therefore, the authors of this study analyzed the influence of Trichoderma spp. on the growth, flowering, quality, and nutritional status of ornamental plants. The research showed that Trichoderma spp. in this group of plants stimulate the elongation and thickening of shoots and the formation of leaves. These fungi also stimulate or inhibit leaf elongation. They also accelerate the flowering of plants, stimulate the elongation of inflorescence shoots and inflorescences, and the development of flowers. Apart from that, Trichoderma spp. positively influence the content of chlorophyll and carotenoids in leaves, and they stimulate the uptake of micro- and macroelements.


Assuntos
Trichoderma , Estado Nutricional , Flores , Inflorescência , Produtos Agrícolas
8.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500242

RESUMO

This study evaluated the ability of selected strains of Trichoderma viride, T. viridescens, and T. atroviride to inhibit mycelium growth and the biosynthesis of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), zearalenone (ZEN), α-(α-ZOL) and ß-zearalenol (ß-ZOL) by selected strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. cerealis. For this purpose, an in vitro experiment was carried out on solid substrates (PDA and rice). After 5 days of co-culture, it was found that all Trichoderma strains used in the experiment significantly inhibited the growth of Fusarium mycelium. Qualitative assessment of pathogen-antagonist interactions showed that Trichoderma colonized 75% to 100% of the medium surface (depending on the species and strain of the antagonist and the pathogen) and was also able to grow over the mycelium of the pathogen and sporulate. The rate of inhibition of Fusarium mycelium growth by Trichoderma ranged from approximately 24% to 66%. When Fusarium and Trichoderma were co-cultured on rice, Trichoderma strains were found to inhibit DON biosynthesis by about 73% to 98%, NIV by about 87% to 100%, and ZEN by about 12% to 100%, depending on the pathogen and antagonist strain. A glycosylated form of DON was detected in the co-culture of F. culmorum and Trichoderma, whereas it was absent in cultures of the pathogen alone, thus suggesting that Trichoderma is able to glycosylate DON. The results also suggest that a strain of T. viride is able to convert ZEN into its hydroxylated derivative, ß-ZOL.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Micotoxinas , Oryza , Trichoderma , Tricotecenos , Zearalenona , Zearalenona/farmacologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21709, 2022 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522367

RESUMO

The ecology of soil fungi is poorly understood, and recent comprehensive reports on Trichoderma are unavailable for any region, including the Zoige alpine wetland ecological region in China. One hundred soil samples were collected from different soil types and soil layers in Zoige alpine wetland ecological regions. Using the traditional suspension plating method, 80 Trichoderma strains were chosen to analyze species diversity. After a preliminary classification of morphological characteristics and the genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), 57 representative strains were selected and eventually identified as seven species via phylogenetic analyses of multilocus sequences based on the genes transcription elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1), encoding RNA polymerase II subunit B (rpb2) and ATP citrate lyase (acl1). Among them, T. harzianum was the dominant species isolated from five soil layers and four soil types, and had the highest isolation frequency (23%) in this zone, while T. polysporum and T. pyramidale were rare species, with isolation frequencies of less than 1%. Our detailed morphological observation and molecular phylogenetic analyses support the recognition of Trichoderma zoigense was described for the first time as a new species, while T. atrobrunneum as a new record for China was found. Our results will be used as a reference for a greater understanding of soil microbial resources, ecological rehabilitation and reconstructions in the Zoige alpine wetland.


Assuntos
Trichoderma , Áreas Alagadas , Solo , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , China
10.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 193(1): 65-97, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357080

RESUMO

Sensing the environment and interpretation of the received signals are crucial competences of living organisms in order to properly adapt to their habitat, succeed in competition and to reproduce. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are members of a large family of sensors for extracellular signals and represent the starting point of complex signaling cascades regulating a plethora of intracellular physiological processes and output pathways in fungi. In Trichoderma spp. current research involves a wide range of topics from enzyme production, light response and secondary metabolism to sexual and asexual development as well as biocontrol, all of which require delicate balancing of resources in response to the environmental challenges or biotechnological needs at hand, which are crucially impacted by the surroundings of the fungi and their intercellular signaling cascades triggering a precisely tailored response. In this review we summarize recent findings on sensing by GPCRs in Trichoderma, including the function of pheromone receptors, glucose sensing by CSG1 and CSG2, regulation of secondary metabolism by GPR8 and impacts on mycoparasitism by GPR1. Additionally, we provide an overview on structural determinants, posttranslational modifications and interactions for regulation, activation and signal termination of GPCRs in order to inspire future in depth analyses of their function and to understand previous regulatory outcomes of natural and biotechnological processes modulated or enabled by GPCRs.


Assuntos
Trichoderma , Humanos , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ecossistema
11.
Plant Signal Behav ; 17(1): 2146373, 2022 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382615

RESUMO

Finger millet (ragi) is the main food grain for many people, especially in the arid and semiarid regions of developing countries in Asia and Africa. The grains contain an exceptionally higher amount of Ca (>300 mg/100 g) when compared to other major cereals. For sustainable production of ragi in the current scenario of climate change, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of Trichoderma harzianum (TRI) on ragi performance. The performance of photosynthetic pigment pool, photosynthetic apparatus, and root dynamics of three varieties of ragi (PRM-1, PRM-701, and PRM-801) in response to four treatments viz., C (soil), S+ TRI (soil + Trichoderma), farmyard manure (soil+ FYM), and FYM+TRI (Soil + FYM + Trichoderma) were studied. Results have shown a significant increase in the photosynthetic pigment pool and optimized functional and structural integrity of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to the combination of farmyard manure (FYM) with TRI. Higher yield parameters viz., φ(Po) and φ(Eo), δ(Ro), efficiency ψ(Eo), performance indices - PIabs and PItotal, and enhanced root canopy and biomass were observed in all three varieties. Improved electron transport from PSII to PSI, root canopy and biomass, may also suitably favor biological carbon sequestration to retain soil health and plant productivity in case grown in association with FYM and TRI.


Assuntos
Eleusine , Trichoderma , Esterco , Transporte de Elétrons , Solo/química , Grão Comestível
12.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 234, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichoderma spp. are important agricultural biocontrol microorganisms that are often used as effective components of microbial fungicides and microbial biofertilizers. However, most of these products are prepared by a single strain in monoculture, which significantly limits the biocontrol efficiency and stability of Trichoderma products. Therefore, the establishment of a design and screening approach for consortia with multi-Trichoderma strains for co-culture is of great importance to overcome the shortage of traditional Trichoderma biocontrol products. RESULTS: First, 15 Trichoderma strains were screened in terms of mycelium growth rate, antagonistic activity to a variety of pathogens, stress tolerance to high temperature and salt stress, and cucumber seedling growth promotion level. Then, the combinations of Trichoderma asperellum GDSF1009 (CGMCC NO. 9512), Trichoderma asperelloides Z4-1 (CGMCC NO. 40245), Trichoderma harzianum 10569 (CGMCC NO. 40246), and T. asperellum 10264 (CGMCC NO. 22404) were finally screened as an optimal consortium for co-culture underlying the levels of plant growth-promoting and antagonistic activity to Fusarium oxysporum and seed germination promotion relative to the monoculture of a single strain. Consortia with multiple co-cultured strains were found to generate larger amounts of free amino acids than those from the monoculture of a single strain, and a pot assay also indicated that metabolites of co-cultures were able to promote cucumber seedling growth superior to that with monoculture of a single strain, even though the promotion was better than from simply mixed cultures from each of the four Trichoderma strains. Taken together, the co-culture consortia composed of the four compatible interactive Trichoderma strains was a potential novel multiple strain biocontrol agent based on the combination of synthetic consortia design and co-culture. In the field experiment, we found that the growth-promoting effect of the co-culture fermentation filtrate was better than that of the single culture fermentation filtrate. Compared with T-Z4-1, T-1009, T-10264 and T-10569, the plant height of cucumber was increased by 22.99%, 42.06%, 24.18% and 30.09%, respectively, and the stem diameter was increased by 16.59%, 18.83%, 13.65% and 14.70%, respectively. CONCLUSION: An approach to designing and screening Trichoderma consortia for co-culture was established. The consortia co-culture presented a better performance in antagonistic activity and cucumber growth compared with a monoculture of a single strain. Thus, it is of great significance to lay the foundation for the creation of a novel Trichoderma biofungicide or biomanure to resist cucumber Fusarium wilt and promote cucumber growth.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Trichoderma , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Plântula , Plantas , Micélio
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(1): 102, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371583

RESUMO

Aphid (Aphis gossypii) is one of the important pests of papaya crop. In this work, applications of Trichoderma harzianum and Beauveria bassiana (biocontrol agents) and malathion (insecticide) were conducted in vitro and in agrifields for testing their anti-aphid efficacy and compared their efficacy. Furthermore, the enzymatic mechanism of T. harzianum with respect to biocontrolling the pest was unearthed. The LD50 dose of T. harzianum and B. bassiana was 1.2 × 105 spores mL-1 and 1.0 × 106 spores mL-1 respectively after 48 h of administration. The LT50 of T. harzianum also exhibited a lower effective time (47.70 h) than B. bassiana (57.53 h) for the same concentration of spores applied (1 × 105 spores mL-1). The pooled data analysis of two years (2019-2020) showed that the application of T. harzianum spores in agrifields exhibited 31.75 ± 13.00a percentage of reduction of aphid population whereas malathion exhibited 23.93 ± 1.30a%, in comparison to control. The statistical analysis indicated that the application of malathion exhibited the same efficacy as T. harzianum isolate and placed in the same category. In plate detection assay, T. harzianum produced a higher hydrolytic zone for chitinase (8.0 ± 0.4 cm diameter) and protease (7.0 ± 0.4 cm diameter) enzymes, than B. bassiana (1.3 ± 0.2 cm and 1.1 ± 0.2 cm respectively). Quantitative estimation of enzymes exhibited that T. harzianum produced 299 ± 11a µg mL-1 of chitinase, 519 ± 19a µg mL-1 of protease, and 65 ± 12a µg mL-1 of PR1, and on the other hand, B. bassiana yielded 124 ± 12b, 361 ± 23b, and 29 ± 18b µg mL-1 of chitinase, protease, and PR1 respectively. It indicated that T. harzianum was superior over the B. bassiana in terms of production capacity of all three enzymes. In conclusion, all the above experimental results suggested that T. harzianum showed better aphid-killing efficacy than B. bassiana. It also suggested that T. harzianum should replace hazardous chemical pesticide (malathion) for eco-friendly biocontrol of aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Quitinases , Trichoderma , Animais , Malation , Monitoramento Ambiental , Quitinases/farmacologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
14.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(12): 704, 2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371744

RESUMO

The investigation of lignocellulolytic catalysts is an important feature to face the challenges of lignocellulosic biomass valorization. In central Morocco, fungi were isolated from decaying wood, soil, olive crushing by-products and their compost. One hundred fifty-five isolates were submitted to a selective screening, which served to distinguish 83% of lignocellulolytic isolates. Then, a collection of 56 fungi was subjected to morphological and molecular identification with the ITS5 and ITS4 primers. This approach showed that 45% of the fungal population belonged to the genus Penicillium, followed by Aspergillus 14%, and Fusarium 11%. Alternaria, Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Cladosporium, Trichocladium, Circinella, and Doratomyces genera are founded with a minority occurrence. Finally, validation of the enzymatic profile was done for 20 isolates, by testing their enzymatic performance on a liquid medium in the presence of cellulose, lignin, and olive pomace. The maximum protein production of 788 µg ml-1 was reached by an Alternaria strain, which produced also 10.6 IU ml-1 of endoglucanase. Thus, a ß-glucosidase activity of 5.1 IU ml-1 was obtained by a Penicillium strain isolated from decaying wood. Regarding ligninolytic activities, olive pomace was the most suitable substrate to detect these activities. Decaying wood strains presented the most remarkable results with 1.1 IU ml-1, 0.7 IU ml-1 et 0.3 IU ml-1 for laccase, LiP and MnP, respectively. The use of the selected fungi and olive pomace as local biomass are important factors for the development of green processes targeting the valorization of this by-product into high-value molecules.


Assuntos
Olea , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Lignina/metabolismo , Olea/microbiologia , Marrocos , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/metabolismo , Alternaria/metabolismo , Fungos
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19445, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376415

RESUMO

Trichoderma reesei is a widely used host for producing cellulase and hemicellulase cocktails for lignocellulosic biomass degradation. Here, we report a genetic modification strategy for industrial T. reesei that enables enzyme production using simple glucose without inducers, such as cellulose, lactose and sophorose. Previously, the mutated XYR1V821F or XYR1A824V was known to induce xylanase and cellulase using only glucose as a carbon source, but its enzyme composition was biased toward xylanases, and its performance was insufficient to degrade lignocellulose efficiently. Therefore, we examined combinations of mutated XYR1V821F and constitutively expressed CRT1, BGLR, VIB1, ACE2, or ACE3, known as cellulase regulators and essential factors for cellulase expression to the T. reesei E1AB1 strain that has been highly mutagenized for improving enzyme productivity and expressing a ß-glucosidase for high enzyme performance. The results showed that expression of ACE3 to the mutated XYR1V821F expressing strain promoted cellulase expression. Furthermore, co-expression of these two transcription factors also resulted in increased productivity, with enzyme productivity 1.5-fold higher than with the conventional single expression of mutated XYR1V821F. Additionally, that productivity was 5.5-fold higher compared to productivity with an enhanced single expression of ACE3. Moreover, although the DNA-binding domain of ACE3 had been considered essential for inducer-free cellulase production, we found that ACE3 with a partially truncated DNA-binding domain was more effective in cellulase production when co-expressed with a mutated XYR1V821F. This study demonstrates that co-expression of the two transcription factors, the mutated XYR1V821F or XYR1A824V and ACE3, resulted in optimized enzyme composition and increased productivity.


Assuntos
Celulase , Trichoderma , Celulase/metabolismo , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica
16.
Mar Drugs ; 20(11)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355024

RESUMO

The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum, from both marine and terrestrial environments, has attracted considerable attention. T. harzianum has a tremendous potential to produce a variety of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs), which are an important source of new herbicides and antibiotics. This review prioritizes the SMs of T. harzianum from 1988 to June 2022, and their relevant biological activities. Marine-derived SMs, especially terpenoids, polyketides, and macrolides compounds, occupy a significant proportion of natural products from T. harzianum, deserving more of our attention.


Assuntos
Hypocreales , Trichoderma , Trichoderma/metabolismo
17.
Mar Drugs ; 20(11)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421998

RESUMO

Marine fungi-derived secondary metabolites are still an important source for the discovery of potential antimicrobial agents. Here, five new polyketides (1, 2, and 6-8) and seven known compounds (3-5 and 9-12) were obtained from the culture of the marine-derived fungus Trichoderma sp. JWM29-10-1. Their structures were identified by extensive spectrographic data analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and HR-ESI-MS. Further, the absolute configurations of new compounds were determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectrum and alkali-hydrolysis in combination with the in situ dimolybdenum CD method. Subsequently, the antimicrobial effects of these isolated compounds were assessed by examining the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) with the broth microdilution assay. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori, including multidrug-resistant strains, with MIC range values of 2-8 µg/mL. Moreover, compound 1 showed significant inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, which greatly threaten human health. This study demonstrates that chromone derivatives 1-2, especially for 1, could be potential lead compounds for the development of new antimicrobial agents and provides insight for future medicinal chemistry research.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Fontes Hidrotermais , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Policetídeos , Trichoderma , Humanos , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Policetídeos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química
18.
Planta ; 257(1): 6, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437384

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Recognition of the interaction of Trichoderma during the evolution of land plants plays a potential key role in the development of the salicylic acid defense pathway and the establishment of a mutualistic relationship. Marchantia polymorpha is a common liverwort considered in recent years as a model plant for evolutionary studies on plant-microorganism interactions. Despite the lack of research, remarkable results have been reported regarding the understanding of metabolic and evolutionary processes of beneficial and/or harmful interactions, owing to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of different plant defense pathways. In this study, we have carried out work on the direct and indirect interactions (exudates and volatiles) of M. polymorpha with different species of the fungal genus Trichoderma. These interactions showed different outcomes, including resistance or even growth promotion and disease. We have analyzed the level of tissue colonization and defense-related gene expression. Furthermore, we have used the pteridophyte Dryopteris affinis and the angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana, as subsequent steps in plant evolution, together with the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani as a control of plant pathogenicity. Trichoderma virens, T. brevicompactum and T. hamatum are pathogens of M. polymorpha, while exudates of T. asperellum are harmful to the plant. The analysis of the expression of several defense genes in M. polymorpha and A. thaliana showed that there is a correlation of the transcriptional activation of SA-related genes with resistance or susceptibility of M. polymorpha to Trichoderma. Moreover, exogenous SA provides resistance to the virulent Trichoderma species. This beneficial fungus may have had an evolutionary period of interaction with plants in which it behaved as a plant pathogen until plants developed a defense system to limit its colonization through a defense response mediated by SA.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Marchantia , Trichoderma , Marchantia/genética , Marchantia/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Trichoderma/genética , Simbiose
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361917

RESUMO

Trichoderma spp. are an important plant-growth-promoting fungi. Trichoderma citrinoviride HT-1 was isolated from Rheum palmatum root, which has beneficial effects on growth and metabolite accumulation. However, the improvement mechanisms for growth and metabolite accumulation of T. citrinoviride HT-1 are unclear. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to measure the effect of different concentrations of conidial suspension of the HT-1 strain on the growth promotion and metabolite accumulation of R. palmatum seedlings. The results showed that the highest biomass and metabolites of R. palmatum seedlings were obtained through treatment with the HT-1 strain at a final spore concentration of 107 spores/mL. RNA sequencing indicated that 1662 genes were upregulated and 2155 genes were downregulated after inoculation with 107 spores/mL of the HT-1 strain. This strain induced significant upregulation of related genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, plant hormone signal transduction pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites pathway, and plant-pathogen interaction pathway in R. palmatum. The gene expression trends were revealed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and were consistent with those determined by RNA-seq. Our results will help us to understand the growth-promoting mechanisms of the HT-1 strain on R. palmatum and provide a theoretical basis for the application of T. citrinoviride HT-1 as a biological fertilizer.


Assuntos
Hypocreales , Rheum , Trichoderma , Rheum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Plântula
20.
Microbiologyopen ; 11(5): e1324, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314761

RESUMO

Microbial cocultures are used as a tool to stimulate natural product biosynthesis. However, studies often empirically combine different organisms without a deeper understanding of the population dynamics. As filamentous organisms offer a vast metabolic diversity, we developed a model filamentous coculture of the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 and the noncellulolytic bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The coculture was set up to use α-cellulose as a carbon source. This established a dependency of S. coelicolor on hydrolysate sugars released by T. reesei cellulases. To provide detailed insight into coculture dynamics, we applied high-throughput online monitoring of the respiration rate and fluorescence of the tagged strains. The respiration rate allowed us to distinguish the conditions of successful cellulase formation. Furthermore, to dissect the individual strain contributions, T. reesei and S. coelicolor were tagged with mCherry and mNeonGreen (mNG) fluorescence proteins, respectively. When evaluating varying inoculation ratios, it was observed that both partners outcompete the other when given a high inoculation advantage. Nonetheless, adequate proportions for simultaneous growth of both partners, cellulase, and pigment production could be determined. Finally, population dynamics were also tuned by modulating abiotic factors. Increased osmolality provided a growth advantage to S. coelicolor. In contrast, an increase in shaking frequency had a negative effect on S. coelicolor biomass formation, promoting T. reesei. This comprehensive analysis fills important knowledge gaps in the control of complex cocultures and accelerates the setup of other tailor-made coculture bioprocesses.


Assuntos
Celulase , Trichoderma , Celulase/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Celulose/metabolismo , Dinâmica Populacional
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...