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1.
Clin Lab ; 70(6)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38868878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a chronic nail infection, and dermatophytes, yeasts, and nondermatophytic molds may be the causative agents. This study aimed to determine the etiological agents of onychomycosis by using conventional and molecular methods. METHODS: Between June 2020 and July 2021, 37 patients with a presumptive diagnosis of onychomycosis and mycological evidence (culture and/or EUROArray Dermatomycosis assay) were included in the study. Organisms detected in cultured nail specimens were identified by combined phenotypic characteristics and by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). An EUROarray Dermatomycosis assay was used for molecular detection of fungal pathogens. RESULTS: The EUROArray Dermatomycosis assay was positive for a single fungal target in 23 samples, and 14 samples were positive by culture. The most common pathogen was Trichophyton rubrum in both methods. Coinfection was detected in 14 samples by using molecular methods, and Trichophyton rubrum and Fusarium solani (9 samples) were the most common pathogens detected together. Trichophyton spp., nondermatophyte molds, and Candida spp. were detected in 33 (89.2%), 16 (43.2%), and 6 (16.2%) samples, respectively, when the two methods were evaluated together. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that fungal culture allows the diagnosis of onychomycosis, but it is not as sensitive as the EUROArray Dermatomycosis test, especially in patients receiving antifungal therapy.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Onicomicose , Humanos , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Feminino , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Masculino , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Trichophyton/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia
2.
Mycopathologia ; 189(4): 51, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864977

RESUMO

Data on the epidemiology of tinea capitis (TC), an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, are scarce in Cameroon. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of TC among school-children in the Dschang Subdivision, Western Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2021 in Dschang including pupils aged 5-13. First, a standardized questionnaire was administered to participant for the collection of sociodemographic data. Then, samples were collected and cultured onto Sabouraud-Chloramphenicol-Gentamicin Agar. The etiological agents were identified based on their morphological features and with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 1070 children were clinically examined and 108 (10.1%) children presented with TC lesions. The mean age of the 1070 participants was 8.3 ± 2.6 years (range: 5-13 years); 772 (72.2%) were males. The use of borehole water (OR = 0.01, 95%CI[0.001-0.03]), spring water (OR = 0.2, 95%CI[0.08-0.50]), rainwater (OR = 0.004, 95%CI[0.001-0.016]), and hairdressing salons visits (OR = 0.413, 95%CI[0.196-0.872]) were associated with a decreased TC risk in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. In contrast, sharing bed with siblings (OR = 4.48, 95%CI[2.095-9.60]) was associated with an increased TC risk in children. Among the 32 dermatophytes isolated in culture, Microsporum audouinii was the most frequent (43.8%), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (25.0%) and T. soudanense (25.0%). Microsporum canis and T. violaceum were both rarely isolated. Further studies are warranted to assess the association of TC with domestic water usage that has been highlighted in this study.


Assuntos
Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Humanos , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Pré-Escolar , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação
3.
Mycopathologia ; 189(3): 45, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global spread of Trichophyton indotineae presents a pressing challenge in dermatophytosis management. This systematic review explores the current landscape of T. indotineae infections, emphasizing resistance patterns, susceptibility testing, mutational analysis, and management strategies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in November 2023 using Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Inclusion criteria covered clinical trials, observational studies, case series, or case reports with T. indotineae diagnosis through molecular methods. Reports on resistance mechanisms, antifungal susceptibility testing, and management were used for data extraction. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 1148 articles were identified through the systematic search process, with 45 meeting the inclusion criteria. The global spread of T. indotineae is evident, with cases reported in numerous new countries in 2023. Tentative epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) suggested by several groups provide insights into the likelihood of clinical resistance. The presence of specific mutations, particularly Phe397Leu, correlate with higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), indicating potential clinical resistance. Azole resistance has also been reported and investigated in T. indotineae, and is a growing concern. Nevertheless, itraconazole continues to be an alternative therapy. Recommendations for management include oral or combination therapies and individualized approaches based on mutational analysis and susceptibility testing. CONCLUSION: Trichophyton indotineae poses a complex clinical scenario, necessitating enhanced surveillance, improved diagnostics, and cautious antifungal use. The absence of established clinical breakpoints for dermatophytes underscores the need for further research in this challenging field.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Tinha , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/genética , Saúde Global
4.
Mycoses ; 67(5): e13748, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38783563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis is a common and major public health concern worldwide. Despite the increasing availability of antifungal drugs, relapses and untreated cases of dermatophyte infections are reported. Therefore, novel antifungal agents are required. Aminopyrrolnitrin (APRN) shows promise for dermatophytosis treatment because of its antifungal activity. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the antifungal properties of APRN against Trichophyton verrucosum (T. verrucosum), in both laboratory settings and a guinea pig model. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of APRN and enilconazole against T. verrucosum were determined according to the CLSI M38 method. The skins of 16 male guinea pigs were infected with 1.0 × 108 conidia of T. verrucosum and the animals were grouped into sets of four: negative control group (NC) received normal saline; positive control group (PC) received 2 µg/mL of enilconazole; and APRN4 and APRN8 received 4 and 8 µg/mL of APRN, respectively. Clinical, mycological and histological efficacies were measured after 10 days. RESULTS: The MIC90 of APRN and enilconazole against T. verrucosum was 4 and 2 µg/mL, respectively. The clinical scores of PC, APRN4, and APRN8 were significantly lower than those of NC. Clinical and mycological efficacies were higher for APRN8, APRN4 and PC. No fungi were observed in the skin tissues of APRN4 and APRN8, while fungi were observed in 50% of the PC. CONCLUSION: APRN showed antifungal activity against T. verrucosum in vitro and in vivo and is a potential candidate for the treatment of dermatophytosis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tinha , Trichophyton , Animais , Cobaias , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Masculino , Pele/microbiologia
5.
Mycopathologia ; 189(3): 33, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627263

RESUMO

The cutaneous fungal infections in male genitalia are relatively rare, and often present with various atypical clinical symptoms. It was mainly reported in a small number of case reports, while data with large number of patients were rarely reported. In this study, we reported 79 male patients with cutaneous fungal infections on scrotum or penis. The fungal infections were confirmed by microscopic examination directly and fungus culture. Clinical characteristics and predisposing factors were also collected. Of these 79 patients, 72 has lesions on scrotum, 5 on penis and 2 on both scrotum and penis. Trichophyton (T.) rubrum is the most common pathogen, found in 50 (67.6%) patients, which presented diverse clinical manifestation such as majorly erythematous, dry diffused scaly lesions without a clear border, slightly powdery and scutular scalings. Candida (C.) albicans is the secondly common pathogen, found in 21 (28.4%) patients, which also presented diverse lesions such as erythematous with dry whitish scaly lesions and erythematous erosion. The predisposing factors mainly included concomitant fungal infections on sites other than genitalia, especially inguinal region (tinea cruris), application of corticosteroid and high moisture. In conclusion, cutaneous fungal infections in male genitalia could be caused by different fungi, showed atypical or mild clinical appearances in most cases and might be a fungus reservoir, emphasizing the necessity to timely perform the fungi examinations and corresponding therapy.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses , Humanos , Masculino , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Pele/patologia , Trichophyton , Microscopia , Escroto/microbiologia
6.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 109(2): 116283, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574446

RESUMO

The well known dermatophyte infections caused by Trichophyton species are an ambiguous problem to treat using the present arsenal of antifungals. This study expounds on the effect of inhibition of sphingolipid pathway on Trichophyton growth. Findings from the drug susceptibility assays suggest sphingolipid inhibition severely restricts the growth of T. interdigitale and T. tonsurans. The observed synergistic effects of combinations of sphingolipid inhibitor and conventional drugs provide a promising treatment strategy against Trichophyton infection.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Esfingolipídeos , Trichophyton , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Esfingolipídeos/biossíntese , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(6): 2144-2154, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A large number of patients applying to the dermatology clinics are affected by fungal diseases, and a significant portion of which are superficial fungal infections. Dermatophyte infections are a notable public health concern and frequently encountered in clinical practice. Dermatophytosis not only compromises the quality of life but also predisposes individuals to various comorbidities due to its role as a gateway for secondary bacterial agents. This study aims to determine the species distribution of dermatophytes prevalent and assess their susceptibility to antifungal drugs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Skin, nail, and hair samples were obtained from patients with a clinical diagnosis of dermatophytosis. Samples were all cultured to isolate and identify the species. In vitro liquid microdilution tests were conducted to assess the susceptibility of the isolated strains against terbinafine, fluconazole, griseofulvin, and butenafine. RESULTS: A total of 353 samples were obtained from the hair, skin, and nail lesions of 326 patients. Dermatophyte was isolated in 71 of the samples (20.1%). The cultured dermatophyte subtypes included Trichophyton rubrum (13.8% in 49 samples), Microsporum audouini (5.7% in 20 samples), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.6% in 2 samples). Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed that terbinafine was the most effective antifungal drug against all dermatophyte species, while fluconazole exhibited the highest resistance. CONCLUSIONS: The most common dermatophytosis agent in our region is T. rubrum. The least antifungal resistance was found against terbinafine. Conducting antifungal susceptibility tests is crucial for selecting effective treatment regimens and early detection of resistance development.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Tinha , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Turquia/epidemiologia , Mar Negro , Qualidade de Vida , Trichophyton , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia
8.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 25(3): 359-389, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494575

RESUMO

Dermatophytoses are fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails that affect approximately 25% of the global population. Occlusive clothing, living in a hot humid environment, poor hygiene, proximity to animals, and crowded living conditions are important risk factors. Dermatophyte infections are named for the anatomic area they infect, and include tinea corporis, cruris, capitis, barbae, faciei, pedis, and manuum. Tinea incognito describes steroid-modified tinea. In some patients, especially those who are immunosuppressed or who have a history of corticosteroid use, dermatophyte infections may spread to involve extensive skin areas, and, in rare cases, may extend to the dermis and hair follicle. Over the past decade, dermatophytoses cases not responding to standard of care therapy have been increasingly reported. These cases are especially prevalent in the Indian subcontinent, and Trichophyton indotineae has been identified as the causative species, generating concern regarding resistance to available antifungal therapies. Antifungal-resistant dermatophyte infections have been recently recognized in the United States. Antifungal resistance is now a global health concern. When feasible, mycological confirmation before starting treatment is considered best practice. To curb antifungal-resistant infections, it is necessary for physicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for resistant dermatophyte infections coupled with antifungal stewardship efforts. Furthermore, by forging partnerships with federal agencies, state and local public health agencies, professional societies, and academic institutions, dermatologists can lead efforts to prevent the spread of antifungal-resistant dermatophytes.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Tinha , Humanos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/microbiologia , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(4): 807-809, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437706

RESUMO

We describe a case of tinea genitalis in an immunocompetent woman in Pennsylvania, USA. Infection was caused by Trichophyton indotineae potentially acquired through sexual contact. The fungus was resistant to terbinafine (first-line antifungal) but improved with itraconazole. Clinicians should be aware of T. indotineae as a potential cause of antifungal-resistant genital lesions.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Trichophyton , Feminino , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico
10.
Braz J Microbiol ; 55(2): 1287-1295, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453819

RESUMO

Fungal infections have emerged worldwide, and azole antifungals are widely used to control these infections. However, the emergence of antifungal resistance has been compromising the effectiveness of these drugs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of the nine new 1,2,3 triazole compounds derived from thymol that were synthesized through Click chemistry. The binding mode prediction was carried out by docking studies using the crystallographic structure of Lanosterol 14α-demethylase G73E mutant from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The new compounds showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum but did not show relevant action against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. For T. rubrum, molecules nº 5 and 8 showed promising results, emphasizing nº 8, whose fungicidal and fungistatic effects were similar to fluconazole. In addition, molecule nº 8 showed low toxicity for keratinocytes and fibroblasts, concluding that this compound demonstrates promising characteristics for developing a new drug for dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum, or serves as a structural basis for further research.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Arthrodermataceae , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Timol , Triazóis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Triazóis/farmacologia , Triazóis/química , Humanos , Timol/farmacologia , Timol/química , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/genética , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/genética
11.
Mycopathologia ; 189(2): 29, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483637

RESUMO

The emerging pathogen Trichophyton indotineae, often resistant to terbinafine (TRB), is known to cause severe dermatophytoses such as tinea corporis and tinea cruris. In order to achieve successful treatment for these infections, insight in the resistance profile of T. indotineae strains and rapid, reliable identification is necessary. In this research, a screening medium was tested on T. indotineae strains (n = 20) as an indication tool of TRB resistance. The obtained results were confirmed by antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) for TRB following the in vitro broth microdilution reference method. Additionally, AST was performed for eight other antifungal drugs: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin, ciclopirox olamine, naftifine and amorolfine. Forty-five percent of the strains were confirmed to be resistant to terbinafine. The TRB resistant strains showed elevated minimal inhibitory concentration values for naftifine and amorolfine as well. DNA sequencing of the squalene epoxidase-encoding gene showed that TRB resistance was a consequence of missense point mutations in this gene, which led to amino acid substitutions F397L or L393F. MALDI-TOF MS was used as a quick, accurate identification tool for T. indotineae, as it can be challenging to distinguish it from closely related species such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Trichophyton interdigitale using morphological characteristics. While MALDI-TOF MS could reliably identify ≥ 95% of the T. indotineae strains (depending on the spectral library), it could not be used to successfully distinguish TRB susceptible from TRB resistant strains.


Assuntos
Alilamina/análogos & derivados , Antifúngicos , Arthrodermataceae , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Trichophyton/genética , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética
12.
Skinmed ; 22(1): 67-68, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494619

RESUMO

A healthy 32-year-old woman presented to clinic with tender pruritic lesions of 2-month duration at the vulva and lesions for weeks on the shins. She was treated with topical corticosteroids and intravenous vancomycin without significant improvement. On examination, dozens of follicular hemorrhagic papulopustules were detected at the suprapubic area and vulva (Figure 1). Similar but less prominent lesions were observed on the shins as well. Biopsies of the vulva and shin revealed a follicular inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils, histiocytes, and lymphocytes as well as fungal hyphae within the follicular infundibulum and hair shafts, consistent with Majocchi's granuloma (MG). Gram and Fite-Faraco staining, direct immunofluorescence, and bacterial culture were negative. Tissue culture grew Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which was identified using sequence analysis of the D1/D2 region of the 28s rDNA. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for terbinafine, ketoconazole, and itraconazole were determined, with terbinafine having the lowest concentration. Additional history revealed that shortly prior to commencement of her clinical manifestations, the patient had acquired a pet guinea pig with eruptions and hair loss (Figure 2). The patient was prescribed ketoconazole cream and terbinafine, 250 mg daily, with almost immediate improvement. Based on clinical response, the patient remained on terbinafine and ketoconazole cream for 6 months. Her skin remained clear 4 months after discontinuing all antifungals. Based on the results of patient's culture, a veterinarian treated her guinea pig successfully with systemic terbinafine and miconazole lotion.


Assuntos
Cetoconazol , Tinha , Trichophyton , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Cobaias , Adulto , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Vulva
13.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 77(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499446

RESUMO

Dermatomycosis is an infection with global impacts caused especially by dermatophytes and Candida species. Current antifungal therapies involve drugs that face fungal resistance barriers. This clinical context emphasizes the need to discover new antifungal agents. Herein, the antifungal potential of 10 curcumin analogs was evaluated against four Candida and four dermatophyte species. The most active compound, 3,3'-dimethoxycurcumin, exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 1.9‒62.5 to 15.6‒62.5 µg ml-1 against dermatophytes and Candida species, respectively. According to the checkerboard method, the association between DMC and terbinafine demonstrated a synergistic effect against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum. Ergosterol binding test indicated DMC forms a complex with ergosterol of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. However, results from the sorbitol protection assay indicated that DMC had no effect on the cell walls of Candida species. The in vivo toxicity, using Galleria mellonella larvae, indicated no toxic effect of DMC. Altogether, curcumin analog DMC was a promising antifungal agent with a promising ability to act against Candida and dermatophyte species.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Curcumina , Curcumina/análogos & derivados , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida , Curcumina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ergosterol , Trichophyton
14.
Mycoses ; 67(4): e13718, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatomycoses count to the most frequent dermatoses in Cambodia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this survey was to investigate the occurrence of dermatophytes in this Southeast Asian country. METHODS: From June 2017 to July 2018, skin scrapings were taken from 67 patients with superficial dermatophytosis for mycological diagnostics. Identification of dermatophytes was confirmed by sequencing of the 'internal transcribed spacer'-(ITS) region of the rDNA, and the gene of the Translation Elongation Factor (TEF)-1α. RESULTS: Patients were suffering from tinea corporis and tinea inguinalis/cruris 42/67 (63%), tinea capitis/faciei 14/67 (21%), tinea corporis/capitis/faciei 6/67 (9%), tinea manuum/pedis 2/67 (3%), tinea pedis 2/67 (3%) and tinea manuum 1/67 (1%). Both, by culture and/or PCR, a dermatophyte was detected in 52 (78%) out of 67 samples. Culture positive were 42 (81%) of 52, PCR positive were 50 (96%). The following dermatophytes were found: Trichophyton (T.) rubrum, 36/52 strains (69%, 29 by culture), T. mentagrophytes/T. interdigitale (TM/TI) 9/52 (17%, six by culture) and Microsporum (M.) canis 5/52 strains (10%, by culture). One strain of Nannizzia (N.) incurvata 1/52 (2%) and N. nana 1/52 (2%) was isolated. Based on sequencing, we demonstrated that two T. mentagrophytes strains out of the nine TM/TI represented the new ITS genotype XXV Cambodia. We found one T. mentagrophytes strain genotype VIII (now, reclassified as T. indotineae). This isolate was terbinafine resistant, and it exhibited the amino acid substitution Phe397Leu in the squalene epoxidase. Three strains of T. interdigitale genotype II* were isolated. CONCLUSION: This is the first survey on epidemiology of dermatophytes in Cambodia. Currently, T. rubrum represents the most frequent species in Cambodia. One Indian strain genotype VIII T. mentagrophytes was found. A highlight was the first description of the new T. mentagrophytes genotype XXV Cambodia.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Dermatomicoses , Dermatoses da Mão , Tinha , Humanos , Camboja/epidemiologia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Trichophyton , Tinha dos Pés/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia
17.
Peptides ; 175: 171177, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354953

RESUMO

Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a zoophilic dermatophyte that can cause dermatophytosis in humans and animals. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered as a promising agent to overcome the drug-resistance of T. mentagrophytes. Our findings suggest that cationic antimicrobial peptide (ACP5) not only possesses stronger activity against T. mentagrophytes than fluconazole, but also shows lower toxicity to L929 mouse fibroblast cells than terbinafine. Notably, its resistance development rate after resistance induction was lower than terbinafine. The present study aimed to evaluate the fungicidal mechanism of ACP5 in vitro and its potential to treat dermatophyte infections in vivo. ACP5 at 1 ×MIC completely inhibited T. mentagrophytes spore germination in vitro. ACP5 severely disrupts the mycelial morphology, leading to mycelial rupture. Mechanistically, ACP5 induces excessive ROS production, damaging the integrity of the cell membrane and decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, causing irreversible damage in T. mentagrophytes. Furthermore, 1% ACP5 showed similar efficacy to the commercially available drug 1% terbinafine in a guinea pig dermatophytosis model, and the complete eradication of T. mentagrophytes from the skin by ACP5 was verified by tissue section observation. These results indicate that ACP5 is a promising candidate for the development of new agent to combat dermatophyte resistance.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Tinha , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Cobaias , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Trichophyton , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato/farmacologia
18.
Med Mycol J ; 65(1): 23-26, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417884

RESUMO

A Filipino woman in her forties had facial erythema that was being self-treated with over-the-counter (OTC) drugs purchased outside of Japan. The drugs included clobetasol propionate, antibiotic, and antifungal components. Her facial erythema symptoms were worse during summertime. KOH direct examination of annular erythema was positive for fungal hyphae and negative for Demodex folliculorum. Fungal culture revealed Trichophyton indotineae based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. Minimal inhibitory concentration for terbinafine was 0.06 µg/mL. We made a diagnosis of tinea faciei with steroid rosacea. We treated the patient with oral itraconazole. Physicians should be aware of increasing T. indotineae infections and increasing self-medication using topical OTC steroids combined with antifungals and antibiotics not only in India but also among foreign people living in other countries such as Japan.


Assuntos
Rosácea , Tinha , Humanos , Feminino , Japão , Medicamentos sem Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Trichophyton , Rosácea/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Eritema/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Med Mycol ; 62(2)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366631

RESUMO

Complete genome sequences from two Trichophyton indotineae isolates were obtained from a 23-year-old male presenting with tinea cruris after an overseas recreational water exposure and from a 53-year-old female patient with unknown travel history. Analysis of the squalene epoxidase gene and the cyp51 gene family showed an absence of mutations, correlating with phenotypic drug susceptibility. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) distance between both isolates was 92. Within the T. indotineae cluster, SNPs ranged from 7 to 182, suggesting a high genetic relatedness with other South Asian isolates. This study suggests that the prevalence of T. indotineae is under-reported and more widespread than previously thought.


Trichophyton indotineae, is a fungus causing difficult to treat ringworm infections. Two isolates were sequenced and their relationship and to other isolates was characterized. We also studied the genes responsible for first-line antifungal treatment.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Tinha , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Terbinafina , Singapura , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Trichophyton
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347717

RESUMO

A multidrug-resistant dermatophyte species recently arose in India, first described as terbinafine-resistant Trichophyton interdigitale and soon given a separate name: T. indotineae. Thanks to its treatment recalcitrance, person-to-person spread, and frequent travel, before long it was identified in many countries on all continents. We describe here the case of a boy with widespread, extremely pruritic, inflammatory dermatophytosis affecting his face, neck, trunk, and extremities, unsuccessfully treated for months with oral terbinafine and fluconazole and a range of topical antimycotics. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction of skin scrapings from his lesions identified a T. interdigitale complex fungus, highly probably T. indotineae due to conspecificity and antifungal resistance. Oral itraconazole, administered over 8 weeks, cleared the infection. Because the patient had not traveled outside the United Arab Emirates for months before the infection became obvious, it must have been acquired from a local source.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Tinha , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Trichophyton , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
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