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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246781, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285625

RESUMO

Abstract The agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) is a rodent that is found in the Neo-tropical region. This animal is hunted for its meat but has recently been reared in captivity as a source of meat protein in rural communities. A 20-month experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of an anthelmintic on the reproductive performance of the agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) reared in captivity. This experiment was conducted in the humid tropics of Trinidad and Tobago. Sixteen animals (15 females, 1 male) placed in each of the two treatment groups in a completely randomized study design. In treatment 1 (T1) animals were given subcutaneous injections of Endovet Ces® (Ivermectin/Praziquantel) at 0.2 mg/kg every three months. Treatment 2 (T2) was the negative control group where animals were not exposed to an anthelmintic. Reproductive data were collected at parturition which included birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender of offspring. The results showed that there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) between the treatment groups with respect to birth weight, litter weight, litter size and gender. However, agoutis that were dewormed had a higher birth weight (220.24 g vs 209.1 g) and litter weight (369.8 g vs 343 g). The same values were obtained for the litter size (1.7 vs 1.7) and animals that were dewormed had a higher female offspring to male offspring (2.41:1 vs 1.11:1). This experiment demonstrated that the use of an anthelmintic strategically in the management of captive reared agoutis had no statistical effect (p > 0.05) on the reproductive parameters. Therefore, these animals can be kept in captive conditions without being dewormed and produce efficiently with proper feeding and housing management.


Resumo A cutia (Dasyprocta leporina) é um roedor que se encontra na região neo-tropical. Esse animal é caçado por sua carne, mas recentemente foi criado em cativeiro como fonte de proteína de carne em comunidades rurais. Um experimento de 20 meses foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de um anti-helmíntico no desempenho reprodutivo de cutias (Dasyprocta leporina) criadas em cativeiro. Esse experimento foi conduzido nos trópicos úmidos de Trinidad e Tobago. Dezesseis animais (15 fêmeas, 1 macho) colocados em cada um dos dois grupos de tratamento em um desenho de estudo completamente randomizado. No tratamento 1 (T1) os animais receberam injeções subcutâneas de Endovet Ces® (Ivermectina / Praziquantel) na dose de 0,2 mg / kg a cada três meses. O tratamento 2 (T2) foi o grupo de controle negativo onde os animais não foram expostos a um anti-helmíntico. Os dados reprodutivos foram coletados no parto, incluindo peso ao nascer, peso da ninhada, tamanho da ninhada e sexo da prole. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatística (p > 0,05) entre os grupos de tratamento com relação ao peso ao nascer, peso da ninhada, tamanho da ninhada e sexo. No entanto, cutias desparasitadas tiveram maior peso ao nascer (220,24 g vs. 209,1 g) e peso da ninhada (369,8 g vs. 343 g). Os mesmos valores foram obtidos para o tamanho da ninhada (1,7 vs. 1,7) e os animais que foram desparasitados tiveram uma prole feminina maior do que a prole masculina (2,41: 1 vs. 1,11: 1). Esse experimento demonstrou que o uso de anti-helmíntico estrategicamente no manejo de cutias criadas em cativeiro não teve efeito estatístico (p > 0,05) sobre os parâmetros reprodutivos. Portanto, esses animais podem ser mantidos em cativeiro sem serem vermifugados e produzir de forma eficiente com alimentação adequada e manejo do alojamento.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Dasyproctidae , Anti-Helmínticos , Reprodução , Roedores , Trinidad e Tobago
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246780, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285620

RESUMO

Abstract Anthelmintic drugs have been used strategically in livestock reared in the tropics. These drugs have been used in the treatment of endoparasitism which have resulted in an increase in the animals' performance. The agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) is a neo-tropical rodent with the potential for domestication and has been farmed intensively in Trinidad. However, the objective of this research was to investigate the effect of anthelmintic use of the growth performance of the agouti. In searching the literature, it was found that this type of study on the agouti has not been done. In this experiment fourteen weaned agoutis weighing 1kg were divided into two groups randomly. The first group (T1) was not given any anthelmintic treatment but the second group (T2) was treated with Endovet Ces® subcutaneously every three months. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups in the carcass weight, weight gain, dressing percentage (hot and cold), heart, lungs, skin, head and feet. However, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was seen between groups in the weight of liver and pluck. To the authors knowledge this is the first time that carcass parameters has been presented in literature. The live weight of the animals at the end of the experiment ranged from 2.4 kg to 2.6 kg and animals had a dressing percentage of 57% to 55%. The results are suggestive that the use of anthelmintic drugs in agoutis reared intensively had no significant effect on weight gain and dressing percentage.


Resumo Drogas anti-helmínticas têm sido usadas estrategicamente em rebanhos criados nos trópicos. Essas drogas têm sido utilizadas no tratamento do endoparasitismo, o que resultou em um aumento no desempenho dos animais. A cutia (Dasyprocta leporina) é um roedor neotropical com potencial para domesticação e tem sido criada intensivamente em Trinidad. Porém, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar o efeito do uso de anti-helmínticos no desempenho de crescimento da cutia. Através de uma busca na literatura, constatou-se que esse tipo de estudo na cutia não foi realizado. Neste experimento, quatorze cutias desmamadas pesando 1kg foram divididas em dois grupos aleatoriamente. O primeiro grupo (T1) não recebeu nenhum tratamento anti-helmíntico, mas o segundo grupo (T2) foi tratado com Endovet Ces® por via subcutânea a cada três meses. Não houve diferenças significativas (p> 0,05) entre os dois grupos no peso da carcaça, ganho de peso, porcentagem de cobertura (quente e frio), coração, pulmão, pele, cabeça e pés. No entanto, uma diferença significativa (p <0,05) foi observada entre os grupos no peso do fígado e depenagem. Para os autores, esta é a primeira vez que parâmetros de carcaça são apresentados na literatura. O peso vivo dos animais ao final do experimento variou de 2,4 kg a 2,6 kg e os animais tinham uma porcentagem de curativo de 57% a 55%. Os resultados sugerem que o uso de anti-helmínticos em cutias criadas intensivamente não teve efeito significativo no ganho de peso e na porcentagem de curativo.


Assuntos
Animais , Cuniculidae , Dasyproctidae , Anti-Helmínticos , Roedores , Trinidad e Tobago
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248493, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339399

RESUMO

Abstract Parasites of veterinary importance have been heavily focused on domesticated livestock that was introduced into the neo-tropics. The text used in the teaching parasitology to veterinary students in Trinidad has only investigated the parasites of domesticated species. In the reviewed veterinary parasitology text no mention was made on the parasites that affect wild neo-tropical animals. Information on wild neo-tropical animals had to be sourced from texts on the management of wild life animals in the Neotropics. The texts that were reviewed in this document spanned from the mid-1950s to 2020. The information presented in this review reveals the exhaustive work done on the parasites of domesticated species but also revealed little information on neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. In conclusion, this review reveals the gap of information that is missing from parasitology texts used in the teaching of veterinary students. In the future these parasitology texts can be revised to include chapters on the parasites of neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. At present students that graduate from the veterinary parasitology course has little information on the parasites of animals which are present in their 'backyards'.


Resumo Parasitas de importância veterinária têm se concentrado fortemente em animais domésticos que foram introduzidos na região neotrópica. O texto usado no ensino de parasitologia para estudantes de veterinária em Trinidad investigou apenas os parasitas de espécies domesticadas. No texto de parasitologia veterinária revisado, nenhuma menção foi feita sobre os parasitas que afetam os animais selvagens neotropicais. As informações sobre animais selvagens neotropicais tiveram que ser obtidas a partir de textos sobre o manejo de animais selvagens nos Neotrópicos. Os textos revisados neste documento vão de meados da década de 1950 até 2020. As informações apresentadas nesta revisão revelam o trabalho exaustivo realizado sobre os parasitas de espécies domesticadas, mas também revelaram poucas informações sobre animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Em conclusão, esta revisão revela a lacuna de informação que existe nos textos de parasitologia utilizados no ensino de estudantes de veterinária. No futuro, esses textos de parasitologia podem ser revisados ​​para incluir capítulos sobre os parasitas de animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Atualmente, os alunos que se formam no curso de parasitologia veterinária têm poucas informações sobre os parasitas de animais que estão presentes em seus "quintais".


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Educação em Veterinária , Animais Selvagens , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Estudantes , Trinidad e Tobago , Universidades
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277564, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36378686

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is estimated to cause over two million cases of human disease annually. Trinidad and Tobago is one of the largest livestock producer and consumer of sheep and goat meat in the Caribbean, however, the potential role of these animals in the epidemiology of STEC infections has not been previously described. To fill this critical gap in knowledge, the prevalence of Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) shed in the faeces of healthy sheep (n = 204) and goats (n = 105) in Trinidad was investigated. Based on PCR screening, goats had a higher stx prevalence than sheep (46% vs 35%, P = 0.06). Most of the recovered STEC isolates were positive for stx1 only; and only three isolates were positive for the eae gene. None of the recovered isolates belonged to the O157 serogroup. In both species, the prevalence of stx was higher in young animals versus older animals. Sheep reared on deep litter flooring (43%) had a higher prevalence than sheep reared other flooring types, however this was not the same for goats. The presence of cows on the same premise was not an associated predictor for STEC carriage in sheep or goats. This study demonstrates that although sheep and goats in Trinidad are reservoirs for stx-positive E. coli isolates, no fecal samples tested positive for O157 STEC, harbored. Furthermore, it appears that non-O157 stx-positive isolates harbored by these animals do not pose a significant threat to human health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Humanos , Feminino , Ovinos , Animais , Bovinos , Toxina Shiga/genética , Cabras , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361038

RESUMO

The paper probes the meaning of wellbeing by examining whether ethnic identity is related to private and public conceptualisations of eudaimonic wellbeing. Private and public eudaimonic wellbeing are assessed as positive relations with others and social integration. Ethnic identity is a type of social identity that is meaningful in contexts of enduring inter-ethnic group contact. Fiji and Trinidad and Tobago (TT), nations with contact between two major ethnic groups for over a century, are the contexts for a preliminary exploration. Young adults (Fiji N = 38, 19-26 years old; TT N = 41, 18-25 years old) completed measures of positive relations with others (private eudaimonic wellbeing), social integration (public eudaimonic wellbeing), and ethnic identity development. Across the nations, a stronger sense of ethnic identity, or commitment to the ingroup, predicted better positive relations with others but worse social integration. Ethnic identity thus seems to be a key construct in understanding positive private, but negative public eudaimonic wellbeing among young adults in contexts of ethnic diversity. Findings are discussed by considering how implications of ethnic diversity (competitive inter-group relations, inter-group contact making ethnic group membership salient) might be related to ethnic identity development, and private and public eudaimonic wellbeing.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Identificação Social , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Adulto , Adolescente , Fiji , Trinidad e Tobago
6.
Port-of-Spain; PAHO; 2022-11-14. (PAHO/TTO/22-0001).
Não convencional em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56359

RESUMO

In 2022 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is celebrating its 120th anniversary. Operating as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, PAHO provides technical cooperation to its Member States to address communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, strengthen health systems, and respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Americas. In addition, in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for the Americas, PAHO participates in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other United Nations agencies, funds, and programs to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. At the subregional level, PAHO works with integration mechanisms to position health and its determinants on the political agenda. The 2021 Country Annual Reports reflect PAHO’s technical cooperation in countries and territories in implementing the Country Cooperation Strategies, responding to their needs and priorities, and operating within the framework of PAHO’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Responding to COVID-19 and Preparing for the Future, they highlight PAHO’s actions on the COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing efforts in priority areas such as health emergencies, health systems and services, communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases and mental health, health throughout the life course, and health equity. They also provide a financial summary for the biennium 2020-2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emergências , Sistemas de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Equidade , Equidade de Gênero , Diversidade Cultural , Cooperação Técnica , Região do Caribe , Trinidad e Tobago
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 925813, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36249212

RESUMO

Economic, political, humanitarian and health crises in Venezuela have resulted in mass out migration -thousands of Venezuelans emigrated to Trinidad and Tobago. However, little is known about their food security status in the host country. This study assessed the food security status among Venezuelan migrants and asylum seekers in Trinidad and Tobago and tested the validity of the online application of the food insecurity experience scale (FIES), a tool to measure food insecurity, in a small group. This convenience, cross-sectional study applied an online questionnaire to 433 Venezuelan migrants in Trinidad and Tobago in 2020. Snowball sampling was used to connect to migrants based on their access to locally-based NGO service providers, and organizations directly connected to the Venezuelan migrant community. Researchers applied the 12-month reference period to the FIES to measure food insecurity at the individual level. Descriptive analyses, Rasch modeling and binary logistic regression were conducted. Overall, 61.9% of respondents displayed behaviors characterized as severely food insecure. Significant differences in food security status were observed when categories of employment status (p = 0.032) and paying rent (p = 0.005) were considered. There were greater proportions of unemployed individuals who were severely food insecure (67.6%) compared to those who were employed (56.7%). There were greater proportions of individuals paying rent who were severely food insecure (62.6%) compared to those who were not paying rent (50.0%). Logistic regression with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals revealed that food insecurity was less likely among migrants who were employed (OR 0.112, 95% CI 0.016-0.763) relative to those who were not employed, while food insecurity was more likely among migrants who were paying rent (OR 7.325, 95% CI 1.965-27.312) relative to those not paying rent. The FIES was consistent in assessing food security status. These findings provide a rapid assessment that can be used to galvanize international, national and community-level stakeholders to devise and target responses to assist migrants experiencing food insecurity.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Migrantes , Estudos Transversais , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Trinidad e Tobago , Venezuela
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1458-1465, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pets and their owners has increased due to the misuse and abuse of antibiotics. This study compared the prevalence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus strains in pets and their owners in urban and rural communities in Trinidad. METHODOLOGY: Questionnaires were administered to gather demographic and risk factor data for MRSA for human participants, and their pets. Nasal swabs were obtained from 100 pets (dogs and cats) and their human owners. For the isolation of MRSA, nasal swabs obtained were enriched and then plated on selective media. Staphylococcus aureus was identified using standard biochemical procedures. The resistance of S. aureus initially assessed detection of MRSA isolates to cefoxitin and confirmed by the PBP2a latex agglutination test. Antibiotic resistance was determined using the disc diffusion method. RESULTS: The prevalence of MRSA was 6.0% (3/50) and 2.0% (1/50) in household pet animals and their owners, respectively in urban communities, while in rural communities, the prevalence was 6.0% (3/50) and 12.0% (6/50) respectively. The prevalence of S. aureus in pet owners was higher in the rural community (44.0%) compared to urban (30.0%). However, in pet animals, S. aureus was more frequently isolated from urban communities (78.0%) than rural ones (66.0%). Amongst the S. aureus isolates, 81.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that living in a rural community increased the odds of MRSA colonization.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Gatos , Cefoxitina , Cães , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Animais de Estimação , População Rural , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1982): 20220641, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069009

RESUMO

Imminent predation risk affects mating behaviours in prey individuals in a multitude of ways that can theoretically impact the strength of sexual selection, as well as its operation on traits. However, empirical studies of the effects of imminent predation risk on sexual selection dynamics are still scarce. Here we explore how perceived predation affects: (1) the relationship between the opportunity for selection and the actual strength of selection on male traits; and (2) which traits contribute to male fitness and the shape of selection on these traits. We simulate two consecutive reproductive episodes, under control conditions and perceived predation risk using experimental populations of Trinidad guppies. The opportunity for selection is higher under predation risk compared to the control condition, but realised selection on traits remains unaffected. Pre- and postcopulatory traits follow complex patterns of nonlinear selection in both conditions. Differences in selection gradients deviate from predictions based on evolutionary and non-lethal effects of predation, the most notable being strong disruptive selection on courtship rate under predation risk. Our results demonstrate that sexual selection is sensitive to imminent predation risk perception and reinforce the notion that both trait-based and variance-based metrics should be employed for an informative quantification.


Assuntos
Poecilia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Comportamento Predatório , Trinidad e Tobago
10.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56429

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. This article describes the introduction of the Pan American Health Organization’s HEARTS in the Americas program in Trinidad and Tobago and the successful experiences and challenges encountered in introducing and scaling it up as a strategy for strengthening the health system’s response to cardiovascular diseases. Evidence about implementation of the HEARTS program in the World Health Organization’s Region of the Americas was reviewed to identify the progress made, barriers, success factors and lessons learned. In 2019, the Ministry of Health commenced implementation of the program in 5 (4.9%) of the 102 primary health care centers, and by the end of 2021, it had been scaled up to 46 (45.0%) centers. The HEARTS program ensures that patients’ cardiovascular health is managed in a comprehensive way through providing counseling about a healthy lifestyle, using evidence-based treatment protocols, ensuring access to essential medicines and technologies, and using a risk-based team approach, a monitoring and evaluation system and also a teambased approach to care delivery. The barriers encountered during implementation included the fragmentation of the existing health care system, the paternalistic role assumed by health care professionals, the resistance of some health care workers to change and a lack of team-based approaches to providing care. Successful implementation of the program was enabled through ensuring high-level political commitment, establishing the national HEARTS Oversight Committee, ensuring stakeholder involvement throughout all phases and implementing standardized approaches to care. When implemented in the context of existing primary health care settings, the HEARTS program provides an exceptionally well integrated and comprehensive model of care that embodies the principles of universal health care while ensuring the health of both populations and individuals. Thus, it enables and promotes a strengthened primary health care system and services that are responsive and resilient.


[RESUMEN]. En este artículo se describe la introducción del programa HEARTS en las Américas de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud en Trinidad y Tabago y las experiencias satisfactorias y los desafíos encontrados con su ejecución y ampliación como estrategia para fortalecer la respuesta del sistema de salud a las enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se reunieron datos sobre la ejecución del programa HEARTS en la Región de las Américas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud con el fin de determinar cuáles han sido los avances, los obstáculos, los factores de éxito y las enseñanzas extraídas. En el año 2019, el Ministerio de Salud inició la ejecución del programa en cinco (4,9%) de los 102 centros de atención primaria de salud, y para fines del 2021, se había ampliado a 46 (45,0%). El programa HEARTS garantiza el manejo integral de la salud cardiovascular de los pacientes mediante la prestación de asesoramiento sobre hábitos saludables, la aplicación de protocolos de tratamiento basados en la evidencia, la garantía de acceso a medicamentos y tecnologías esenciales, así como el uso de un enfoque de trabajo en equipo basado en el riesgo, un sistema de monitoreo y evaluación, y un enfoque basado en el equipo para abordar la prestación de la atención. Entre los obstáculos para su ejecución se encontraron la fragmentación del sistema de atención médica, el papel paternalista asumido por los profesionales de la salud, la resistencia al cambio de algunos trabajadores de salud y la falta de enfoques de trabajo en equipo para la prestación de la atención. La ejecución satisfactoria del programa fue posible gracias a un compromiso político de alto nivel, la creación de un comité nacional de supervisión de HEARTS, la participación de las partes interesadas en todas las fases del programa y la aplicación de enfoques estandarizados para la atención. En su ejecución en el contexto de los entornos de atención primaria de salud existentes, el programa HEARTS proporciona un modelo de atención excepcionalmente bien integrado y exhaustivo que encarna los principios de acceso universal a la atención de salud al tiempo que garantiza la salud individual y poblacional. De este modo, este modelo fomenta un sistema de atención primaria de salud fortalecido y unos servicios receptivos y resilientes.


[RESUMO]. Este artigo descreve a introdução do programa HEARTS nas Américas da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde em Trinidad e Tobago e as experiências bem-sucedidas e os desafios encontrados durante a introdução e expansão do programa como estratégia para fortalecer a resposta do sistema de saúde às doenças cardiovasculares. Analisaram-se evidências sobre a implementação do programa HEARTS na Região das Américas da Organização Mundial da Saúde para identificar os avanços obtidos, os obstáculos, os fatores de sucesso e as lições aprendidas. Em 2019, o Ministério da Saúde iniciou a implementação do programa em 5 (4,9%) dos 102 centros de atenção primária à saúde; no final de 2021, o programa havia sido ampliado para 46 (45,0%) centros. O programa HEARTS assegura que a saúde cardiovascular dos pacientes seja manejada de uma forma abrangente por meio de aconselhamento sobre estilo de vida saudável, uso de protocolos de tratamento baseados em evidências, garantia de acesso a medicamentos e tecnologias essenciais e utilização de uma estratégia de equipe baseada no risco, de um sistema de monitoramento e avaliação e de uma abordagem de atendimento baseado em equipe. Os obstáculos encontrados durante a implementação incluíam a fragmentação do sistema de saúde existente, o papel paternalista assumido pelos profissionais de saúde, a resistência de alguns profissionais de saúde a mudanças e a falta de abordagens baseadas em equipe na prestação do atendimento. Para permitir que a implementação do programa fosse bem-sucedida, obteve-se compromisso político de alto nível, criou-se o Comitê de Supervisão do HEARTS nacional, assegurou-se o envolvimento de interessados diretos em todas as fases e implementaram-se abordagens padronizadas de atendimento. Quando implementado no contexto dos ambientes existentes de atenção primária à saúde, o programa HEARTS oferece um modelo de atenção excepcionalmente bem integrado e abrangente que incorpora os princípios de atenção universal à saúde, ao mesmo tempo em que garante a saúde das populações e dos indivíduos. Dessa forma, viabiliza e promove um sistema de atenção primária à saúde fortalecido e serviços responsivos e resilientes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Trinidad e Tobago , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Trinidad e Tobago , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Trinidad e Tobago , COVID-19
11.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 5031202, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120151

RESUMO

Background: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance is important in ensuring the widespread vaccination of the population to achieve herd immunity. Establishing the acceptance of vaccines among healthcare workers, who play a vital role in an immunization program's success, is important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of social trust and demographic factors on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey utilizing an electronic questionnaire inquiring about COVID-19 vaccine uptake, preferences, and concerns was distributed via e-mail to 1,351 North Central Regional Health Authority (NCRHA) healthcare workers of the following categories: medical practitioners, nursing personnel, veterinary surgeons, medical interns, dental interns, paramedics, and pharmacists. These professions were selected as they were granted power to administer COVID-19 vaccines during the period of public emergency by the President of Trinidad and Tobago and were therefore likely to be NCRHA healthcare workers directly involved in vaccine administration services. Bivariate analysis using Chi-squared analysis of association was used to determine the association between the respondents' characteristics and the acceptance of the vaccine and the association between vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers and trust. The association between the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines and healthcare workers' characteristics and trust was established using multinomial logistic regression. Results: A total of 584 healthcare workers took part in the study, and 1.4% showed unwillingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. The study indicates that age, profession, trust in international public health organizations, and trust in other healthcare providers predict the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines among healthcare workers, with younger age groups and the nursing profession associated with an unwillingness to accept the vaccine. Gender of the healthcare workers does not predict vaccine acceptance. Conclusions and relevance: efforts towards enhanced vaccine acceptance among healthcare workers should take into consideration age, profession, and the trust in international organizations and other healthcare providers. Sensitization programs aimed at informing and creating awareness among healthcare workers about the COVID-19 vaccines should be age-specific as well as occupation-based.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas contra Influenza , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Trinidad e Tobago
12.
Zootaxa ; 5175(1): 101-125, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095374

RESUMO

Mosquito species of the subgenus Decamyia Dyar, 1919 of genus Wyeomyia Theobald, 1901 are known to have immature stages mostly associated with Heliconia plants. Currently, the subgenus includes five species, some of which are poorly characterized. Here, we redescribe and illustrate the larval, pupal and adult life stages of Wy. felicia (Dyar Nez Tovar, 1927). In addition, Wyeomyia monticola, a new species of Decamyia from Trinidad, close to Wy. felicia, is described. The new species can be distinguished by morphological characters of the male genitalia, larva and pupa.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Culicidae/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Masculina , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Pupa/anatomia & histologia , Trinidad e Tobago
13.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(7): 649-656, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Trinidad and Tobago is the only English- speaking Caribbean country with an established kidney transplant program from living and deceased donors. The program is managed by the National OrganTransplant Unit.This study analyzed the 15-year experience of the public program in terms of transplant outcomes and procurement quality at the main deceased donor procurement hospital using some DOPKI and ODEQUS quality indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data from 2006 through 2020 from the National OrganTransplantUnit database, surveyedhospital staffonorgandonationand transplant after face-to-face education activities on these subjects, and provided an online survey to religious leaders.DOPKI and ODEQUS quality indicators from 1 procurement center were also recorded. RESULTS: During the data collection period, 195 transplants were achieved, with 23.6% from deceased donors. Deceased donation and deceased donor kidney transplant rates ranged from 0.71 to 3.6 and from 0.71 to 7.1 per million population, respectively. Since 2011, deceased donor registry and actual deceased donors increased 6-fold and 14-fold, respectively, while living donor transplants doubled and deceased donor transplants increased 15-fold. Quality parameters revealed major gaps in deceased donor critical pathway, with limited transplant budget, absence of hospital budget for deceased donor organ retrieval processes, important deficiencies in deceased donor registry and waiting lists, refusal of expanded criteria donors, and missed donation opportunities from poor HLA reagent supply chain management. Religious leaders and health care workers showed supportive positive attitudes toward organ donation and transplant. CONCLUSIONS: The public organ donation and transplant program of Trinidad and Tobago has performed reasonably well over a 15-year period. Enhancing quality performance and donation effectiveness requires rebalancing and improving resource allocation from renal dialysis to kidney transplant, funding deceased organ procurement, and facilitating education of religious leaders and health care professionals for end-of-life care and change of community values in organ transplant decisions.


Assuntos
Transplante de Órgãos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Humanos , Rim , Doadores Vivos , Doadores de Tecidos , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos , Resultado do Tratamento , Trinidad e Tobago
14.
Am J Vet Res ; 83(10)2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize the gross and histological lesions associated with air pollution in the lungs of dogs from various locations in Trinidad. ANIMALS: 56 fresh lungs were obtained from already euthanized adult dogs collected from different locations in Trinidad at the Trinidad and Tobago Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. PROCEDURES: Lung specimens were examined grossly and tissue samples were taken for routine histologic examination. RESULTS: Histological examination showed that 51.8% of the dogs had evidence of anthracosis. Dogs with anthracosis had greater median lesion scores compared to dogs without anthracosis (P = .022). There was no association between the presence of anthracosis and any other lesion in this study (P > .05). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: There was evidence that dogs with anthracosis had a greater degree of nonspecific lung histologic lesions. Using the dog as a sentinel model for human exposure in Trinidad, our findings indicate that environmental air pollution may also have an effect on the respiratory health of the human population. It is important for the public to be aware of air pollution, and the government of Trinidad and Tobago should develop an intervention protocol along with veterinary and human medical epidemiologists to reduce air pollution in the country.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Antracose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Animais , Antracose/etiologia , Antracose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Espécies Sentinelas , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
15.
J Environ Radioact ; 251-252: 106953, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797905

RESUMO

The present study was conducted in the Piparo mud-volcano, which is situated in the central part of the island of Trinidad, is geologically connected with the Central Fault Range Zone (CFRZ). This fault zone is a neotectonic (active) strike-slip fault system and an extension of the Andes Mountain chain. This study was aimed at detecting the possible gamma radiation level in Piparo MV after its eruption in September 2019 and finding the change in the ambient radiation level after that eruption. To achieve this aim, gamma radiation data were collected for 6 months (three times at 3 months interval) after this eruption. As a pilot study, gamma radiation measurements were measured with the help of a portable Geiger Muller counter from 32 locations. Radiation levels were nearly 2 times higher than the average background levels in the country indicating Piparo mud-volcano could have controlled the elevated radiation levels in the area. Good correlations were also found between elevated radiation in the northern and western sides of the main crater and presence of auxiliary craters in the same sides. Previous studies reported that the northern side of the crater was more active, and the present study also supported their observation. Good correlation (with coefficient >0.9) indicates that these radioactivity values might be syngenetic. Continuous release and slow reduction of radiation levels (only 13% over 6 months) may indicate a continuous activity in Piparo mud-volcano and may support CRFZ as a creep fault.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Sedimentos Geológicos , Projetos Piloto , Trinidad e Tobago
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0264659, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867670

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Contact lenses (CL) remain a popular mode of refractive error correction globally and in the Caribbean, mostly among young people. However, no data on the characteristics of the CL population wearers in the Caribbean is available. This study reported on the characteristics of CL wearers and the associated factors in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed the clinical records of 243 CL wearers who attended the University of the West Indies (UWI) optometry clinic between 2017 and 2018. Data on their demographic profiles, CL wearing characteristics including lens type, material, purpose of wear, replacement schedule and lens care systems were extracted and analyzed. The associations between the demographic characteristics and CL wearing characteristics were also determined. RESULTS: About half of the CL wearers used them for fashion (more among those aged 18 to 30 years, 61.0%), therapeutic (more among those <18 years, 43.8%, P = 0.001) and refractive error correction purposes (more in those >40 years, P = 0.001). Females were more likely to use CLs for fashion compared with males (67.0% versus 40.7%). Age (P<0.0005) and gender (P = 0.030) were associated with the lens materials. Those aged 18-30 years were more likely use hydrogels compared with the younger ones (64.1% versus 25.0%). Rigid gas permeable (RGP) CL use was more common in males than females (21.8% versus 10.9%, P = 0.031). Daily disposables were predominantly used by younger respondents (18-30 years old, 31.3%, P < 0.001) and more in females than males (66.7% vs 49.4%, P = 0.040). CONCLUSION: The study found that the CL appears to be more commonly worn for fashion in younger females and for refractive error correction in older males. Age, gender, and employment status were the main determinants of lens wear among respondents attending the university clinic in T&T.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Lentes de Contato , Erros de Refração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Med Vet Entomol ; 36(4): 456-468, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703533

RESUMO

Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biting nuisances and arbovirus vectors of both public health and veterinary significance in Trinidad. We compared sampling methods to define the behaviour and bionomics of adult Culicoides populations at a commercial dairy goat farm. Three static trap designs were compared: (a) Centre for Disease Control (CDC) downdraft UV trap; (b) CDC trap with an incandescent bulb and (c) CDC trap with semiochemical lure consisting of R-(-)-1-octen-3-ol and CO2 (no bulb). Sweep netting was used to define diel periodicity. A total of 30,701 biting midges were collected using static traps, dominated by female Culicoides furens (>70% of trap collections across all three designs). There was no significant difference in the Margalef's index between the three traps; however, trap designs A and C collected a significantly greater number of individuals than trap B, and trap C gained highest species richness. The greatest species richness and abundance of Culicoides collected by sweep net was observed between 6:00 and 6:15 pm and notable differences in the crepuscular activity pattern of several species were identified. Comparative data on Culicoides species richness, abundance, sex and reproductive status is discussed and can be used to improve surveillance strategies, research designs and risk management.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae , Feminino , Animais , Trinidad e Tobago , Feromônios , Sorogrupo
18.
J Perioper Pract ; 32(11): 320-325, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574718

RESUMO

An earthquake in 2018 resulted in irreparable damage to the Port of Spain General Hospital, Trinidad and Tobago, and severely affected orthopaedic services. This study investigates the rate and reasons for cancellation on the day of surgery of orthopaedic cases during the post-earthquake period. We prospectively collected data on all cases scheduled to undergo surgery during the study period. Information was gathered on patient demographics, the number and reasons for cancellation. Data were analysed using Analyse-it for Microsoft Excel 5.40 (Analyse-it Software Ltd). Our results show that 43 patients were cancelled, resulting in a 44.3% cancellation rate. Patients who had their surgery cancelled were older, with a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists class compared with patients whose surgery was not cancelled. Hospital-related factors were found to be responsible for the majority of cancellations. Placed in context, our findings suggest that limited operating time due to the earthquake-induced hospital damage was the principal reason for the high rate of surgery cancellations.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Ortopedia , Humanos , Agendamento de Consultas , Salas Cirúrgicas , Trinidad e Tobago , Hospitais Gerais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 445, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604459

RESUMO

Potentially toxic elements can enter the environment through natural and anthropogenic processes, with the latter considered the primary contributor. Road dust samples from two industrial parks on the island of Trinidad were investigated for heavy metal content, and the pollution status, potential health risks, and source apportionment were evaluated. Samples were acid-digested and analysed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The average levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc in road dust at the Frederick Settlement Industrial Park were 1.14 µg/g, 15.13 µg/g, 66.42 µg/g, 768.49 µg/g, 37.95 µg/g, 55.90 µg/g, and 573.04 µg/g, respectively, while average concentrations at the O'Meara Industrial Park were 1.20 µg/g, 16.97 µg/g, 42.72 µg/g, 482.65 µg/g, 21.12 µg/g, 136.77 µg/g, and 358.70 µg/g, respectively. Contamination assessments evaluated both Fredrick Settlement and O'Meara as typically uncontaminated to moderately polluted, with the overall ecological risk deemed low at all locations. Hazard index values at all sampling areas were lower than 1, indicating no potential non-carcinogenic risks to children or adults, while the carcinogenic exposure risks for cadmium, chromium, and nickel were considered low. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis revealed two main sources of contamination for Fredrick Settlement, and three main sources for O'Meara. Based on the groupings obtained, the presence of potentially toxic elements was attributed primarily to specific anthropogenic activities within the industrial parks, with lesser contributions from vehicular-related sources.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Metais Pesados , Adulto , Cádmio/análise , Criança , China , Cromo/análise , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Níquel/análise , Medição de Risco , Trinidad e Tobago
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35402062

RESUMO

Problem: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Severe illness requires intensive care facilities, which are limited in smaller, resource-constrained settings. Context: Maldives and Trinidad and Tobago are small island developing states with comparable climates. Similar to island nations in the Western Pacific Region, they are prone to natural disasters and so engage in planning and preparedness activities on an ongoing basis. This paper describes the initial measures taken by both countries during the first wave of COVID-19, from March to May 2020. Action: In both countries, multisectoral high-level leadership allowed for timely and decisive actions. Early school closures, early border closures and early lockdowns were enforced. Mandatory mask wearing and physical distancing were instituted. Cases and contacts were isolated in facilities away from public sector hospitals, and isolation was implemented at the government's expense. Volunteers were trained to manage dedicated hotlines. Additionally, the governments held daily press briefings. Outcome: During the first wave, Maldives contained its epidemic to one geographical cluster; Trinidad and Tobago successfully avoided community spread, thus averting an overwhelmed health system. Discussion: Diligent contact tracing with quarantine implemented at the government's expense successfully minimized spread in both countries. Small countries need volunteers to help with activities such as contact tracing, and recruiting and training volunteers before a health emergency occurs is key. Lessons learned from the experience of Maldives and Trinidad and Tobago could serve as a model for other small island developing states, including those in the Western Pacific Region.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
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