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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612386

RESUMO

Wheat allergy dependent on augmentation factors (WALDA) is the most common gluten allergy in adults. IgE-mediated sensitizations are directed towards ω5-gliadin but also to other wheat allergens. The value of the different in vitro cellular tests, namely the basophil activation test (BAT) and the active (aBHRA) and passive basophil histamine-release assays (pBHRA), in the detection of sensitization profiles beyond ω5-gliadin has not been compared. Therefore, 13 patients with challenge-confirmed, ω5-gliadin-positive WALDA and 11 healthy controls were enrolled. Specific IgE (sIgE), skin prick tests, BATs, aBHRA, and pBHRA were performed with allergen test solutions derived from wheat and other cereals, and results were analyzed and compared. This study reveals a distinct and highly individual reactivity of ω5-gliadin-positive WALDA patients to a range of wheat allergens beyond ω5-gliadin in cellular in vitro tests and SPT. In the BAT, for all tested allergens (gluten, high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits, α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), alcohol-free wheat beer, hydrolyzed wheat proteins (HWPs), rye gluten and secalins), basophil activation in patients was significantly higher than in controls (p = 0.004-p < 0.001). Similarly, significant histamine release was detected in the aBHRA for all test substances, exceeding the cut-off of 10 ng/mL in all tested allergens in 50% of patients. The dependency of tests on sIgE levels against ω5-gliadin differed; in the pBHRA, histamine release to any test substances could only be detected in patients with sIgE against ω5-gliadin ≥ 7.7 kU/L, whereas aBHRA also showed high reactivity in less sensitized patients. In most patients, reactivity to HWPs, ATIs, and rye allergens was observed. Additionally, alcohol-free wheat beer was first described as a promising test substance in ω5-gliadin-positive WALDA. Thus, BAT and aBHRA are valuable tools for the identification of sensitization profiles in WALDA.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Trigo , Adulto , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/diagnóstico , Gliadina , Glutens , Técnicas In Vitro , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Tripsina , Imunoglobulina E
2.
Int J Pharm ; 655: 124072, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561133

RESUMO

We explored the potential of overcoming the dense interstitial barrier in pancreatic cancer treatment by enhancing the uptake of hydrophilic chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we synthesized the squalenoyl-chidamide prodrug (SQ-CHI), linking lipophilic squalene (SQ) with the hydrophilic antitumor drug chidamide (CHI) through a trypsin-responsive bond. Self-assembled nanoparticles with sigma receptor-bound aminoethyl anisamide (AEAA) modification, forming AEAA-PEG-SQ-CHI NPs (A-C NPs, size 116.6 ± 0.4 nm), and reference nanoparticles without AEAA modification, forming mPEG-SQ-CHI NPs (M-C NPs, size 88.3 ± 0.3 nm), were prepared. A-C NPs exhibited significantly higher in vitro CHI release (74.7 %) in 0.5 % trypsin medium compared to release (20.2 %) in medium without trypsin. In vitro cell uptake assays revealed 3.6 and 2.3times higher permeation of A-C NPs into tumorspheres of PSN-1/HPSC or CFPAC-1/HPSC, respectively, compared to M-C NPs. Following intraperitoneal administration to subcutaneous tumor-bearing nude mice, the A-C NPs group demonstrated significant anti-pancreatic cancer efficacy, inducing cancer cell apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that AEAA surface modification on nanoparticles promoted intracellular uptake through caveolin-mediated endocytosis. This nanoparticle system presents a novel therapeutic approach for pancreatic cancer treatment, offering a delivery strategy to enhance efficacy through improved tumor permeation, trypsin-responsive drug release, and specific cell surface receptor-mediated intracellular uptake.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas , Benzamidas , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Pró-Fármacos , Animais , Camundongos , Caveolinas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Nus , Tripsina , Nanopartículas/química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1297: 342361, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The content of trypsin will change when pancreatic diseases occur, therefore developing a high-performance method for trypsin detection is of great significance for guiding patients on medication plans and improving their prognosis. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) analysis techniques have emerged as a solution to apply for bioassays. RESULTS: Herein, the Fe2O3@Bi2S3 and Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon quantum dots (NSCQDs) were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Subsequently, NSCQDs/Fe2O3@Bi2S3 with a photocurrent amplification effect covered on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode as the substrate material and apoferritin (APO) as a bio-recognition element to quench the photocurrent of the substrate material which can be excited with light. Due to the decomposition specifically between APO and trypsin, the photocurrent response increased. The linear range for trypsin detection showed satisfied results from 2 to 1000 ng mL-1 under optimal conditions, with a detection limit of 0.42 ng mL-1 and a recovery rate of 97.41 %-103.02 %, enabling efficient quantitative analysis of trypsin. SIGNIFICANCE: In this experiment, a PEC biosensor with simple operation, low detection limit, excellent selectivity and strong stability was successfully prepared, enabling quantitative analysis of trypsin in human serum samples through the quenching-recovery mechanism. It holds great significance for diagnosis and serves as a practical method for the detection of trypsin in the future.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Humanos , Tripsina , Carbono , Nitrogênio , Enxofre
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5777-5783, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456211

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages around the world and its consumption contributes to the daily intake of dietary melanoidins. Despite the emerging physiological role of food melanoidins, their effect on digestive processes has not been studied so far. In this study, the activity of the gastrointestinal enzymes pepsin and trypsin was investigated in the presence of water-soluble coffee melanoidins. The gastric enzyme pepsin is only slightly affected, whereas the intestinal enzyme trypsin is severely inhibited by coffee melanoidins. The intestinal digestibility of casein was significantly inhibited by coffee melanoidins at a concentration achievable by regular coffee consumption. The inhibition of proteolytic enzymes by coffee melanoidins might decrease the nutritional value of dietary proteins.


Assuntos
Café , Pepsina A , Polímeros , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Tripsina , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo
5.
mBio ; 15(4): e0348323, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511930

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections, many of which begin following attachment and accumulation on indwelling medical devices or diseased tissue. These infections are often linked to the establishment of biofilms, but another often overlooked key characteristic allowing S. aureus to establish persistent infection is the formation of planktonic aggregates. Such aggregates are physiologically similar to biofilms and protect pathogens from innate immune clearance and increase antibiotic tolerance. The cell-wall-associated protein SasG has been implicated in biofilm formation via mechanisms of intercellular aggregation but the mechanism in the context of disease is largely unknown. We have previously shown that the expression of cell-wall-anchored proteins involved in biofilm formation is controlled by the ArlRS-MgrA regulatory cascade. In this work, we demonstrate that the ArlRS two-component system controls aggregation, by repressing the expression of sasG by activation of the global regulator MgrA. We also demonstrate that SasG must be proteolytically processed by a non-staphylococcal protease to induce aggregation and that strains expressing functional full-length sasG aggregate significantly upon proteolysis by a mucosal-derived host protease found in human saliva. We used fractionation and N-terminal sequencing to demonstrate that human trypsin within saliva cleaves within the A domain of SasG to expose the B domain and induce aggregation. Finally, we demonstrated that SasG is involved in virulence during mouse lung infection. Together, our data point to SasG, its processing by host proteases, and SasG-driven aggregation as important elements of S. aureus adaptation to the host environment.IMPORTANCEHere, we demonstrate that the Staphylococcus aureus surface protein SasG is important for cell-cell aggregation in the presence of host proteases. We show that the ArlRS two-component regulatory system controls SasG levels through the cytoplasmic regulator MgrA. We identified human trypsin as the dominant protease triggering SasG-dependent aggregation and demonstrated that SasG is important for S. aureus lung infection. The discovery that host proteases can induce S. aureus aggregation contributes to our understanding of how this pathogen establishes persistent infections. The observations in this study demonstrate the need to strengthen our knowledge of S. aureus surface adhesin function and processing, regulation of adhesin expression, and the mechanisms that promote biofilm formation to develop strategies for preventing chronic infections.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/metabolismo
6.
J Mater Chem B ; 12(15): 3786-3796, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546335

RESUMO

Trypsin, a pancreatic enzyme associated with diseases like pancreatic cancer and cystic fibrosis, requires effective diagnostic tools. Current detection systems seldom utilize macrocyclic molecules and tetraphenyl ethylene (TPE) derivative-based supramolecular assemblies, known for their biocompatibility and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties, for trypsin detection. This study presents an enzyme-responsive, AIE-based fluorescence 'Turn-On' sensing platform for trypsin detection, employing sulfated-ß-cyclodextrin (S-ßCD), an imidazolium derivative of TPE (TPE-IM), and protamine sulfate (PrS). The anionic S-ßCD and cationic TPE-IM formed a strongly fluorescent supramolecular aggregation complex in an aqueous buffer. However, PrS suppresses fluorescence because of its strong binding affinity with S-ßCD. The non-fluorescent TPE-IM/S-ßCD/PrS supramolecular assembly system exhibits trypsin-responsive properties, as PrS is a known trypsin substrate. Trypsin restores fluorescence in the TPE-IM/S-ßCD system through the enzymatic cleavage of PrS, correlating linearly with trypsin catalytic activity in the 0-10 nM concentration range. The limit of detection is 10 pM. This work contributes to the development of self-assembled supramolecular biosensors using charged TPE derivatives and ß-cyclodextrin-based host-guest chemistry, offering an innovative fluorescence 'Turn-On' trypsin sensing platform. The sensing system is highly stable under various conditions, selective for trypsin, and demonstrates potential for biological analysis and disease diagnosis in human serum. Additionally, it shows promise for the screening of trypsin inhibitors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Etilenos , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Humanos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Tripsina
7.
J Proteome Res ; 23(4): 1531-1543, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507741

RESUMO

Proximity-dependent biotinylation (PDB) techniques provide information about the molecular neighborhood of a protein of interest, yielding insights into its function and localization. Here, we assessed how different labeling enzymes and streptavidin resins influence PDB results. We compared the high-confidence interactors of the DNA/RNA-binding protein transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) identified using either miniTurbo (biotin ligase) or APEX2 (peroxidase) enzymes. We also evaluated two commercial affinity resins for purification of biotinylated proteins: conventional streptavidin sepharose versus a new trypsin-resistant streptavidin conjugated to magnetic resin, which significantly reduces the level of contamination by streptavidin peptides following on-bead trypsin digestion. Downstream analyses involved liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in data-dependent acquisition mode, database searching, and statistical analysis of high-confidence interactors using SAINTexpress. The APEX2-TDP-43 experiment identified more interactors than miniTurbo-TDP-43, although miniTurbo provided greater overlap with previously documented TDP-43 interactors. Purifications on sepharose resin yielded more interactors than magnetic resin in small-scale experiments using a range of magnetic resin volumes. We suggest that resin-specific background protein binding profiles and different lysate-to-resin ratios cumulatively affect the distributions of prey protein abundance in experimental and control samples, which impact statistical confidence scores. Overall, we highlight key experimental variables to consider for the empirical optimization of PDB experiments.


Assuntos
Biotina , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Biotinilação , Estreptavidina/química , Sefarose , Tripsina , Biotina/química
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 243: 116094, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can provide direct and accurate sequence characterization of synthetic peptide drugs, and peptide drug products including side chain modifications in the Peptide drugs. This article explains a step-by-step guide to developing a high-throughput method using high resolution mass spectrometry for characterization of Calcitonin Salmon injection containing high proportion of UV-active excipients. METHODS: The major challenge in the method development of Amino acid sequencing and Peptide mapping was presence of phenol in drug product. Phenol is a UV-active excipient and reacts with both Dithiothreitol (DTT) and Trypsin. Hence Calcitonin Salmon was extracted from the Calcitonin Salmon injection using solid phase extraction after the extraction, Amino acid sequencing and peptide mapping study was performed. Upon incubation of Calcitonin Salmon with Trypsin and DTT, digested fragments were generated which were separated by mass compatible reverse phase chromatography and the molecular mass of each fragment was determined using HRMS. RESULTS: A reverse phase chromatographic method was developed using UHPLC-HRMS for the determination of direct mass, peptide mapping and to determine the amino acid sequencing in the Calcitonin Salmon injection. The method was found Specific and fragments after trypsin digest are well resolved from each other and the molecular mass of each fragment was determined using HRMS. Sequencing was performed using automated identification of b and y ions annotation and identifications based on MS/MS spectra using Biopharma finder and Proteome discoverer software. CONCLUSION: Using this approach 100% protein coverage was obtained and protein was identified as Calcitonin Salmon and the observed masses of tryptic digest of peptide was found similar with theoretical masses. The method can be used for both UV and MS based Peptide mapping and whereas the UV based peptide mapping method can be used as identification test for Calcitonin Salmon drug substance and drug product in quality control.


Assuntos
Calcitonina , Peptídeos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Tripsina/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Proteoma , Fenóis
9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 243: 116124, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520959

RESUMO

Peptide mapping is the key method for characterization of primary structure of biotherapeutic proteins. This method relies on digestion of proteins into peptides that are then analyzed for amino acid sequence and post-translational modifications. Owing to its high activity and cleavage specificity, trypsin is the protease of choice for peptide mapping. In this study, we investigated critical requirements of peptide mapping and how trypsin affects these requirements. We found that the commonly used MS-grade trypsins contained non-specific, chymotryptic-like cleavage activity causing generation of semi-tryptic peptides and degradation of tryptic-specific peptides. Furthermore, MS-grade trypsins contained pre-existing autoproteolytic peptides and, moreover, additional autoproteolytic peptides were resulting from prominent autoproteolysis during digestion. In our long-standing quest to improve trypsin performance, we developed novel recombinant trypsin and evaluated whether it could address major trypsin drawbacks in peptide mapping. The study showed that the novel trypsin was free of detectable non-specific cleavage activity, had negligible level of autoproteolysis and maintained high activity over the course of digestion reaction. Taking advantage of the novel trypsin advanced properties, especially high cleavage specificity, we established the application for use of large trypsin quantities to digest proteolytically resistant protein sites without negative side effects. We also tested trypsin/Lys-C mix comprising the novel trypsin and showed elimination of non-specific cleavages observed in the digests with the commonly used trypsins. In addition, the improved features of the novel trypsin allowed us to establish the method for accurate and efficient non-enzymatic PTM analysis in biotherapeutic proteins.


Assuntos
Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Proteínas , Mapeamento de Peptídeos/métodos , Tripsina/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/análise
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 243: 116083, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447348

RESUMO

Daratumumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody utilized in treating immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis and relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, was quantified in rat serum through a simple, economical and effective liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. A surrogate peptide, LLIYDASNR, derived from trypsin hydrolysis, was quantitatively analyzed with LLIYDASN [13C6, 15N4] RAT as an internal standard. This corrected variations from sample pretreatment and mass spectrometry response, involving denaturation and trypsin hydrolysis in a two-step process lasting approximately 1 hour. Methodological validation demonstrated a linear range of 1 µg/mL to 1000 µg/mL in rat serum. Precision, accuracy, matrix effect, sensitivity, stability, selectivity, carryover, and interference met acceptance criteria. The validated LC-MS/MS approach was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of daratumumab in rats at an intravenous dose of 15 mg/kg.


Assuntos
60705 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Tripsina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Imunoglobulina G , Digestão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
J Proteome Res ; 23(4): 1360-1369, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457694

RESUMO

Trypsin is the gold-standard protease in bottom-up proteomics, but many sequence stretches of the proteome are inaccessible to trypsin and standard LC-MS approaches. Thus, multienzyme strategies are used to maximize sequence coverage in post-translational modification profiling. We present fast and robust SP3- and STRAP-based protocols for the broad-specificity proteases subtilisin, proteinase K, and thermolysin. All three enzymes are remarkably fast, producing near-complete digests in 1-5 min, and cost 200-1000× less than proteomics-grade trypsin. Using FragPipe resolved a major challenge by drastically reducing the duration of the required "unspecific" searches. In-depth analyses of proteinase K, subtilisin, and thermolysin Jurkat digests identified 7374, 8178, and 8753 unique proteins with average sequence coverages of 21, 29, and 37%, including 10,000s of amino acids not reported in PeptideAtlas' >2400 experiments. While we could not identify distinct cleavage patterns, machine learning could distinguish true protease products from random cleavages, potentially enabling the prediction of cleavage products. Finally, proteinase K, subtilisin, and thermolysin enabled label-free quantitation of 3111, 3659, and 4196 unique Jurkat proteins, which in our hands is comparable to trypsin. Our data demonstrate that broad-specificity proteases enable quantitative proteomics of uncharted areas of the proteome. Their fast kinetics may allow "on-the-fly" digestion of samples in the future.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Hidrolases , Proteômica , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Tripsina/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Endopeptidase K , Termolisina , Subtilisinas
12.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1364839, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440723

RESUMO

Introduction: Intrapancreatic activation of trypsinogen caused by alcohol or high-fat intake and the subsequent autodigestion of the pancreas tissues by trypsin are indispensable events in the development of acute pancreatitis. In addition to this trypsin-centered paradigm, recent studies provide evidence that innate immune responses triggered by translocation of intestinal bacteria to the pancreas due to intestinal barrier dysfunction underlie the immunopathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Although severe acute pancreatitis is often associated with pancreatic colonization by fungi, the molecular mechanisms linking fungus-induced immune responses to the development of severe acute pancreatitis are poorly understood. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a multifunctional protein that mediates innate immune responses to fungi and bacteria. Mutations in Lrrk2 is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease and Crohn's disease, both of which are driven by innate immune responses to gut organisms. Discussion: In this Minireview article, we discuss how activation of LRRK2 by the recognition of fungi induces severe acute pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Humanos , Pancreatite/etiologia , Leucina , Doença Aguda , Tripsina , Pâncreas
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(3): 36, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551585

RESUMO

Purpose: Symptomatic vitreous opacifications, so-called floaters, are difficult to objectively assess majorly limiting the possibility of in vitro studies. Forward light scattering was found previously to be increased in eyes with symptomatic floaters. Using an objective setup to measure forward light scattering, we studied the effects of enzymatically digesting the components of the vitreous body on straylight to develop an in vitro model of vitreous opacifications. Methods: Fifty-seven porcine vitreous bodies were digested using hyaluronidase, collagenase, trypsin, and bromelain, as well as using a combination of hyaluronidase + collagenase and hyaluronidase + bromelain. A modified C-Quant setup was used to objectively assess forward light scattering. Results: Depletion of hyaluronic acid majorly increased vitreous straylight (mean increase 34.4 deg2/sr; P = 0.01), whereas primarily digesting the vitreous gel with collagenase or trypsin did not significantly affect straylight. When collagenase or bromelain is applied in hyaluronic acid depleted vitreous gels, the increase in forward light scattering is reversed partially. Conclusions: The age-related loss of hyaluronic acid primarily drives the increase in vitreous gel straylight induced by conglomerates of collagen. This process can be reversed partially by digesting collagen. This in vitro model allows the objective quantification and statistical comparison of straylight burden caused by vitreous opacities and, thus, can serve as a first testing ground for pharmacological therapies, as demonstrated with bromelain.


Assuntos
Bromelaínas , Luz , Animais , Suínos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/farmacologia , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Tripsina , Envelhecimento , Colágeno/farmacologia , Colagenases/farmacologia , Espalhamento de Radiação
14.
PeerJ ; 12: e16995, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426145

RESUMO

Background: Hermetia illucens (HI), commonly known as the black soldier fly, has been recognized for its prowess in resource utilization and environmental protection because of its ability to transform organic waste into animal feed for livestock, poultry, and aquaculture. However, the potential of the black soldier fly's high protein content for more than cheap feedstock is still largely unexplored. Methods: This study innovatively explores the potential of H. illucens larvae (HIL) protein as a peptone substitute for microbial culture media. Four commercial proteases (alkaline protease, trypsin, trypsase, and papain) were explored to hydrolyze the defatted HIL, and the experimental conditions were optimized via response surface methodology experimental design. The hydrolysate of the defatted HIL was subsequently vacuum freeze-dried and deployed as a growth medium for three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli) to determine the growth kinetics between the HIL peptone and commercial peptone. Results: The optimal conditions were 1.70% w/w complex enzyme (alkaline protease: trypsin at 1:1 ratio) at pH 7.0 and 54 °C for a duration of 4 h. Under these conditions, the hydrolysis of defatted HIL yielded 19.25% ±0.49%. A growth kinetic analysis showed no significant difference in growth parameters (µmax, Xmax, and λ) between the HIL peptone and commercial peptone, demonstrating that the HIL hydrolysate could serve as an effective, low-cost alternative to commercial peptone. This study introduces an innovative approach to HIL protein resource utilization, broadening its application beyond its current use in animal feed.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Peptonas , Animais , Tripsina , Hidrólise , Cinética , Larva , Meios de Cultura
15.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 2): 131091, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521319

RESUMO

Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a crucial enzyme in alcohol metabolism, and oral administration of ALDH2 is a promising method for alcohol detoxification. However, recombinant ALDH2 is susceptible to hydrolysis by digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract and is expressed as inactive inclusion bodies in E. coli. In this study, we performed three rounds of rational design to address these issues. Specifically, the surface digestive sites of pepsin and trypsin were replaced with other polar amino acids, while hydrophobic amino acids were incorporated to reshape the catalytic cavity of ALDH2. The resulting mutant DE2-852 exhibited a 45-fold increase in soluble expression levels, while its stability against trypsin and pepsin increased by eightfold and twofold, respectively. Its catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) at pH 7.2 and 3.2 improved by more than four and five times, respectively, with increased Vmax and decreased Km values. The enhanced properties of DE2-852 were attributed to the D457Y mutation, which created a more compact protein structure and facilitated a faster collision between the substrate and catalytic residues. These results laid the foundation for the oral administration and mass preparation of highly active ALDH2 and offered insights into the oral application of other proteins.


Assuntos
Aldeído Desidrogenase , Pepsina A , Humanos , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/química , Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Tripsina , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Aminoácidos
16.
Molecules ; 29(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542963

RESUMO

Pepsin, trypsin and proteinase K were used in the present study to hydrolyse the proteins from whole eggs, yolks or whites, and the resulting hydrolysates were characterised in terms of antioxidant and IgE-binding properties, using a combination of in vitro and in silico methods. Based on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) results, the egg yolk proteins are better substrates for all the tested enzymes (DH of 6.2-20.1%) compared to those from egg whites (DH of 2.0-4.4%). The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that pepsin and proteinase K were more efficient compared to trypsin in breaking the intramolecular peptide bonds of the high molecular weight egg proteins. For all the tested substrates, enzyme-assisted hydrolysis resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity, suggesting that many bioactive peptides are encrypted in inactive forms in the parent proteins. The hydrolysates obtained with proteinase K exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (124-311 µM Trolox/g protein) and the lowest residual IgE-binding capacity. The bioinformatics tools revealed that proteinase K is able to break the integrity of the main linear IgE-binding epitopes from ovalbumin and ovomucoid. It can be concluded that proteinase K is a promising tool for modulating the intrinsic properties of egg proteins.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Pepsina A , Antioxidantes/química , Tripsina , Endopeptidase K , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Hidrólise , Imunoglobulina E , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química
17.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 44(3): 283-294, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of moxibustion on colonic mast cell degranulation and inflammatory factor expression in rats with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), and explore the potential mechanism of moxibustion in treating IBS-D. METHODS: Forty-five rat pups born from 5 healthy SPF-grade pregnant SD rats, with 8 rats were randomly selected as the normal group. The remaining 37 rats were intervened with maternal separation, acetic acid enema, and chronic restraint stress to establish the IBS-D model. The successfully modeled 32 rats were then randomly assigned to a model group, a ketotifen group, a moxibustion group, and a moxibustion-medication group, with 8 rats in each group. The rats in the ketotifen group were intervened with intragastric administration of ketotifen solution (10 mL/kg); the rats in the moxibustion group were intervened with suspended moxibustion on bilateral "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37); the rats in the moxibustion-medication group were intervened with suspended moxibustion combined with intragastric administration of ketotifen solution. All interventions were administered once daily for 7 consecutive days. The diarrhea rate and minimum volume threshold of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) were calculated before and after modeling, as well as after intervention. After intervention, colonic tissue morphology was observed using HE staining; colonic mucosal ultrastructure was examined by scanning electron microscopy; colonic mast cell ultrastructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy; mast cell degranulation was assessed by toluidine blue staining; serum and colonic levels of histamine, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) were measured by ELISA; the Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR were employed to evaluate the protein and mRNA expression of colonic IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2; the immunofluorescence was used to detect the positive expression of histamine, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 in the colonic tissue. RESULTS: Compared to the normal group, the rats in the model group exhibited extensive infiltration of inflammatory cells in colonic tissue, severe damage to the colonic mucosa, disordered arrangement of villi, reduced electron density, and a significant decrease in granule quantity within mast cells. The diarrhea rate and mast cell degranulation rate were increased (P<0.01), AWR minimum volume threshold was decreased (P<0.01); the serum and colonic levels of histamine, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 were elevated (P<0.01); the positive expression of histamine, as well as protein, mRNA and positive expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 in the colon were all elevated (P<0.01). Compared to the model group, the rats in the ketotifen group, the moxibustion group, and the moxibustion-medication group exhibited significantly reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in colonic tissue, relatively intact colonic mucosa, orderly arranged villi, increased electron density, and an augmented number of mast cell granules; the diarrhea rate and mast cell degranulation rate were decreased (P<0.01), and AWR minimum volume threshold was increased (P<0.01); the serum and colonic levels of histamine, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 were reduced (P<0.01); the positive expression of histamine, as well as protein, mRNA and positive expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 in the colon were all decreased (P<0.01). Compared to the ketotifen group, the moxibustion group showed decreased serum levels of histamine, IL-6, and trypsin-like enzyme (P<0.01, P<0.05), as well as reduced colonic levels of IL-1ß and IL-6 (P<0.01, P<0.05); the protein expression of colonic IL-1ß, IL-1α, and PAR-2 was reduced (P<0.05), and the positive expression of colonic IL-1ß and trypsin-like enzyme was reduced (P<0.01, P<0.05). Compared to both the ketotifen group and the moxibustion group, the moxibustion-medication group exhibited decreased diarrhea rate and mast cell degranulation rate (P<0.01), an increased AWR minimum volume threshold (P<0.01), reduced serum and colonic levels of histamine, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 (P<0.01), decreased protein expression of colonic IL-1ß, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 (P<0.01, P<0.05), reduced mRNA and positive expression of colonic IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-1α, trypsin-like enzyme, and PAR-2 (P<0.01, P<0.05), and decreased positive expression of colonic histamine (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Moxibustion on "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) might inhibit low-grade inflammatory reactions in the colon of IBS-D model rats. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of histamine and trypsin-like enzyme secreted by mast cell, thereby reducing the expression of related inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Moxibustão , Ratos , Animais , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/genética , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Tripsina , Degranulação Celular , Histamina , Interleucina-6 , Cetotifeno , Privação Materna , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/terapia , RNA Mensageiro
18.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1298: 342419, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a potential natural active substance, natural biologically active peptides (NBAPs) are recently attracting increasing attention. The traditional proteolysis methods of obtaining effective NBAPs are considerably vexing, especially since multiple proteases can be used, which blocks the exploration of available NBAPs. Although the development of virtual digesting brings some degree of convenience, the activity of the obtained peptides remains unclear, which would still not allow efficient access to the NBAPs. It is necessary to develop an efficient and accurate strategy for acquiring NBAPs. RESULTS: A new in silico scheme named SSA-LSTM-VD, which combines a sparrow search algorithm-long short-term memory (SSA-LSTM) deep learning and virtually digested, was presented to optimize the proteolysis acquisition of NBAPs. Therein, SSA-LSTM reached the highest Efficiency value reached 98.00 % compared to traditional machine learning algorithms, and basic LSTM algorithm. SSA-LSTM was trained to predict the activity of peptides in the proteins virtually digested results, obtain the percentage of target active peptide, and select the appropriate protease for the actual experiment. As an application, SSA-LSTM was employed to predict the percentage of neuroprotective peptides in the virtual digested result of walnut protein, and trypsin was ultimately found to possess the highest value (85.29 %). The walnut protein was digested by trypsin (WPTrH) and the peptide sequence obtained was analyzed closely matches the theoretical neuroprotective peptide. More importantly, the neuroprotective effects of WPTrH had been demonstrated in nerve damage mouse models. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed SSA-LSTM-VD in this paper makes the acquisition of NBAPs efficient and accurate. The approach combines deep learning and virtually digested skillfully. Utilizing the SSA-LSTM-VD based strategy holds promise for discovering and developing peptides with neuroprotective properties or other desired biological activities.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Hidrolases , Peptídeos , Animais , Camundongos , Tripsina , Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Digestão
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338655

RESUMO

Trypsin-like serine proteases are involved in many important physiological processes like blood coagulation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. On the other hand, they are also associated with pathological conditions. The urokinase-pwlasminogen activator (uPA), which is involved in tissue remodeling, can increase the metastatic behavior of various cancer types when overexpressed and dysregulated. Another member of this protease class that received attention during the SARS-CoV 2 pandemic is TMPRSS2. It is a transmembrane serine protease, which enables cell entry of the coronavirus by processing its spike protein. A variety of different inhibitors have been published against both proteases. However, the selectivity over other trypsin-like serine proteases remains a major challenge. In the current study, we replaced the arginine moiety at the P1 site of peptidomimetic inhibitors with different bioisosteres. Enzyme inhibition studies revealed that the phenylguanidine moiety in the P1 site led to strong affinity for TMPRSS2, whereas the cyclohexylguanidine derivate potently inhibited uPA. Both inhibitors exhibited high selectivity over other structurally similar and physiologically important proteases.


Assuntos
Peptidomiméticos , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase , Ligantes , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Peptidomiméticos/química , Peptidomiméticos/farmacologia , Tripsina , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/química , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 1): 130442, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417745

RESUMO

Protein aggregation poses a significant concern in the field of food sciences, and various factors, such as synthetic food dyes, can contribute to protein aggregation. One such dye, Sunset Yellow (SY), is commonly employed in the food industry. Trypsin was used as a model protein to assess the impact of SY. We employed several biophysical techniques to examine the binding and aggregation mechanisms between SY and trypsin at different pHs. Results from intrinsic fluorescence measurements indicate a stronger interaction between SY and trypsin at pH 2.0 compared to pH 6.0. Turbidity data reveal trypsin aggregation in the presence of 0.05-3.0 mM SY at pH 2.0, while no aggregation was observed at pH 6.0. Kinetic data demonstrate a rapid, lag-phase-free SY-induced aggregation of trypsin. Circular dichroism analysis reveals that trypsin adopts a secondary structure in the presence of SY at pH 6.0, whereas at pH 2.0, the secondary structure was nearly lost with increasing SY concentrations. Furthermore, turbidity and kinetics data suggest that trypsin aggregation depends on trypsin concentrations and pH. Our study highlights potential health risks associated with the consumption of SY, providing insights into its impact on human health and emphasizing the necessity for further research in this field.


Assuntos
Corantes , Agregados Proteicos , Humanos , Corantes/química , Tripsina , Compostos Azo/química
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