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1.
Behav Brain Res ; 436: 114081, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037843

RESUMO

Gut microbiota, also known as the "second brain" in humans because of the regulatory role it has on the central nervous system via neuronal, chemical and immune pathways. It has been proven that there exists a bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain. Increasing evidence supports that this crosstalk is linked to the etiology and treatment of depression. Reports suggest that the gut microbiota control the host epigenetic machinery in depression and gut dysbiosis causes negative epigenetic modifications via mechanisms like histone acetylation, DNA methylation and non-coding RNA mediated gene inhibition. The gut microbiome can be a promising approach for the management of depression. The diet and dietary metabolites like kynurenine, tryptophan, and propionic acid also greatly influence the microbiome composition and thereby, the physiological activities. This review gives a bird-eye view on the pathological updates and currently used treatment approaches targeting the gut microbiota in depression.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Depressão , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Histonas , Humanos , Cinurenina , RNA não Traduzido , Triptofano/metabolismo
2.
Dis Model Mech ; 16(5)2023 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374036

RESUMO

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a key metabolite synthesised from vitamin B3 or tryptophan. Disruption of genes encoding NAD synthesis enzymes reduces NAD levels and causes congenital NAD deficiency disorder (CNDD), characterised by multiple congenital malformations. SLC6A19 (encoding B0AT1, a neutral amino acid transporter), represents the main transporter for free tryptophan in the intestine and kidney. Here, we tested whether Slc6a19 heterozygosity in mice limits the tryptophan available for NAD synthesis during pregnancy and causes adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant Slc6a19+/- mice were fed diets depleted of vitamin B3, so that tryptophan was the source of NAD during gestation. This perturbed the NAD metabolome in pregnant Slc6a19+/- females, resulting in reduced NAD levels and increased rates of embryo loss. Surviving embryos were small and exhibited specific combinations of CNDD-associated malformations. Our results show that genes not directly involved in NAD synthesis can affect NAD metabolism and cause CNDD. They also suggest that human female carriers of a SLC6A19 loss-of-function allele might be susceptible to adverse pregnancy outcomes unless sufficient NAD precursor amounts are available during gestation. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros , Anormalidades Congênitas , NAD , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Rim/metabolismo , NAD/deficiência , Niacinamida , Triptofano/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética
3.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364957

RESUMO

An intricate relationship between gut microbiota, diet, and the human body has recently been extensively investigated. Gut microbiota and gut-derived metabolites, especially, tryptophan derivatives, modulate metabolic and immune functions in health and disease. One of the tryptophan derivatives, indolepropionic acid (IPA), is increasingly being studied as a marker for the onset and development of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The IPA levels heavily depend on the diet, particularly dietary fiber, and show huge variations among individuals. We suggest that these variations could partially be explained using genetic variants known to be associated with specific diseases such as T2D. In this narrative review, we elaborate on the beneficial effects of IPA in the mitigation of T2D and NAFLD, and further study the putative interactions between IPA and well-known genetic variants (TCF7L2, FTO, and PPARG), known to be associated with the risk of T2D. We have investigated the long-term preventive value of IPA in the development of T2D in the Finnish prediabetic population and the correlation of IPA with phytosterols in obese individuals from an ongoing Kuopio obesity surgery study. The diversity in IPA-linked mechanisms affecting glucose metabolism and liver fibrosis makes it a unique small metabolite and a promising candidate for the reversal or management of metabolic disorders, mainly T2D and NAFLD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Triptofano/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo
4.
Lupus Sci Med ; 9(1)2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Quinolinic acid (QA), a kynurenine (KYN)/tryptophan (TRP) pathway metabolite, is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist that can produce excitotoxic neuron damage. Type I and II interferons (IFNs) stimulate the KYN/TRP pathway, producing elevated QA/kynurenic acid (KA), a potential neurotoxic imbalance that may contribute to SLE-mediated cognitive dysfunction. We determined whether peripheral blood interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression associates with elevated serum KYN:TRP and QA:KA ratios in SLE. METHODS: ISG expression (whole-blood RNA sequencing) and serum metabolite ratios (high-performance liquid chromatography) were measured in 72 subjects with SLE and 73 healthy controls (HCs). ISG were identified from published gene sets and individual IFN scores were derived to analyse associations with metabolite ratios, clinical parameters and neuropsychological assessments. SLE analyses were grouped by level of ISG expression ('IFN high', 'IFN low' and 'IFN similar to HC') and level of monocyte-associated gene expression (using CIBERSORTx). RESULTS: Serum KYN:TRP and QA:KA ratios were higher in SLE than in HC (p<0.01). 933 genes were differentially expressed ≥2-fold in SLE versus HC (p<0.05). 70 of the top 100 most highly variant genes were ISG. Approximately half of overexpressed genes that correlated with KYN:TRP and QA:KA ratios (p<0.05) were ISG. In 36 IFN-high subjects with SLE, IFN scores correlated with KYN:TRP ratios (p<0.01), but not with QA:KA ratios. Of these 36 subjects, 23 had high monocyte-associated gene expression, and in this subgroup, the IFN scores correlated with both KY:NTRP and QA:KA ratios (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: High ISG expression correlated with elevated KYN:TRP ratios in subjects with SLE, suggesting IFN-mediated KYN/TRP pathway activation, and with QA:KA ratios in a subset with high monocyte-associated gene expression, suggesting that KYN/TRP pathway activation may be particularly important in monocytes. These results need validation, which may aid in determining which patient subset may benefit from therapeutics directed at the IFN or KYN/TRP pathways to ameliorate a potentially neurotoxic QA/KA imbalance.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Humanos , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Interferons , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo , Ácido Quinolínico/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361983

RESUMO

As a staple food crop, maize is widely cultivated worldwide. Sex differentiation and kernel development are regulated by auxin, but the mechanism regulating its synthesis remains unclear. This study explored the influence of the growth stage of maize on the secondary metabolite accumulation and gene expression associated with auxin synthesis. Transcriptomics and metabonomics were used to investigate the changes in secondary metabolite accumulation and gene expression in maize leaves at the jointing, tasseling, and pollen-release stages of plant growth. In total, 1221 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) and 4843 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened. KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of the DEGs and DAMs revealed that plant hormone signal transduction, tryptophan metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were highly enriched. We summarized the key genes and regulatory effects of the tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathways, giving new insights into this type of biosynthesis. Potential MSTRG.11063 and MSTRG.35270 and MSTRG.21978 genes in auxin synthesis pathways were obtained. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified five candidate genes, namely TSB (Zm00001d046676 and Zm00001d049610), IGS (Zm00001d020008), AUX2 (Zm00001d006283), TAR (Zm00001d039691), and YUC (Zm00001d025005 and Zm00001d008255), which were important in the biosynthesis of both tryptophan and auxin. This study provides new insights for understanding the regulatory mechanism of auxin synthesis in maize.


Assuntos
Transcriptoma , Zea mays , Zea mays/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Triptofano/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362303

RESUMO

Indole-3-lactic acid (I3LA) is a well-known metabolite involved in tryptophan metabolism. Indole derivatives are involved in the differentiation of immune cells and the synthesis of cytokines via the aryl hydrocarbon receptors for modulating immunity, and the indole derivatives may be involved in allergic responses. I3LA was selected as a candidate substance for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), and its inhibitory effect on AD progression was investigated. Full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) consisting of human-derived cells were generated on microfluidic chips and stimulated with major AD-inducing factors. The induced AD-HSEs were treated with I3LA for 7 days, and this affected the AD-associated genetic biomarkers and increased the expression of the major constituent proteins of the skin barrier. After the treatment for 14 days, the surface became rough and sloughed off, and there was no significant difference between the increased AD-related mRNA expression and the skin barrier protein expression. Therefore, the short-term use of I3LA for approximately one week is considered to be effective in suppressing AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Humanos , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Triptofano/farmacologia , Triptofano/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Células Th2 , Pele/metabolismo , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo
7.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364748

RESUMO

In humans, most free tryptophan is degraded via kynurenine pathways into kynurenines. Kynurenines modulate the immune system, central nervous system, and skeletal muscle bioenergetics. Consequently, kynurenine pathway metabolites (KPMs) have been studied in the context of exercise. However, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on exercise-induced changes in KPMs has not been investigated. Here, we analyzed the effect of a single high-dose vitamin D supplementation on KPMs and tryptophan levels in runners after an ultramarathon. In the study, 35 amateur runners were assigned into two groups: vitamin D supplementation group, administered 150,000 IU vitamin D in vegetable oil 24 h before the run (n = 16); and control (placebo) group (n = 19). Blood was collected for analysis 24 h before, immediately after, and 24 h after the run. Kynurenic, xanthurenic, quinolinic, and picolinic acids levels were significantly increased after the run in the control group, but the effect was blunted by vitamin D supplementation. Conversely, the decrease in serum tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine levels immediately after the run was more pronounced in the supplemented group than in the control. The 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenine levels were significantly increased in both groups after the run. We conclude that vitamin D supplementation affects ultramarathon-induced changes in tryptophan metabolism.


Assuntos
Cinurenina , Triptofano , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Vitamina D
8.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 198, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of gut microbiota-associated tryptophan metabolism has been observed in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, defining direct mechanistic links between this apparent metabolic rewiring and individual constituents of the gut microbiota remains challenging. We and others have previously shown that colonization with the gut commensal and putative probiotic species, Lactobacillus reuteri, unexpectedly enhances host susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. To identify underlying mechanisms, we characterized the genome of commensal L. reuteri isolates, coupled with in vitro and in vivo metabolomic profiling, modulation of dietary substrates, and gut microbiota manipulation. RESULTS: The enzymes necessary to metabolize dietary tryptophan into immunomodulatory indole derivatives were enriched in the L. reuteri genomes, including araT, fldH, and amiE. Moreover, metabolite profiling of L. reuteri monocultures and serum of L. reuteri-colonized mice revealed a depletion of kynurenines and production of a wide array of known and novel tryptophan-derived aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists and antagonists, including indole acetate, indole-3-glyoxylic acid, tryptamine, p-cresol, and diverse imidazole derivatives. Functionally, dietary tryptophan was required for L. reuteri-dependent EAE exacerbation, while depletion of dietary tryptophan suppressed disease activity and inflammatory T cell responses in the CNS. Mechanistically, L. reuteri tryptophan-derived metabolites activated the AhR and enhanced T cell production of IL-17. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that tryptophan metabolism by gut commensals, such as the putative probiotic species L. reuteri, can unexpectedly enhance autoimmunity, inducing broad shifts in the metabolome and immunological repertoire. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus reuteri , Esclerose Múltipla , Camundongos , Animais , Lactobacillus reuteri/genética , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolismo , Autoimunidade , Triptofano/metabolismo , Indóis
9.
J Nat Prod ; 85(11): 2626-2640, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36346625

RESUMO

Escherichia coli isolates commonly inhabit the human microbiota, yet the majority of E. coli's small-molecule repertoire remains uncharacterized. We previously employed erythromycin-induced translational stress to facilitate the characterization of autoinducer-3 (AI-3) and structurally related pyrazinones derived from "abortive" tRNA synthetase reactions in pathogenic, commensal, and probiotic E. coli isolates. In this study, we explored the "missing" tryptophan-derived pyrazinone reaction and characterized two other families of metabolites that were similarly upregulated under erythromycin stress. Strikingly, the abortive tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase reaction leads to a tetracyclic indole alkaloid metabolite (1) rather than a pyrazinone. Furthermore, erythromycin induced two naphthoquinone-functionalized metabolites (MK-hCys, 2; and MK-Cys, 3) and four lumazines (7-10). Using genetic and metabolite analyses coupled with biomimetic synthesis, we provide support that the naphthoquinones are derived from 4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA), an intermediate in the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway, and the amino acids homocysteine and cysteine. In contrast, the lumazines are dependent on a flavin intermediate and α-ketoacids from the aminotransferases AspC and TyrB. We show that one of the lumazine members (9), an indole-functionalized analogue, possesses antioxidant properties, modulates the anti-inflammatory fate of isolated TH17 cells, and serves as an aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist. These three systems described here serve to illustrate that new metabolic branches could be more commonly derived from well-established primary metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Naftoquinonas , Triptofano-tRNA Ligase , Humanos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Naftoquinonas/metabolismo , Eritromicina/metabolismo
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1013784, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426364

RESUMO

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by axonal damage, demyelination, and perivascular inflammatory lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). Kynurenine pathway (KP), which is the major route of tryptophan (TRP) metabolism, generates a variety of neurotoxic as well as neuroprotective compounds, affecting MS pathology and the severity of impairments. Alterations in KP have been described not only in MS, but also in various psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the previously reported dysregulation of KP and differences in its metabolites and enzymes in patients with MS compared to healthy control subjects. Method: Electronic databases of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Web of Science were searched to identify studies measuring concentrations of KP metabolites and enzymes in MS patients and control subjects. The following metabolites and enzymes implicated in the KP were investigated: TRP, kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA), quinolinic acid (QUIN), picolinic acid (PIC), hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT), and their related ratios. Result: Ten studies were included in our systematic review. Our review demonstrates that IDO expression is reduced in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS patients compared to healthy controls. Also, increased levels of QUIN and QUIN/KYNA in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients is observed. Differences in levels of other metabolites and enzymes of KP are also reported in some of the reviewed studies, however there are discrepancies among the included reports. Conclusion: The results of this investigation suggest a possible connection between alterations in the levels of KP metabolite or enzymes and MS. QUIN levels in CSF were higher in MS patients than in healthy controls, suggesting that QUIN may be involved in the pathogenesis of MS. The data indicate that differences in the serum/blood or CSF levels of certain KP metabolites and enzymes could potentially be used to differentiate between MS patients and control subjects.


Assuntos
Cinurenina , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Ácido Quinolínico , Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo
11.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235834

RESUMO

Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a metabolite of tryptophan, is an endogenous substance produced intracellularly by various human cells. In addition, KYNA can be synthesized by the gut microbiome and delivered in food. However, its content in food is very low and the total alimentary supply with food accounts for only 1-3% of daily KYNA excretion. The only known exception is chestnut honey, which has a higher KYNA content than other foods by at least two orders of magnitude. KYNA is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; it is not metabolized and is excreted mainly in urine. It possesses well-defined molecular targets, which allows the study and elucidation of KYNA's role in various pathological conditions. Following a period of fascination with KYNA's importance for the central nervous system, research into its role in the peripheral system has been expanding rapidly in recent years, bringing some exciting discoveries. KYNA does not penetrate from the peripheral circulation into the brain; hence, the following review summarizes knowledge on the peripheral consequences of KYNA administration, presents data on KYNA content in food products, in the context of its daily supply in diets, and systematizes the available pharmacokinetic data. Finally, it provides an analysis of the rationale behind enriching foods with KYNA for health-promoting effects.


Assuntos
Ácido Cinurênico , Triptofano , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Alimentos , Humanos , Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 639624, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36237423

RESUMO

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease. Gut microbiota-derived uremic solutes, indoxyl sulfate (IS), p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) accumulate in PD patients. The objective was to explore the gut microbiota and their influence on uremic toxins in PD patients and healthy controls (HC). Fecal samples were collected from PD patients (n = 105) and HC (n = 102). 16S rRNA gene regions were sequenced for gut microbiota analysis. IS, PCS, and TMAO levels were measured using HPLC-MS. PD patients exhibited lower alpha diversity and altered gut microbiota composition compared to HC. At the genus level, PD patients showed increased abundance of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, and decreased abundance of beneficial bacteria. Three Operational Taxonomic Units discriminated PD patients from HC. Phenylalanine metabolism increased in PD, whereas tryptophan metabolism was unaltered. Low serum PCS did not necessarily mean healthier due to the loss of alpha diversity, increased Proteobacteria and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. High serum PCS was mainly caused by elevated p-cresol-producing bacteria, enriched amino acid related enzymes, and enhanced sulfur metabolism, rather than declined residual renal function. In patients with different urine volumes, the gut microbiota alpha diversity and composition were unaltered, but serum IS and TMAO were significantly elevated in anuric patients. In conclusion, the gut microbiota abundance, composition, and function were altered in PD patients, which increased the PCS levels. We provided a better understanding of the microbiota-metabolite-kidney axis in PD patients. Targeting certain bacteria could decrease the PCS levels, whereas preserving the residual renal function could reduce the IS and TMAO levels.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Diálise Peritoneal , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Humanos , Indicã/metabolismo , Metilaminas , Óxidos/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17328, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243747

RESUMO

Sticholysins are α-pore-forming toxins produced by the sea-anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. These toxins exert their activity by forming pores on sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Recognition of sphingomyelin by sticholysins is required to start the process of pore formation. Sphingomyelin recognition is coupled with membrane binding and followed by membrane penetration and oligomerization. Many features of these processes are known. However, the extent of contact with each of the different kinds of lipids present in the membrane has received little attention. To delve into this question, we have used a phosphatidylcholine analogue labeled at one of its acyl chains with a doxyl moiety, a known quencher of tryptophan emission. Here we present evidence for the contact of sticholysins with phosphatidylcholine lipids in the sticholysin oligomer, and for how each sticholysin isotoxin is affected differently by the inclusion of cholesterol in the membrane. Furthermore, using phosphatidylcholine analogs that were labeled at different positions of their structure (acyl chains and headgroup) in combination with a variety of sticholysin mutants, we also investigated the depth of the tryptophan residues of sticholysins in the bilayer. Our results indicate that the position of the tryptophan residues relative to the membrane normal is deeper when cholesterol is absent from the membrane.


Assuntos
Venenos de Cnidários , Anêmonas-do-Mar , Animais , Venenos de Cnidários/química , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Anêmonas-do-Mar/metabolismo , Esfingomielinas/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
14.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(41): 8129-8139, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219223

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant social and economic disruption across the globe. Cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the human body is mediated via binding of the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) on the viral Spike protein (SARS-CoV-2 RBD) to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressed on host cells. Molecules that can disrupt ACE2:RBD interactions are attractive therapeutic candidates to prevent virus entry into human cells. A computational strategy that combines our Peptide Binding Design (PepBD) algorithm with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations was used to design new inhibitory peptide candidates via sequence iteration starting with a 23-mer peptide, referred to as SBP1. SBP1 is derived from a region of the ACE2 Peptidase Domain α1 helix that binds to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD of the initial Wuhan-Hu-1 strain. Three peptides demonstrated a solution-phase RBD-binding dissociation constant in the micromolar range during tryptophan fluorescence quenching experiments, one peptide did not bind, and one was insoluble at micromolar concentrations. However, in competitive ELISA assays, none of these peptides could outcompete ACE2 binding to SARS-CoV-2-RBD up to concentrations of 50 µM, similar to the parent SBP1 peptide which also failed to outcompete ACE2:RBD binding. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that P4 would have a good binding affinity for the RBD domain of Beta-B.1.351, Gamma-P.1, Kappa-B.1.617.1, Delta-B.1.617.2, and Omicron-B.1.1.529 variants, but not the Alpha variant. Consistent with this, P4 bound Kappa-B.1.617.1 and Delta-B.1.617.2 RBD with micromolar affinity in tryptophan fluorescence quenching experiments. Collectively, these data show that while relatively short unstructured peptides can bind to SARS-CoV-2 RBD with moderate affinity, they are incapable of outcompeting the strong interactions between RBD and ACE2.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Pandemias , Triptofano/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Peptídeos/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6080, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241614

RESUMO

Disturbed lipid metabolism precedes alcoholic liver injury. Whether and how AhR alters degradation of lipids, particularly phospho-/sphingo-lipids during alcohol exposure, was not explored. Here, we show that alcohol consumption in mice results in induction and activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the liver, and changes the hepatic phospho-/sphingo-lipids content. The levels of kynurenine, an endogenous AhR ligand, are elevated with increased hepatic tryptophan metabolic enzymes in alcohol-fed mice. Either alcohol or kynurenine treatment promotes AhR activation with autophagy dysregulation via AMPK. Protein Phosphatase 2 Regulatory Subunit-Bdelta (Ppp2r2d) is identified as a transcriptional target of AhR. Consequently, PPP2R2D-dependent AMPKα dephosphorylation causes autophagy inhibition and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hepatocyte-specific AhR ablation attenuates steatosis, which is associated with recovery of phospho-/sphingo-lipids content. Changes of AhR targets are corroborated using patient specimens. Overall, AhR induction by alcohol inhibits autophagy in hepatocytes through AMPKα, which is mediated by Ppp2r2d gene transactivation, revealing an AhR-dependent metabolism of phospho-/sphingo-lipids.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagia , Etanol/metabolismo , Etanol/toxicidade , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Ligantes , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 917966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36248784

RESUMO

Background: Tryptophan (Trp) metabolites from intestinal bacteria (indole, indole acetic acid [IAA] and indole propionic acid [IPA]), and the Trp metabolite kynurenine (Kyn) from the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway, are aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists and thus, can regulate immune activity via the AhR pathway. We hypothesized that plasma concentrations of these metabolites would be associated with markers of immune activation in a cohort of healthy adults in a manner consistent with AhR-mediated immune-regulation. We also hypothesized that the plasma Kyn/Trp ratio, a marker of IDO activity, would be associated with immune markers reflecting IDO activation in innate immune cells. Finally, we hypothesized that some intestinal bacteria would be associated with plasma indole, IPA and IAA, and that these bacteria themselves would be associated with immune markers. Methods: A novel set of 88 immune markers, and plasma Trp metabolites, were measured in 362 healthy adults. Bacterial taxa from stool were identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify significant associations with immune markers. Results: The sum of indole and IAA was positively associated with natural killer T-cells levels. Kyn and Kyn/Trp were positively associated with neopterin and IP-10, markers of type 1 immunity, and TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP), markers of the acute phase response, and the regulatory cytokine IL-10. Three bacteria negatively associated with Trp metabolites were associated with markers of immune activation: the family Lachnospiraceae with higher lymphocyte counts but lower level of activated CD4 T-cells, the genus Dorea with higher production of IFN-γ by T-cells in PBMC cultures, and the genus Ruminococcus with higher production IL-6 in PBMC cultures stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Conclusions: In this cohort of healthy adults bacterial Trp metabolites were not strongly associated with immune markers. Conversely, the Kyn/Trp ratio was strongly associated with markers of systemic inflammation and the acute phase response, consistent with IDO activation in innate immune cells. Finally, commensal bacteria associated with lower plasma (and perhaps intestinal) levels of bacterial Trp metabolites were associated with greater immune activation, possibly reflecting decreased regulatory immune activity related to lower intestinal levels of bacterial indole metabolites.


Assuntos
Cinurenina , Triptofano , Reação de Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Indóis , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Neopterina , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Gac Med Mex ; 158(4): 182-189, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36256550

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) inhibits brain serotonin biosynthesis through changes in tryptophan-5-hydroxylase (TPH) activity and expression. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether DM-induced changes in brain TPH1 or TPH2 expression and in the number of serotonergic neurons return to normal in diabetic rats treated with insulin. METHODS: Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were divided in two groups: one treated with insulin and the other without treatment. On day 14, brain stems were obtained in order to quantify L-tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, as well as to determine TPH activity. The expression of TPH1 and TPH2 by West-ern blot, and the number of serotonergic neurons by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In diabetic rats, a decrease in the levels of L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and TPH activity was confirmed, as well as lower TPH1 and TPH2 expression and lower numbers of serotonergic neurons. When diabetic rats were treated with insulin, L-tryptophan returned to normal, but not 5-hy-droxytryptamine, TPH expression, or the number of serotonergic neurons. CONCLUSIONS: DM chronically inhibits the synthesis of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine through changes in TPH1 and TPH2 expression and a decrease in the number of serotonergic neurons, which persist despite insulin treatment.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La diabetes mellitus (DM) inhibe la biosíntesis de serotonina cerebral mediante cambios en la actividad y expresión de la triptófano-5-hidroxilasa (TPH). OBJETIVOS: Determinar si los cambios en la expresión de TPH1 o TPH2 cerebral y en el número de neuronas serotoninérgicas causados por la DM retornan a la normalidad en las ratas con diabetes tratadas con insulina. MÉTODOS: Ratas con diabetes inducida con estreptozotocina se dividieron en dos grupos: uno tratado con insulina y otro sin tratamiento. En el día 14, se obtuvieron tallos cerebrales para cuantificar niveles de L-triptófano, 5-hidroxitriptamina y la actividad de la TPH. La expresión de TPH1 y TPH2 fue mediante Western blot y el número de neuronas serotoninérgicas por inmu­nohistoquímica. RESULTADOS: En las ratas con diabetes se confirmó disminución de los niveles de L-triptófano, 5-hidroxitriptamina y la actividad de la TPH, así como una menor expresión de TPH1 y 2 y un menor número de neuronas serotoninérgicas. Cuando las ratas diabéticas fueron tratadas con insulina, el L-triptófano regreso a la normalidad, no así la 5-hidroxitriptamina, la expresión de TPH y el número de neuronas serotoninérgicas. CONCLUSIONES: La DM inhibe crónicamente la síntesis de 5-hidroxitriptamina cerebral mediante modificaciones en la expresión de TPH1 y TPH2 y disminución de las neuronas seroto­ninérgicas, que persisten a pesar del tratamiento con insulina.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Serotonina , Animais , Ratos , Serotonina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Núcleos da Rafe/metabolismo , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Estreptozocina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Triptofano Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo
18.
Microb Cell Fact ; 21(1): 201, 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although efficient L-tryptophan production using engineered Escherichia coli is established from glucose, the use of alternative carbon sources is still very limited. Through the application of glycerol as an alternate, a more sustainable substrate (by-product of biodiesel preparation), the well-studied intracellular glycolytic pathways are rerouted, resulting in the activity of different intracellular control sites and regulations, which are not fully understood in detail. Metabolic analysis was applied to well-known engineered E. coli cells with 10 genetic modifications. Cells were withdrawn from a fed-batch production process with glycerol as a carbon source, followed by metabolic control analysis (MCA). This resulted in the identification of several additional enzymes controlling the carbon flux to L-tryptophan. RESULTS: These controlling enzyme activities were addressed stepwise by the targeted overexpression of 4 additional enzymes (trpC, trpB, serB, aroB). Their efficacy regarding L-tryptophan productivity was evaluated under consistent fed-batch cultivation conditions. Although process comparability was impeded by process variances related to a temporal, unpredictable break-off in L-tryptophan production, process improvements of up to 28% with respect to the L-tryptophan produced were observed using the new producer strains. The intracellular effects of these targeted genetic modifications were revealed by metabolic analysis in combination with MCA and expression analysis. Furthermore, it was discovered that the E. coli cells produced the highly toxic metabolite methylglyoxal (MGO) during the fed-batch process. A closer look at the MGO production and detoxification on the metabolome, fluxome, and transcriptome level of the engineered E. coli indicated that the highly toxic metabolite plays a critical role in the production of aromatic amino acids with glycerol as a carbon source. CONCLUSIONS: A detailed process analysis of a new L-tryptophan producer strain revealed that several of the 4 targeted genetic modifications of the E. coli L-tryptophan producer strain proved to be effective, and, for others, new engineering approaches could be derived from the results. As a starting point for further strain and process optimization, the up-regulation of MGO detoxifying enzymes and a lowering of the feeding rate during the last third of the cultivation seems reasonable.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Glicerol , Biocombustíveis , Carbono/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Óxido de Magnésio/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1004545, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211365

RESUMO

Introduction: In patients with SARS-CoV-2, innate immunity is playing a central role, depicted by hyperinflammation and longer lasting inflammatory response. Reliable inflammatory markers that cover both acute and long-lasting COVID-19 monitoring are still lacking. Thus, we investigated one specific inflammatory marker involved as one key player of the immune system, kynurenine (Kyn), and its use for diagnosis/detection of the Long-/Post-COVID syndrome in comparison to currently used markers in both serum and saliva samples. Material and methods: The study compromised in total 151 inpatients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized between 03/2020 and 09/2021. The group NC (normal controls) included blood bank donors (n=302, 144f/158m, mean age 47.1 ± 18.3 years (range 18-75)). Two further groups were generated based on Group A (n=85, 27f/58m, mean age 63.1 ± 18.3 years (range 19-90), acute admission to the hospital) and Group B (n=66, 22f/44m, mean age 66.6 ± 17.6 years (range 17-90), admitted either for weaning or for rehabilitation period due to Long-COVID symptoms/syndrome). Plasma concentrations of Kyn, C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured on admission. In Group B we determined Kyn 4 weeks after the negative PCR-test. In a subset of patients (n=11) concentrations of Kyn and CRP were measured in sera and saliva two, three and four months after dismission. We identified 12 patients with Post-COVID symptoms >20 weeks with still significant elevated Kyn-levels. Results: Mean values for NC used as reference were 2.79 ± 0.61 µM, range 1.2-4.1 µM. On admission, patients showed significantly higher concentrations of Kyn compared to NC (p-values < 0.001). Kyn significantly correlated with IL-6 peak-values (r=0.411; p-values <0.001) and CRP (r=0.488, p-values<0.001). Kyn values in Group B (Long-/Post-COVID) showed still significant higher values (8.77 ± 1.72 µM, range 5.5-16.6 µM), whereas CRP values in Group B were in the normal range. Conclusion: Serum and saliva Kyn are reflecting the acute and long-term pathophysiology of the SARS-CoV-2 disease concerning the innate immune response and thus may serve a useful biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring both Long- and Post-COVID syndrome and its therapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cinurenina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Triptofano/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 962175, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36211418

RESUMO

Upon antigen stimulation and co-stimulation, CD4+ T lymphocytes produce soluble factors that promote the activity of other immune cells against pathogens or modified tissues; this task must be performed in presence of a variety of environmental cytokines, nutrient, and oxygen conditions, which necessarily impact T cell function. The complexity of the early intracellular processes taking place upon lymphocyte stimulation is addressed by means of a mathematical model based on a network that integrates variable microenvironmental conditions with intracellular activating, regulatory, and metabolic signals. Besides the phenotype subsets considered in previous works (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg) the model includes the main early events in differentiation to the T FH phenotype. The model describes how cytokines, nutrients and oxygen availability regulate the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into distinct subsets. Particularly, it shows that elevated amounts of an all-type mixture of effector cytokines under optimal nutrient and oxygen availability conduces the system towards a highly-polarized Th1 or Th2 state, while reduced cytokine levels allow the expression of the Th17, Treg or T FH subsets, or even hybrid phenotypes. On the other hand, optimal levels of an all-type cytokine mixture in combination with glutamine or tryptophan restriction implies a shift from Th1 to Th2 expression, while decreased levels of the Th2-inducing cytokine IL-4 leads to the rupture of the Th1-Th2 axis, allowing the manifestation of different (or hybrid) subsets. Modeling proposes that, even under reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the sole action of hypoxia boost Th17 expression.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Ativação Linfocitária , Diferenciação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Células Th1 , Células Th2 , Triptofano/metabolismo
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