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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8606-8617, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581395

RESUMO

Peptide IRW is the first food-derived angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) upregulator. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of IRW and identify the metabolites contributing to its antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Rats were administered 100 mg of IRW/kg of the body weight via an intragastric or intravenous route. The bioavailability (F %) was determined to be 11.7%, and the half-lives were 7.9 ± 0.5 and 28.5 ± 6.8 min for gavage and injection, respectively. Interestingly, significant blood pressure reduction was not observed until 1.5 h post oral administration, or 2 h post injection, indicating that the peptide's metabolites are likely responsible for the blood pressure-lowering activity. Time-course metabolomics revealed a significant increase in the level of kynurenine, a tryptophan metabolite, in blood after IRW administration. Kynurenine increased the level of ACE2 in cells. Oral administration of tryptophan (W), but not dipeptide IR, lowered the blood pressure and upregulated aortic ACE2 in SHRs. Our study supports the key role of tryptophan and its metabolite, kynurenine, in IRW's blood pressure-lowering effects.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Hipertensão , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Cinurenina/farmacologia , Triptofano/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8595-8605, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591744

RESUMO

The nutritional composition of the diet significantly impacts the overall growth and development of weaned piglets. The current study aimed to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of dietary tryptophan consumption on muscle fiber type transformation during the weaning period. Thirty weaned piglets with an average body weight of 6.12 ± 0.16 kg were randomly divided into control (CON, 0.14% Trp diet) and high Trp (HT, 0.35% Trp) groups and maintained on the respective diet for 28 days. The HT group of weaned piglets exhibited highly significant improvements in growth performance and an increased proportion of fast muscle fibers. Transcriptome sequencing revealed the potential contribution of differentially expressed circular RNAs toward the transformation of myofiber types in piglets and toward the regulation of expression of related genes by targeting the microRNAs, miR-34c and miR-182, to further regulate myofiber transformation. In addition, 145 DE circRNAs were identified as potentially protein-encoding, with the encoded proteins associated with a myofiber type transformation. In conclusion, the current study greatly advances and refines our current understanding of the regulatory networks associated with piglet muscle development and myofiber type transformation and also contributes to the optimization of piglet diet formulation.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Triptofano , Animais , Suínos/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo , Desmame , RNA Circular/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , MicroRNAs/genética
3.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1363938, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605962

RESUMO

Arginine and tryptophan are pivotal in orchestrating cytokine-driven macrophage polarization and immune activation. Specifically, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression), leading to the conversion of arginine into citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), while Interleukin-4 (IL4) promotes arginase activation, shifting arginine metabolism toward ornithine. Concomitantly, IFN-γ triggers indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and Interleukin-4 induced 1 (IL4i1), resulting in the conversion of tryptophan into kynurenine and indole-3-pyruvic acid. These metabolic pathways are tightly regulated by NAD+-dependent sirtuin proteins, with Sirt2 and Sirt5 playing integral roles. In this review, we present novel insights that augment our understanding of the metabolic pathways of arginine and tryptophan following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, particularly their relevance in macrophage responses. Additionally, we discuss arginine methylation and demethylation and the role of Sirt2 and Sirt5 in regulating tryptophan metabolism and arginine metabolism, potentially driving macrophage polarization.


Assuntos
Arginina , Tuberculose , Humanos , Arginina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Interleucina-4 , Sirtuína 2 , Ativação de Macrófagos , Interferon gama/farmacologia
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105835, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582597

RESUMO

Octanal was found to be able to reduce green mold incidence in citrus fruit by a defense response mechanism. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. Herein, the metabolomics, RNA-seq and biochemical analyses were integrated to explore the effect of octanal on disease resistance in harvested citrus fruit. Results showed that octanal fumigation at 40 µL L-1 was effective in controlling citrus green mold. Metabolomics analysis showed that octanal mainly led to the accumulation of some plant hormones including methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indoleacetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid, and gibberellic acid and many phenylpropanoid metabolites including cinnamyl alcohol, hesperidin, dihydrokaempferol, vanillin, quercetin-3-O-malonylglucoside, curcumin, naringin, chrysin, coniferin, calycosin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside, trans-cinnamaldehyde, and 4',5,7-trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyflavone. Particularly, IAA and hesperidin were dramatically accumulated in the peel, which might be the contributors to the resistance response. Additionally, transcriptome analysis showed that octanal greatly activated the biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids. This was further verified by the accumulation of some metabolites (shikimic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, phenylalanine, IAA, total phenolics, flavonoids and lignin), increase in some enzyme activities (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, tyrosine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate CoA ligase, cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase), up-regulation of some genes (tryptophan pyruvate aminotransferase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, shikimate kinase and shikimate dehydrogenase) expressions and molecular docking results. Thus, these results indicate that octanal is an efficient strategy for the control of postharvest green mold by triggering the defense response in citrus fruit.


Assuntos
Aldeídos , Citrus , Hesperidina , Citrus/química , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Hesperidina/análise , Hesperidina/metabolismo , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Triptofano/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Frutas
5.
Cell Commun Signal ; 22(1): 174, 2024 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462620

RESUMO

Tryptophan (Trp) metabolism plays a crucial role in influencing the development of digestive system tumors. Dysregulation of Trp and its metabolites has been identified in various digestive system cancers, including esophageal, gastric, liver, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. Aberrantly expressed Trp metabolites are associated with diverse clinical features in digestive system tumors. Moreover, the levels of these metabolites can serve as prognostic indicators and predictors of recurrence risk in patients with digestive system tumors. Trp metabolites exert their influence on tumor growth and metastasis through multiple mechanisms, including immune evasion, angiogenesis promotion, and drug resistance enhancement. Suppressing the expression of key enzymes in Trp metabolism can reduce the accumulation of these metabolites, effectively impacting their role in the promotion of tumor progression and metastasis. Strategies targeting Trp metabolism through specific enzyme inhibitors or tailored drugs exhibit considerable promise in enhancing therapeutic outcomes for digestive system tumors. In addition, integrating these approaches with immunotherapy holds the potential to further enhance treatment efficacy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Triptofano , Humanos , Triptofano/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo
6.
Cancer Res Commun ; 4(3): 822-833, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451784

RESUMO

High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) of the fallopian tube, ovary, and peritoneum is the most common type of ovarian cancer and is predicted to be immunogenic because the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes conveys a better prognosis. However, the efficacy of immunotherapies has been limited because of the immune-suppressed tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor metabolism and immune-suppressive metabolites directly affect immune cell function through the depletion of nutrients and activation of immune-suppressive transcriptional programs. Tryptophan (TRP) catabolism is a contributor to HGSC disease progression. Two structurally distinct rate-limiting TRP catabolizing enzymes, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (TDO2), evolved separately to catabolize TRP. IDO1/TDO2 are aberrantly expressed in carcinomas and metabolize TRP into the immune-suppressive metabolite kynurenine (KYN), which can engage the aryl hydrocarbon receptor to drive immunosuppressive transcriptional programs. To date, IDO inhibitors tested in clinical trials have had limited efficacy, but those inhibitors did not target TDO2, and we find that HGSC cell lines and clinical outcomes are more dependent on TDO2 than IDO1. To identify inflammatory HGSC cancers with poor prognosis, we stratified patient ascites samples by IL6 status, which correlates with poor prognosis. Metabolomics revealed that IL6-high patient samples had enriched KYN. TDO2 knockdown significantly inhibited HGSC growth and TRP catabolism. The orally available dual IDO1/TDO2 inhibitor, AT-0174, significantly inhibited tumor progression, reduced tumor-associated macrophages, and reduced expression of immune-suppressive proteins on immune and tumor cells. These studies demonstrate the importance of TDO2 and the therapeutic potential of AT-0174 to overcome an immune-suppressed TME. SIGNIFICANCE: Developing strategies to improve response to chemotherapy is essential to extending disease-free intervals for patients with HGSC of the fallopian tube, ovary, and peritoneum. In this article, we demonstrate that targeting TRP catabolism, particularly with dual inhibition of TDO2 and IDO1, attenuates the immune-suppressive microenvironment and, when combined with chemotherapy, extends survival compared with chemotherapy alone.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Triptofano Oxigenase , Feminino , Humanos , Triptofano Oxigenase/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1 , Interleucina-6 , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
7.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 59, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The host-microbiota interaction plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and disease susceptibility, and microbial tryptophan metabolites are potent modulators of host physiology. However, whether and how these metabolites mediate host-microbiota interactions, particularly in terms of inter-microbial communication, remains unclear. RESULTS: Here, we have demonstrated that indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) is a key molecule produced by Lactobacillus in protecting against intestinal inflammation and correcting microbial dysbiosis. Specifically, Lactobacillus metabolizes tryptophan into ILA, thereby augmenting the expression of key bacterial enzymes implicated in tryptophan metabolism, leading to the synthesis of other indole derivatives including indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Notably, ILA, IPA, and IAA possess the ability to mitigate intestinal inflammation and modulate the gut microbiota in both DSS-induced and IL-10-/- spontaneous colitis models. ILA increases the abundance of tryptophan-metabolizing bacteria (e.g., Clostridium), as well as the mRNA expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and indolelactate dehydrogenase in vivo and in vitro, resulting in an augmented production of IPA and IAA. Furthermore, a mutant strain of Lactobacillus fails to protect against inflammation and producing other derivatives. ILA-mediated microbial cross-feeding was microbiota-dependent and specifically enhanced indole derivatives production under conditions of dysbiosis induced by Citrobacter rodentium or DSS, but not of microbiota disruption with antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Taken together, we highlight mechanisms by which microbiome-host crosstalk cooperatively control intestinal homoeostasis through microbiota-derived indoles mediating the inter-microbial communication. These findings may contribute to the development of microbiota-derived metabolites or targeted "postbiotic" as potential interventions for the treatment or prevention of dysbiosis-driven diseases. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Triptofano , Humanos , Triptofano/metabolismo , Disbiose/microbiologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Inflamação
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6651, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509264

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating autoimmune disease, characterized by chronic inflammation of the central nervous system. While the significance of the gut microbiome on multiple sclerosis pathogenesis is established, the underlining mechanisms are unknown. We found that serum levels of the microbial postbiotic tryptophan metabolite indole-3-carboxaldehyde (3-IAld) inversely correlated with disease duration in multiple sclerosis patients. Much like the host-derived tryptophan derivative L-Kynurenine, 3-IAld would bind and activate the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), which, in turn, controls endogenous tryptophan catabolic pathways. As a result, in peripheral lymph nodes, microbial 3-IAld, affected mast-cell tryptophan metabolism, forcing mast cells to produce serotonin via Tph1. We thus propose a protective role for AhR-mast-cell activation driven by the microbiome, whereby natural metabolites or postbiotics will have a physiological role in immune homeostasis and may act as therapeutic targets in autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Triptofano , Humanos , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Ligantes , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Triptofano Hidroxilase/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6851, 2024 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514790

RESUMO

The kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation includes several compounds that reveal immunomodulatory properties. The present study aimed to investigate the alteration in KP metabolites in young women with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and their associations with thyroid function. The thyroid function tests, antithyroid antibodies measurement and ultrasonography of the thyroid gland have been performed in 57 young women with AIT and 38 age-matched healthy controls. The serum levels of tryptophan, kynurenine (KYN) and its metabolites were determined, and the activity of KP enzymes was calculated indirectly as product-to-substrate ratios. KP was activated and dysregulated in AIT, along with significantly elevated levels of KYN and anthranilic acid (AA), at the expense of the reduction of kynurenic acid (KYNA), which was reflected by the increase in the AA/KYNA ratio (p < 0.001). In univariate and multiple regression analyses, peripheral deiodinase (SPINA-GD) activity in AIT was positively associated with KYNA, AA, and quinolinic acid (QA). The merger of AA, AA/KYNA ratio, QA and SPINA-GD exhibited the highest sensitivity and specificity to predict AIT (p < 0.001) in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In conclusion, the serum KYN metabolite profile is dysregulated in young women with AIT and could serve as a new predictor of AIT risk.


Assuntos
Cinurenina , Tireoidite Autoimune , Humanos , Feminino , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Ácido Quinolínico , Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo
10.
EBioMedicine ; 102: 105056, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) are systems disorders that affect diverse organs including the intestine, joints and skin. The essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp) can be broken down to various bioactive derivatives important for immune regulation. Increased Trp catabolism has been observed in some CIDs, so we aimed to characterise the specificity and extent of Trp degradation as a systems phenomenon across CIDs. METHODS: We used high performance liquid chromatography and targeted mass spectrometry to assess the serum and stool levels of Trp and Trp derivatives. Our retrospective study incorporates both cross-sectional and longitudinal components, as we have included a healthy population as a reference and there are also multiple observations per patient over time. FINDINGS: We found reduced serum Trp levels across the majority of CIDs, and a prevailing negative relationship between Trp and systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP). Notably, serum Trp was low in several CIDs even in the absence of measurable systemic inflammation. Increases in the kynurenine-to-Trp ratio (Kyn:Trp) suggest that these changes result from increased degradation along the kynurenine pathway. INTERPRETATION: Increases in Kyn:Trp indicate the kynurenine pathway as a major route for CID-related Trp metabolism disruption and the specificity of the network changes indicates excessive Trp degradation relative to other proteogenic amino acids. Our results suggest that increased Trp catabolism is a common metabolic occurrence in CIDs that may directly affect systemic immunity. FUNDING: This work was supported by the DFG Cluster of Excellence 2167 "Precision medicine in chronic inflammation" (KA, SSchr, PR, BH, SWa), the BMBF (e:Med Juniorverbund "Try-IBD" 01ZX1915A and 01ZX2215, the e:Med Network iTREAT 01ZX2202A, and GUIDE-IBD 031L0188A), EKFS (2020_EKCS.11, KA), DFG RU5042 (PR, KA), and Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertakings ("Taxonomy, Treatments, Targets and Remission", 831434, "ImmUniverse", 853995, "BIOMAP", 821511).


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Triptofano , Humanos , Triptofano/metabolismo , Cinurenina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doença Crônica
11.
Aging Cell ; 23(4): e14102, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481042

RESUMO

Tryptophan catabolism is highly conserved and generates important bioactive metabolites, including kynurenines, and in some animals, NAD+. Aging and inflammation are associated with increased levels of kynurenine pathway (KP) metabolites and depleted NAD+, factors which are implicated as contributors to frailty and morbidity. Contrastingly, KP suppression and NAD+ supplementation are associated with increased life span in some animals. Here, we used DGRP_229 Drosophila to elucidate the effects of KP elevation, KP suppression, and NAD+ supplementation on physical performance and survivorship. Flies were chronically fed kynurenines, KP inhibitors, NAD+ precursors, or a combination of KP inhibitors with NAD+ precursors. Flies with elevated kynurenines had reduced climbing speed, endurance, and life span. Treatment with a combination of KP inhibitors and NAD+ precursors preserved physical function and synergistically increased maximum life span. We conclude that KP flux can regulate health span and life span in Drosophila and that targeting KP and NAD+ metabolism can synergistically increase life span.


Assuntos
Cinurenina , Triptofano , Animais , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Longevidade , NAD/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 1): 130609, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38437933

RESUMO

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), as the precursor of serotonin and melatonin in animals, can regulate mood, sleep, and behavior, which is widely used in pharmaceutical and health products industry. The enzymatic production of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) from L-tryptophan (L-Trp) using tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) show huge potential in application due to its advantages, such as mild reaction conditions, avoidance of protection/deprotection processes, excellent regioselectivity and considerable catalytic efficiency, compared with chemical synthesis and natural extraction. However, the low thermostability of TPH restricted its hydroxylation efficiency toward L-Trp. In this study, we aimed to improve the thermostability of TPH via semi-rational design guided by (folding free energy) ΔΔG fold calculation. After two rounds of evolution, two beneficial mutants M1 (S422V) and M30 (V275L/I412K) were obtained. Thermostability evaluation showed that M1 and M30 possessed 5.66-fold and 6.32-fold half-lives (t1/2) at 37 °C, and 4.2 °C and 6.0 °C higher melting temperature (Tm) than the WT, respectively. The mechanism behind thermostability improvement was elucidated with molecular dynamics simulation. Furthermore, biotransformation of 5-HTP from L-Trp was performed, M1 and M30 displayed 1.80-fold and 2.30-fold than that of WT, respectively. This work provides important insights into the thermostability enhancement of TPH and generate key mutants that could be robust candidates for practical production of 5-HTP.


Assuntos
5-Hidroxitriptofano , Triptofano Hidroxilase , Animais , 5-Hidroxitriptofano/metabolismo , Triptofano Hidroxilase/genética , Triptofano Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas
13.
Chemosphere ; 354: 141633, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442772

RESUMO

The activated sludge method is widely used for the treatment of phenol-containing wastewater, which gives rise to the problem of toxic residual sludge accumulation. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a typical phytohormone, facilitates the microalgal resistance to toxic inhibition while promoting biomass accumulation. In this study, Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) was cultured in toxic sludge extract and different concentrations of IAA were used to regulate its physiological properties and enrichment of high value-added products. Ultimately, proteomics analysis was used to reveal the response mechanism of C. humicola to exogenous IAA. The results showed that the IAA concentration of 5 × 10-6 mol/L (M) was most beneficial for C. humicola to cope with the toxic stress in the sludge extract medium, to promote the activity of rubisco enzyme, to enhance the efficiency of photosynthesis, and, finally, to accumulate protein as a percentage of specific dry weight 1.57 times more than that of the control group. Exogenous IAA altered the relative abundance of various amino acids in C. humicola cells, and proteomic analyses showed that exogenous IAA stimulated the algal cells to produce more indole-3-glycerol phosphate (IGP), indole, and serine by up-regulating the enzymes. These precursors are converted to tryptophan under the regulation of tryptophan synthase (A0A383V983), and tryptophan can be metabolized to endogenous IAA to promote the growth of C. humicola. These findings have important implications for the treatment of toxic residual sludge while enriching for high-value amino acids.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Triptofano , Triptofano/metabolismo , Esgotos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais
14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 270: 106904, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513426

RESUMO

Due to their potential release into the environment, the ecotoxicity of Ti3C2Tx (MXene) nanomaterials is a growing concern. Unfortunately, little is known about the toxic effects and mechanisms through which Ti3C2Tx induces toxicity in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the toxic effects and mechanisms of Daphnia magna upon exposure to Ti3C2Tx with different sheet sizes (100 nm [Ti3C2Tx-100] and 500 nm [Ti3C2Tx-500]) by employing conventional toxicology and metabolomics analysis. The results showed that exposure to both Ti3C2Tx-100 and Ti3C2Tx-500 at 10 µg/mL resulted in a significant accumulation of Ti3C2Tx in D. magna, but no effects on the mortality or growth of D. magna were observed. However, the metabolomics results revealed that Ti3C2Tx-100 and Ti3C2Tx-500 induced significant changes in up to 265 and 191 differential metabolites in D. magna, respectively, of which 116 metabolites were common for both. Ti3C2Tx-100-induced metabolites were mainly enriched in phospholipid, pyrimidine, tryptophan, and arginine metabolism, whereas Ti3C2Tx-500-induced metabolites were mainly enriched in the glycerol-ester, tryptophan, and glyoxylate metabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway. These results indicated that the toxicity of Ti3C2Tx to D. magna has a size-dependent effect at the metabolic level, and both sheet sizes of Ti3C2Tx can lead to metabolic disturbances in D. magna by interfering with lipid and amino acid metabolism pathways.


Assuntos
60496 , Nitritos , Elementos de Transição , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Daphnia , Titânio/farmacologia , Triptofano/metabolismo , Triptofano/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 557: 117859, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed the alternations of kynurenine pathway (KP) and neopterin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and explored possible differential metabolites. METHODS: A fresh residual sera panel was collected from 80 healthy control (HC) individuals and 72 T2DM patients. Metabolites/ratios of interest including tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), kynurenic acid (KA), xanthurenic acid (XA), neopterin (NEO), KA/KYN ratio and KYN/TRP ratio were determined using a targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) metabolomics approach, and the difference between groups was assessed. Supervised orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis and differential metabolite screening with fold change (FC) were performed to identify distinct biomarkers. The diagnostic performance of KP metabolites in T2DM was evaluated. RESULTS: Significant decreases of TRP, 5HT, KA, XA, and KA/KYN and increases of KYN/TRP and NEO in T2DM compared to HC group were observed (P < 0.05). The KP metabolites panel significantly changed between T2DM and HC groups (Q2: 0.925, P < 0.005). 5HT (FC: 0.63, P < 0.01) and NEO (FC: 3.27, P < 0.01) were proven to be distinct differential metabolites. A combined testing of fasting plasma glucose and KYN/TRP showed good value in the prediction of T2DM (AUC: 0.904, 95% CI 0.843-0.947). CONCLUSIONS: The targeted LC-MS/MS metabolomics study is a powerful tool for evaluating the status of T2DM. This study facilitated the application of KP metabolomics into future clinical practice. 5HT and NEO are promising biomarkers in T2DM. KYN/TRP was highly associated with the development of T2DM and may serve as a potential treatment target.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Cinurenina , Humanos , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Neopterina , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , 60705 , Triptofano/metabolismo , Biomarcadores
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7354, 2024 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548769

RESUMO

Immune nutrition is currently used to enhance fish health by incorporating functional ingredients into aquafeeds. This study aimed to investigate the connections between tryptophan nutrition and the network that regulates the communication pathways between neuroendocrine and immune systems in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). When tryptophan was supplemented in the diet of unstressed fish, it induced changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis response to stress. Tryptophan-mediated effects were observed in the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoid receptors. Tryptophan supplementation decreased pro-opiomelanocortin b-like levels, that are related with adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol secretion. When stressed fish fed a tryptophan-supplemented diet were subjected to an inflammatory stimulus, plasma cortisol levels decreased and the expression of genes involved in the neuroendocrine response was altered. Modulatory effects of tryptophan dietary intervention on molecular patterns seem to be mediated by altered patterns in serotonergic activity.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Triptofano , Animais , Triptofano/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inflamação/genética , Dieta
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(13): 6787-6802, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512048

RESUMO

Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino acid which is unable to be synthesized in the body. Main sources of Trp are uptake of foods such as oats and bananas. In this review, we describe the status of current dietary consumption, metabolic pathways and nutritional characteristics of Trp, as well as its ingestion and downstream metabolites for maintaining body health and safety. This review also summarizes the recent advances in Trp metabolism, particularly the 5-HT, KYN, and AhR activation pathways, revealing that its endogenous host metabolites are not only differentially affected in the body but also are closely linked to health. More attention should be paid to targeting its specific metabolic pathways and utilizing food molecules and probiotics for manipulating Trp metabolism. However, the complexity of microbiota-host interactions requires further exploration to precisely refine targets for innovating the gut microbiota-targeted diagnostic approaches and informing subsequent studies and targeted treatments of diseases.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Triptofano/metabolismo , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Transporte Biológico
18.
Science ; 383(6690): 1448-1454, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547266

RESUMO

The defensive alkaloid gramine not only protects barley and other grasses from insects but also negatively affects their palatability to ruminants. The key gene for gramine formation has remained elusive, hampering breeding initiatives. In this work, we report that a gene encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP76M57, which we name AMI synthase (AMIS), enables the production of gramine in Nicotiana benthamiana, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We reconstituted gramine production in the gramine-free barley (Hordeum vulgare) variety Golden Promise and eliminated it from cultivar Tafeno by Cas-mediated gene editing. In vitro experiments unraveled that an unexpected cryptic oxidative rearrangement underlies this noncanonical conversion of an amino acid to a chain-shortened biogenic amine. The discovery of the genetic basis of gramine formation now permits tailor-made optimization of gramine-linked traits in barley by plant breeding.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Hordeum , Alcaloides Indólicos , Família Multigênica , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Alcaloides Indólicos/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Oxirredução , Triptofano/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Genes de Plantas
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299999, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451992

RESUMO

Rice blast, caused by rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae), is a global threat to food security, with up to 50% yield losses. Panicle blast is a severe form of rice blast, and disease responses vary between cultivars with different genotypes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling reactions and the phenylpropanoid pathway are important defense mechanisms involved in recognizing and resisting against fungal infection. To understand rice-M. oryzae interactions in resistant and susceptible cultivars, we determined dynamic changes in the activities of five defense-related enzymes in resistant cultivar jingsui 18 and susceptible cultivar jinyuan 899 infected with M. oryzae from 4 to 25 days after infection. We then performed untargeted metabolomics analyses to profile the metabolomes of the cultivars under infected and non-infected conditions. Dynamic changes in the activities of five defense-related enzymes were closely related to panicle blast resistance in rice. Metabolome data analysis identified 634 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) between resistant and susceptible cultivars following infection, potentially explaining differences in disease response between varieties. The most enriched DAMs were associated with lipids and lipid-like molecules, phenylpropanoids and polyketides, organoheterocyclic compounds, organic acids and derivatives, and lignans, neolignans, and related compounds. Multiple metabolic pathways are involved in resistance to panicle blast in rice, including biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, tyrosine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, lysine biosynthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Magnaporthe , Oryza , Resistência à Doença/genética , Oryza/genética , Magnaporthe/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
20.
Biochemistry ; 63(7): 865-879, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498885

RESUMO

Lasso peptides are a class of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) defined by a macrolactam linkage between the N-terminus and the side chain of an internal aspartic acid or glutamic acid residue. Instead of adopting a branched-cyclic conformation, lasso peptides are "threaded", with the C-terminal tail passing through the macrocycle to present a kinetically trapped rotaxane conformation. The availability of enhanced bioinformatics methods has led to a significant increase in the number of secondary modifications found on lasso peptides. To uncover new ancillary modifications in a targeted manner, a bioinformatic strategy was developed to discover lasso peptides with modifications to tryptophan. This effort identified numerous putative lasso peptide biosynthetic gene clusters with core regions of the precursor peptides enriched in tryptophan. Parsing of these tryptophan (Trp)-rich biosynthetic gene clusters uncovered several putative ancillary modifying enzymes, including halogenases and dimethylallyltransferases expected to act upon Trp. Characterization of two gene products yielded a lasso peptide with two 5-Cl-Trp modifications (chlorolassin) and another bearing 5-dimethylallyl-Trp and 2,3-didehydro-Tyr modifications (wygwalassin). Bioinformatic analysis of the requisite halogenase and dimethylallyltransferase revealed numerous other putative Trp-modified lasso peptides that remain uncharacterized. We anticipate that the Trp-centric strategy reported herein may be useful in discovering ancillary modifications for other RiPP classes and, more generally, guide the functional prediction of enzymes that act on specific amino acids.


Assuntos
Peptídeos , Triptofano , Triptofano/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Biologia Computacional , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
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