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1.
Comput Biol Med ; 124: 103936, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738628

RESUMO

Virtual screening of phytochemicals was performed through molecular docking, simulations, in silico ADMET and drug-likeness prediction to identify the potential hits that can inhibit the effects of SARS-CoV-2. Considering the published literature on medicinal importance, 154 phytochemicals with analogous structure from limonoids and triterpenoids were selected to search potential inhibitors for the five therapeutic protein targets of SARS-CoV-2, i.e., 3CLpro (main protease), PLpro (papain-like protease), SGp-RBD (spike glycoprotein-receptor binding domain), RdRp (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). The in silico computational results revealed that the phytochemicals such as glycyrrhizic acid, limonin, 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylgedunin, maslinic acid, corosolic acid, obacunone and ursolic acid were found to be effective against the target proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The protein-ligand interaction study revealed that these phytochemicals bind with the amino acid residues at the active site of the target proteins. Therefore, the core structure of these potential hits can be used for further lead optimization to design drugs for SARS-CoV-2. Also, the medicinal plants containing these phytochemicals like licorice, neem, tulsi, citrus and olives can be used to formulate suitable therapeutic approaches in traditional medicines.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Limoninas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Sítios de Ligação , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Limoninas/química , Limoninas/farmacocinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , RNA Replicase/química , RNA Replicase/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacocinética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764519

RESUMO

Lupane-type pentacyclic triterpenes such as betulin and betulinic acid play an important role in the search for new therapies that would be effective in controlling viral infections. The aim of this study was the synthesis and evaluation of in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity for phosphate derivatives of 3-carboxyacylbetulin 3-5 as well as an in silico study of new compounds as potential ligands of the C-terminal domain of the HIV-1 capsid-spacer peptide 1 (CA-CTD-SP1) as a molecular target of HIV-1 maturation inhibitors. In vitro studies showed that 28-diethoxyphosphoryl-3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl)betulin (compound 3), the phosphate analog of bevirimat (betulinic acid derivative, HIV-1 maturation inhibitor), has IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) equal to 0.02 µM. Compound 3 inhibits viral replication at a level comparable to bevirimat and is also more selective (selectivity indices = 1250 and 967, respectively). Molecular docking was used to examine the probable interaction between the phosphate derivatives of 3-carboxyacylbetulin and C-terminal domain (CTD) of the HIV-1 capsid (CA)-spacer peptide 1 (SP1) fragment of Gag protein, designated as CTD-SP1. Compared with interactions between bevirimat (BVM) and the protein, an increased number of strong interactions between ligand 3 and the protein, generated by the phosphate group, were observed. These compounds might have the potential to also inhibit SARS-CoV2 proteins, in as far as the intrinsically imprecise docking scores suggest.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Triterpenos/química , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Fosfatos/química , Ligação Proteica , Succinatos/química , Succinatos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química
3.
Life Sci ; 257: 118083, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673665

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the preclinical pharmacodynamics and mechanism of JLX001 against myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MI/R) for clinical application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo, SD rats were given intragastric administration for 5 days, and the MI/R model was established by ligating/releasing the left anterior descending coronary artery. In vitro, the oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model was established after the drug was pre-incubated for 24 h in H9C2 cells. The infract size was determined by TTC staining. Left ventricular function of MI/R rats was detected by echocardiography. The level of histopathological score was determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) were determined by relevant kits. The level of apoptosis was measured by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Hoechst staining. The expression of p-Jak2, p-Stat3, Bax, Bcl-2, TNF-α, IL-1ß protein were determined by western blot. KEY FINDINGS: JLX001 can significantly improve left ventricular function, reduce myocardial infract size, histopathological score, the level of MDA, CK, LDH, TNF-α, IL-1ß and the expression of Bax protein, significantly increase the activity of SOD, Bcl-2 protein expression, p-Jak2 protein expression, p-Stat3 protein expression in rat heart tissues and H9C2 cells. These effects can be reversed by AG490 which is a specific inhibitor of Jak2-Stat3 pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: JLX001 can alleviate MI/R injury by inhibiting myocardial apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress via Jak2-Stat3 pathway in vivo and in vitro.


Assuntos
Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tirfostinas/farmacologia
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 328: 109200, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702347

RESUMO

Activation of Notch signaling is associated with tumor aggressiveness, poor clinical outcome and drug resistance in breast cancer patients. Targeting Notch signaling with small molecule inhibitors may be a better strategy for anticancer drug development. We identified 3-O-(E)-p-Coumaroylbetulinic acid (CB) as a lead compound and potent inhibitor of Notch signaling pathway. Treatment of human breast cancer MBA-MD-231 and T47D cells with CB resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell viability and G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest. This effect was associated with a marked decrease in the expression of cyclin D1 and its activating partner, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 with concomitant increase in cyclin kinase inhibitor p21, operative in G1-phase of the cell cycle. CB treatment induced early apoptosis in breast cancer cells as evident by increase in cleaved caspase-3, decrease in Bcl2 and survivin, surge in reactive oxygen species and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. CB treatment altered Notch target genes viz. Hes1, Hey1 and E-cadherin at mRNA and protein level in time-dependent manner along with decrease in Notch promoter activity at IC50 concentration. Furthermore, CB treatment decreased mammosphere formation in MCF-7 cells through down-modulation of the Notch signaling pathway and suppression of self-renewal markers such as c-Myc, SOX-2 and CD44. Our findings demonstrate that CB possess anticancer activity in breast cancer cells and suppresses self-renewal ability in the mammosphere as a result of modulation in cell-cycle machinery, disruption of mitochondrial function, induction of apoptosis, and Notch inhibition.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233814, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726313

RESUMO

The clinical efficacy for treating of celastrol rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been well-documented, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we explored through what proteins and processes celastrol may act in activated fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from RA patients. Differential expression of genes and proteins after celastrol treatment of FLS was examined using RNA sequencing, label-free relatively quantitative proteomics and molecular docking. In this paper, expression of 26,565 genes and 3,372 proteins was analyzed. Celastrol was associated with significant changes in genes that respond to oxidative stress and oxygen levels, as well as genes that stabilize or synthesize components of the extracellular matrix. These results identify several potential mechanisms through which celastrol may inhibit inflammation in RA.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica/métodos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Sinoviócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(8): 1049-1061, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602832

RESUMO

Introduction. Metal exposure is an important factor for inducing antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Dandelion extracts have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese and Native American medicine.Aim. We assessed the effects of dandelion water extracts and taraxasterol on heavy metal-induced antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli as well as the underlying mechanisms.Methodology. Dandelion extracts were obtained through 4 h of boiling in distilled water. Bacterial growth was monitored with a spectrophotometer. Biochemical assays were performed to assess the activities and gene transcriptions of ß-lactamase and acetyltransferase. Oxidative stress was determined using an oxidation-sensitive probe, H2DCFDA.Results. The present study demonstrated that higher concentrations of nickel (>5 µg ml-1), cadmium (>0.1 µg ml-1), arsenic (>0.1 µg ml-1) and copper (>5 µg ml-1) significantly inhibited the growth of E. coli. Lower concentrations of nickel (0.5 µg ml-1), cadmium (0.05 µg ml-1) and arsenic (0.05 µg ml-1) had no effect on bacterial growth, but helped the bacteria become resistant to two antibiotics, kanamycin and ampicillin. The addition of dandelion root extracts and taraxasterol significantly reversed the antibiotic resistance induced by these heavy metals. The supplements of antibiotics and cadmium generated synergistic effects on the activities of ß-lactamase and acetyltransferase (two antibiotic resistance-related proteins), which were significantly blocked by either dandelion root extract or taraxasterol. In contrast, oxidative stress was not involved in the preventative roles of dandelion root extracts and taraxasterol in heavy metal-induced antibiotic resistance.Conclusion. This study suggests that heavy metals induce bacterial antibiotic resistance and dandelion root extracts and taraxasterol could be used to help reverse bacterial resistance to antibiotics.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esteróis/farmacologia , Taraxacum/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Resistência a Ampicilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsênico/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cobre/efeitos adversos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Resistência a Canamicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional , Níquel/efeitos adversos , Raízes de Plantas/química
7.
Prostate ; 80(12): 938-949, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestation of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is causally linked to the inflammatory microenvironment and proliferation of epithelial and stromal cells in the prostate transitional zone. The CXC-chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) contributes to inflammation. We evaluated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in clinical specimens, primary cultures, and prostatic lineage cell lines. We investigated whether IL-8 via its receptor system (IL-8 axis) promotes BPH. METHODS: The messenger RNA and protein expression of chemokines, including components of the IL-8 axis, were measured in normal prostate (NP; n = 7) and BPH (n = 21), urine (n = 24) specimens, primary cultures, prostatic lineage epithelial cell lines (NHPrE1, BHPrE1, BPH-1), and normal prostate cells (RWPE-1). The functional role of the IL-8 axis in prostate epithelial cell growth was evaluated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. The effect of a combination with two natural compounds, oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA), was evaluated on the expression of the IL-8 axis and epithelial cell growth. RESULTS: Among the 19 inflammatory chemokines and chemokine receptors we analyzed, levels of IL-8 and its receptors (CXCR1, CXCR2), as well as, of CXCR7, a receptor for CXCL12, were 5- to 25-fold elevated in BPH tissues when compared to NP tissues (P ≤ .001). Urinary IL-8 levels were threefold to sixfold elevated in BPH patients, but not in asymptomatic males and females with lower urinary tract symptoms (P ≤ .004). The expression of the IL-8 axis components was confined to the prostate luminal epithelial cells in both normal and BPH tissues. However, these components were elevated in BPH-1 and primary explant cultures as compared to RWPE-1, NHPrE1, and BHPrE1 cells. Knockout of CXCR7 reduced IL-8, and CXCR1 expression by 4- to 10-fold and caused greater than or equal to 50% growth inhibition in BPH-1 cells. Low-dose OA + UA combination synergistically inhibited the growth of BPH-1 and BPH primary cultures. In the combination, the drug reduction indices for UA and OA were 16.4 and 7852, respectively, demonstrating that the combination was effective in inhibiting BPH-1 growth at significantly reduced doses of UA or OA alone. CONCLUSION: The IL-8 axis is a promotor of BPH pathogenesis. Low-dose OA + UA combination inhibits BPH cell growth by inducing autophagy and reducing IL-8 axis expression in BPH-epithelial cells.


Assuntos
Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Receptores CXCR/metabolismo , Processos de Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/metabolismo , Epitélio/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-8/biossíntese , Interleucina-8/genética , Masculino , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR/biossíntese , Receptores CXCR/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107935, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569599

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen that causes serious public health problems. Currently, therapeutic drugs for toxoplasmosis cause serious side effects, and more effective and novel substances with relatively low toxicity are urgently needed. Ursolic acid (UA) has many properties that can be beneficial to healthcare. In this study, we synthesized eight series of UA derivatives bearing a tetrazole moiety and evaluated their anti-T. gondii activity in vitro using spiramycin as a positive control. Most of the synthesized derivatives exhibited better anti-T. gondii activity in vitro than UA, among which compound 12a exhibited the most potent anti-T. gondii activity. Furthermore, the results of biochemical parameter determination indicated that 12a effectively restored the normal body weight of mice infected with T. gondii, reduced hepatotoxicity, and exerted significant anti-oxidative effects compared with the findings for spiramycin. Additionally, our molecular docking study indicated that the synthesized compounds could act as potential inhibitors of T. gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (TgCDPK1), with 12a possessing strong affinity for TgCDPK1 via binding to the key amino acids GLU129 and TYR131.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasmose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Coccidiostáticos/química , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases , Distribuição Aleatória , Espiramicina/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
9.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 143(3): 165-175, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387002

RESUMO

yeyachun and danshen exist as Chinese patent medicine, Xuemai Tong, and are clearly effective at alleviating liver fibrosis (LF). Previous studies have indicated that triterpenoids from yeyachun (EFT), and phenolic acids from danshen (SMP) are effective in the treatment of LF. The regulation of intestinal flora is an effective method for treating LF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a mixture of EFT and SMP on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced LF. Our results showed the mixture significantly decreased liver damage and fibrosis index, and maintained liver tissue composition, compared to the model group. Moreover, the imbalance of symptoms of intestinal flora was improved. The mixture also caused changes to metabolites of gut flora. Furthermore, the expression of CD68 in liver tissues from the treated groups was significantly decreased when compared to the model group. However, no significant difference was observed from microstructure of gut tissues and LPS concentrations in the serum between mixture treated mice and model mice. This study suggests that the mixture of EFT and SMP had a significant effect on CCl4 induced LF, and the mechanism of this action, at least in part, involved the regulation of intestinal flora and their metabolites.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Fitoterapia , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 329: 26-30, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380124

RESUMO

QF-036 is a novel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) maturation inhibitor that is a lupine triterpenoid derivative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of QF-036. A single oral toxicity and a 4-week repeated oral toxicity were investigated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The single oral toxicity study of QF-036 in SD rats showed that no mortality or visible pathological changes were noted at doses of 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg. QF-036 exhibited a non-linear toxicokinetic profile over the dose range of 100-1000 mg/kg in the single dose study, and a saturation trend appeared at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. In the 4-week oral toxicity and toxicokinetic study, SD rats were given 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg QF-036 once daily for 4 weeks, followed by a 4-week recovery period. No mortality or significant effects on food consumption, body weight, or behavior were observed. In addition, there were no test article-related changes in hematology, clinical biochemistry and histopathology. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 200 mg/kg. The toxicokinetic study demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in the systemic exposure to QF-036 after 4 weeks of oral administration. There were no marked sex differences or drug accumulation observed for repeated doses of QF-036.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/toxicidade , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade , Triterpenos/toxicidade
11.
Phytomedicine ; 72: 153232, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In chronic kidney disease, although fibrosis prevention is beneficial, few interventions are available that specifically target fibrogenesis. Poricoic acid A (PAA) isolated from Poria cocos exhibits anti-fibrotic effects in the kidney, however the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. PURPOSE: We isolated PAA and investigated its effects and the underlying mechanisms in renal fibrosis. STUDY DESIGN: Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) animal models and TGF-ß1-induced renal fibroblasts (NRK-49F) were used to investigate the anti-fibrotic activity of PAA and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Western blots, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, co-immunoprecipitation and molecular docking methods were used. Knock-down and knock-in of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the UUO model and cultured NRK-49F cells were employed to verify the mechanisms of action of PAA. RESULTS: PAA improved renal function and alleviated fibrosis by stimulating AMPK and inhibiting Smad3 specifically in Nx and UUO models. Reduced AMPK activity was associated with Smad3 induction, fibroblast activation, and the accumulation and aberrant remodelling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in human renal puncture samples and cultured NRK-49F cells. PAA stimulated AMPK activity and decreased fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner, thus showing that AMPK was essential for PAA to exert its anti-fibrotic effects. AMPK deficiency reduced the anti-fibrotic effects of PAA, while AMPK overexpression enhanced its effect. CONCLUSION: PAA activated AMPK and further inhibited Smad3 specifically to suppress fibrosis by preventing aberrant ECM accumulation and remodelling and facilitating the deactivation of fibroblasts.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/patologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Smad3/genética , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química , Obstrução Ureteral/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Ureteral/metabolismo , Obstrução Ureteral/patologia
12.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 400: 115075, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470352

RESUMO

NLRP3, one of the HSP-90 clients, has been defined as a critical component of IBD. In a rat model of DSS-induced colitis, we investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of the combined therapy with CP-456773 (CP), an NLRP3 inhibitor, and celastrol (CSR), an NF-κB inhibitor. Our results revealed that the CSR/CP combined therapy (CCCT) attenuated colon shortening, DAI and MDI in addition to improvement of the colonic histological picture. Moreover, the CCCT increased the antioxidant defense machinery of the colonic tissue and decreased MPO activity. Furthermore, the inflammation markers such as TNF-α and IL-6 were downregulated. These effects might be attributed to the inhibitory effect of CSR on the priming step of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation by interrupting NF-κB signalling and inhibition of HSP-90 (at the protein and mRNA levels) along with inhibitory effect of CP on the expression of the NLRP3. These latter effects resulted in decreased tissue expression and activity of the caspase-1 and repressing the subsequent release of the active forms of IL-1ß and IL-18, hence, the pyroptosis process is restrained. Additionally, the CCCT resulted in inducing autophagy by AMPK/mTOR-dependent mechanisms leading to the accumulation of BECN1 protein and a significant decrease in the levels of p62 SQSTM1. The inhibitory effect on HSP-90 in conjunction with induction of autophagy suggest increased autophagic degradation of NLRP3. This novel approach provides a basis for the clinical application of this combination in IBD treatment and might also be promising for the pharmacological intervention of other NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/sangue , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3123-3136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440114

RESUMO

Purpose: Asiaticoside (ASI), a compound of triterpene pentacyclic saponins, has apparently therapeutic efficacy on human hypertrophic scar. However, the characteristics of large molecular weight, low water solubility and poor lipophilicity do not favor the diffusion through the stratum corneum (SC). Therefore, it is expected that the development of a transdermally delivered formulation may enhance the permeability ratio (Qn) of ASI for its clinical application. In this study, we designed asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsions (ASI-NEs) and nanoemulsions-based gels (ASI-NBGs) and studied their mechanism for transdermal delivery. Methods: The preparation of ASI-NEs was optimized by simplex lattice design (SLD). The ex vivo transdermal penetration and the in vivo pharmacokinetics studies were studied, respectively. The skin irritation of ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs was measured on normal and damaged skin in rabbits, and the transcutaneous mechanisms of ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs were determined by HE stained and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results: The mean particle size of ASI-NEs was 132±5.84nm. The ex vivo skin permeation study verified that the Qn of the optimized ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs was about 13.65 times and 5.05 times higher than that of the ordinary ASI-G group. In vivo, the pharmacokinetics studies showed that ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs reached the peak value in the skin quickly and maintained stable release for a long time with high bioavailability. ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs were proved to be safe when applied for topical skin usage, and they could play a therapeutic role through the skin mainly by acting on the microstructure of the SC and by means of the skin adnexal pathways. Conclusion: ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs were effectively developed to overcome the barrier properties of the skin and show high drug penetration through the transdermal route. In addition, we found that ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs are safe when applied through transdermal delivery system.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Géis/química , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Administração Cutânea , Administração Tópica , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Camundongos , Permeabilidade , Coelhos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Irritação da Pele , Solubilidade , Triterpenos/farmacocinética
14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(12): 6988-6999, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374474

RESUMO

Outbreaks of infections with viruses like Sars-CoV-2, Ebola virus and Zika virus lead to major global health and economic problems because of limited treatment options. Therefore, new antiviral drug candidates are urgently needed. The promising new antiviral drug candidate silvestrol effectively inhibited replication of Corona-, Ebola-, Zika-, Picorna-, Hepatis E and Chikungunya viruses. Besides a direct impact on pathogens, modulation of the host immune system provides an additional facet to antiviral drug development because suitable immune modulation can boost innate defence mechanisms against the pathogens. In the present study, silvestrol down-regulated several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CCL2, CCL18) and increased TNF-α during differentiation and activation of M1-macrophages, suggesting that the effects of silvestrol might cancel each other out. However, silvestrol amplified the anti-inflammatory potential of M2-macrophages by increasing expression of anti-inflammatory surface markers CD206, TREM2 and reducing release of pro-inflammatory IL-8 and CCL2. The differentiation of dendritic cells in the presence of silvestrol is characterized by down-regulation of several surface markers and cytokines indicating that differentiation is impaired by silvestrol. In conclusion, silvestrol influences the inflammatory status of immune cells depending on the cell type and activation status.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus Chikungunya/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus Chikungunya/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Citocinas/classificação , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ebolavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite E/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite E/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Picornaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Picornaviridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Picornaviridae/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zika virus/imunologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 9082-9093, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253301

RESUMO

Current multiple sclerosis (MS) medications are mainly immunomodulatory, having little or no effect on neuroregeneration of damaged central nervous system (CNS) tissue; they are thus primarily effective at the acute stage of disease, but much less so at the chronic stage. An MS therapy that has both immunomodulatory and neuroregenerative effects would be highly beneficial. Using multiple in vivo and in vitro strategies, in the present study we demonstrate that ursolic acid (UA), an antiinflammatory natural triterpenoid, also directly promotes oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelin repair. Oral treatment with UA significantly decreased disease severity and CNS inflammation and demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Importantly, remyelination and neural repair in the CNS were observed even after UA treatment was started on day 60 post immunization when EAE mice had full-blown demyelination and axonal damage. UA treatment also enhanced remyelination in a cuprizone-induced demyelination model in vivo and brain organotypic slice cultures ex vivo and promoted oligodendrocyte maturation in vitro, indicating a direct myelinating capacity. Mechanistically, UA induced promyelinating neurotrophic factor CNTF in astrocytes by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPARγ)/CREB signaling, as well as by up-regulation of myelin-related gene expression during oligodendrocyte maturation via PPARγ activation. Together, our findings demonstrate that UA has significant potential as an oral antiinflammatory and neural repair agent for MS, especially at the chronic-progressive stage.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Remielinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Caloso/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Cuprizona/toxicidade , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Bainha de Mielina/efeitos dos fármacos , Bainha de Mielina/patologia , Oligodendroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodendroglia/imunologia , Oligodendroglia/patologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
16.
Life Sci ; 252: 117666, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298737

RESUMO

AIMS: Euscaphic acid and Tormentic acid are aglycones of Kaji-ichigoside F1 and Rosamultin, respectively. These four compounds are pentacyclic triterpenoid, isolated from the subterranean root of the Potentilla anserina L. Based on the protective roles against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of Euscaphic acid and Tormentic acid in vascular endothelial cells, this study was designed to determine the mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: The model of hypoxic injuries in EA. hy926 cells was established. Through applications of PI3K/AKT inhibitor, LY294002 and ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, we explored the relationships between pharmacodynamic mechanisms and PI3K/AKT or ERK 1/2 signaling pathway. The anti-hypoxic effects were studied by methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay, Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining, DAPI staining, and flow cytometry. The mechanisms of anti-mitochondrial apoptosis were explored by western blot. The expressions of p-ERK 1/2, ERK 1/2, p-AKT, AKT, p-NF-κB, NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyt C, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 were detected. KEY FINDINGS: Euscaphic acid protected vascular endothelial cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis via ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and Tormentic acid brought its efficacy into full play via PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. In addition, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway positively regulated ERK1/2 pathway, and ERK1/2 pathway negatively regulated PI3K/AKT pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: This evidence provides theoretical and experimental basis for the following research on anti-hypoxic drugs of Potentilla anserina L.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Cromonas/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Potentilla/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Life Sci ; 253: 117684, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315728

RESUMO

Brain oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been implicated in various psychiatric disorders. The current study investigated the effect and mechanism of 25-Methoxyhispidol A (25-MHA) against CCl4-induced anxiety and depression. Mice were challenged with CCl4 (1 ml/kg; i.p.) after 30 min of 25-MHA (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg; i.p.) administration. Pretreatment with 25-MHA (10 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the anxiety and depression-like behavior in testing models. The oxidative stress induced by CCl4 was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with 25-MHA. The immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis showed a reduction in kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and improvement in expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1. In addition, 25-MHA significantly attenuated the CCl4-mediated depletion of antioxidant enzymes in hippocampus (HC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) region and reduced the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), along with a decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in HC and PFC region. Pretreatment with 25-MHA also showed an improved expression of neurotrophic factors i.e., brain derived growth factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Furthermore, 25-MHA inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) and ammonia level in plasma, liver, HC and PFC regions of mice brain. 25-MHA also exhibited anti-apoptotic effect evident from the reduced expression of caspase-3 and decreased hippocampal DNA damage in comet assay. Furthermore, decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and corticosterone level, along with prevention of CCl4-induced alterations in thickness of dentate gyrus and intact hepatic cells morphology, represented by hippocampal and liver histopathology, indicated the neuroprotective effect of 25-MHA.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e922092, 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Despite scientific advancement in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the 5-year survival rate of lung cancer patients is around 15%. The present study explored the anticancer potential of betulinic acid nanoparticles against lung cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The proliferative changes in lung cancer cells by betulinic acid nanoparticles were measured by MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide stain. Transwell and wound healing assay were used for determination of HKULC2 cell metastatic potential. RESULTS The betulinic acid nanoparticle treatment significantly (P<0.05) reduced proliferation of HKULC2, H1299, and H23 cells. The proliferation of HKULC2, H1299, and H23 cells was reduced to 33%, 28% and 24%, respectively on treatment with 10 µM of betulinic acid nanoparticles. The results from flow cytometry showed that betulinic acid nanoparticle exposure lead to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase in HKULC2 cells. Treatment with betulinic acid nanoparticles markedly decreased migration potential of HKULC2 cells. The invasive ability of HKULC2 cells was also suppressed markedly on exposure to betulinic acid nanoparticles. Western blotting of HKULC2 cells showed that betulinic acid nanoparticles promoted the expression of p21 and p53 and downregulated CD133, ALDH, BCL2, MCL1, and c-Myc expression. Betulinic acid nanoparticles reduced the expression of ABCG1 protein markedly. CONCLUSIONS The present study demonstrated that betulinic acid nanoparticles inhibit proliferation, metastatic ability, and arrest cell cycle in lung cancer cells through downregulation of ABCG1 oncogene expression. Therefore, betulinic acid nanoparticles may be used as therapeutic agent for the treatment of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas
19.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(5): 829-842, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The transcription factor GATA-4 plays an important role in myocardial protection. Astragaloside IV (Ast-IV) was reported with the effects on improving cardiac function after ischemia. In this study, we explored how Ast-IV interacts with GATA-4 to protect myocardial cells H9c2 against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation (H/R) stress. METHODS AND RESULTS: H9c2 cells were cultured under the H/R condition. Various cell activity and morphology assays were used to assess the rates of apoptosis and autophagy. In these H/R injured H9c2 cells, increased apoptosis (P < 0.01) and autophagosome number (P < 0.01) were observed, and the addition of Ast-IV ameliorated this tendency. Mechanistically, we used the RT-qPCR and Western blot to evaluate the expressions of various molecules. The results showed that Ast-IV treatment upregulated gene expression of GATA-4 (P < 0.01) and the survival factors (Bcl-2, P < 0.05; p62, P < 0.01), but suppressed apoptosis and autophagy related genes (PARP, Caspase-3, Beclin-1, and LC3-II; All P < 0.01). Furthermore, overexpressing of GATA-4 by its agonist phenylephrine can also protect H/R injured H9c2 cells, and the addition of Ast-IV further enhanced this protection of GATA-4. In contrast, silencing GATA-4 expression abolished the H/R protection of Ast-IV, which demonstrated that the myocardial protection of Ast-IV is mediated by GATA-4. Lastly, along with GATA overexpression, enhanced interactions between Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 were detected by Chromatin immunoprecipitation (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Ast-IV rescued the H/R injury induced apoptosis and autophagy in H9c2 cells. Ast-IV treatment can stimulate the overexpression of GATA-4, and further enhanced the myocardial protection effect of GATA-4.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição GATA4/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Linhagem Celular , Citoproteção , Fator de Transcrição GATA4/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10286-10293, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341150

RESUMO

HIV-1 maturation involves conversion of the immature Gag polyprotein lattice, which lines the inner surface of the viral membrane, to the mature capsid protein (CA) lattice, which encloses the viral RNA. Maturation inhibitors such as bevirimat (BVM) bind within six-helix bundles, formed by a segment that spans the junction between the CA and spacer peptide 1 (SP1) subunits of Gag, and interfere with cleavage between CA and SP1 catalyzed by the HIV-1 protease (PR). We report solid-state NMR (ssNMR) measurements on spherical virus-like particles (VLPs), facilitated by segmental isotopic labeling, that provide information about effects of BVM on the structure and dynamics of CA-SP1 junction helices in the immature lattice. Although BVM strongly blocks PR-catalyzed CA-SP1 cleavage in VLPs and blocks conversion of VLPs to tubular CA assemblies, 15N and 13C ssNMR chemical shifts of segmentally labeled VLPs with and without BVM are very similar, indicating that interaction with BVM does not alter the six-helix bundle structure appreciably. Only the 15N chemical shift of A280 (the first residue of SP1) changes significantly, consistent with BVM binding to an internal ring of hydrophobic side chains of L279 residues. Measurements of transverse 15N spin relaxation rates reveal a reduction in the amplitudes and/or timescales of backbone N-H bond motions, corresponding to a rigidification of the six-helix bundles. Overall, our data show that inhibition of HIV-1 maturation by BVM involves changes in structure and dynamics that are surprisingly subtle, but still sufficient to produce a large effect on CA-SP1 cleavage.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Succinatos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Vírion/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Vírion/genética , Vírion/metabolismo , Montagem de Vírus , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
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