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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256486, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364500

RESUMO

This study explores the antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the extracts of four locally available weeds plants namely Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua and Phalaris minor with different solvents. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined via various in-vitro methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA), reducing power (RP), DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assays. Phytochemical screening was performed both qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined through Folin- Ciocalteu reagent and aluminium chloride methods respectively. Methanol-chloroform solvent showed the presence of a high amount of TPC in milligram of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of GAE/g of DW) in the extracts of all weeds. Their descending sequence was Avena fatua (74.09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65.66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64.04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61.905), while, chloroform solvent found to be best solvent for the extraction of TFC. Methanol-chloroform solvent was also found to be best solvent for TAA (Total antioxidant activity assay) which showed values in milligram of ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg of AAE /g of DW), for DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power (antioxidant activity) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and glycosides in these weeds.


Este estudo investiga a atividade antioxidante, a triagem fitoquímica, os teores de fenólicos totais e de flavonoides nos extratos de quatro plantas daninhas disponíveis localmente, quais sejam, Convolvulus arvensis, Chenopodium murale, Avena fatua e Phalaris minor com diferentes solventes. As atividades antioxidantes desses extratos foram determinadas por meio de vários métodos in vitro, tais como atividade antioxidante total (TAA), poder redutor (RP), sequestro de radicais livres DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-Picril-hidrazil) e ensaios de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica foi realizada tanto qualitativamente quanto quantitativamente. O teor de fenólicos totais (TPC) e o teor de flavonoides totais (TFC) foram determinados pelos métodos do reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu e do cloreto de alumínio, respectivamente. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio mostrou a presença de elevada quantidade de TPC em miligramas de ácido gálico equivalente por grama de peso seco (mg de GAE/g de DW) nos extratos de todas as plantas daninhas. Sua sequência descendente foi Avena fatua (74,09) ˃ Phalaris minor (65,66) ˃ Chenopodium murale (64,04) ˃ Convolvulus arvensis (61,905), enquanto o solvente clorofórmio foi o melhor solvente para a extração de TFC. O solvente metanol-clorofórmio também foi considerado o melhor solvente para AAT (ensaio de atividade antioxidante total), que apresentou valores em miligramas de equivalente de ácido ascórbico por grama de peso seco (mg de AAE/g de DW), para atividade sequestrante de DPPH, RP (atividade antioxidante) e atividade de sequestro de peróxido de hidrogênio. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de polifenóis, flavonoides, taninos, saponinas, alcaloides e glicosídeos nessas plantas daninhas.


Assuntos
Triticum , Flavonoides , Compostos Fenólicos , Plantas Daninhas/fisiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Antioxidantes
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249472, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364512

RESUMO

Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common rust disease of wheat. The fungus is an obligate parasite capable of producing infectious urediniospores. To study the genetic structure of the leaf rust population 20 RAPD primers were evaluated on 15 isolates samples collected in Pakistan. A total of 105 RAPD fragments were amplified with an average of 7 fragments per primer. The number of amplified fragments varied from 1 to 12. GL Decamer L-07 and GL Decamer L-01 amplified the highest number of bands (twelve) and primer GL Decamer A-03 amplified the lowest number of bands i.e one. Results showed that almost all investigated isolates were genetically different that confirms high genetic diversity within the leaf rust population. Rust spores can follow the migration pattern in short and long distances to neighbor areas. Results indicated that the greatest variability was revealed by 74.9% of genetic differentiation within leaf rust populations. These results suggested that each population was not completely identical and high gene flow has occurred among the leaf rust population of different areas. The highest differentiation and genetic distance among the Pakistani leaf rust populations were detected between the leaf rust population in NARC isolate (NARC-4) and AARI-11and the highest similarity was observed between NARC isolates (NARC-4) and (NARC-5). The present study showed the leaf rust population in Pakistan is highly dynamic and variable.


A ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, é a ferrugem mais comum do trigo. O fungo é um parasita obrigatório, capaz de produzir urediniósporos infecciosos. Para estudar a estrutura genética da população de ferrugem da folha, 20 primers RAPD foram avaliados em 15 amostras de isolados coletadas no Paquistão. Um total de 105 fragmentos RAPD foram amplificados com uma média de 7 fragmentos por primer. O número de fragmentos amplificados variou de 1 a 12. GL Decamer L-07 e GL Decamer L-01 amplificaram o maior número de bandas (doze), e o primer GL Decamer A-03 amplificou o menor número de bandas, ou seja, um. Os resultados mostraram que quase todos os isolados investigados eram geneticamente diferentes, o que confirma a alta diversidade genética na população de ferrugem da folha. Os esporos de ferrugem podem seguir o padrão de migração em distâncias curtas e longas para áreas vizinhas. Os resultados indicaram que a maior variabilidade foi revelada por 74,9% da diferenciação genética nas populações de ferrugem. Esses resultados sugeriram que cada população não era completamente idêntica e um alto fluxo gênico ocorreu entre a população de ferrugem da folha de diferentes áreas. A maior diferenciação e distância genética entre as populações de ferrugem da folha do Paquistão foram detectadas entre a população de ferrugem da folha no isolado NARC (NARC-4) e AARI-11 e a maior similaridade foi observada entre os isolados NARC (NARC-4) e (NARC-5). O presente estudo mostrou que a população de ferrugem da folha no Paquistão é altamente dinâmica e variável.


Assuntos
Triticum/parasitologia , Biomarcadores , Pragas da Agricultura , Fungos/genética , Puccinia/genética
3.
Food Chem ; 400: 133950, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055137

RESUMO

Effect of soluble soybean polysaccharides (SSPS) and acidic condition on the bread staling of crumb and crust were evaluated in bread characteristics, water migration, starch retrogradation, and flavor. Bread characteristic analysis showed SSPS and acidic conditions significantly improved bread quality during storage, maintaining crumb softness. The staling rate of the synergistic group under SSPS and acidic condition decreased by 49.46% compared to the control group. This retardation was associated with water migration and starch retrogradation. SSPS and acidic conditions restricted the water migration from crumb to crust. A synergy between SSPS and acidification restrained the relative crystallinity and retrogradation enthalpy in bread crumbs and crust during storage. The scores plot and heat map analysis indicated SSPS and acidic condition was facilitated the flavors retention in the crumb and crust after stored 7-days. This study suggested SSPS and acidic conditions might be beneficial for extending bread shelf-life.


Assuntos
Pão , Soja , Amido , Triticum , Água
4.
Food Chem ; 400: 134077, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084597

RESUMO

Given the wide-spread consumption of wheat, the production of selenium (Se)-enriched wheat grain may be an effective method to increase the dietary Se intake in many Se-deficient areas. Herein, we biofortified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) via the foliar spraying of selenate or selenite at low or high rate, and investigated the resulting Se distribution in different wheat parts and the crucial parts involved in grain Se accumulation. Results showed that Se concentration in grain after selenite spraying was 1.5 times higher than that of selenate. Grain Se accumulation was largely affected by leaves Se and the transfer of Se from node1 to internode1. Furthermore, the main speciation of Se in wheat grain was the organic Se. In addition, the optimal dosage was 15 g ha-1. In summary, foliar spraying 15 g ha-1 of Se is an effective and safe agronomic biofortification practice.


Assuntos
Ácido Selenioso , Selênio , Grão Comestível , Ácido Selênico , Triticum
5.
Food Chem ; 399: 133976, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998497

RESUMO

The effect of adding native or germinated quinoa flour to wheat flour on gluten structure, starch digestibility and quality properties in pasta was evaluated. The free sulfhydryl contents in wheat/quinoa dough (1.41-3.16 µmol/g) were higher than the wheat dough content (0.764 µmol/g). The gluten network was gradually disrupted as additions of quinoa increased, resulting in improved starch digestibility. Further, germinated quinoa showed greater disruption and starch digestibility effects than native quinoa. Although the cooking quality of pasta decreased with additions of quinoa, cooking losses were below 7 %, which is acceptable. Adding excess germinated quinoa (30 %) had negative impacts on the textural properties. The sensory quality of pasta with 10-20 % native or germinated quinoa (24 h) flour (QF24) was acceptable. These findings suggested that a recipe of 20 % QF24 in wheat flour is recommended to develop wheat/germinated quinoa pasta with improved digestibility and acceptable changes in qualities.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Farinha , Chenopodium quinoa/química , Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Glutens/química , Amido/química , Triticum/química
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339395

RESUMO

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/genética , Triticum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal
7.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3487014, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089963

RESUMO

Although the clarification of property rights for agricultural land has the potential to enhance agricultural production efficiency and support its sustainable growth, this goal may not always be met in reality. As a result, the emphasis of this study is on the elements that affect agricultural output. It also examines how the stability of land rights affects agricultural production efficiency and, most importantly, how the heterogeneity of farmers' perspectives affects this process. Through the empirical test using the data of farmers in Henan Province, the largest wheat area in China, the results show that: (1) The farmland confirmation policy significantly promotes the improvement of the pure technical efficiency of agricultural production, a series of robustness tests, and the treatment of endogenous problems, which also confirmed the robustness of the results. (2) In the allocation of factors, agricultural investment and credit acquisition have been proved to be important influencing mechanisms, while labor and land transfer have not played a mechanistic role. (3) Heterogeneity analysis shows that the self-service of farmers choosing to purchase agricultural machinery is more efficient than purchasing outsourcing services; The agricultural production of farmer households without hired workers has a significant technical efficiency, but the impact on farmer households with hired workers is not significant; for farmer households with agricultural insurance purchase behavior, purchase willingness, and planting and breeding advantages, the farmland ownership confirmation policy can play a more important role in promoting the pure technical efficiency of agricultural production; The promotion effect of the farmland right confirmation policy on the pure technical efficiency of agricultural output is strongest when there is a smaller level of farmers operating on a part-time basis and when more farmers prioritize profit maximization as the production goal. Corresponding policy recommendations are made at the conclusion of the study in light of the conclusions mentioned.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Triticum , Agricultura , China , Humanos , Políticas
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 439: 129629, 2022 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104921

RESUMO

Perchlorate is an emerging pollutant and thyroid toxicant frequently occurred in air, water, soil and various foodstuffs. Rice and wheat flour are the most common staple foods, which could accumulate perchlorate from contaminated soils and irrigation water. However, human exposure to perchlorate via rice and wheat flour consumption has only been investigated to a limited extent. Therefore, we collected 207 rice samples and 189 wheat flour samples from 19 provinces in China to assess the level of perchlorate. The levels of perchlorate in rice and wheat flour ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 28.7 ng/g and less than limits of quantification (

Assuntos
Farinha , Oryza , Humanos , Percloratos , Medição de Risco , Triticum , Água
9.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e72, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106088

RESUMO

In the present study, the levels and probable public health risks of selected metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) in nine wheat flour samples collected from Amhara, Oromia, South region, and the Strategic Food Reserve Agency were determined using FAAS and compared with results of prior studies and critical level. The wet digestion method using 65 % HNO3 and 72 % HClO4 in 300°C for 3 h was used when preparing the sample. Validation of the optimised digestion method was assessed using the spiking method, and an acceptable percent recovery from all metals. The levels of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni and Cd ranged between 8⋅5297 and 11⋅1535, 1⋅633 and 4⋅2346, 3⋅1875 and 8⋅5313, 2⋅3589 and 2⋅7719, 0⋅154 and 0⋅854, and 0⋅0411 and 0⋅216 mg/kg, respectively, for Ethiopian wheat flour, while the level of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb were ranged between 8⋅0099 and 8⋅1089, 1⋅663 and 1⋅6691, 4⋅5625 and 4⋅6250, 2⋅3015 and 2⋅3072, 0⋅9423 and 1⋅1346, 0⋅1593 and 0⋅1606, and 0⋅13 and 0⋅1381 mg/kg, respectively, for imported wheat flour. However, Pb had a concentration of less than 0⋅043 mg/kg for Ethiopian wheat flour. Findings indicate that Ethiopian wheat is comparatively higher in Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd, but lower in Ni and Pb than imports. From the result of the study, it can be concluded that the level of heavy metals determined in this study was within the permissible limit, and no probable health risk because both the Hazard quotient (HQ) and the Hazard Index (HI) are found to be below 1⋅0 regarding study metals.


Assuntos
Farinha , Triticum , Cádmio , Etiópia , Chumbo
10.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 538, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056030

RESUMO

In plant sciences, curation and availability of interoperable phenotypic and genomic data is still in its infancy and represents an obstacle to rapid scientific discoveries in this field. To that end, supplementing the efforts being made to generate open access wheat genome, pan wheat genome and other bioinformatic resources, we present the GABI-WHEAT panel of elite European cultivars comprising 358 winter and 14 summer wheat varieties released between 1975 to 2007. The panel has been genotyped with SNP arrays of increasing density to investigate several important agronomic, quality and disease resistance traits. The robustness of investigated traits and interoperability of genomic and phenotypic data was assessed in the current publication with the aim to transform this panel into a public data resource for future genetic research in wheat. Consecutively, the phenotypic data was formatted to comply with FAIR principles and linked to online databases to substantiate panel origin information and quality. Thus, we were able to make a valuable resource available for plant science in a sustainable way.


Assuntos
Triticum , Pesquisa em Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(9): 4706-4716, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096611

RESUMO

Based on previous research, using straw material to treat swine wastewater can effectively reduce the concentration of nitrogen (N); however, the annual N-removal efficiency and change in the abundance of N-cycling functional genes remain unclear. In this study, four treatments (wheat straw, rice straw, corn stalk, and CK) were set up, with the aim of studying the annual N-removal efficiency and change in the abundance of functional genes. Our results showed that:① the total nitrogen (TN) removal and NH4+-N removal efficiency were the best in the first six months and were significantly reduced in the following six months. In addition, the TN removal and NH4+-N efficiency in straw and wheat straw were better than those in corn straw. The TN-removal efficiency in straw and wheat straw were 32.81%±11.34% and 32.99%±9.60%, respectively. The NH4+-N removal efficiency in straw and wheat straw were 35.3%±13.23% and 34.97%±12.00%, respectively. ② The abundance of N-cycling functional genes significantly increased by the addition of straw materials, compared with that of the CK (P<0.05). The average abundances of nirK, nirS, and hzsB were 6.45×109 copies·L-1, 6.18×109 copies·L-1, and 2.31×109 copies·L-1, respectively. The average abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were 6.12×1010 copies·L-1 and 4.93×109 copies·L-1, respectively. The average hzsB gene abundance was 2.31×109 copies·L-1. The average abundance of 16S rRNA in the treatment was 8.90×1010 copies·L-1. The abundances of hzsB and nirS genes in the straw and wheat straw were higher than those in the other treatment, indicating that the activities of anaerobic ammonia oxidation and denitrifying microorganisms were significantly increased by the addition of straw and wheat straw (P<0.05). In addition, the abundance of AOA and AOB genes were increased in wheat straw, suggesting that wheat straw could promote nitrification. The results provided data supporting the molecular mechanism of nitrogen removal in swine wastewater treatment with straw materials.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Águas Residuárias , Amônia , Animais , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Suínos , Triticum , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(9): 4839-4847, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096624

RESUMO

In order to explore the effects of straw returning combined with fertilizer on soil nutrients and winter wheat yield in the Guanzhong area, an experimental split plot design was utilized. The main plot consisted of no straw returning (S0) and straw returning (S). The sub-regions consisted of no fertilizer (WF), nitrogen fertilizer (NF), and nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer (NPF). Ecological stoichiometry was used to study the relationship between soil carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus content, and yield under straw returning combined with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer conditions. The results showed that straw and fertilization interactions had significant effects on soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents in the surface layer (0-20 cm) (P<0.05). Compared with that in the S0WF treatment, the SNPF treatment significantly increased soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in the surface layer (0-20 cm) (P<0.05). The interaction between straw and year had significant effects on soil total nitrogen content in the surface layer (0-20 cm) (P<0.05). With the increase in straw returning time, the total nitrogen content of soil 0-20 cm under the SWF treatment was significantly higher than that under the S0WF treatment (P<0.05). Straw and fertilization and their interaction had no significant effects on organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in the 20-40 cm soil layer (P>0.05). Straw and straw interaction with fertilization significantly affected total P content in 20-40 cm soil (P<0.05). Compared with that in the SWF treatment, the SNPF treatment significantly increased the total phosphorus content in the 20-40 cm soil layer (P<0.05). Straw returning combined with chemical fertilizer also had a significant effect on soil stoichiometry. Compared with that in the S0WF treatment, the S0NPF treatment decreased soil C:N in the surface layer (0-20 cm) and increased soil C:P and N:P in the surface layer (0-20 cm). Compared with that in the SWF treatment, the SNF treatment reduced soil C:N in the surface layer (0-20 cm). Straw returning combined with chemical fertilizer also had a significant effect on winter wheat yield. In 2020 and 2021, the SNPF treatment increased production by 24.23% and 28.9%, respectively, compared with that of the S0WF treatment. Correlation analysis showed that yield was significantly positively correlated with C:N (P<0.05) and C:P (P<0.01). At the same time, total nitrogen and N:P were positively correlated with treatment years (P<0.001). In conclusion, straw returning and that combined with nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer (SNPF) can improve soil nutrient characteristics, change soil stoichiometric characteristics, and increase yield in the Guanzhong area. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that straw returning combined with nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer (SNPF) is an effective way to optimize regional farmland nutrient management and improve grain production capacity.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Solo , Agricultura/métodos , Carbono/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Fosfatos/análise , Fósforo , Solo/química , Triticum
13.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(7): 627-636, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098169

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The wheat crop is considered one of the most important crops globally, especially in Egypt. It has great nutritional importance, so it was necessary to increase productivity and any genetic improvement depends on the presence of many genetic differences so that breeders can achieve this. This study aimed to use chemical mutagenic (sodium azide) to obtain the desired genetic differences in two wheat cultivars. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Two types of bread Sids 12 and Giza 164 were treated with different concentrations of sodium azide (NaN<sub>3</sub>) (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 ppm). <b>Results:</b> The highest grain/plant 78.91 g was obtained from Sis12 and 62.96 g from Giza 164 compared to the control 42.57 and 40.24 g for Sids 12 and Giza 164, respectively. Also from the results obtained, the relationship of yield was positive and significant with both grain/spike, spikelet's no./spike spikes no./plant and height/plant. On the contrary, it was negative and significant with a 1000-grain weight (-0.433). <b>Conclusion:</b> The two treatments (1000 and 2000 ppm) were the best in the Sids 12, while (1000 and 5000 ppm) were the best treatments in the Giza 164.


Assuntos
Pão , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Grão Comestível , Azida Sódica/farmacologia , Triticum/genética
14.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(6): 516-530, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098187

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Late sowing of wheat exposes the anthesis and grain filling stages of the crop to a terminal heat temperature stress Therefore, detecting putative QTL associated with grain yield and its attributes and identifying the most tolerant genotypes to terminal drought and heat stress across environments will be beneficial in wheat breeding programs. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> In the present study, among 49 CIMMYT wheat lines evaluated for yield and stability in eight environments, we selected the highest ten high-yielding (HYL) and the lowest ten low yielding lines (LYL) along with three wheat check cultivars (CC) for screening with eighteen previously published SSR molecular markers associated with drought and heat stress tolerance. <b>Results:</b> Two SSR markers (BARC126 and BARC11) on 7D were associated with delay heading dates under normal and late sowing dates. Likewise, the SSR markers WMC396, GWM537 and XGWM577 which were mapped on 7B, were significantly linked with grain yield-related traits under one/or both sowing dates, most of them showed desirable effects, indicating terminal heat stress tolerance. Different SSR markers viz., BARC11, XGWM132 and GWM537 showed pleiotropic effects. <b>Conclusion:</b> The SSR markers BARC186-5A, XGWM132-6B, WMC396-7B, XGWM577-7B and GWM165-4B were more prominently associated with heat tolerance by showing a desirable performance of grain yield-related traits under late sowing or across environments, some of these desirable alleles were corresponding to previously QTL in various genotypes that could be valuable in breeding for high-yield in wheat.


Assuntos
Termotolerância , Triticum , Grão Comestível/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Termotolerância/genética , Triticum/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0272647, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048814

RESUMO

Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) catalyzes the interconversion between glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), thereby regulating sucrose synthesis in plant cells. In general, plants contain a pair of PGI isozymes located in two distinct compartments of the cell (cytosol and plastid) with differences in both the primary structure and the higher-order structure. Previously, we showed that the activity of cytosolic PGI (PGIc) is more robust (activity, thermal stability, substrate turnover rate, etc.) than that of the plastid counterpart (PGIp) in multiple organisms, including wheat, rice, and Arabidopsis. The crystal structures of apoTaPGIc (an isotype cytosol PGIc in Triticum aestivum), TaPGIc-G6P complex, and apoTaPGIp (an isotype plastid PGIp in Triticum aestivum) were first solved in higher plants, especially in crops. In this study, we detailed the structural characteristics related to the biochemical properties and functions of TaPGIs in different plant organelles. We found that the C-terminal domains (CTDs) of TaPGIc and TaPGIp are very different, which affects the stability of the dimerized enzyme, and that Lys213TaPGIc/Lys193TaPGIp and its surrounding residues at the binding pocket gateway may participate in the entrance and exit of substrates. Our findings provide a good example illuminating the evolution of proteins from primary to higher structures as a result of physical barriers and adaptation to the biochemical environment.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Glucose-6-Fosfato , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/química , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077059

RESUMO

Wheat stripe (yellow) rust is a worldwide disease that seriously reduces wheat grain yield and quality. Adult-plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust is generally more durable but usually controlled by multiple genes with partial resistance. In this study, a recombinant inbred line population was developed from a cross between a Chinese wheat landrace, Tutoumai, with APR to stripe rust, and a highly susceptible wheat cultivar, Siyang 936. The population was genotyped by genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotyped for APR to stripe rust in four consecutive field experiments. Three QTLs, QYr.sdau-1BL, QYr.sdau-5BL, and QYr.sdau-6BL, were identified for APR to stripe rust, and explained 8.0-21.2%, 10.1-22.7%, and 11.6-18.0% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. QYr.sdau-1BL was further mapped to a 21.6 Mb region using KASP markers derived from SNPs identified by RNA-seq of the two parents. In the QYr.sdau-1BL region, 13 disease-resistance-related genes were differently expressed between the two parents, and therefore were considered as the putative candidates of QYr.sdau-1BL. This study provides favorable gene/QTL and high-throughput markers to breeding programs for marker-assisted selection of the wheat stripe rust APR genes.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Basidiomycota/genética , China , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078192

RESUMO

Torrefaction/carbonization integrated with steam gasification of agricultural biomass for gas production and tar reduction was not investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the torrefaction/carbonization severity on H2-enriched syngas production and tar reduction during steam gasification of wheat straw (WS). The torrefaction/carbonization experiments were initially performed at 220-500 °C to examine the effect of pretreated temperature on the fuel properties of torrefied/carbonized WS. Then, the gasification temperature (700-900 °C) was optimized at 900 °C in terms of gas formation behaviors. Afterward, steam gasification of raw and torrefied/carbonized WS feedstocks was conducted. WS carbonized at 500 °C (WS-500) possessed the highest H2 concentration (54.21 vol%) and syngas purity (85.59%), while the maximum H2/CO molar ratio (1.83), high carbon conversion efficiency (90.33 C%) and cold gas efficiency (109.24%) were observed for WS torrefied at 280 °C. Notably, the cumulative gas yield, H2 yield, and syngas yield respectively reached 102.68 mmol/g, 55.66 mmol/g, and 87.89 mmol/g from steam gasification of WS-500. In addition, the carbonized WS feedstocks, especially WS-500, revealed a lower tar content. Simply put, integrating torrefaction/carbonization with steam gasification provided a novel and effective route to manufacture H2-enriched syngas with extremely low tar content from agricultural biomass.


Assuntos
Vapor , Triticum , Biomassa , Carbono , Gases
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078255

RESUMO

Soybean plants are highly susceptible to Fusarium species, which significantly reduce soybean production and quality. Several Fusarium species have been reported to synthesize mycotoxins, such as trichothecene, which have been related to major human diseases. In November 2021, soybean pods in Nantong municipality, China, showed black necrotic lesions during the harvest stage. The disease incidence reached 69%. The pathogen was identified as Fusarium sulawense via morphological analysis and sequencing of ITS, EF1-α and RPB2 genes. A PCR assay with primers targeting the trichothecene biosynthesis genes suggested that the three isolates could synthesize trichothecenes. The effectiveness of fungicide carbendazim and natural metabolites dipicolinic acid and kojic acid was screened for the management of F. sulawense on postharvest soybean pods. The highest efficacy was obtained when combining 3.8 mg/mL carbendazim and 0.84 mg/mL dipicolinic acid (curative efficacy: 49.1% lesion length inhibition; preventive efficacy: 82.7% lesion length inhibition), or 1.9 mg/mL carbendazim and 0.71 mg/mL kojic acid (preventive efficacy: 84.9% lesion length inhibition). Collectively, this report will lead to a better understanding of the safety hazards found in soybean products in China and reveals the application of dipicolinic and kojic acids to reduce the use of carbendazim.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Benzimidazóis , Carbamatos , Fusarium/genética , Humanos , Ácidos Picolínicos , Pironas , Soja , Triticum
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078599

RESUMO

In efforts to improve plant productivity and enhance defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses, endophytic bacteria have been used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. In the current study, 25 endophytic microbes recovered from plant organs of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) were assessed for biotic (phyto-fungal pathogens) and abiotic (salinity, drought, and heavy metal) stress tolerance. Among the recovered isolates, BPR-9 tolerated maximum salinity (18% NaCl), drought (15% PEG-6000), and heavy metals (µg mL-1): Cd (1200), Cr (1000), Cu (1000), Pb (800), and Hg (30). Based on phenotypic and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequencing, endophytic isolate BPR-9 was recognized as Priestia aryabhattai (accession no. OM743254.1). This isolate was revealed as a powerful multi-stress-tolerant crop growth promoter after extensive in-vitro testing for plant growth-promoting attributes, nutrient (phosphate, P; potassium, K; and zinc, Zn) solubilization efficiency, extracellular enzyme (protease, cellulase, amylase, lipase, and pectinase) synthesis, and potential for antagonistic activity against important fungal pathogens viz. Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Ustilaginoidea virens. At elevated salt levels, increases were noted in indole-3-acetic acid; siderophores; P, K, and Zn-solubilization; ACC deaminase; and ammonia synthesized by Priestia&nbsp;aryabhattai. Additionally, under in-vitro plant bioassays, wheat seedlings inoculated with P.&nbsp;aryabhattai experienced superior growth compared to non-inoculated seedlings in high salinity (0-15% NaCl) environment. Under NaCl stress, germination rate, plant length, vigor indices, and leaf pigments of wheat seedlings significantly increased following P.&nbsp;aryabhattai inoculation. Furthermore, at 2%-NaCl, B.&nbsp;aryabhattai greatly and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased relative leaf water content, membrane damage, and electrolyte leakage compared with the non-inoculated control. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activity increased by 29, 32, and 21%, respectively, in wheat seedlings exposed to 2% NaCl and inoculated with the bacteria. The present findings demonstrate that endophytic P.&nbsp;aryabhattai strains might be used in the future as a multi-stress reducer and crop growth promoter in agronomically important crops including cereals.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Triticum , Bacillus , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Plântula , Cloreto de Sódio
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078830

RESUMO

Cereals whole grains contain vitamins, phytochemicals, antioxidants, resistant starch, and minerals with potential benefits to human health. The consumption of whole grains is correlated with a lowered risk of the most important chronic diseases, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate the content of five cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and five cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) obtained by conventional plant breeding using crossing and selection methods. The novelty and the purpose of this research was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze these ten cultivars from Romania and to show the importance of, and the changes produced by, crossing and selection methods when these are aimed at the physiological or morphological development of the cultivars. Studies based on gluten dosing; spectrophotometry using Bradford, fructan and protein dosing; Kjeldahl protein dosing; GC-MS/MS-protein and amino acid dosing; and identification of protein fractions using polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic method were conducted. This study demonstrates the possibility of developing future cultivars using conventional methods of improvement to modify the content and composition of nutrients to increase their health benefits.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hordeum , Pão , Hordeum/química , Humanos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Romênia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/química
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