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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 493, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Recent transcriptomic analyses have revealed the gene expression profiling in wheat spike development, however, the possible regulatory roles of lncRNAs in wheat spike morphogenesis remain largely unclear. RESULTS: Here, we analyzed the genome-wide profiling of lncRNAs during wheat spike development at six stages, and identified a total of 8,889 expressed lncRNAs, among which 2,753 were differentially expressed lncRNAs (DE lncRNAs) at various developmental stages. Three hundred fifteen differentially expressed cis- and trans-regulatory lncRNA-mRNA pairs comprised of 205 lncRNAs and 279 genes were predicted, which were found to be mainly involved in the stress responses, transcriptional and enzymatic regulations. Moreover, the 145 DE lncRNAs were predicted as putative precursors or target mimics of miRNAs. Finally, we identified the important lncRNAs that participate in spike development by potentially targeting stress response genes, TF genes or miRNAs. CONCLUSIONS: This study outlines an overall view of lncRNAs and their possible regulatory networks during wheat spike development, which also provides an alternative resource for genetic manipulation of wheat spike architecture and thus yield.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro , Triticum/genética
2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3451-3457, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212672

RESUMO

Hydrochar can mitigate ammonia volatilization when applied in paddy fields due to its acidity and adsorption property. To realize the recycling of agricultural biowaste as well as the control of nutrient loss from paddy fields, a simulation soil-column experiment with wheat straw hydrochar (WHC) and water-washed hydrochar (W-WHC) was conducted to evaluate the performance of rice yield and ammonia volatilization from paddy fields. The results showed that WHC and W-WHC applied in paddy fields both increased the rice yield and the increased effect at low application rate (0.5%) was higher than that at high application rate (1.5%). In comparison with the control treatment (CKU), the rice yields achieved from low application rate treatments for WHC and W-WHC increased by 17.16% and 20.20% respectively. Except for the equal emission rate between W-WHC with low application rate and CKU treatments, hydrochar (WHC, W-WHC) addition reduced the ammonia volatilization from paddy fields when compared with the CKU. Among them, the ammonia volatilization levels from low-application WHC and high-application W-WHC treatments were significantly lower than that from the CKU treatment, reduced by 31.01% and 17.40%, respectively. Based on the analysis of ammonia volatilization during different fertilization stages, the control effect of hydrochar addition on ammonia volatilization was mainly benefited from tillering and panicle fertilizer stages. The change in the nitrogen concentration of surface water at the tillering fertilizer stage and in pH at the panicle fertilizer stage with the addition of hydrochar was the main driving factor for the reduction in ammonia volatilization. The results show that sufficient amounts of hydrochar derived from wheat straw application can increase crop yield while reducing ammonia volatilization from paddy fields. This method provides an effective route for recycling agricultural biowastes.


Assuntos
Amônia , Oryza , Amônia/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Triticum , Volatilização
3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 504, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lignin is one of the main components of the cell wall and is directly associated with plant development and defence mechanisms in plants, especially in response to Fusarium graminearum (Fg) infection. Caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is the main regulator determining the efficiency of lignin synthesis and composition. Although it has been characterized in many plants, to date, the importance of the CCoAOMT family in wheat is not well understood. RESULTS: Here, a total of 21 wheat CCoAOMT genes (TaCCoAOMT) were identified through an in silico genome search method and they were classified into four groups based on phylogenetic analysis, with the members of the same group sharing similar gene structures and conserved motif compositions. Furthermore, the expression patterns and co-expression network in which TaCCoAOMT is involved were comprehensively investigated using 48 RNA-seq samples from Fg infected and mock samples of 4 wheat genotypes. Combined with qRT-PCR validation of 11 Fg-responsive TaCCoAOMT genes, potential candidates involved in the FHB response and their regulation modules were preliminarily suggested. Additionally, we investigated the genetic diversity and main haplotypes of these CCoAOMT genes in bread wheat and its relative populations based on resequencing data. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified and characterized the CCoAOMT family in wheat, which not only provided potential targets for further functional analysis, but also contributed to uncovering the mechanism of lignin biosynthesis and its role in FHB tolerance in wheat and beyond.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Acil Coenzima A , Metiltransferases/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Triticum
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198897

RESUMO

The introduction of metallic nanoparticles (mNPs) into the diet is a matter of concern for human health. In particular, their effect on the gastrointestinal tract may potentially lead to the increased passage of gluten peptides and the activation of the immune response. In consequence, dietary mNPs could play a role in the increasing worldwide celiac disease (CeD) incidence. We evaluated the potential synergistic effects that peptic-tryptic-digested gliadin (PT) and the most-used food mNPs may induce on the intestinal mucosa. PT interaction with mNPs and their consequent aggregation was detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses and UV-Vis spectra. In vitro experiments on Caco-2 cells proved the synergistic cytotoxic effect of PT and mNPs, as well as alterations in the monolayer integrity and tight junction proteins. Exposure of duodenal biopsies to gliadin plus mNPs triggered cytokine production, but only in CeD biopsies. These results suggest that mNPs used in the food sector may alter intestinal homeostasis, thus representing an additional environmental risk factor for the development of CeD.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Dieta , Glutens/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Células CACO-2 , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Doença Celíaca/metabolismo , Doença Celíaca/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Homeostase/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos adversos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203629

RESUMO

Drought and salinity are major constraints to agriculture. In this review, we present an overview of the global situation and the consequences of drought and salt stress connected to climatic changes. We provide a list of possible genetic resources as sources of resistance or tolerant traits, together with the previous studies that focused on transferring genes from the germplasm to cultivated varieties. We explained the morphological and physiological aspects connected to hydric stresses, described the mechanisms that induce tolerance, and discussed the results of the main studies. Finally, we described more than 100 genes associated with tolerance to hydric stresses in the Triticeae. These were divided in agreement with their main function into osmotic adjustment and ionic and redox homeostasis. The understanding of a given gene function and expression pattern according to hydric stress is particularly important for the efficient selection of new tolerant genotypes in classical breeding. For this reason, the current review provides a crucial reference for future studies on the mechanism involved in hydric stress tolerance and the use of these genes in mark assistance selection (MAS) to select the wheat germplasm to face the climatic changes.


Assuntos
Secas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Triticum/genética , Osmose , Salinidade
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203740

RESUMO

Heterosis utilization is very important in hybrid seed production. An AL-type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line has been used in wheat-hybrid seed production, but its sterility mechanism has not been explored. In the present study, we sequenced and verified the candidate CMS gene in the AL-type sterile line (AL18A) and its maintainer line (AL18B). In the late uni-nucleate stage, the tapetum cells of AL18A showed delayed programmed cell death (PCD) and termination of microspore at the bi-nucleate stage. As compared to AL18B, the AL18A line produced 100% aborted pollens. The mitochondrial genomes of AL18A and AL18B were sequenced using the next generation sequencing such as Hiseq and PacBio. It was found that the mitochondrial genome of AL18A had 99% similarity with that of Triticum timopheevii, AL18B was identical to that of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai. Based on transmembrane structure prediction, 12 orfs were selected as candidate CMS genes, including a previously suggested orf256. Only the lines harboring orf279 showed sterility in the transgenic Arabidopsis system, indicating that orf279 is the CMS gene in the AL-type wheat CMS lines. These results provide a theoretical basis and data support to further analyze the mechanism of AL-type cytoplasmic male sterility in wheat.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Genoma Mitocondrial , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pólen/genética
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112469, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198190

RESUMO

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in glutathione (GSH) synthesis, and plays a crucial role in copper (Cu) detoxification. Nonetheless, its regulatory mechanisms remain largely unclear. In this study, we identified a Cu-induced glutathione S-transferase 1 (TaGST1) gene in wheat. Yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) screened out TaWRKY74, which was one member from the WRKY transcription factor family. The bindings between TaGST1 promoter and TaWRKY74 were further verified by using another Y1H and luciferase assays. Expression of TaWRKY74 was induced more than 30-folds by Cu stress. Functions of TaWRKY74 were tested by using transiently silence methods. In transiently TaWRKY74-silenced wheat plants, TaWRKY74 and TaGST1 expression, GST activity, and GSH content was significantly inhibited by 25.68%, 19.88%, 27.66%, and 12.68% in shoots, and 53.81%, 52.11%, 23.47%, and 17.11% in roots, respectively. However, contents of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, or Cu were significantly increased by 2.58%, 12.45%, or 37.74% in shoots, and 25.24%, 53.84%, and 103.99% in roots, respectively. Notably, exogenous application of GSH reversed the adverse effects of transiently TaWRKY74-silenced wheat plants during Cu stress. Taken together, our results suggesting that TaWRKY74 regulated TaGST1 expression and affected GSH accumulation under Cu stress, and could be useful to ameliorate Cu toxicity for crop food safety.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Leveduras/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206953

RESUMO

Quercetin, classified as a flavonoid, is a strong antioxidant that plays a significant role in the regulation of physiological processes in plants, which is particularly important in the case of biotic and abiotic stresses. The study investigated the effect of the use of potassium quercetin solutions in various concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%) on the physiological and biochemical properties of wheat seedlings. A pot experiment was carried out in order to determine the most beneficial dose of this flavonoid acting as a bio-stimulant for wheat plants. Spraying with quercetin derivative solutions was performed twice, and physiological measurements (chlorophyll content and fluorescence as well as gas exchange) were carried out on the first and seventh days after each application. The total phenolic compounds content and the total antioxidant capacity were also determined. It was shown that the concentrations of potassium quercetin applied have a stimulating effect on the course of physiological processes. In the case of most of the tested physiological parameters (chlorophyll content and fluorescence and gas exchange) and the total antioxidant capacity, no significant differences were observed in their increase as a result of application with concentrations of 3.0 and 5.0%. Therefore, the beneficial effect of quercetin on the analysed parameters is already observed when spraying with a concentration of 3.0%.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 311, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mineral elements are important for maintaining good human health besides heavy metals. Mining genes that control mineral elements are paramount for improving their accumulation in the wheat grain. Although previous studies have reported some loci for beneficial trace elements, they have mainly focused on Zn and Fe content. However, little information is available regarding the genetic loci differences in dissecting synchronous accumulation of multiple mineral elements in wheat grains, including beneficial and heavy elements. Therefore, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted on 205 wheat accessions with 24,355 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify important loci and candidate genes for controlling Ca, Fe, Zn, Se, Cu, Mn, Cd, As, and Pb accumulation in wheat grains. RESULTS: A total of 101 marker-trait associations (MTAs) (P < 10-5) loci affecting the content of nine mineral elements was identified on chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 3D, 4A, 4B, 5A, 5B, 5D, 6B, 7A, 7B, and 7D. Among these, 17 major MTAs loci for the nine mineral elements were located, and four MTAs loci (P < 10-5) were found on chromosomes 1B, 6B, 7B, and 7D. Eight multi-effect MTAs loci were detected that are responsible for the control of more than one trait, mainly distributed on chromosomes 3B, 7B, and 5A. Furthermore, sixteen candidate genes controlling Ca, Fe, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were predicted, whose functions were primarily related to ion binding, including metals, Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, and Zn, ATP binding, ATPase activity, DNA binding, RNA binding, and protein kinase activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated the existence of gene interactions among mineral elements based on multi-effect MTAs loci and candidate genes. Meanwhile this study provided new insights into the genetic control of mineral element concentrations, and the important loci and genes identified may contribute to the rapid development of beneficial mineral elements and a reduced content of harmful heavy metals in wheat grain.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Minerais/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Sementes/genética , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 316, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ergot, caused by the fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea, infects the female flowers of a range of cereal crops, including wheat. To understand the interaction between C. purpurea and hexaploid wheat we undertook an extensive examination of the reprogramming of the wheat transcriptome in response to C. purpurea infection through floral tissues (i.e. the stigma, transmitting and base ovule tissues of the ovary) and over time. RESULTS: C. purpurea hyphae were observed to have grown into and down the stigma at 24 h (H) after inoculation. By 48H hyphae had grown through the transmitting tissue into the base, while by 72H hyphae had surrounded the ovule. By 5 days (D) the ovule had been replaced by fungal tissue. Differential gene expression was first observed at 1H in the stigma tissue. Many of the wheat genes differentially transcribed in response to C. purpurea infection were associated with plant hormones and included the ethylene (ET), auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid (GA), salicylic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic and signaling pathways. Hormone-associated genes were first detected in the stigma and base tissues at 24H, but not in the transmitting tissue. Genes associated with GA and JA pathways were seen in the stigma at 24H, while JA and ET-associated genes were identified in the base at 24H. In addition, several defence-related genes were differential expressed in response to C. purpurea infection, including antifungal proteins, endocytosis/exocytosis-related proteins, NBS-LRR class proteins, genes involved in programmed cell death, receptor protein kinases and transcription factors. Of particular interest was the identification of differential expression of wheat genes in the base tissue well before the appearance of fungal hyphae, suggesting that a mobile signal, either pathogen or plant-derived, is delivered to the base prior to colonisation. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple host hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways were significantly perturbed from an early stage in the wheat - C. purpurea interaction. Differential gene expression at the base of the ovary, ahead of arrival of the pathogen, indicated the potential presence of a long-distance signal modifying host gene expression.


Assuntos
Claviceps/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Tempo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Planta ; 254(1): 18, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196834

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The leaf features like trichome density, gradient grooves, and leaf wettability determine the efficiency to capture air moisture for self-irrigation in the wheat plant. Plants in water-scarce environments evolved to capture air moisture for their water needs either directly or indirectly. Structural features like cones, hairs, and grooves assist water capture. The morphology of crops such as wheat can promote self-irrigation under drought. To examine this further, 34 wheat genotypes were characterized for leaf traits in near optimal conditions in the field using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. An association was found between morphological and physiological traits and yield using simple correlation plots. A core set of nine genotypes was subsequently evaluated for moisture harvesting ability and leaf wettability. Results showed that variation among genotypes exists for fog harvesting ability attributed to structural leaf features. Physiological traits, especially photosynthesis and water use efficiency, were positively associated with yield, negatively correlated with soil moisture at booting, and positively correlated with soil moisture at anthesis. The genotypes with deep to medium leaf grooves and dense hairs on the edges and adaxial surfaces (genotypes 7 and 18) captured the most moisture. This was a function of higher water drop rolling efficiency resulting from lower contact angle hysteresis. These results can be exploited to develop more heat and drought-tolerant crops.


Assuntos
Triticum , Água , Mudança Climática , Secas , Folhas de Planta
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3378, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099713

RESUMO

The re-emergence of stem rust on wheat in Europe and Africa is reinforcing the ongoing need for durable resistance gene deployment. Here, we isolate from wheat, Sr26 and Sr61, with both genes independently introduced as alien chromosome introgressions from tall wheat grass (Thinopyrum ponticum). Mutational genomics and targeted exome capture identify Sr26 and Sr61 as separate single genes that encode unrelated (34.8%) nucleotide binding site leucine rich repeat proteins. Sr26 and Sr61 are each validated by transgenic complementation using endogenous and/or heterologous promoter sequences. Sr61 orthologs are absent from current Thinopyrum elongatum and wheat pan genome sequences, contrasting with Sr26 where homologues are present. Using gene-specific markers, we validate the presence of both genes on a single recombinant alien segment developed in wheat. The co-location of these genes on a small non-recombinogenic segment simplifies their deployment as a gene stack and potentially enhances their resistance durability.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas NLR/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Puccinia/patogenicidade , Triticum/microbiologia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Engenharia Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Puccinia/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063651

RESUMO

Salt stress is the second most important abiotic stress factor in the world, which seriously affects crop growth, development and grain production. In this study, we performed the first integrated physiological and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteome analysis of wheat seedling leaves under salt stress using a label-free-based quantitative proteomic approach. Salt stress caused significant decrease in seedling height, root length, relative water content and chlorophyll content of wheat seedling leaves, indicating that wheat seedling growth was significantly inhibited under salt stress. The ER proteome analysis identified 233 ER-localized differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) in response to salt stress, including 202 upregulated and 31 downregulated proteins. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in the oxidation-reduction process, transmembrane transport, the carboxylic acid metabolic process, stress response, the arbohydrate metabolic process and proteolysis, while the downregulated proteins mainly participated in the metabolic process, biological regulation and the cellular process. In particular, salt stress induced significant upregulation of protein disulfide isomerase-like proteins and heat shock proteins and significant downregulation of ribosomal protein abundance. Further transcript expression analysis revealed that half of the detected DAP genes showed a consistent pattern with their protein levels under salt stress. A putative metabolic pathway of ER subproteome of wheat seedling leaves in response to salt stress was proposed, which reveals the potential roles of wheat ER proteome in salt stress response and defense.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Triticum/genética , Mecanismos de Defesa , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070394

RESUMO

The genetic control of host response to the fungal necrotrophic disease Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) in bread wheat is complex, involving many minor genes. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling SNB response were previously identified on chromosomes 1BS and 5BL. The aim of this study, therefore, was to align and compare the genetic map representing QTL interval on 1BS and 5BS with the reference sequence of wheat and identify resistance genes (R-genes) associated with SNB response. Alignment of QTL intervals identified significant genome rearrangements on 1BS between parents of the DH population EGA Blanco, Millewa and the reference sequence of Chinese Spring with subtle rearrangements on 5BL. Nevertheless, annotation of genomic intervals in the reference sequence were able to identify and map 13 and 12 R-genes on 1BS and 5BL, respectively. R-genes discriminated co-located QTL on 1BS into two distinct but linked loci. NRC1a and TFIID mapped in one QTL on 1BS whereas RGA and Snn1 mapped in the linked locus and all were associated with SNB resistance but in one environment only. Similarly, Tsn1 and WK35 were mapped in one QTL on 5BL with NETWORKED 1A and RGA genes mapped in the linked QTL interval. This study provided new insights on possible biochemical, cellular and molecular mechanisms responding to SNB infection in different environments and also addressed limitations of using the reference sequence to identify the full complement of functional R-genes in modern varieties.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Doença , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Ploidias , Triticum , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073183

RESUMO

Sharp eyespot, caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a serious fungal disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Certain wall-associated receptor kinases (WAK) mediate resistance to diseases caused by biotrophic/hemibiotrophic pathogens in several plant species. Yet, none of wheat WAK genes with positive effect on the innate immune responses to R. cerealis has been reported. In this study, we identified a WAK gene TaWAK7D, located on chromosome 7D, and showed its positive regulatory role in the defense response to R. cerealis infection in wheat. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses showed that TaWAK7D transcript abundance was elevated in wheat after R. cerealis inoculation and the induction in the stem was the highest among the tested organs. Additionally, TaWAK7D transcript levels were significantly elevated by pectin and chitin treatments. The knock-down of TaWAK7D transcript impaired resistance to R. cerealis and repressed the expression of five pathogenesis-related genes in wheat. The green fluorescent protein signal distribution assays indicated that TaWAK7D localized on the plasma membrane in wheat protoplasts. Thus, TaWAK7D, which is induced by R. cerealis, pectin and chitin stimuli, positively participates in defense responses to R. cerealis through modulating the expression of several pathogenesis-related genes in wheat.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteínas Quinases , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/biossíntese , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(23): 6444-6454, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100602

RESUMO

The proteins in the starchy endosperm of wheat determine wheat quality and exhibit a quantitative gradient decreasing from the outer to inner endosperm. Here, we investigate how protein-rich sub-aleurone cells contribute to the protein content and gradient by studying three cultivars, each cultivated at three levels of nitrogen (N)-fertilization. The observed increased protein content with increased N-fertilization was cultivar-dependent. Image analysis showed that the underlying protein gradient could be described by a declining biexponential curve, with protein contents up to 32.0% in the sub-aleurone. Cultivars did not differ in protein content in the center of the cheeks and only differed in the outer endosperm when N-fertilization is applied. N-Fertilization resulted in relatively higher increases in protein content in the outer compared to inner endosperm. Hence, sub-aleurone cells could affect the classification of cultivars by baking quality. Cultivar selection and N-fertilization could furthermore be promising techniques to produce protein-rich miller's bran.


Assuntos
Endosperma , Triticum , Endosperma/genética , Fertilização , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069221

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) causes wheat yield loss and mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol, DON) accumulation in wheat kernel. Developing wheat cultivars with overall resistance to both FHB spread within a spike and DON accumulation in kernels is crucial for ensuring food security and food safety. Here, two relatively novel inoculation methods, bilateral floret inoculation (BFI) and basal rachis internode injection (BRII), were simultaneously employed to evaluate disease severity and DON content in kernels in a segregating population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from Ning 7840 (carrying Fhb1) and Clark (without Fhb1). Under both inoculation methods, four contrasting combinations of disease severity and DON content were identified: high severity/high DON (HSHD), high severity/low DON (HSLD), low severity/high DON (LSHD) and low severity/low DON (LSLD). Unexpectedly, the BRII method clearly indicated that disease severity was not necessarily relevant to DON concentration. The effects of Fhb1 on disease severity, and on DON concentrations, agreed very well across the two methods. Several lines carrying Fhb1 showed extremely higher severity and (or) DON content under both inoculation methods. The "Mahalanobis distance" (MD) method was used to rate overall resistance of a line by inclusion of both disease severity and DON content over both methods to select LSLD lines.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/metabolismo
18.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(179): 20210250, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129791

RESUMO

Climate change effects on UK winter wheat grain yield are complex: warmer temperature, negative; greater carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, positive; but other environmental variables and their timing also affect yield. In the absence of long-term experiments where temperature and CO2 concentration were manipulated separately, we applied the crop simulation model Sirius with long-term daily meteorological data (1892-2016) for Rothamsted, Hertfordshire, UK (2007-2016 mean growing season temperature 1.03°C warmer than 1892-1991), and CO2 concentration over this period, to investigate the separate effects of historic CO2 and weather on simulated grain yield in three wheat cultivars of the modern era. We show a slight decline in simulated yield over the period 1892-2016 from the effect of weather (daily temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours) at fixed CO2 (294.50 ppm, 1892 reference value), but a maximum 9.4% increase when accounting for increasing atmospheric CO2 (from 294.50 to 404.21 ppm), differing slightly among cultivars. Notwithstanding considerable inter-annual variation, the slight yield decline at 294.50 ppm CO2 over this 125-year period from the historic weather simulations for Rothamsted agrees with the expected decline from temperature increase alone, but the positive yield trend with actual CO2 values does not match the recent stagnation in UK wheat yield.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Triticum , Mudança Climática , Reino Unido , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071913

RESUMO

Staple crop yield, quality and sustainable production are critical for domestic food security in developing countries. In Tajikistan, both seed-borne diseases and protein quality impair the yield and the quality of the major staple crop, wheat. Here, we used a detailed two-year survey of fields on 21 wheat-producing farms in Tajikistan, combined with lab analyses on seed health and protein quality, to investigate the presence of seed-borne diseases and bread-making quality in Tajik wheat. Seed samples were collected for the analysis of: (i) the presence of common bunt (Tilletia spp.) using the centrifuge wash test, (ii) the major pathogenic fungi on/in the seed using the agar plate test and (iii) the protein amount and size distribution using size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC). Field occurrence of common bunt and loose smut was generally low (3 farms in year one (14%) showed common bunt occurrence), but the presence of fungi was observed microscopically on most seed samples (on seeds from 19 out of 21 farms = 91%). Tilletia laevis was the dominant agent in common bunt (present in 19 farms compared to T. tritici present in 6 farms). Altogether, 18 different fungi were identified from seed samples by microscopy. Protein composition, measured with high-performance liquid chromatography as protein amount and size distribution (known to correlate with bread-making quality), differed significantly between samples from different farms and years, although the farm type and land elevation of the farm were not the determinants of the protein composition. The presence of certain fungi on the seed correlated significantly with the protein quality and could then have an impact on the bread-making quality of the Tajik wheat. The presence of seed-borne diseases, a low protein content and weak gluten were the characteristics of the majority of the grain samples, mostly irrespective of farm type and farmer's knowledge. For sustainable development of the Tajik farming systems, and to strengthen the food security of the country, the knowledge of Tajik farmers needs to be increased independently of farm type; in general, plant breeding is required and certified seeds need to be made available throughout the country.


Assuntos
Segurança Alimentar , Triticum , Basidiomycota , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes , Tadjiquistão
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266721

RESUMO

Staple crop yield, quality and sustainable production are critical for domestic food security in developing countries. In Tajikistan, both seed-borne diseases and protein quality impair the yield and the quality of the major staple crop, wheat. Here, we used a detailed two-year survey of fields on 21 wheat-producing farms in Tajikistan, combined with lab analyses on seed health and protein quality, to investigate the presence of seed-borne diseases and bread-making quality in Tajik wheat. Seed samples were collected for the analysis of: (i) the presence of common bunt (Tilletia spp.) using the centrifuge wash test, (ii) the major pathogenic fungi on/in the seed using the agar plate test and (iii) the protein amount and size distribution using size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC). Field occurrence of common bunt and loose smut was generally low (3 farms in year one (14%) showed common bunt occurrence), but the presence of fungi was observed microscopically on most seed samples (on seeds from 19 out of 21 farms = 91%). Tilletia laevis was the dominant agent in common bunt (present in 19 farms compared to T. tritici present in 6 farms). Altogether, 18 different fungi were identified from seed samples by microscopy. Protein composition, measured with high-performance liquid chromatography as protein amount and size distribution (known to correlate with bread-making quality), differed significantly between samples from different farms and years, although the farm type and land elevation of the farm were not the determinants of the protein composition. The presence of certain fungi on the seed correlated significantly with the protein quality and could then have an impact on the bread-making quality of the Tajik wheat. The presence of seed-borne diseases, a low protein content and weak gluten were the characteristics of the majority of the grain samples, mostly irrespective of farm type and farmer's knowledge. For sustainable development of the Tajik farming systems, and to strengthen the food security of the country, the knowledge of Tajik farmers needs to be increased independently of farm type; in general, plant breeding is required and certified seeds need to be made available throughout the country.


Assuntos
Segurança Alimentar , Triticum , Basidiomycota , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes , Tadjiquistão
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