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1.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(2): 43, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321245

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A locus conferring Fusarium crown rot resistance was identified on chromosome arm 3DL through genome wide association study and further validated in two recombinant inbred lines populations. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is a severe soil borne disease in many wheat growing regions of the world. In this study, we attempted to detect loci conferring FCR resistance through a new seedling inoculation assay. A total of 223 wheat accessions from different geography origins were used to assemble an association panel for GWAS analysis. Four genotypes including Heng 4332, Luwanmai, Pingan 998 and Yannong 24 showed stable resistance to FCR. A total of 54 SNPs associated with FCR resistance were identified. Among the 10 putative QTLs represented by these SNPs, seven QTLs on chromosome 2B, 3A, 3D, 4A, 7A and 7B were novel and were consistently detected in at least two of the three trials conducted. Qfcr.cau.3D-3, which was targeted by 38 SNPs clustered within a genomic region of approximately 5.57 Mb (609.12-614.69 Mb) on chromosome arm 3DL, was consistently detected in all the three trials. The effects of Qfcr.cau.3D-3 were further validated in two recombinant inbred line populations. The presence of this locus reduced FCR severity up to 21.55%. Interestingly, the collinear positions of sequences containing the four SNPs associated with two FCR loci (Qfcr.cau.3A and Qfcr.cau.3B) were within the regions of Qfcr.cau.3D-3, suggesting that genes underlying these three loci may be homologous. Our results provide useful information for improving FCR resistance in wheat.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Triticum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Doenças das Plantas/genética
2.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(2): 46, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332254

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Different wheat QTLs were associated to the free asparagine content of grain grown in four different conditions. Environmental effects are a key factor when selecting for low acrylamide-forming potential. The amount of free asparagine in grain of a wheat genotype determines its potential to form harmful acrylamide in derivative food products. Here, we explored the variation in the free asparagine, aspartate, glutamine and glutamate contents of 485 accessions reflecting wheat worldwide diversity to define the genetic architecture governing the accumulation of these amino acids in grain. Accessions were grown under high and low nitrogen availability and in water-deficient and well-watered conditions, and plant and grain phenotypes were measured. Free amino acid contents of grain varied from 0.01 to 1.02 mg g-1 among genotypes in a highly heritable way that did not correlate strongly with grain yield, protein content, specific weight, thousand-kernel weight or heading date. Mean free asparagine content was 4% higher under high nitrogen and 3% higher in water-deficient conditions. After genotyping the accessions, single-locus and multi-locus genome-wide association study models were used to identify several QTLs for free asparagine content located on nine chromosomes. Each QTL was associated with a single amino acid and growing environment, and none of the QTLs colocalised with genes known to be involved in the corresponding amino acid metabolism. This suggests that free asparagine content is controlled by several loci with minor effects interacting with the environment. We conclude that breeding for reduced asparagine content is feasible, but should be firmly based on multi-environment field trials. KEY MESSAGE: Different wheat QTLs were associated to the free asparagine content of grain grown in four different conditions. Environmental effects are a key factor when selecting for low acrylamide-forming potential.


Assuntos
Asparagina , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Acrilamidas/metabolismo
3.
Plant Mol Biol ; 114(1): 16, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332456

RESUMO

Maintaining global food security in the context of climate changes will be an important challenge in the next century. Improving abiotic stress tolerance of major crops such as wheat can contribute to this goal. This can be achieved by the identification of the genes involved and their use to develop tools for breeding programs aiming to generate better adapted cultivars. Recently, we identified the wheat TaZFP13D gene encoding Zinc Finger Protein 13D as a new gene improving water-stress tolerance. The current work analyzes the TaZFP13D-dependent transcriptome modifications that occur in well-watered and dehydration conditions to better understand its function during normal growth and during drought. Plants that overexpress TaZFP13D have a higher biomass under well-watered conditions, indicating a positive effect of the protein on growth. Survival rate and stress recovery after a severe drought stress are improved compared to wild-type plants. The latter is likely due the higher activity of key antioxidant enzymes and concomitant reduction of drought-induced oxidative damage. Conversely, down-regulation of TaZFP13D decreases drought tolerance and protection against drought-induced oxidative damage. RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis identified many genes regulated by TaZFP13D that are known to improve drought tolerance. The analysis also revealed several genes involved in the photosynthetic electron transfer chain known to improve photosynthetic efficiency and chloroplast protection against drought-induced ROS damage. This study highlights the important role of TaZFP13D in wheat drought tolerance, contributes to unravel the complex regulation governed by TaZFPs, and suggests that it could be a promising marker to select wheat cultivars with higher drought tolerance.


Assuntos
Transcriptoma , Água , Água/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal
4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(2): 49, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349579

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A novel QTL on chromosome 2A for Fusarium crown rot resistance was identified and validated in wheat. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is a fungal disease that causes significant yield losses in many cereal growing regions in the world. In this study, genetic analysis was conducted for a wheat EMS mutant C549 which showed stable resistance to FCR at seedling stage. A total of 10 QTL were detected on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 3B, 4A, 6B, and 7B using a population of 138 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between C549 and a Chinese germplasm 3642. A novel locus Qfcr.cau-2A, which accounted for up to 24.42% of the phenotypic variation with a LOD value of 12.78, was consistently detected across all six trials conducted. Furthermore, possible effects of heading date (HD) and plant height on FCR severity were also investigated in the mapping population. While plant height had no effects on FCR resistance, a weak and negative association between FCR resistance and HD was observed. A QTL for HD (Qhd.cau-2A.2) was coincident with Qfcr.cau-2A. Conditional QTL mapping indicated that although Qfcr.cau-2A and Qhd.cau-2A.2 had significant interactions, Qfcr.cau-2A remained significant after the effects of HD was removed. It is unlikely that genes underlying these two loci are same. Nevertheless, the stable expression of Qfcr.cau-2A in the validation population of 148 F7 RILs developed between C549 and its wild parent Chuannong 16 demonstrated the potential value of this locus in FCR resistance breeding programs.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Triticum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos
5.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(2): e31373, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forages are widely used in horse diets. Different in vitro techniques are being tried to determine the fermentation levels of forages in the horse digestive tract. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the digestion levels of four dry forages commonly used in horse nutrition: alfalfa herbage, meadow hay, wheat straw, and Italian ryegrass. In vitro total digestion (TDT), in vitro Sunvold-large intestine digestion (SDT) and in vitro Menke-large intestine digestion (MDT) techniques were compared. METHODS: The study determined in vitro true dry matter digestion (T-DMD), in vitro true organic matter digestion (T-OMD) and in vitro true neutral detergent fibre digestion (T-NDFD). Additionally, concentrations of straight short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; acetic acid - AA, propionic acid , butyric acid, and valeric acid ) and branched short-chain fatty acids (BSCFA) were assessed. RESULTS: The highest in vitro T-DMD, T-OMD and T-NDFD values were determined by the in vitro TDT for the four forages (p < 0.05). In vitro T-DMD and T-OMD values of alfalfa herbage were higher than those of Italian ryegrass, meadow hay and wheat straw in the in vitro TDT (p < 0.001). In addition, in vitro T-DMD and T-OMD values of alfalfa herbage in the in vitro SDT were higher than those of meadow hay and wheat straw (p < 0.001). In the in vitro TDT, the molarity of AA, total SCFA and BSCFA in the digestion fluid of alfalfa herbage was higher than those of other forages (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The in vitro total enzymatic + fermentative digestion technique for horse forages revealed higher values than the in vitro fermentative digestion techniques. In general, the higher the non-structural carbohydrate and crude protein contents in the forage, the higher the results of the in vitro TDT compared to the other techniques.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Digestão , Animais , Cavalos , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Triticum , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Técnicas In Vitro/veterinária
6.
Gene ; 893: 147927, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374023

RESUMO

Recent semi-targeted metabolomics studies have highlighted a number of metabolites in wheat that associate with leaf rust resistance genes and/or rust infection. Here, we report the structural characterization of a novel glycosylated and partially saturated apocarotenoid, reminiscent of a reduced form of mycorradicin, (6E,8E,10E)-4,9-dimethyl-12-oxo-12-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(2-hydroxyethoxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)methoxy)-3-((3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)dodeca-6,8,10-trienoic acid, isolated from Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) variety 'Thatcher' (Tc) flag leaves. While its accumulation was not associated with any of Lr34, Lr67 or Lr22a resistance genes, infection of Tc with leaf rust was found to deplete it, consistent with the idea of this metabolite being a glycosylated-storage form of an apocarotenoid of possible relevance to plant defense. A comparative analysis of wheat transcriptomic changes shows modulation of terpenoid, carotenoid, UDP-glycosyltransferase and glycosylase -related gene expression profiles, consistent with anticipated biosynthesis and degradation mechanisms. However, details of the exact nature of the relevant pathways remain to be validated in the future. Together these findings highlight another example of the breadth of unique metabolites underlying plant host-fungal pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Piranos
7.
Arch Virol ; 169(3): 49, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366289

RESUMO

Three dsRNA segments were detected in Fusarium pseudograminearum strain CF14029, a pathogen causing Fusarium crown rot in China. Characterization and sequence analysis confirmed that these dsRNA sequences originated from the same virus. The viral genome consists of three dsRNA segments: dsRNA1 (3,560 nt in length), encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), dsRNA2 (2,544 nt in length), encoding a hypothetical protein, and dsRNA3 (2,478 nt in length), encoding a putative coat protein (CP). Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp and CP amino acid sequences revealed a high degree of similarity of this virus to members of the genus Alternavirus, family Alternaviridae, isolated from other Fusarium fungi. As a novel member of the genus Alternavirus, this virus was provisionally named "Fusarium pseudograminearum alternavirus 1" (FpgAV1). Like other alternaviruses found in Fusarium species, the positive-sense strand of each genomic dsRNA of FpgAV1 possesses a poly(A) tail and a distinctive 5'-terminal octamer sequence (5'-GCT GTG TG-3'). This is the first report of the genomic sequence of an alternavirus identified in F. pseudograminearum.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Fusarium/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Filogenia , Genoma Viral , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 125, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) are nutrients that are crucial for plant growth; however, when they are present at higher concentrations, they can cause toxicity in plants. The present study aimed to isolate plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria from Viburnum grandiflorum and assess its plant and defense promoting potential alone and in combination with RP in zinc (Zn) and nickel (Ni) toxic soil. The isolated endophytic bacteria were identified using 16s rRNA gene sequencing. For the experiment, twelve different treatments were applied using Zn, Ni, isolated endophytic Bacillus mycoides (Accession # MW979613), and rock phosphate (RP). The Ni, Zn and RP were used at the rate of (100 mg/kg) and (0.2 g/kg) respectively. A pot experiment with three replicates of each treatment was conducted using a complete randomized design (CRD). RESULTS: The results indicated that Ni (T5 = seed + 100 mg/kg Ni and T9 = seed + 100 mg/kg Zn) and Zn concentrations inhibited plant growth, but the intensity of growth inhibition was higher in Ni-contaminated soil. Bacillus mycoides and RP at 100 mg/Kg Zn (T12 = inoculated seed + 100 mg/kg Zn + RP0.2 g/kg.) increased the shoot length, leaf width, protein and sugar content by 57%, 13%, 20% and 34%, respectively, compared to the control. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidase (POD) were decreased in contaminated soil. Furthermore, Ni and Zn accumulation was inhibited in T11 (seed + 100 mg/kg Zn + RP0.2 g/Kg) and T12 (inoculated seed + 100 mg/kg Zn + RP0.2 g/Kg) by 62 and 63% respectively. The Cu, Ca, and K, contents increased by 128, 219 and 85, Mn, Na, and K by 326, 449, and 84% in (T3 = inoculated seed) and (T4 = inoculated seed + RP 0.2 g/Kg) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ni was more toxic to plants than Zn, but endophytic bacteria isolated from Viburnum grandiflorum, helped wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants and reduced the toxic effects of Ni and Zn. The effect of Bacillus mycoides was more prominent in combination with RP which promoted and suppressed heavy-metal toxicity. The reported combination of Bacillus mycoides and RP may be useful for improving plant growth and overcoming metal stress.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Triticum/genética , Níquel/toxicidade , Níquel/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4074, 2024 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374327

RESUMO

Nanotechnology appears to be a promising tool to redefine crop nutrition in the coming decades. However, the crucial interactions of nanomaterials with abiotic components of the environment like soil organic matter (SOM) and carbon‒sequestration may hold the key to sustainable crop nutrition, fortification, and climate change. Here, we investigated the use of sugar press mud (PM) mediated ZnO nanosynthesis for soil amendment and nutrient mobilisation under moderately alkaline conditions. The positively charged (+ 7.61 mv) ZnO sheet-like nanoparticles (~ 17 nm) from zinc sulphate at the optimum dose of (75 mg/kg blended with PM (1.4% w/w) were used in reinforcing the soil matrix for wheat growth. The results demonstrated improved agronomic parameters with (~ 24%) and (~ 19%) relative increases in yield and plant Zn content. Also, the soil solution phase interactions of the ZnO nanoparticles with the PM-induced soil colloidal carbon (- 27.9 mv and diameter 0.4864 µm) along with its other components have influenced the soil nutrient dynamics and mineral ecology at large. Interestingly, one such interaction seems to have reversed the known Zn-P interaction from negative to positive. Thus, the study offers a fresh insight into the possible correlations between nutrient interactions and soil carbon sequestration for climate-resilient crop productivity.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Óxido de Zinco , Óxido de Zinco/química , Triticum , Açúcares , Solo/química , Nanopartículas/química , Minerais , Carbono/química
10.
J Genet ; 1032024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379229

RESUMO

MOCA1 encodes the last key glucuronosyltransferase for ionic stress sensor glycosyl inositol phosphoryl-ceramide (GIPCs) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, which indicates that the MOCA gene family play important role in plant tolerance to salt stress. However, the isolation and function of MOCAs in staple crops have not been reported and the downstream targets of MOCAs in salt stress tolerance signalling pathway are not clear. In this study, we identified 110 MOCA genes in wheat which were classified into five clades and they differed in gene structure, protein length, conserved motifs and expression profiles in different tissues and under salt stress. TaMOCA1 was selected for further functional study in response to salt stress. TaMOCA1 was rapidly induced by NaCl treatment. The 35S::TaMOCA1-GFP construction showed the cell nucleus and cytoplasm location in wheat protoplast. TaMOCA1 over-expressing Arabidopsis seedlings formed longer primary roots and more lateral roots than the wild type ones under 50 mM NaCl treatment. The over-expressing Arabidopsis had higher expression levels of HKT1, but lower expression levels of NHX1 and SOS genes than the wild type. Also, the transgenic plants had higher SOD activity and lower MDA content than the wild Arabidopsis seedling under salt stress. These results may indicate that TaMOCA1 increases salt stress tolerance through decreasing Na+ loading from the xylem parenchyma cells to the xylem via SOS1 and HKT1, hence lowering root-to-shoot delivery of Na? and superior antioxidant ability. All these results lay a foundation for further functional study of MOCAs in wheat.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plântula/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas/genética
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 918: 170663, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311087

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) are two toxic metal(loid)s that pose significant risks to food security and human health. Silicon (Si) has attracted substantial attention because of its positive effects on alleviating the toxicity and accumulation of As and Cd in crops. However, our current knowledge of the comprehensive effects and detailed mechanisms of Si amendment is limited. In this study, a global meta-analysis of 248 original articles with over 7000 paired observations was conducted to evaluate Si-mediated effects on growth and As and Cd accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and maize (Zea mays L.). Si application increases the biomass of these crops under As and/or Cd contamination. Si amendment also decreased shoot As and Cd accumulation by 24.1 % (20.6 to 27.5 %) and 31.9 % (29.0 to 31.9 %), respectively. Furthermore, the Si amendment reduced the human health risks posed by As (2.6 %) and Cd (12.9 %) in crop grains. Si-induced inhibition of Cd accumulation is associated with decreased Cd bioavailability and the downregulation of gene expression. The regulation of gene expression by Si addition was the driving factor limiting shoot As accumulation. Overall, our analysis demonstrated that Si amendment has great potential to reduce the toxicity and accumulation of As and/or Cd in crops, providing a scientific basis for promoting food safety globally.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Grão Comestível/química , Cádmio/análise , Silício/farmacologia , Arsênio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo , Oryza/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(7): 3445-3455, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325393

RESUMO

As representatives of allelopathy, weeds consistently coexist with crops, exhibiting mutual growth inhibition. At the same time, herbicides are usually employed to control weeds. However, few studies have investigated how herbicides will affect allelopathy between crops and their neighboring weeds. Our findings suggested that allelopathic-induced phenotypic variations in ryegrass were reduced in the presence of the herbicide imazethapyr (IM), consistent with the antioxidant system analysis results. Additionally, IM affected the levels of allelochemical hydroxamic acid (Hx) in both plants. Hydroponic experiments revealed that this impact was due to the accelerated transportation of Hx from wheat to ryegrass, driven by ryegrass-secreted jasmonic acid. This study holds paramount significance for comprehending the effects of herbicides on the allelopathic interactions between nontargeted crops and neighboring weeds, contributing to an enhanced understanding of herbicides on plant species interactions.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Lolium , Ácidos Nicotínicos , Triticum , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Alelopatia , Plantas Daninhas , Produtos Agrícolas
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(7): 3814-3831, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329036

RESUMO

Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a global staple food, while nitrogen (N) limitation severely hinders plant growth, seed yield, and grain quality of wheat. Genetic variations in the responses to low N stresses among allohexaploid wheat (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) genotypes emphasize the complicated regulatory mechanisms underlying low N tolerance and N use efficiency (NUE). In this study, hydroponic culture, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, noninvasive microtest, high-performance liquid chromatography, RNA-seq, and bioinformatics were used to determine the differential growth performance, ionome and phytohormone profiles, and genome-wide expression profiling of wheat plants grown under high N and low N conditions. Transcriptional profiling of NPFs, NRT2s, CLCs, SLACs/SLAHs, AAPs, UPSs, NIAs, and GSs characterized the core members, such as TaNPF6.3-6D, TaNRT2.3-3D, TaNIA1-6B, TaGLN1;2-4B, TaAAP14-5A/5D, and TaUPS2-5A, involved in the efficient transport and assimilation of nitrate and organic N nutrients. The low-N-sensitivity wheat cultivar XM26 showed obvious leaf chlorosis and accumulated higher levels of ABA, JA, and SA than the low-N-tolerant ZM578 under N limitation. The TaMYB59-3D-TaNPF7.3/NRT1.5-6D module-mediated shoot-to-root translocation and leaf remobilization of nitrate was proposed as an important pathway regulating the differential responses between ZM578 and XM26 to low N. This study provides some elite candidate genes for the selection and breeding of wheat germplasms with low N tolerance and high NUE.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal
14.
Planta ; 259(3): 64, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329576

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The loss of TaMYB305 function down-regulated the expression of jasmonic acid synthesis pathway genes, which may disturb the jasmonic acid synthesis, resulting in abnormal pollen development and reduced fertility. The MYB family, as one of the largest transcription factor families found in plants, regulates plant development, especially the development of anthers. Therefore, it is important to identify potential MYB transcription factors associated with pollen development and to study its role in pollen development. Here, the transcripts of an R2R3 MYB gene TaMYB305 from KTM3315A, a thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterility line with Aegilops kotschyi cytoplasm (K-TCMS) wheat, was isolated. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and promoter activity analysis revealed that TaMYB305 was primarily expressed in anthers. The TaMYB305 protein was localized in the nucleus, as determined by subcellular localization analysis. Our data demonstrated that silencing of TaMYB305 was related to abnormal development of stamen, including anther indehiscence and pollen abortion in KAM3315A plants. In addition, TaMYB305-silenced plants exhibited alterations in the transcriptional levels of genes involved in the synthesis of jasmonic acid (JA), indicating that TaMYB305 may regulate the expression of genes related to JA synthesis and play an important role during anther and pollen development of KTM3315A. These results provide novel insight into the function and molecular mechanism of R2R3-MYB genes in pollen development.


Assuntos
Aegilops , Infertilidade , Oxilipinas , Ciclopentanos , Citoplasma/genética , Genes myb , Pólen/genética , Triticum
15.
J Food Sci ; 89(2): 941-953, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317415

RESUMO

The interest in incorporating potatoes into wheat dough is increasing. However, potatoes exhibit significant viscosity during thermal processing, affecting product processing and quality. This study aims to find an effective method to reduce the viscosity of mashed potatoes. We aimed to compare the effects of different enzymes (α-amylase, ß-amylase, and flavourzyme) and concentrations (0.01%, 0.05%, and 0.1%) on the micromorphology and rheological properties of mashed potatoes and potato-wheat dough. The impact of flavourzyme was the most significant (p<0.05). When enzyme concentration increased, viscosity decreased, and the degree of structural damage, indicated by increased porosity. Notably, the addition of flavourzyme can increase the content of sweet and umami free amino acids, improving the flavor of mashed potatoes. The scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images of potato-wheat dough revealed that enzyme-hydrolyzed mashed potatoes had improved homogeneity, reestablished the dough continuity, and strengthened the three-dimensional structure comprising proteins and starch. Notably, flavourzyme demonstrated the most significant effect on enhancing the protein-starch network structure. This was attributed to the exposure of functional groups resulting from protein hydrolysis, facilitating interaction with starch molecules. Our findings indicate that the addition of 0.1% flavourzyme (500 LAPU/g, pH 5.5, 55 ± 2°C, 30 min treated) was the most effective in reducing viscosity and reconstructing the gluten network. Enzymatic hydrolysis plays a vital role in the production of high-quality potato products, with particular importance in the baking industry, where flavourzyme exhibits significant potential. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Enzymatic hydrolysis plays a vital role in the production of high-quality potato products, with particular importance in the baking industry, where flavourzyme exhibits significant potential.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Farinha , Triticum/química , Amido/química , Viscosidade , Glutens/química , Reologia , Pão
16.
J Environ Manage ; 353: 120236, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310800

RESUMO

Excessive irrigation and nitrogen application have long seriously undermined agricultural sustainability in the North China Plain (NCP), leading to declining groundwater tables and intensified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Developing low-input management practices that meet the growing food demand while reducing environmental costs is urgently needed. Here, we developed a novel nitrogen management strategy for a typical winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in the NCP under limited irrigation (wheat sowing irrigation only (W0) or sowing and jointing irrigation (W1)) and low nitrogen input (360 kg N ha-1, about 70 % of traditional annual nitrogen input). Novel nitrogen management strategy promoted efficient nitrogen fertilizer uptake and utilization by both crops via optimization of nitrogen fertilizer allocation between the two crops, i.e., increasing nitrogen inputs to wheat (from 180 to 240 kg N ha-1) while reducing nitrogen inputs to maize (from 180 to 120 kg N ha-1). Three-year field study demonstrated that integrated management practices combining novel nitrogen management strategy with limited irrigation increased annual yields and PFPN by 1.9-5.7 %, and reduced TGE by 55-68 kg CO2-eq ha-1 and GHGI by 2.2-10.3 %, without any additional cost. Our results provide agricultural operators and policymakers with practical and easy-to-scalable integrated management strategy, and offer key initiative to promote grain production in the NCP towards agriculture sustainable intensification with high productivity and efficiency, water conservation and emission reduction.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Triticum , Zea mays , Nitrogênio/análise , Fertilizantes , Agricultura/métodos , China , Solo
17.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298350, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359024

RESUMO

Climate change-induced drought has an effect on the nutritional quality of wheat. Here, the impact of drought at different plant stages on mineral content in mature wheat was evaluated in 30 spring-wheat lines of diverse backgrounds (modern, old and wheat-rye-introgressions). Genotypes with rye chromosome 3R introgression showed a high accumulation of several important minerals, including Zn and Fe, and these also showed stability across drought conditions. High Se content was found in genotypes with chromosome 1R. Old cultivars (K, Mg, Na, P and S) and 2R introgression lines (Fe, Ca, Mn, Mg and Na) demonstrated high mineral yield at early and late drought, respectively. Based on the low nutritional value often reported for modern wheat and negative climate effects on the stability of mineral content and yield, genes conferring high Zn/Fe, Se, and stable mineral yield under drought at various plant stages should be explicitly explored among 3R, 1R, old and 2R genotypes, respectively.


Assuntos
Secas , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Minerais , Genótipo , Estruturas Vegetais
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338970

RESUMO

The obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis forma specialis tritici (B.g. tritici) is the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew disease. The TOPLESS-related 1 (TPR1) corepressor regulates plant immunity, but its role in regulating wheat resistance against powdery mildew remains to be disclosed. Herein, TaTPR1 was identified as a positive regulator of wheat post-penetration resistance against powdery mildew disease. The transient overexpression of TaTPR1.1 or TaTPR1.2 confers wheat post-penetration resistance powdery mildew, while the silencing of TaTPR1.1 and TaTPR1.2 results in an enhanced wheat susceptibility to B.g. tritici. Furthermore, Defense no Death 1 (TaDND1) and Defense no Death 2 (TaDND2) were identified as wheat susceptibility (S) genes facilitating a B.g. tritici infection. The overexpression of TaDND1 and TaDND2 leads to an enhanced wheat susceptibility to B.g. tritici, while the silencing of wheat TaDND1 and TaDND2 leads to a compromised susceptibility to powdery mildew. In addition, we demonstrated that the expression of TaDND1 and TaDND2 is negatively regulated by the wheat transcriptional corepressor TaTPR1. Collectively, these results implicate that TaTPR1 positively regulates wheat post-penetration resistance against powdery mildew probably via suppressing the S genes TaDND1 and TaDND2.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Triticum , Triticum/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/genética , Erysiphe , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339174

RESUMO

The extensive utilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles in consumer products and the industry has led to their substantial entry into the soil through air and surface runoff transportation, which causes ecotoxicity in agro-ecosystems and detrimental effects on crop production. Nanobubbles (diameter size < 1 µm) have many advantages, such as a high surface area, rapid mass transfer, and long retention time. In this study, wheat seedlings were irrigated with a 500 mg L-1 zinc oxide nanoparticle solution delivered in the form of nanobubble watering (nanobubble-ZnO-NPs). We found that nanobubble watering improved the growth and nutrient status of wheat exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles, as evidenced by increased total foliar nitrogen and phosphorus, along with enhanced leaf dry mass per area. This effect can be attributed to nanobubbles disassembling zinc oxide aggregates formed due to soil organic carbon, thereby mitigating nutrient absorption limitations in plants. Furthermore, nanobubbles improved the capability of soil oxygen input, leading to increased root activity and glycolysis efficiency in wheat roots. This work provides valuable insights into the influence of nanobubble watering on soil quality and crop production and offers an innovative approach for agricultural irrigation that enhances the effectiveness and efficiency of water application.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Poluentes do Solo , Óxido de Zinco , Triticum , Carbono , Ecossistema , Solo
20.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(3): 67, 2024 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341832

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: In this study, genome-wide association studies combined with transcriptome data analysis were utilized to reveal potential candidate genes for stripe rust resistance in wheat, providing a basis for screening wheat varieties for stripe rust resistance. Wheat stripe rust, which is caused by the wheat stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) is one of the world's most devastating diseases of wheat. Genetic resistance is the most effective strategy for controlling diseases. Although wheat stripe rust resistance genes have been identified to date, only a few of them confer strong and broad-spectrum resistance. Here, the resistance of 335 wheat germplasm resources (mainly wheat landraces) from southwestern China to wheat stripe rust was evaluated at the adult stage. Combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) based on RNA sequencing from stripe rust resistant accession Y0337 and susceptible accession Y0402, five candidate resistance genes to wheat stripe rust (TraesCS1B02G170200, TraesCS2D02G181000, TraesCS4B02G117200, TraesCS6A02G189300, and TraesCS3A02G122300) were identified. The transcription level analyses showed that these five genes were significantly differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible accessions post inoculation with Pst at different times. These candidate genes could be experimentally transformed to validate and manipulate fungal resistance, which is beneficial for the development of the wheat cultivars resistant to stripe rust.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , China
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